HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Che-Cod

 

Cheilanthes

Cheilocostus

Cheiranthus

Cheirolophus

Chelidonium

Chelone

Chenopodium

Chiladenus

Chilopsis

Chimonanthus

Chimonobambusa

Chiococca

Chionachne

Chionochloa

Chionodoxa

Chloraea

Chloris

Chlorocodon

Chlorophytum

Chondrilla

Chorisia

Chorispora

Chosenia

Christella

Chromolaena

Chrysalidocarpus

Chrysanthellum

Chrysanthemoides

Chrysanthemum

Chrysobactron

Chrysobalanus

Chrysobotrya

Chrysophyllum

Chrysopogon

Chrysopsis

Chrysosplenium

Chrysothamnus

Chusquea

Cicca

Cicer

Cicerbita

Cichorium

Ciclospermum

Cicuta

Cienfuegosia

Cimicifuga

Cinchona

Cineraria

Cinna

Cinnamomum

Circaea

Cirriphyllum

Cirsium

Cissampelos

Cissus

Cistus

Citrullus

Citrus

Cladanthus

Cladrastis

Claopodium

Clarkia

Clausena

Claytonia

Clematis

Cleome

Cleoserrata

Clerodendrum

Clethra

Cleyera

Clianthus

Clibadium

Clidemia

Cliffortia

Climacium

Climacoptera

Clinopodium

Clintonia

Clitoria

Clusia

Clutia

Clypeola

Cnicus

Cnidium

Cobaea

Coccinia

Coccocypselum

Coccoloba

Cocculus

Cochlearia

Cocos

Codariocalyx

Codonopsis

 

Cheilanthes                                                  Adiantaceae

      Cheilanthes albomarginata        Micromyzodium filicium

       Ch. argentea                                Micromyzus judenkoi

       Ch. compositor (?)                       Micromyzus judenkoi

       Ch. farinosa                                Macromyzella polypodicola; Micromyzus niger

       Ch. varies (?)                               Macromyzus manoji, woodwardiae; [Macrosiphum rosae]

       Cheilanthes spp.                         Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;

                                                            Micromyzodium dasi, filicium

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Cheilocostus  see Costus                                        Costaceae

 

Cheiranthus   see  Erysimum                                          Brassicaceae

 

Cheirolophus                                               Compositae

      Cheirolophus sempervirens        Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon jaceae

(Use key to apterae on Centaurea.)

 

Chelidonium                                                Papaveraceae

      Chelidonium asiaticum               Acyrthosiphon chelidonii; Aulacorthum solani

      Ch. majus                                    Acyrthosiphon chelidonii; Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

       Ch. sinense                                  Acyrthosiphon chelidonii

Key to apterae on Chelidonium:-

-      Head smooth, pale, with rather low, divergent ANT tubercles. ANT III never with rhinaria. SIPH pale with darker apices, without polygonal reticulation, 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda which bears 7-14 hairs. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II, and ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.3

                                                                                                            …..Acyrthosiphon chelidonii

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Chelone                                                        Plantaginaceae

      Chelone glabra                            Pseudosiphonaphis corni

 

Chenopodium                                               Amaranthaceae

      Chenopodium acuminatum       Aphis craccivora

      Ch. album                                   Abstrusomyzus phloxae; Acyrthosiphon malvae;

               (incl. var. centrorubrum)              Aphis asclepiadis, craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

                                                               nasturtii, sambuci, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Cryptosiphum atriplicivorum];

                                                            [Dysaphis microsiphon]; Hayhurstia atriplicis†;

                                                            Landisaphis davisi;

                                                            Macrosiphum [cholodkovskyi], euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus antirrhinii, ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus betae, fuscicornis, populivenae;

                                                            Protaphis middletonii; Smynthurodes betae

       Ch. amaranticolor                       Myzus persicae

       Ch. ambrosioides                        Aphis citricidus, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

          (incl. anthelminticum)                     Hayhurstia atriplicis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Pemphigus fuscicornis

       Ch. aristatum = Dysphania aristata

       Ch. bonus-henricus                    Aphis fabae, gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       Ch. botrys                                    Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

       Ch. capitatum = Blitum capitatum

       Ch. ficifolium                              Hayhurstia atriplicis

       Ch. foliosum                                Aphis fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

       Ch. fremontii                               Pemphigus betae

       Ch. gigantum                              Myzus persicae

       Ch. glaucum                               Aphis fabae, solanella; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       Ch. hybridum                              Aphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis; Myzus persicae

       Ch. murale                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae; [Brevicoryne brassicae];

                                                            Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum [creelii], euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       Ch. opulifolium                           Aphis fabae, gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Smynthurodes betae

       Ch. polyspermum                        Aphis fabae, nasturtii, sambuci; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       Ch. pumilio                                 Aphis fabae

       Ch. quinoa                                  Aphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Smynthurodes betae

       Ch. rafaelense                             Aphis craccivora, fabae

       Ch. rubrum                                 Aphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       Ch. sooanum                               Brachyunguis bahamondesi

       Ch. suecicum                              Hayhurstia atriplicis; Brachyunguis bahamondesi

       Ch. urbicum                                Aphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       Ch. virgatum                               Aphis fabae

       Ch. viride                                     Hayhurstia atriplicis; Myzus persicae

       Ch. vulvaria                                 Hayhurstia atriplicis; Pemphigus fuscicornis

       Chenopodium spp.                     Aphis sp. (Eritrea, BMNH collection);

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brachyunguis tetrapteralis;

                                                            [Hyalomyzus raoi]; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus;

                                                            [Semiaphis dauci]; [Thecabius affinis]

† Records of  Lipaphis and Hyalopterus, and of Hyadaphis coriandri, on Ch. album in India and Africa respectively, are assumed to be all referable to Hayhurstia atriplicis.)

Key to apterae on Chenopodium:-

1     SIPH as short as or shorter than (0.55-1.04 Χ) cauda, which bears 5-8 hairs                    …..2

-      SIPH (if present) either longer than cauda or, if shorter, then cauda bears more than 10 hairs                                                                                                                                           …..5

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.50-0.73. SIPH pale                                       …..Brachyunguis tetrapteralis

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.97-2.50. SIPH pale or dark                                                                  …..3

3     ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.5. SIPH slightly swollen on distal half, and 0.6-0.8 Χ cauda (plate 14b). Clypeus not abnormally swollen                                                         …..Hayhurstia atriplicis

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.97-1.36. SIPH tapering or cylindrical, 0.7-1.04 Χ cauda. Clypeus swollen

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

4     R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Cauda finger-shaped, with a slight midway constriction. Clypeus greatly swollen, filling space between antennal bases                 …..Brachyunguis blanchardi

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.25 Χ HT II. Cauda triangular, tapering without a constriction. Clypeus not so swollen, occupying about 0.75-0.8 of space between antennal bases

                                                                                                        …..Brachyunguis bahamondesi

5     Dorsal abdominal hairs spatulate and/or flabellate (expanded and flattened from bases). SIPH pale or dusky and distinctly clavate                                             …..Landisaphis davisi

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed, blunt or slightly expanded at apices. SIPH clavate, cylindrical, tapering or absent                                                                                            …..6

6     SIPH thick, black, tapering, only 2.6-3.1 Χ their diameter at midlength and c.1.5 Χ the black cauda which bears 6-7 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.95-2.35. R IV+V 1.05-1.25 Χ HT II

                                                                                       ….. Aphis sp. (Eritrea, BMNH collection)

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..7

7      SIPH black, tapering/cylindrical and 2.1-3.5 Χ cauda which bears 10-20 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 consistently with well-developed flat marginal tubercles (MTu)           …..Aphis sambuci

-         Without that combination of characters                           ….go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Chiliadenus                                                 Compositae

      Chiliadenus bocconei                    Capitophorus sp. near similis

 

Chilopsis                                                      Bignoniaceae

      Chilopsis linearis                           Aphis chilopsidi

       Ch. saligna = Ch. linearis

 

Chimonanthus                                             Calycanthaceae

      Chimonanthus fragrans = Ch. praecox                                    

       Ch. praecox                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Chimonobambusa                                        Poaceae

      Ch. quadrangularis                       Cerataphis bambusifoliae; Takecallis taiwanus

Or use key to bamboo-feeding aphids under Bambusa.

 

Chiococca                                                    Rubiaceae

      Chiococca alba                              Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Chionachne                                                 Poaceae

      Chionachne semiteres                   Tetraneura fusiformis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Chionochloa                                                Poaceae

       Chionochloa conspicua                Sitobion miscanthi            

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Chionodoxa                                                 Asparagaceae

      Chionodoxa sp.                             Dysaphis tulipae

 

Chloraea                                                      Orchidaceae

      Chloraea crispa                             Sitobion indicum

      Ch. grandiflora                              Aphis ?solanella (Chile, BMNH collection)

       Ch. gravilu                                     Sitobion indicum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Chloris                                                         Poaceae

      Chloris barbata                              Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion graminis, lambersi, miscanthi

       Ch. gayana                                    Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                              Schizaphis hypersiphonata; Sitobion graminis;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis

       Ch. inflata = C. barbata                  

       Ch. petraea =Eustachys petraea

       Ch. pilosa                                       Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae

       Ch. pycnothrix                               Sitobion lambersi

       Ch. radiata                                     Hysteroneura setariae

       Ch. verticillata                               Schizaphis graminum

       Ch. virgata                                     Ceratovacuna nekoashi; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis; Rhopalosiphum maidis

       Chloris spp.                                   Geoica lucifuga; Sipha flava;

                                                              Tetraneura nigriabdominalis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Chlorocodon   see  Mondia                                            Apocynaceae

 

Chlorophytum                                              Asparagaceae

      Chlorophytum blepharophyllum  Aphis craccivora

       Ch. comosum                                Aphis craccivora, fabae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       Chlorophytum spp.                       Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Chondrilla                                                   Compositae

      Chondrila acantholepis                 Chondrillobium blattnyi

      Ch. brevirostris                              Brachyunguis transaralensis

      Ch. canescens                                Chondrillobium blattnyi; Uroleucon chondrillae

       Ch. chondrilloides                         Uroleucon chondrillae

      Ch. japonica  = Youngia japonica

       Ch. juncea                                     Aphis fabae, gossypii; Chondrillobium blattnyi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rectinasus buxtoni; Uroleucon chondrillae, sonchi

       Ch. laticoronata                             Uroleucon chondrillae

       Ch. latifolia                                    Uroleucon chondrillae

       Ch. pauciflora                               Uroleucon chondrillae

       Chondrilla spp.                             Aulacorthum solani

                                                              Chomaphis chondrillae Mordvilko 1932 – nomen nudum];

                                                              Protaphis chondrillae; Titanosiphon chondrillae

Key to apterae on Chondrilla:-

1     ANT 5-segmented, with ANT V BASE very long and PT very short, peg-like. R IV+V extremely long, similar in length to hind femur, and bearing numerous hairs. Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs. SIPH absent                        …..Rectinasus buxtoni

-      ANT 6-segmented, with PT not peg-like.  R IV+V much shorter and less hairy. Body and appendages not densely hairy. SIPH evident, tubular                                                      …..2

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.55-0.80. SIPH very short and thick, less than 0.7 Χ cauda                  …..3

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH if very short then thin, otherwise more than 0.7 Χ cauda                                                                                                                                            .....4

3     SIPH dark. Cauda with 17-20 hairs                                                 .....Protaphis chondrillae*

-      SIPH pale. Cauda with 6-10 hairs                                         .....Brachyunguis transaralensis*

4     SIPH pale, thin and very short, only 0.4-0.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V only about as long as basal width                                                                                             …..Chondrillobium blattnyi

-      SIPH pale or dark, more than 0.7 Χ cauda. R IV+V clearly longer than its basal width

                                                                                                                                                  …..5

5     SIPH dark, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.16-0.28 of length. Cauda long, pale, finger-like                                                                                                                          …..6

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation, and cauda also dark      …..7

6     ANT III with 40-74 rhinaria. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites usually present. Cauda with 11-21 hairs                                                                   …..Uroleucon chondrillae

-      ANT III with 9-35 rhinaria. Antesiphuncular sclerites vestigeal or absent. Cauda with 23-30 hairs                                                                                                         …..Uroleucon sonchi

7     SIPH very long, 3.1-3.5 Χ cauda and 0.4-0.5 Χ BL                     .....Titanosiphon chondrillae

-      SIPH much shorter                                                                                                             .....8

8     SIPH markedly swollen (clavate). ANT tubercles smooth and rounded. ANT III with 5-29 secondary rhinaria                                                                            …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical or slightly clavate. ANT tubercles scabrous or spiculose, with inner faces apically convergent or almost parallel. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria

       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Chorisia  see Ceiba

 

Chorispora                                                   Brassicaceae

      Chorispora tenella                    Brevicoryne brassicae

 

Chosenia see Salix                                                  Salicaceae

 

Christella                                                     Thelypteridaceae

      Christella dentata                          Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Macromyzella polypodicola;

                                                              Macromyzus maculatus, woodwardiae

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Chromolaena                                               Compositae

      Chromolaena heteroclinia            Aphis gossypii

       Ch. laevigata                                  Aphis fabae

      Ch. odorata                                    Aphis aurantii, [citricidus], craccivora, eugeniae, fabae,

                                                                 gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Macrosiphoniella kikungshana];

                                                              Micromyzodium levipes;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae, siegesbeckicola;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; [Pentalonia nigronervosa];

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to apterae on Eupatorium.

 

Chrysalidocarpus see Dypsis                               Arecaceae

      Ch. lutescens = Dypsis lutescens 

      Ch. madagascariensis  = Dypsis madagascariensis                     

 

Chrysanthellum                                           Compositae

      Chrysantellum americanum         Aphis gossypii

              (incl. procumbens)

 

Chrysanthemoides                                       Compositae

      Chrysanthemoides monilifera       Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Chrysanthemum                                          Compositae

[Note: many species formerly placed in Chrysanthemum are now assigned to other genera, e.g. Argyranthemum, Coleostephus, Dendranthema, Leucanthemopsis, Tanacetum.  “Florist’s chrysanthemum” was however restored to the genus Chrysanthemum in 1999.]

       Chrysanthemum anethifolium Wlld. (L. Buch) = Argyranthemum foeniculum

       Ch. annuum  = Tanacetum annuum

       Ch. arcticum  = Arctanthemum arcticum

       Ch. argenteum  = Tanacetum argenteum

       Ch. balsamita  = Tanacetum balsamita

      Ch. boreale Makino                       Aphis fabae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. chosoni, antennata,

                                                                  atra ssp. latysiphon, [borealis], [tanacetaria ssp. divia],

                                                                  [yomenae];

                                                              Uroleucon [cephalonopli], simile

       Ch.Χ burbankii                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae                                               

       Ch. carinatum  = Ismelia carinata

       Ch. caucasicum = Matricaria breviradiata

       Ch. cinerariifolium  = Tanacetum cinerariifolium

       Ch. coccineum = Tanacetum coccineum

       Ch. coronarium (incl.                     Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                concolor, spatiosum)                  Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Coloradoa rufomaculata; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];

                                                              Macrosiphoniella pseudoartemisiae, sanborni, taspukae,

                                                                   yomogifoliae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon gobonis, [nigrotuberculatum]

       Ch. corymbosum = Tanacetum corymbosum

       Ch. flaveolum = Leucanthemopsis flaveola

       Ch. frutescens  = Argyranthemum frutescens

       Ch. fruticulosum  = Brachanthemum fruticulosum

       Ch. hortorum  = Ch. morifolium

       Ch. indicum  (incl.                          Acyrthosiphon malvae:

                           morifolium)                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nastutii, parvus,

       “Florists’ chrysanthemum”                 spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                              [Chaitophorus chrysanthemi];

                                                              Coloradoa rufomaculata, tanacetina;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella oblonga, sanborni, tanacetaria,

                                                                  [yomenae], yomogicola;

                                                              Macrosiphum centranthi, euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi, [glandulosus];

                                                              [Sitobion miscanthi (as Uroleucon yiliense)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; Tuberocephalus misakurae;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae group, [giganteum], tanaceti

       Ch. japonense = Dendranthema occidentali-japonense

       Ch. lacustre = Leucanthemum lacustre

       Ch. lavandulifolium  = Dendranthema lavandulifolium

       Ch. leucanthemum  = Leucanthemum vulgare

       Ch. lineare                                     Uroleucon erigeronense

       Ch. maximum  (DC.) Ramond = Leucanthemum maximum

       Ch. morifolium  see indicum

       Ch. multifidum                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, tapuskae;

                                                              Uroleucon tanaceti

       Ch. myconis = Coleostephus myconis

       Ch. nipponicum = Nipponanthemum nipponicum

       Ch. nivellei = Nivellea nivellei

       Ch. ornatum  = Dendranthema ornatum

       Ch. pallens = Leucanthemum pallens

       Ch. parthenifolium  = Pyrethrum parthenifolium

       Ch. parthenium  = Tanacetum parthenium

       Ch. procumbens                            Aphis gossypii

       Ch. roseum  = Tanacetum coccineum  (Note: Persian insect powder = Pyrethrum roseum)

       Ch. rotundifolum = Leucanthemum rotundifolium                        

       Ch. Χ rubellum                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

       Ch. segetum                                   Aphis fabae, nasturtii;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella [millefolii], sanborni;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Protaphis terricola; Uroleucon sonchi

        Ch. shahrudense = Tanacetum canescens

       Ch. sinense  = Ch. morifolium

       Ch. sylvaticum = Leucanthemum sylvaticum                                 

       Ch. uliginosum = Leucanthemella serotina

       Ch. vulgare  = Tanacetum vulgare

       Ch. yezoense  = Dendranthema zawadskii

       Ch. zawadskii  = Dendranthema zawadskii

       “Chrysanthemum” spp.               Aphis craccivora, [kurosawai], [malvae], [solitaria];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, lateralis;

                                                              [Capitophorus formosanus (= Pleotrichophorus

                                                                   chrysanthemi?)];

                                                              Coloradoa tanacetina;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella absinthii, [kikungshana],

                                                                 oblonga, tanacetaria, yomogifoliae;

                                                              Macrosiphum centranthi, pachysiphon, rosae;

                                                              [Metopeurum capillatum]; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi;

                                                              Sinomegoura citricola;

                                                              [Tetraneura basui, nigriabdominalis];

                                                              Uroleucon compositae, formosanum ssp. crepidis,

                                                                  pseudotanaceti, [rudbeckiae], tanaceti

Key to apterae on Chrysanthemum and Dendranthema:-

(For an illustrated key to the aphids most commonly found on florist’s chrysanthemums see Blackman & Eastop, 2000)

1     ANT PT/BASE much less than 1. Body and appendages very hairy                               …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE much more than 1. Body and appendages not usually very hairy           …..3

2     HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 Χ length of hind tibia. SIPH present as pores on pigmented shallow cones                                                                    …..Protrama flavescens

-      HT of normal length, much less than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. SIPH absent   …..Smynthurodes betae

3     Cauda very short, helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                              …..4

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform

                                                                                                                                                  …..6

4     Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda                  …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 1.4-2.0 Χ HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda                 …..5

5      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25΅m long

.....Brachycaudus lateralis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25΅m long                                                                                                    .....Brachycaudus cardui

6     SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation, occupying 0.08-0.8 of length. SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                            …..7

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation, or if with then SIPH markedly swollen        …..24

7     SIPH with at least basal part pale, although often darker distally                                    …..8

-      SIPH wholly dark, or dark at base as well as apex                                                         …..12

8     SIPH 1.0-1.3 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.45-0.6 of length

                                                                                                          …..Macrosiphoniella oblonga

-      SIPH more than 1.5 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.12-0.25 of length         

                                                                                                                                                  …..9

9     SIPH mainly dark, pale only on basal third, with polygonal reticulation over distal 0.3-0.4 of length. Cauda tapering almost to a point                                      …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH mainly pale, only dark towards apices, with reticulation of distal 0.12-0.25 of length. Cauda finger-like, almost parallel-sided for part of length                                             …..10

10   SIPH flared at apex and completely lacking any flange, the zone of polygonal reticulation ending abruptly at apex (Fig.5i). Dorsal hairs long (those on ABD TERG 3 more than 50 μm long). ANT III with 6-26 rhinaria                                             …..Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

-      SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation ending in some transversely elongate cells and a small but distinct flange. Dorsal body hairs shorter (those on ABD TERG 3 not more than 50 μm long). ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria                                                                             …..11

11   Apices of femora and SIPH dark. ANT 1.3-1.6 Χ BL. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 33-50 mm long. Cauda with 11-19 hairs                                                 …..Macrosiphum centranthi

-      Apices of femora and SIPH pale/dusky. ANT 0.9-1.4 Χ BL. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 20-37 mm long. Cauda with 8-12 hairs                                 …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

12   SIPH 1.7-3.2 Χ longer than the short, pale cauda, which bears 5-10 hairs                     …..13

-      SIPH 0.6-2.3 Χ cauda, but if more than 1.7 Χ then cauda is long and finger-like and bears more than 10 hairs                                                                                                           …..14

13   SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.25 of length, and usually with a paler middle section. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II                                             …..Uroleucon tanaceti

-      SIPH wholly dark, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.38 of length. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                                      …..Uroleucon pseudotanaceti

14   SIPH 0.6-1.2 Χ cauda, which is dark. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                        …..15

-      SIPH 1.1-2.3 Χ cauda, but if less than 1.2 Χ then cauda is pale.  First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                                                                 …..21

15   ANT III with 29-55 rhinaria. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II            …..Macrosiphoniella absinthii

-      ANT III with 4-32 rhinaria, but if with more than 25 then R IV+V is 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II …..16

16   SIPH 0.95-1.2 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.26-0.4 of length

                                                                                                    …..Macrosiphoniella subterranea

-      SIPH 0.6-0.95 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.4-0.8 of length                             …..17

17   ANT III with secondary rhinaria usually distributed over almost its entire length. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.6-0.8 of length                                      …..Macrosiphoniella sanborni

-      ANT III with secondary rhinaria restricted to basal 0.6 or less. SIPH with reticulation over distal 0.4-0.7 of length                                                                                                    …..18

18   ANT III mainly pale, with 2-9 rhinaria. Tibiae with an extensive paler middle sections. Cauda with 10-14 hairs                                               …..Macrosiphoniella pseudoartemisiae

-      ANT III mainly or wholly dark, with 1-32 rhinaria. Tibiae wholly dark. Cauda with 16-44 hairs                                                                                                                                 …..19

19   Dorsal body hairs long, fine and numerous, not in rows, the spinal and pleural hairs usually placed on dark tranverse sclerotic cross-bands (sometimes these are reduced). Hairs on ANT III long and fine                                                                   …..Macrosiphoniella yomogicola

-      Dorsal body hairs much fewer and arranged in single somewhat irregular rows across each tergite. Abdomen without dark dorsal cross-bands. hairs on ANT III not long and fine

                                                                                                                                                …..20

20   R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.5. SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.4-0.55                                              ..…Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-2.9. SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.48-0.7                                           ….. Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae

21   Cauda dark, like SIPH                                                …..Uroleucon compositae (or gobonis)

-      Cauda pale, or much paler than SIPH                                                                             …..22

22   ANT III very long, 1.5-2.1 Χ ANT IV+V together, and bearing very numerous (96-135) strongly protruberant rhinaria distributed over its entire length    …..Uroleucon formosanum

-      ANT III shorter than or about equal in length to ANT IV+V together, and with 8-38 rhinaria extending over 0.35-0.65 of length                                                                                 …..23

23   Coxae black. SIPH 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda. Dorsal hairs mostly without dark basal sclerites

                                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Coxae pale. SIPH 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda. Many of dorsal hairs arising from dark scleroites

                                                                                                                 …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

24   Dorsal hairs long, with knobbed or funnel-shaped apices                                                        

                                                                                                  …..Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi

-      Dorsal hairs short and blunt, or club- or fan-shaped, or if long then pointed                 …..25

25   Triommatidium merged with compound eye, so that there is no distinct ocular tubercle. Dorsal hairs small, fan- or club-shaped, or at least with somewhat expanded apices. Front of head weakly convex in dorsal view, ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically. R IV+V with slightly concave sides. Cauda less than 1.5 Χ its basal width, with 4-5 hairs                              …..26

-      Triommatidum forming a distinct ocular tubercle at posterior margin of eye, dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, and other characters not in above combination                        …..27

26   Dorsal hairs fan-shaped (Fig.52c). RIV+V more than 1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.17-0.2 Χ BL, with basal part almost smooth (Fig.12o)                                              …..Coloradoa rufomaculata

-      Dorsal hairs very small and weakly club-shaped, or with only slightly expanded apices (Fig.52d). R IV+V less than 1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.13-0.18 Χ BL, with basal part coarsely imbricated like distal part (Fig.52e)                                                 …..Coloradoa tanacetina

27   ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with penultimate segment less than 1.2 Χ length of base of last segment. SIPH short and tapering, scabrous or coarsely imbricated, ending in a large flange. Head spiculose                                                                          …..Tuberocephalus misakurae

-      ANT 6-segmented, rarely 5-segmented, with penultimate segment more than 1.2 Χ length of base of last segment. SIPH various, and head smooth or spiculose

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Chrysobactron  see Bulbinella                                      Xanthorrhoeaceae

 

Chrysobalanus                                             Chrysobalanaceae

      Chrysobalanus oblongifolius = Licania michauxii

 

Chrysobotrya  see  Ribes                                                 Grossulariaceae

 

Chrysophyllum                                            Sapotaceae

      Chrysophyllum oliviforme            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Chrysopogon (including Pollinia)                               Poaceae

      Chrysopogon aciculatus                Hysteroneura setariae; Tetraneura fusiformis

       Ch. arnottianus = Ch. nodulibarbis

       Ch. aucheri                                    Sitobion graminis

       Ch. elongatus                                Diuraphis noxia

       Ch. gryllus                                     Sipha elegans, maydis; Sitobion avenae

       Ch. nodulibarbis                            Sitobion fragariae, graminis, miscanthi

       Ch. serrulatus                                Asiphonella dactylonii

       Ch. zeylanicus = Ch. nodulibarbis

         Ch. zizanioides                               Hysteroneura setariae

       Chrysopogon sp.                           Kaochiaoja arthraxonis (? - as Macrosiphum pollinae

                                                                  Shinji)

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Chrysopsis                                                    Compositae

      Chrysopsis graminifolia                Uroleucon chrysopsidicola

       Ch. mariana                                  Uroleucon chrysopsidicola

       Ch. villosa = Heterotheca villosa

 

Chrysosplenium                                           Saxifragaceae

      Chrysosplenium flagelliferum      Taiwanomyzus chrysosplenii

       Ch. oppositifolium                         [Jacksonia papillata]

 

Chrysothamnus                                            Compositae

      Chrysothamnus frigidus = Ericameria nauseosa                        

       Ch. graveolens  = Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens

       Ch. greenei                                    Pleotrichophorus oestlundii

       Ch. lanceolatus  = Ch. viscidiflorens ssp. lanceolatus

       Ch. nauseosus  = Ericameria nauseosa                                       

       Ch. parryi                                      Aphis gregalis, infrequens, zonassa; [Forda marginata];

                                                              Pleotrichophorus elongatus, oestlundi, palmerae, packi,

                                                                  xerozoous

       Ch. plattensis  = Ericameria nauseosa

       Ch. viscidiflorus                             Aphis chrysothamni, gregalis; Durocapillata utahensis;

               (incl. sssp. lanceolatus)                  [Macrosiphoniella glabra];

                                                              Pleotrichophorus elongatus, gregarius, magnautensus,

                                                                 oestlundi, palmerae, pycnorhysus, stroudi, utensis;

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense, [zerogutierrezis]

       Chrysothamnus spp.                     [Artemisaphis artemisicola]; [Aspidaphis adjuvans]

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

Key to apterae on Chrysothamnus and Ericameria (also Gutierreza):-

1     Many or all dorsal hairs expanded from base, fan- or funnel-shaped, or with fan- or funnel-shaped apices, or (in one species) minute with club-shaped apices. SIPH thin, at midlength  less than half thickness of cauda, without any polygonal reticulation                              …..2

-      Dorsal hairs never fan-or funnel-shaped; tapering from base, with pointed, blunt or capitate apices. SIPH either thicker or with subapical polygonal reticulation                              …..13

2     R IV+V short and blunt, with the pair of accessory hairs on basal half shorter than or similar in length to the longest pair of primary (subapical) hairs (e.g. Fig.21a)                            …..3

-      R IV+V acutely pointed or with extended, tubular apex, with the pair of accessory hairs on the basal half usually longer than the longest subapical pair (Fig.21b)                             .….6

3     SIPH distinctly clavate, with maximum diameter of distal half about 1.4 Χ minimum diameter on basal half                                                                  …..Pleotrichophorus lagacei

-      SIPH not distinctly clavate, if at all swollen on distal half then maximum diameter no more than 1.25 Χ minimum diameter on basal half                                                                    …..4

4     SIPH 1.80-3.13 Χ cauda, and mainly pale, only darker distally

                                                                                                    …..Pleotrichophorus pycnorhysus

-      SIPH 0.78-1.63 Χ cauda, and mainly dark                                                                        …..5

5     Dorsal body hairs minute (less than 10 μm long), club-shaped (Fig.21c). Ventral side of ANT I with 15 or more hairs. SIPH 0.78-1.03 Χ cauda               …..Pleotrichophorus magnautensus

-      Dorsal body hairs larger, fan-or funnel-shaped (Fig.21d). Ventral side of ANT I with less then 10 hairs. SIPH 1.06-1.63 Χ cauda                                        …..Pleotrichophorus utensis

6     Dorsal abdomen with cuticle raised into paired longitudinal rows of spinal (and often also smaller, pleural) tubercles, largest on ABD TERG 5-7, bearing groups of spinal and pleural fan- and funnel-shaped hairs (e.g. Fig.21e)                                                                      …..7

-      Dorsal abdomen without tubercles                                                                                    …..8

7     R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II. SIPH mainly pale, only dark at apices. Cauda usually with 3 pairs of lateral hairs, plus 0-3 dorsal hairs                                            …..Pleotrichophorus xerozoous

-      R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II. SIPH dark at least on distal half of length. Cauda usually with 4 pairs of lateral hairs plus 0-6 dorsal ones                                          …..Pleotrichophorus gregarius

8     SIPH long and thin, 0.22-0.39 Χ BL                                                                                 …..9

-      SIPH 0.11-0.21 Χ BL                                                                                                      …..12

9     SIPH pale, sometimes dusky towards apices. Cauda with 5-6 hairs (only 2 lateral pairs). Dorsal cephalic hairs all short and fan- or funnel-shaped (Fig.21f)

                                                                                                         …..Pleotrchophorus elongatus

-      SIPH dark over at least distal half of length.  Cauda with 5-21 hairs (usually 3-5 lateral pairs). Dorsal cephalic hairs varying in form; all fan- or funnel-shaped, or with some longer hairs with flattened, blunt or pointed apices                                                                   …..10

10   All dorsal cephalic hairs expanded from base; fan- or funnel-shaped, or with flattened, fan- or funnel-shaped apices. Accessory hairs on R IV+V not or hardly longer than longest subapical hairs                                                                            …..Pleotrichophorus stroudi*

-      Frontal dorsal cephalic hairs long, with blunt, slightly expanded or pointed apices (e.g. Fig.21g). Accessory hairs on R IV+V distinctly longer than longest of subapical hairs          

                                                                                                                                                …..11

11   SIPH 0.32-0.39 Χ BL and 2.04-3.02 Χ cauda; dark except for pale basal 0.15-0.2 of length. Cauda tapering, with 5-13 hairs (usually 3-5 lateral pairs). Posterior dorsal cephalic hairs expanded from base, with spatulate apices (Fig.21g)                    …..Pleotrichophorus packi

-      SIPH 0.27-0.33 Χ BL and 1.58-2.11 Χ cauda, with pale basal part 0.35-0.6 of length. Posterior dorsal cephalic hairs variable, sometimes with flattened or spatulate apices, or with blunt or pointed apices, but not expanded from base. Cauda rather thick, with 10-21 hairs (usually 5-8 lateral pairs)

              …..Pleotrichophorus sporadicus complex (sporadicus, neosporadicus, packi ssp. brevis)

12.  Dorsal cuticle rather sclerotic with blunt spicules irregularly distributed among the fan-shaped hairs (Fig.21h). Cauda with 3 pairs of lateral hairs and 4-10 dorsal hairs that are usually spatulate or have funnel-shaped apices                        …..Pleotrichophorus oestlundi

-      Dorsal cuticle without any generally distributed large spicules. Cauda with 2 pairs of lateral hairs and a single dorsal hair which has a blunt or pointed apex

                                                                                                        …..Pleotrichophorus wasatchii

13   SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces smooth and divergent. Cauda long and finger-like                                                         …..14

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. Cauda short, triangular or helmet-shaped                                                                                   …..17

14   SIPH wholly dark, 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda, which bears 12-27 hairs

                                                                            …..Uroleucon ambrosiae group (incl. U. aaroni)

-      SIPH paler at base, 1.7-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 5-11 hairs                                          …..15

15   ANT IV of alata with 9-12 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV of aptera sometimes with 1-3 secondary rhinaria                                                                     ….. Uroleucon zerogutierrezis

-      ANT IV of alata usually without rhinaria, rarely with 1-4, and ANT IV of aptera always without rhinaria                                                                                                               …..16

16   R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. Caudal hairs all long and strong                …..Uroleucon riojanum

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II.  Distal caudal hairs usually short and blunt or capitate                   

                                                                                                             …..Uroleucon erigeronense

17   Most hairs on dorsum and ANT III with distinctly capitate apices. SIPH thick and tapering, almost smooth, with a very marked subapical incision and a large flange (Fig.21i)

                                                                                                              …..Durocapillata utahensis

-      Hairs on dorsum and ANT III blunt or pointed. SIPH imbricated, without a subapical incision and with a moderately developed flange                                                           …..18

18   R IV+V stiletto-shaped, with R V extended as a needle-like tip, and R IV with a pair of very finely pointed accessory hairs, as long as or longer than the subapical (primary) hairs (Fig.21j,k)                                                                                                                       …..19

-      R IV+V varying in shape but R V is not extended as a needle-like tip, and the accessory hairs are usually shorter than the longest of the subapical pairs                                      …..21

19   R IV+V (Fig.21j) 0.11-0.18 mm long, 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with a dark central sclerite of irregular shape on tergites 1-3 or 1-4                       …..Aphis chrysothamni

-      R IV+V 0.21-0.29 mm long, 1.75-2.4 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings anterior to SIPH, or with small sclerites not fused between tergites                              …..20

20   R IV+V (Fig.21k) 0.21-0.24 mm long, 1.75-2.0 Χ HT II. ANT III without secondary rhinaria

       …..Aphis chrysothamnicola

-      R IV+V 0.24-0.29 mm long, 2.0-2.4 Χ HT II. ANT III with 0-4 secondary rhinaria

                                                                                                                         …..Aphis infrequens

21   SIPH 1.6-1.8 Χ cauda and 1.7-1.9 Χ R IV+V. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 0-1, IV 4-8, V 0-1                                                                                              …..Aphis zonassa*

-      SIPH 0.7-1.5 Χ cauda and 0.6-1.3 Χ R IV+V. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 0-10, IV 0-3, V 0-2                                                                                                                   …..22

22   Cauda rounded at apex, with 10-16 hairs. Hairs on ANT III short, recumbent, with rather blunt apices, the longest of them 0.5-0.8 Χ BD III

…..Protaphis middletonii group (incl. crypta, gutierrezis)

-      Cauda triangular, bluntly pointed at apex, with 8-12 hairs (e.g. Fig.21l). Longest hairs on ANT III are 1-3 Χ BD III, with fine-pointed apices                                                       …..23

23   ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.0                                                                                   …..Aphis ornata

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.5                                                                                 …..Aphis gregalis

 

Chusquea                                                     Poaceae

      Chusquea abietifolia                     Hysteroneura setariae

       Ch. tomentosa                               Rhopalosiphum chusqueae

       Ch. valdiviensis                              Rhopalosiphum padi

      Chusquea sp(p).                            Aphis craccivora; Aploneura lentisci; Melanaphis donacis

-      SIPH and cauda both dark, SIPH being distinctly swollen on distal half, and cauda finger-like with a midway constriction and bearing 5 hairs. ANT 6-segmented, with longest hairs on ANT III 55-65 μm long, 1.8-2.6 Χ basal diameter of segment, and ANT PT/BASE

       3.9-4.4                                                                                       …..Rhopalosiphum chusqueae

-      Without that combination of characters…..go to key to grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria

       (or also try keys to aphids on bamboos under Arundinaria and Bambusa)

 

Cicca                                                            Euphorbiaceae

       Cicca acida = Phyllanthus acidus

 

Cicer                                                            Leguminosae

      Cicer arietinum                             Acyrthosiphon gossypii,  pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              [Therioaphis trifolii]

       C. songaricum                               [Acyrthosiphon hissaricum]; [Paracletus cimiciformis]

Use key to apterae on Pisum (Acyrthosiphon hissaricum could not be keyed on the basis of the available information).

 

Cicerbita                                                      Compositae

      Cicerbita alpina                             [Amphorophora gei]; Aphis fabae; Aulacothum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum alpinum, euphorbiae, polanense;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon sonchi

       C. azurea                                       Acyrthosiphon ilka

       C. cacaliifolia  = C. macrophylla

       C. macrophylla                              Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon cicerbitae, longisetosum, sonchi

       C. pancicii = Lactuca pancicii

       C. racemosa = Lactuca racemosa

       C. reticulata (?)                              Aphis craccivora

       C. rosea = Mulgedium roseum      

Key to apterae on Cicerbita:-

1     SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.4 of length. Cauda bearing 12-34 hairs. ANT III with 10 or more rhinaria                                                                                      …..2

-      SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation (or if with then other characters do not apply)

                                                                                                                                                   .....6

2     SIPH mainly pale, tapering/cylindrical, with a rather constricted subapical zone of  polygonal reticulation occupying less than 0.2 of total length. Postsiphuncular sclerites absent       …..3

-      SIPH dark, cylindrical, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.15-0.40 of length, the reticulated section not at all constricted. Large dark postsiphuncular sclerites present    …..4

3     Cauda with 17-21 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 10-11 hairs, and disc of subgenital plate with 3-4 hairs                                                                                             .…..Macrosiphum polanense

-      Cauda with 12-15 hairs, ABD TERG 8 with 6-9 hairs, and disc of subgenital plate with

       4-12 hairs                                                                                         …..Macrosiphum alpinum

4     SIPH 1.21-1.25 Χ cauda, which bears 12-17 hairs. SIPH with reticulation on distal

       0.35-0.40                                                                                       …..Uroleucon longisetosum

-      SIPH 1.4-2.1 Χ cauda, which bears 23-30 hairs. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.15-0.30

                                                                                                                                                  …..5

5     R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.15-0.25 of length. Hind coxae much darker than trochanters. Dorsal hairs not arising from distinct dark scleroites

                                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      R IV+V 1.05-1.15 Χ HT II. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.25-0.30 of length. Hind coxae pale like trochanters. Dorsal hairs mostly arsing from dark scleroites

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon cicerbitae

6     ANT PT/BASE 8-11. ANT III with 7-28 rhinaria extending over 0.4-0.7 of length. Spiracular apertures on pro-and metathorax much larger than those on abdomen

                                                                                                                   …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-7.5. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria near base. Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size and form to abdominal ones                                                                        .....7

7     SIPH dark (or if pale then either clavate or with subapical polygonal reticulation)  

                                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      SIPH pale or only dark at apices, tapering/cylindrical, without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                          .....8

8     Head spinulose, ANT tubercles with inner faces steep-sided, almost parallel. R IV+V 1.05-1.50 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI 1.2-2.0 Χ HT II                                             .....Aulacorthum solani

-      Head smooth, ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent. R IV+V 0.75-0.93 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI 0.9-1.11 Χ HT II                                                                    .....Acyrthosiphon ilka

 

Cichorium                                                    Compositae

      Cichorium divaricatum (?)            Aphis intybi

       C. endivia (incl. ssp.                         Aphis craccivora, fabae, intybi;

                              pumilum)                         Aulacorthum solani; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus [certus], ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis; Protaphis pseudocardui;                                                        Protrama flavescens; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Trama caudata, troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, cichorii, murale, picridis, sonchi

       C. intybus                                       Acyrthosiphon [gossypii], ilka;

                                                              Aphis albella, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, intybi;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius, [vesicarius];

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                              Protaphis anuraphoides,[elatior], middletonii, [Protaphis

                                                                  sp. (Mier Durante, 1978; Holman & Pintera, 1981)];

                                                              Protrama flavescens, radicis;

                                                              Trama caudata, maritima, [narzykulovi], pamirica,

                                                                  troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon mulgedii (as altaicum), cichorii, [cirsii],

                                                                  [jaceae], picridis, pseudambrosiae, sonchi;

                                                              Xerobion inthybi

       C. pumilum = C. endivia ssp. pumilum

       C. spinosum                                   Aphis fabae

       Cichorium spp.                             [Trama rara]

Key to apterae on Cichorium:-

[For keys to common aphids on C. endiva and C. intybus see Blackman & Eastop (2000).]

1     Hind tarsus II elongate, much longer than other tarsi                                                       …..2

-      Hind tarsus II of normal length                                                                                         …..6

2     SIPH completely absent. Eyes of 3 facets                                             …..Trama troglodytes

-      SIPH present as slightly raised pores. Eyes usually with more than 12 facets                  …..3

3     ANT VI similar in length to ANT V or a little longer, with PT at least one third as long as BASE VI. Many apterae alatiform with dark tranverse bands on dorsal abdomen          …..4

-      ANT VI a little shorter than ANT V, with PT very short. No dorsal abdominal pigmentation

                                                                                                                                                  …..5

4     HT II 0.72-0.87 Χ length of hind tibia. Hind tibia 5.0-6.4 Χ ANT IV. R IV with 8-12 accessory (dorsal) hairs                                                                                            ….. Protrama radicis

-      HT II 0.59-0.70 Χ length of hind tibia. Hind tibia 6.5-9.2 Χ ANT IV. R IV with 6-8 accessory (dorsal) hairs                                                                       …..Protrama flavescens

5     ANT III 2.3-2.9 Χ ANT IV.  HT II 3.3-4.2 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT)                                            

…..Trama maritima (or pamirica?)

-      ANT III 1.6-2.25 Χ ANT IV.  HT II 2.6-3.5 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT)            …..Trama caudata

6     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3. SIPH absent. Eyes with only 3 facets                               …..7

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present. Eyes multi-faceted                                   …..8

7     R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, a little shorter than last ANT segment  (incl. PT), and without any accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments short and thick

                                                                                                                  …..Pemphigus bursarius

-      R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, as long as or longer than last ANT segment and bearing 4-8 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of hind tibiae and first tarsal segments long and fine

                                                                                                           …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

8     ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed                                                                      …..9

-      ANT tubercles well developed                                                                                        …..18

9     Cauda short, helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                                                 …..10

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width                                              …..14

10   ANT PT/BASE c.0.58                                                                              …..Xerobion inthybi

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.8-3.2                                                                                                   …..11

11   SIPH pale, smooth-surfaced, with an annular incision below the well-developed flange. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2                  

                                                                                                             …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH dark, without a subapical annular incision, and flange small. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large MTu. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.3                                                                                 …..12

12  ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4. Cauda as dark as SIPH                                .....Protaphis middletonii

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4. Cauda paler than SIPH                                                             .....13

13   ANT III usually without secondary rhinaria (rarely with 1-3). R IV+V 1.28-1.36 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 0.7-1.1 Χ ANT BD III         …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-      ANT III usually with (1-10) secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.45-1.65 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 1.2-1.3 Χ ANT BD III                                     …..Protaphis anuraphoides

14   Cauda black like SIPH. Dark dorsal markings present, at least on head, thorax and ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often more extensive                                                                       …..15

-      Cauda pale or, if dusky to dark, then paler than SIPH. No dark dorsal markings          …..17

15   Dorsal abdominal dark markings not fused between segments. hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.4 Χ BD III. Cauda with 11-27 hairs                                                                       …..Aphis fabae

-      Dorsal abdomen with dark markings usually fused between segments to form a central patch or shield. Hairs on ANT III 0.25-0.75 Χ BD III. Cauda with 4-9 hairs                              …..16

16   R IV+V 1.25-1.75 Χ ANT BASE VI (only less than 1.3 Χ in large specimens (BL 2 mm or more). R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                       …..Aphis intybi

-      R IV+V usually 0.8-1.2 Χ ANT BASE VI (1.2-1.4 Χ in hot-weather dwarfs). R IV+V 0.7-1.3 Χ HT II                                                                                                     …..Aphis craccivora

17   SIPH dark                                                                                                     …..Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH pale                                                                                                        …..Aphis albella

18   Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles almost parallel or apically convergent

…..19

-      Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                                           …..22

19   SIPH black and markedly inflated                                      …..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

-      SIPH pale or only dusky at apices, tapering or only slightly clavate                              …..20

20   Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. SIPH coarsely imbricated, tapering and with a slight S-curve                     …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-5.5. SIPH moderately imbricated, cylindrical and almost straight, or slightly clavate                                       …..21

21   SIPH slightly clavate. ANT III never with rhinaria                                    …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH cylindrical. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base  …..Aulacorthum solani

22   SIPH strongly clavate                                                                                                      …..23

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                                                                            …..24

23   Dorsum pale. R IV+V 0.88-1.0 Χ HT II                                          .....Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      ABD TERG 1-6 with dark pleural flecks. R IV+V 1.45-1.8 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                  .....Hyperomyzus picridis

24   SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation occupying 0.12-0.43 of total length    

                                                                                                                                                …..25

-      SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation, or with striae containing a few closed cells but occupying less than 0.1 of total length                                                              …..32

25   SIPH pale at least basally, sometimes rather darker towards apices, with reticulation on distal 0.12-0.20 of length. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT III with 1-11 rhinaria

       …..26

-      SIPH black, with reticulation of numerous rather small polygonal cells on distal 0.16-0.43 of  length. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT III with 8-97 rhinaria                           …..27

26   ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.1. HT II 0.13-0.18 mm. Dorsal hairs never on scleroites, and no postsiphuncular sclerites                                                            ….. Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.6. HT II 0.175-0.21 mm. At least some of dorsal hairs usually arising from small pigmented scleroites, and large (but sometimes weakly pigmented) postsiphuncular sclerites present                                                          …..Uroleucon mulgedii

27   Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly not placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.73-0.88 Χ HT II                                                                                                       …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.76-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                                                                                …..28

28   Crescent-shaped  black antesiphuncular sclerites present                                                …..29

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct                                                                 …..30

29   R IV+V 1.45-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                    …..Uroleucon picridis

-      R IV+V 1.17-1.33 Χ HT II                                                                    …..Uroleucon cichorii

30   SIPH long and thin (c.11-17 Χ longer than diameter at midlength), 1.5-1.9 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.75-0.9 (-1.0) Χ HT II). ANT III with 20-36 rather large rhinaria occupying 0.87-0.98 of length of segment                                                                                   …..Uroleucon murale

-      SIPH rather thick (c.8-12 Χ longer than diameter at midlength), 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.45  Χ HT II. ANT III with 8-46 secondary rhinaria on basal 0.5-0.7 of segment  …..31

31   HT II rather long and thin, about 6 Χ its maximum thickness, and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V

                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II shorter, less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.7-0.95 Χ R IV+V

                                                                                                                 …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

32   Dorsal abdomen with paired dark intersegmental markings, closer together on ABD TERG 4 and 5 than on more anterior segments. Spiracular apertures on pro-and metathorax much larger than those on abdomen. SIPH 0.18-0.26 Χ BL                        …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Spiracular apertures on thorax of similar size to those on abdomen. SIPH 0.26-0.34 Χ BL                                             …..Acyrthosiphon ilka

 

Ciclospermum see Cyclospermum                               Apiaceae

 

Cicuta                                                          Apiaceae

      Cicuta bulbifera                             Cavariella konoi

       C. californica  = C. douglasii

       C. douglasii                                    Aphis gossypii

       C. maculata (incl. var.                      Aphis asclepiadis, saniculae, spiraecola, thaspii;

                              angustifolia)                    Cavariella aegopodii,[hendersoni],konoi, pastinacae,

                                                                 theobaldi;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi; [Pemphigus sp. (as lactucae)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

       C. occidentalis = C. maculata var. angustifolia                            

       C. virosa                                         Aphis fabae, grosmannae, nasturtii;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, cicutae, cicutisucta, konoi,

                                                                   pastinacae;

                                                              Macrosiphum gei; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                              Semiaphis anthrisci;

                                                              [Wahlgreniella nervata (as Amphorophora cicutae Shinji)]

       Cicuta spp.                                    Dysaphis apiifolia

Key to apterae on Cicuta:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda; sometimes reduced to a small, warty, knob in the centre of ABD TERG 8, with 2 associated hairs                      .....2

-      No supracaudal process, nor are there 2 hairs on ABD TERG 8 close together and associated with a warty knob                                                                                                               .....7

2     ABD TERG 8 with a warty knob. SIPH tapering/cylindrical. R IV+V c 0.22 mm, longer than ANT PT                                                                                      .....Cavariella cicutisucta

-      ABD TERG 8 with an evident backwardly-pointing process. SIPH clavate. R IV+V

       0.08-0.19 mm, usually shorter than ANT PT (except in cicutae)                                       .....3

3     SIPH tapering, with no trace of swelling                                            …..Cavariella theobaldi

-      SIPH clavate                                                                                                                      …..4

4     ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3. R IV+V with 0-2 accessory hairs                                               …..5

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.0. R IV+V always with 2 accessory hairs                                      …..6

5     Supracaudal process large, broad-based, projecting beyond and usually covering cauda. SIPH thick, less than 5 Χ longer than their maximum width                 …..Cavariella cicutae

-      Supracaudal process smaller, finger-like, not projecting beyond tip of cauda. SIPH more than 5 Χ longer than their maximum width                                                   …..Cavariella aegopodii

6     ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0                                                                             …..Cavariella konoi

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0                                                                     …..Cavariella pastinacae

7     ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH cylindrical with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on dorsal abdomen 66-106 μm. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-11 (usually 4-8) hairs                                                                                     …..Macrosiphum gei

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed or absent. SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Dorsal abdominal hairs shorter and/or fewer hairs on anterior part of subgenital plate                …..8

8     SIPH very small and flangeless, only about 0.5 Χ cauda, with aperture slanted towards midline of body                                                                                     .....Semiaphis anthrisci

-      SIPH more than 0.75 Χ cauda                                                                                            .....9

9     SIPH clavate                                                                                                                    …..10

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                                                                            …..11

10   SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda. Dorsal cuticle with a reticulate pattern of small round bead-like spinules arranged in polygons. R IV+V 1.0-1.5 Χ HT II        …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      SIPH 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda. Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons. R IV+V 0.7-0.8 Χ HT II                                                                                                    …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

11   Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with 5 hairs. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8                                              …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, with more than 6 hairs. STu absent         

                                                                                                                                                …..12

12   ABD TERG 1-7 or 1-5 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu)

                                                                                                                      …..Aphis grosmannae

-      MTu only regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, with occasionally small ones on other segments                                                                                                                          …..13

13   Hind femora with many long fine hairs, most of them as long as or longer than width of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda 1.6-2.5 Χ ANT BASE VI                                          …..14

-      Hind femora with most or all hairs shorter than width of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda 1.2-1.9 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                                                …..15

14   SIPH 0.75-1.1 Χ ANT III and 1.8-2.7 Χ ANT BASE VI. Cauda hardly constricted near midlength and bearing 11-24 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark bands and dark dorsal markings also anterior to SIPH. (Al. with 10-23 rhinaria on ANT III)             .....Aphis fabae

-      SIPH 1.1-1.45 Χ ANT III and 2.8-3.4 Χ ANT BASE VI. Cauda usually clearly constricted near midlength and bearing 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs. Abdomen without any dark markings. (Al. with 4-12 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                         …..Aphis spiraecola

15    ANT III-V (of apt.) usually with sec. rhin. (III 0-14, IV 0-12, V 0-8)      …..Aphis saniculae

-      ANT III-V (of apt.) without sec. rhin. (except in alatiform specimens)                         …..16

16   SIPH mainly pale or dusky, only dark towards apices                                 .....Aphis nasturtii

-      SIPH uniformly dark                                                                                                        .....17

17   SIPH much darker than cauda, which bears 4-7 (-8) hairs                           …..Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH and cauda similarly pigmented. Cauda with 8-12 hairs                                        …..18

18   HT I with 3 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 16-35 μm, 0.6-1.2 Χ BD III. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 14-40, IV 0-2, V 0)                                                                            …..Aphis asclepiadis

-      HT I with 2 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 10-15 μm, 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III. (Al. with sec.rhin. III 28-56, IV 5-11, V 0-6)                                                                             …..Aphis thaspii

 

Cienfuegosia                                                Malvaceae

      Cienfuegosia gossypioides = C. sturtianum

         C. sturtianum                           Myzus persicae

 

Cimicifuga  see Actaea                                          Ranunculaceae

      Cimicifuga dahurica = Actaea dahurica

       C. foetida = Actaea cimicifuga

       C. heracleifolia = Actaea heracleifolia

         C. simplex = Actaea simplex

       Cimicifuga sp. (= Actaea sp.?)     Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani

Use key to apterae under Actaea.

 

Cinchona                                                                                                         Rubiaceae

      Cinchona ledgeriana                Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola

(Use key to polyphagous aphids.)

 

Cineraria                                                     Compositae

      Cineraria cruenta                          Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                   (= Pericallis cruenta)              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Eriosoma patchiae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. hybrida  see C. cruenta

       C. renifolia = Dolichorrhiza renifolia

       C. saxifraga                                   Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       C. stellata see C. cruenta                  

       Cineraria spp.                               Aphis craccivora, [umbrella]; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              Sitobion miscanthi

Key to apterae on Cineraria:-

1     SIPH as large pores with partially sclerotised rims, ringed with hairs. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.8. Dorsal body with wax glands on all segments, each normally comprising a ring of facets around a central pore                                                                   …..Eriosoma patchiae

-      SIPH conical or tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 1. No discrete wax glands              …..2

2     Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, short, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                              …..3

3     Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm, 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda

                                                                                                             …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm, 1.4-2.0 Χ HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

4      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25΅m long

                                                                                                                .....Brachycaudus lateralis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25΅m long                                                                                                    .....Brachycaudus cardui

 

Cinna                                                           Poaceae

      Cinna latifolia                                Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion fragariae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Cinnamomum                 Cinnamons                Lauraceae

Aphids recorded from camphor (C. camphora) and cinnamon (C. zeylandicum) are included in Blackman & Eastop (2000). The key following the host list includes all aphids recorded from members of the genus Cinnamomum.

     Cinnamomum brevifolium            Euthoracaphis umbellulariae

     C. burmanni                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Euthoracaphis heterotricha;

                                                                       Sinomegoura citricola;

                                                               

     C. camphora                                                 Camphor Tree
                                                        Aiceona actinodaphnis, japonica;

                                                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus
                                                        Euthoracaphis umbellulariae; Machilus machili;
                                                        Sinomegoura citricola

     C. iners                                           Euthoracaphis heterotricha

     C. japonicum                                  Euthoracaphis umbellulariae; Machilaphis pseudomachili;

                                                              Sinomegoura citricola; Thoracaphis sp.

     C. loureirii                                      Sinomegoura citricola

     C. pedunculatum                            Euthoracaphis umbellulariae

     C. tamala                                        [Myzus persicae]

     C. zeylanicum                                    Cinnamon Tree
                                                        Euthoracaphis heterotricha;
                                                        [Micromyzus nigrum van de Goot 1918];
                                                        Sinomegoura citricola

Key to aphids on Cinnamomum:-

1    SIPH longer than basal width                                                                                            .....2

-     SIPH either inconspicuous pores or broad cones, shorter than basal width                       .....4

 

2    Body spindle-shaped. Cauda very large with pointed apex. SIPH dark apically, pale on basal half. No stridulatory apparatus                                                           .....Sinomegoura citricola

-     Body broadly oval. Cauda rounded at apex. SIPH wholly dark. Stridulatory apparatus present                                                                                                                                 .....3

3    Cauda with usually more than 25 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III longer than basal diameter of segment. BL often 2 mm or more                                        ..... Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

-     Cauda with usually less than 20 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than basal

      diameter of segment. BL less than 2 mm                                   ..... Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

4    Body of aptera aleyrodiform; subcircular, sclerotized, with much reduced legs and antennae

                                                                                                                      .....5

-     Body of aptera of normal aphid type with well-developed legs and antennae                  .....7

5    Dorsal area of prosoma entire                                                                     .....Thoracaphis sp.

-     Dorsal area of prosoma with distinct sutures dividing it into a large quadrate central area, plus an anterior and two dorsolateral areas (fig. 39A)                                                                     .....6

 

6    Prosoma with two longitudinal spinal rows of long thick hairs (80-125 ΅m long) in addition to many long and short fine hairs (fig.39B )                                  .....Euthoracaphis heterotricha

-     Prosoma with all hairs fine, the longest of them 40-80 ΅m long (fig. 39C)                                                                                                                                .....Euthoracaphis umbellulariae

7    SIPH in form of small sclerotized rings. Wax glands evident. Hairs rather sparse and

      mainly short                                                                                                                         .....8

-     SIPH in form of broad hairy cones. Wax glands not evident. Hairs long and numerous

                                                                                                                                                   .....9

8    Wax pore plates on posterior abdomen mostly with circles of minute wax pores like small pearl necklaces, supplemented with fields of similar-sized ring-shaped elements; wax pore plate on ABD TERG 8 has entirely such circles of minute pores except for a narrow median zone with a few ring-shaped elements. R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs. Alata with 0-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                                              .....Machilaphis machili

-     Wax pore plates on posterior abdomen including that on ABD TERG 8 consisting entirely of ring-shaped elements. R IV+V with 3-4 accessory hairs. Alata with 7-11 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                                                                 .....Machilaphis pseudomachili

 

9    R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                                      .....Aiceona japonica

-      R IV+V longer than HT II                                                               .....Aiceona actinodaphne

 

Circaea                                                        Onagraceae

      Circaea alpina                       Ericaphis ?wakibae see aphidtrek.org

      Circaea sp.                                  Aphis fabae

 

Cirriphyllum                                                Brachythecaceae

      Cirriphyllum piliferum                Muscaphis escherichi

 

Cirsium                                                        Compositae

      Cirsium achantarense (?)           Aulacorthum cirsicola

       C. acarna = Picnomon acarna

      C. acaule                                     Aulacorthum solani; Protrama radicis;  Trama troglodytes

       C. afrum  = Ptilostemon afer

       C. alatum                                    Aphis fabae, solanella; Dysaphis radicivorans

       C. altissimum                              Aphis asclepiadis, fabae; Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. americanum  = C. scariosum var. americanum

       C. aomorense                              Capitophorus cirsiiphagus, elaeagni

       C. argyracanthum                      Uroleucon kumaoni

       C. arvense                                   Aphis [acanthoidis], [euonymi of Bozhko (1976a) =

                                                                solanella?], [fabae],  fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis,

                                                                gossypii, janischi, nasturtii, solanella                                                                                           Aulacorthum solani; Bipersona ochrocentri, torticauda;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, cardui ssp. turanica, helichrysi;

                                                            Capitophorus carduinus, elaeagni, gynoxanthus, [horni];

                                                            Chitinosiphum cirsorhizum;

                                                            Dysaphis atina, lappae ssp. cirsii, radicivorans;

                                                            Hyperomyzus lactucae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus cymbalariae, persicae; [Nasonovia ribisnigri];

                                                            Protaphis ancathiae, anuraphoides, terricola, turanica,

                                                                 [Aphis (Protaphis) sp.- Holman and Pintera, 1981)];

                                                            Protrama [flavescens], radicis; Smynthurodes betae

                                                            Trama [mordvilkoi Bφrner 1940], [caudata], troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon aeneum, cephalonopli, cirsicola, cirsii, gobonis,

                                                                jaceae, [ jaceae ssp. henrichi], [nigrotuberculatum], 

                                                               pepperi, [rudbeckiae], [sonchi];

                                                            [Xerobion compositae]

       C. brevistylum                             Capitophorus elaeagni; Uroleucon cirsii

       C. buergeri                                  Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. candelabrum                          Aphis fabae group

       C. canescens                               Bipersona torticauda

       C. canum                                    Aphis cirsiioleracei, fabae; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Uroleucon cirsii

       C. caput-medusae                       Brachycaudus cardui

       C. carniolicum                            Aphis fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis

       C. caucasicum                            Aphis fabae group; Brachycaudus cardui

       C. cephalotes                               Brachycaudus cardui

       C. ciliatum                                   Aphis fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis

       C. coloradense = S. scariosum var. coloradense

       C. coryletorum                            Aphis cirsiphila, fabae group; Uroleucon cephalonopli

       C. costaricense                            Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. creticum                                  Aphis fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus bulgaricus;

                                                            Uroleucon aeneum, cirsii

       C. desertorum = C. alatum

       C. dipsacolepis                            [Aphis horii? doubtful record – see Takahashi (1966)]

       C. discolor                                   Aphis fabae group; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. dissectum                                Aphis fabae group; Uroleucon cirsii, jaceae

       C. ducellieri                                 Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. eatonii var. eriocephalum      Aphis asclepiadis; Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. echinus                                   Brachycaudus cardui

       C. edule                                       Brachycaudus cardui; Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. elodes (or alatum?)                    [Aphis viridescens Bozhko = cirsiioleracei?];

                                                            Protaphis anuraphoides; Uroleucon jaceae

       C. engelmannii                           Bipersona torticauda; Uroleucon longirostre

       C. eriophorum                            Aphis fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Dysaphis lappae ssp. cirsii

       C. erisithales                                Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Capitophoris elaeagni, [gynoxantha];

                                                            Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon macrosiphon

       C. esculentum                             Uroleucon cirsii

       C. falconeri                                 [Capitophorus gynoxanthus]

       C. filipendulum = C. engelmannii

       C. flavispina = C. pyrenaicum

       C. flodmanii                                Bipersona torticauda; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. foliosum                                  Aphis fabae

       C. furiens                                    Capitophorus bulgaricus

       C. glabrifolium                            Brachycaudus cardui ssp. turanica; Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. glabrum                                  Aphis solanella

       C. helenioides                              Acyrthosiphon malvae;

               (incl. heterophyllum)                   Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Capitophorus carduinus, elaeagni, [gynoxanthus];

                                                            Dysaphis lappae ssp. cirsii;

                                                            Uroleucon cirsii, jaceae, [sonchi]

       C. heterophyllum see helenioides

       C. horridulum (incl. var.               Capitophorus elaeagni

                                     vittatum)

       C. horridum Fisch. = C. caucasicum                                          

       C. incanum  = C. arvense

       C. italicum                                   Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi                                          

       C. japonicum                              Aulacorthum cirsicola, vandenboschi;

                                                            Capitophorus cirsiiphagus, elaeagni, [evelaeagni],

                                                                montanus;

                                                            [Macrosiphum naazamiae Shinji];

                                                            [Micromyzodium nipponicum];

                                                            Uroleucon cephalonopli, [formosanum], giganteum,

                                                                 gobonis, [rudbeckiae]

       C. japonicum var. maackii         Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum cirsicola;

                                                            Capitophorus cirsiiphagus, elaeagni, montanus;

                                                            Chitinosiphum cirsorhizum;

                                                            Uroleucon cephalonopli, giganteum, gobonis, [lactucicola]

       C. japonicum var. ussuriense = C. japonicum var. maackii

       C. kamtschaticum                       Aphis fabae group; Aulacorthum cirsicola, solani;

                                                            Capitophorus elaeagni; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Uroleucon cephalonopli, giganteum

       C. kawakamii                              Uroleucon gobonis

       C. lanceolatum  = C. vulgare

       C. laniflorum                              Brachycaudus cardui; Uroleucon cirsicola

       C. leucanthum = C. maritimum

       C. maackii = C. japonicum var. maackii                                       

       C. maritimum                             Uroleucon cephalonopli, gobonis

       C. megacephalum see C. undulatum

       C. mexicanum                            Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Capitophorus carduinus, elaeagni; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae

       C. monspessulanum                   Aphis fabae group

       C. montanum                              Brachycaudus cardui

       C. morisianum                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus bulgaricus

       C. muticum                                 Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Uroleucon pepperi, jaceae

       C. myrianthum                           Brachycaudus cardui

       C. neomexicanum                      Bipersona torticauda

       C. nipponicum                            Aulacorthum cirsicola; Capitophorus cirsiiphagus

                 (incl. var. incomtum)

       C. nuttallii                                   Capitophorus elaeagni

       C. obvallatum                              Aphis fabae group; Brachycaudus cardui

       C. occidentalis = Carduus occidentalis                                        

       C. ochrocentrum                         Bipersona ochrocentri

       C. odontolepis                             Brachycaudus cardui

       C. oleraceum                               Aphis cirsiioleracei, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis, janischi;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Capitophorus horni; Dysaphis lappae ssp. cirsii;

                                                            Pemphigus bursarius; Protrama radicis;

                                                            Uroleucon cirsii, jaceae, [sonchi]

       C. palustre                                   Aphis cirsiioleracei, fabae;  Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Capitophorus carduinus, horni; Protrama radicis;

                                                            Trama troglodytes; Uroleucon aeneum, cirsii , jaceae

       C. pannonicum                           Aphis cirsiioleracei, fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis;

                                                           Brachycaudus cardui; Protrama radicis; Uroleucon cirsii

       C. pauciflorum = C. waldsteini     

       C. pendulum                               Aphis fabae, Aulacorthum cirsicola;

                                                            Chitinosiphum cirsorhizum; Uroleucon cephalonopli

       C. purpuratum                            Capitophorus cirsiiphagus

       C. pyrenaicum                            Aphis fabae group

       C. rhizocephalum                       Brachycaudus cardui

       C. rivulare                                   Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthiodis;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui; Uroleucon aeneum

       C. scariosum (incl. vars                 Aphis fabae group; Bipersona torticauda

                americanum, coloradense)

       C. schantarense                          Aulacorthum cirsicola; Capitophorus cirsiiphagus;

                                                            Uroleucon cephalonopli

       C. scopulorum = C. eatonii var. eriocephalum

       C. segetum = Breea segeta            

       C. serratuloides                           Aphis janischi

       C. setidens                                   Uroleucon cephalonopli

       C. setigerum = C. alatum              

       C. setosum                                   Aphis fabae group, gossypii, solanella;

                                                            Capitophorus elaeagni; Chitinosiphum cirsorhizum;

                                                            Uroleucon cephalonopli, gobonis, jaceae ssp. henrichi       

       C. siculum  = Galactites tomentosa

       C. sieversii = C. straminispinum      

       C. smallii = C. horridulum var. vittatum

       C. spicatum                                 Aulacorthum cirsicola

       C. spinosissimum                        Brachycaudus cardui; Capitophorus horni;

                                                            [Uroleucon sonchi]

       C. straminispinum                      Aphis fabae, solanella; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Protaphis anuraphoides, turanica; Uroleucon cirsii

       C. svaneticum                             Aphis fabae group

       C. syriacus                                   Aphis fabae group; Capitophorus elaeagni;

                                                            [Dysaphis lappae ssp. cynarae]

       C. tanakae = C. nipponicum var. incomtum

       C. tuberosum                              Aphis fabae group; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       C. turkestanicum                        Aphis cirsiioleracei; Brachycaudus cardui ssp. turanica

       C. undulatum                              Aphis asclepiadis; Bipersona torticauda;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui; [Protaphis middletonii]

       C. verutum                                  Hyperomyzus lactucae

       C. vlassovianum                          Uroleucon cephalonopli

       C. vulgare (incl. lanceolatum)         Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis,

                                                               gossypii, solanella;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Artemisaphis artemisicola];

                                                            Bipersona ochrocentri;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, cardui ssp. turanica, helichrysi;

                                                            Capitophorus bulgaricus, carduinus, elaeagni,

                                                                gynoxanthus, horni;

                                                            Dysaphis lappae ssp. cirsii;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Protaphis [carthami?], terricola;

                                                            Trama troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon aeneum, cichorii, cirsicola, cirsii, compositae,

                                                                 jaceae

       C. waldsteinii                               Brachycaudus cardui; Hyperomyzus lactucae

               (incl. pauciflorum)

       C. wallichii                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae group;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Capitophorus carduinus, elaeagni;

                                                            Dysaphis atina, microsiphon

       C. weyrichii                                 Aphis fabae group; Uroleucon cephalonopli, giganteum

       Cirsium spp.                               Aphis pilosicauda, [Aphis (Protaphis) sp. (Mier Durante

                                                               1978)];

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui ssp. turanica, lateralis;

                                                            [Capitophorus similis]; [Cavariella salicicola];

                                                            Eotrama moerickei; [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1964: 96)];

                                                            [Uroleucon sonchi spp. stepposa]

Key to apterae on Cirsium (also Cnicus):-

1     ANT PT/BASE 0.1-0.7. SIPH absent or as pores on flat cones. Cauda broadly rounded, not evident                                                                                                                                .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.8 or more. SIPH conical or tubular, usually longer than basal width. Cauda various, usually evident                                                                                                     ......5

2     HT II very elongate, at least 0.5 Χ length of hind tibia, and fused to HT I                      …..3

-      HT II much less than 0.5 Χ length of hind tibia and separate from HT I                          …..4

3     SIPH completely absent. Head and appendages pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 0.16-0.24

                                                                                                                       …..Trama troglodytes

-      SIPH present as pores on flat, pigmented cones. Head and appendages dark. ANT PT/BASE 0.33-0.69                                                                                                  …..Protrama radicis

4     SIPH absent. ANT PT/BASE 0.12-0.32 …..use key to polyphagous aphids, couplets 2 and 3

-      SIPH present as pores. ANT PT/BASE 0.44-0.57                                …..Eotrama moerickei

5     Long, thick capitate dorsal hairs present at least on head and posterior abdomen. SIPH slender, about as thick as hind tibiae at midlength                                                            …..6

-      Dorsal hairs not thick and distinctly capitate; if conspicuous, long and slightly expanded apically then SIPH are much thicker than hind tibiae at midlength                                …..12

6     Spinal hairs duplicated (e.g. Fig.22a), so that on each of ABD TERG 1-5 there are 4 spinal hairs, 2-4 pleural hairs and 4-6 marginal hairs (the longest similar in length to those on ABD TERG 6-8)                                                                                                                        …..7

-      Spinal hairs not duplicated (e.g. Fig.22b); on each of ABD TERG 1-5 there are at most 2 spinal hairs, 2 pleural hairs and 2-4 marginal hairs (sometimes much shorter than those on ABD TERG 6-8)                                                                                                                                    …..9

7     R IV+V 1.7-2.3 Χ HT II. Pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 often duplicated

                                                                                                            …..Capitophorus bulgaricus

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II. Pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 not duplicated, except in some large individuals                                                                                                                …..8

8     R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II (mostly 1.1-1.25 X), and 0.8-1.2 Χ ANT BASE VI. SIPH 1.4-1.9 Χ ANT III                                                                                               …..Capitophorus horni

-      R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II, and 1.0-1.45 Χ ANT BASE VI (mostly 1.2-1.4 X). SIPH 1.6-2.2 Χ ANT III                                                                                    …..Capitophorus gynoxanthus

9     R IV+V 1.15-1.7 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                                …..10

-      R IV+V 0.7-1.1 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                                  …..11

10  Cauda 1.1-1.5 Χ R IV+V, and bearing 5-8 hairs. ANT PT 3.1-4.4 Χ R IV+V, and ANT PT/BASE 4.6-6.3. SIPH without dark apices                               …..Capitophorus carduinus

-      Cauda 1.4-2.3 Χ R IV+V, and bearing 7-13 hairs. ANT PT 4.5-6.3 Χ R IV+V, and ANT PT/BASE 6.0-9.2. SIPH with dark apices                                      …..Capitophorus elaeagni

11   ANT PT/BASE less than 6. ABD TERG 6 with 1 pair of minute spinal hairs, and ABD TERG 7 with 1 pair of thick capitate spinal hairs (and 0-2 much smaller pleural ones) (Fig. 22c)                                                                                               …..Capitophorus montanus

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 6.5. ABD TERG 6 with 1-2 pairs of thick capitate hairs, and ABD TERG 7 with 2 pairs of thick capitate spinal hairs (Fig.22d)

                                                                                                          …..Capitophorus cirsiiphagus

12   SIPH with a zone of polygonal reticulation occupying subapical 0.15-0.4 of length     …..13

-      SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation, sometimes with 1-3 rows of closed cells occupying less than 0.1 of length                                                                                    …..28

13   Cauda broad at base, tapering to a very thin distal section that has a twisted appearance. Anal plate extended below cauda, and ending in a rounded protruberance (Fig.22e)   …..14

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped. Anal plate not extended                                             …..15

14   Hairs on ANT III and dorsum of head less than 0.5 Χ BD III        …..Bipersona ochrocentri

-      Hairs on ANT III and dorsum of head more than 0.5 Χ BD III       …..Bipersona torticauda

15   Cauda dark                                                                                                                      …..16

-      Cauda pale or dusky                                                                                                        …..21

16   R IV+V 0.22-0.30 mm long. Cauda with 16-55 hairs (usually more than 20)                …..17

-      R IV+V 0.17-0.22 mm long. Cauda with 10-26 hairs (usually less than 20)                  …..19

17   Tibiae wholly dark. Cauda with more than 40 hairs                         …..Uroleucon giganteum

-      Tibiae with paler middle section. Cauda with 16-34 hairs                                              …..18

18   ANT III with rhinaria extending over 0.5-0.8 of length. Hind femur dark on distal 0.65-0.75 of length. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.33. R IV+V 1.4-1.62 Χ HT II

                                                                                                             …..Uroleucon cephalonopli

-      ANT III with rhinaria extending over 0.37-0.52 of length. Hind femur dark on distal 0.4-0.5. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.15-0.20. R IV+V 1.20-1.35 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                     …..Uroleucon aeneum

19   ANT III with rhinaria extending over 0.68-0.95 of length. Hind femur dark on distal 0.6-0.75 of length                                                                      …..Uroleucon gobonis (or compositae)

-      ANT III with rhinaria extending over 0.45-0.7 of length. Hind femur dark on distal 0.4-0.55 of length                                                                                                                          …..20

20   R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II, which is more than 0.20 mm long        …..Uroleucon macrosiphon

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.35 Χ HT II, which is less than 0.19 mm long                  …..Uroleucon jaceae

21   Hairs on cauda all pointed and of similar length                                                             …..22

-      Distal hairs on cauda clearly shorter (and often blunter) than more proximal hairs        …..26

22   SIPH 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.45 of length          …..23

-      SIPH 1.6-2.2 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on less than distal 0.25 of length    …..24

23   R IV+V less than 0.19 mm long. Cauda with 12-27 hairs. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.36 of length                                                             …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-      R IV+V more than 0.20 mm long. Cauda with 23-39 hairs. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.36-0.45 of length                                                                 …..Uroleucon pepperi

24   SIPH pale. Cauda with 8-12 hairs                                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH dark.  Cauda with more than 20 hairs                                                                   …..25

25   Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH 0.25-0.34 Χ BL. Cauda with

       20-33 hairs                                                                                                 …..Uroleucon cirsii

-      No antesiphuncular sclerites. SIPH 0.32-0.42 Χ BL. Cauda with 30-45 hairs

                                                                                                                    …..Uroleucon cirsicola

26   SIPH wholly dark. Dorsal hairs with basal dark scleroites. ANT III with 39-49 rhinaria

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon kumaoni*

-      SIPH pale at least basally.  Dorsal hairs not arising from dark scleroites. ANT III with 5-24 rhinaria                                                                                                                             …..27

27   R IV+V c.2 Χ HT II                                                                         …..Uroleucon longirostre

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II                                                               …..Uroleucon erigeronense

28   Head spiculose                                                                                                                 …..29

-      Head without spicules                                                                                                     …..35

29   ANT tubercles rather low with inner faces divergent. SIPH 2.7-3.6 Χ cauda. ANT III with

       3-16 secondary rhinaria                                                             .....Chitinosiphum cirsorhizum

-      ANT tubercles well developed with steep-sided, almost parallel or apically convergent inner faces. SIPH less than 2.6 Χ cauda, or if more then clavate. ANT III with or without secondary rhinaria                                                                                                            …..30

30   SIPH slightly to moderately clavate                                                                                …..31

-      SIPH cylindrical/tapering                                                                                                …..33

31   SIPH as long as or longer than ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 (-1.2) Χ HT II …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH much shorter than ANT III. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II                                          …..32

32   SIPH with a narrow basal stem, its narrowest part thinner than, or as thin as, hind tibia at mid-length. R IV+V with 7-15 accessory hairs. ANT tubercles with inner faces almost parallel. Tergum not rugose                                                                                 …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      SIPH thicker on basal half, its narrowest part thicker than hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V with less than 7 accessory hairs. ANT tubercles apically convergent. Tergum very rugose

                                                                                                                     …..Myzus cymbalariae

33   ANT, SIPH and femora mainly black                                      …..Aulacorthum vandenboschi

-      ANT segments, SIPH and femora mainly pale, darker at apices                                    …..34

34   Head uniformly spiculose both dorsally and ventrally. Hind tibiae 0.6-0.8 Χ BL. SIPH

       2.0-2.6 Χ cauda. ANT III with (0-) 1-3 (-4) rhinaria near base. BL 1.8-3.0 mm

                                                                                                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

-      Head smooth dorsally and with spiculose areas between ANT tubercles and clypeus ventrally. Hind tibiae 0.9-1.5 Χ BL. SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda. ANT III with 3-12 rhinaria on basal half. BL 3.0-4.1 mm                                                                …..Aulacorthum cirsicola

35   ANT tubercles well developed, with divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1-36 rhinaria .....36

-      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ANT III usually without rhinaria              .....38

36   SIPH markedly clavate. Dorsum pale. ANT PT/BASE 4.6-8. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical. R IV+V 1.0-1.6 Χ HT II                                                       …..37

37   Dorsum usually with dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 8-11. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal spiracles                                                 …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Dorsum usually without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 4.4-7.5. Thoracic and abdominal spiracles similar in size                                                    …..Acyrthosiphon malvae

38   Cauda shorter than its basal width, rounded or helmet-shaped, with 5-8 hairs. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent from ABD TERG 1 and 7, or only present if there are spinal tubercles (STu) and MTu on other segments                                                                   …..39

-      Cauda tongue-shaped or bluntly triangular, shorter or longer than its basal width, but if shorter then it bears more than 10 hairs. MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and sometimes on other segments, but STu never present                                                     …..45

39   Paired STu present, at least on head, and often on ABD TERG 8 or 7-8. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                                                                           …..40

-      STu absent from head, and rarely on ABD TERG 8. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                                                                          …..43

40   SIPH shorter than cauda. Paired STu only present on head            …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-      SIPH longer than cauda. Paired STu present at least on head and ABD TERG 8         …..41

41   STu usually only on head and ABD TERG 8, with occasionally 1 on ABD TERG 7. MTu on ABD TERG 1-5 rather small, not much larger than spiracular apertures on those segments. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.2 Χ BD III                                                …..Dysaphis atina

-      Paired STu consistently present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8, and also on several other segments. Large MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5 or 1-7. Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III                                                                                                                      …..42

42   Longest hairs on head about equal in length to ANT BD III. Dorsal abdominal hairs 0.5-0.6 Χ BD III. Cauda with 4 hairs                                                            …..Dysaphis radicivorans*

-      Longest hairs on head and dorsal abdomen shorter than 0.5 Χ ANT BD III. Cauda with 5-7

       hairs                                                                                         …..Dysaphis lappae sspp. cirsii

43   Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH pale, smooth-surfaced, 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II                                                    …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II                                                                                        …..44

44    Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25΅m long

                                                                                                                .....Brachycaudus lateralis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25΅m long                                                                     .....Brachycaudus cardui (incl. ssp. turanica)

45   ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.2. SIPH short, 0.7-1.2 Χ the short blunt triangular cauda            …..46

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-4.0. SIPH 0.8-2.5 Χ cauda, if 0.8-1.2 Χ then cauda is tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width                                                                                   …..47

46   Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 1.2-1.3 Χ ANT BD III. SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda, and with a distinct flange. R IV+V 1.45-1.65 Χ HT II                                …..Protaphis anuraphoides

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 0.3-0.9 Χ ANT BD III. SIPH 0.67-0.92 Χ cauda, with a weak flange . R IV+V 1.2-1.4 (-1.5) Χ HT II

…...Protaphis terricola group (incl. ancathiae and turanica)

47    Cauda with 4-9 hairs (usually 5-7)                                                                                 …..48

-      Cauda with 7-27 hairs (usually 8-24)                                                                             …..51

48    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black patch                              …..Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark markings                                                         …..49

49    Semi-globular MTu consistently present on all or most of ABD TERG 2-6 as well as

        1 and 7                                                                                                        …..Aphis cirsiphila

-      MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-6, or irregularly present, and then conical or papilliform

                                                                                                                                                …..50

50    ANT 5-segmented (in both apt. and al.). SIPH and cauda both black. ABD TERG 2-4 with

        sporadically occurring MTu (mean total 1.7)                                        …..Aphis cirsiioleracei

-      ANT 6-segmented (except in summer dwarf apt.). SIPH distinctly darker than cauda. ABD TERG 2-4 very rarely with any MTu                                                           …..Aphis gossypii

51    Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. Cauda short, only about as long as its basal width, with 16-20 long, curved hairs                                                      …..Aphis pilosicauda

-      Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III. Cauda much longer than its basal width, with 7- 27 hairs                                                                                                               …..52

52    ABD TERG 8 with 6-11 hairs (fewer in hot-weather dwarfs). ANT III (1.6-) 2.0-4.0 (-5.0) Χ R IV+V. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). Cauda with 7-12 hairs. (Al. with 14-40 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                …..Aphis asclepiadis

-      ABD TERG 8 with 2-7 hairs. ANT III 1.3-2.6 (-3.0) Χ R IV+V. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). Cauda with 7-27 hairs. (Al. with 4-23 rhinaria on ANT III)                                 …..53

53    Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda bearing 7-15 (usually 9-11) hairs, and usually with a distinct midway constriction                                             …..Aphis spiraecola

-      Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and some small dark markings anterior to SIPH. Cauda bearing 11-24 hairs, and without a constriction      …..54 

54    SIPH more than 6.5 Χ longer than marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3, which are 12-49 μm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.5 Χ BD III                                      …..Aphis solanella

-     SIPH less than 6.5 Χ longer than marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3, which are 50-85 μm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.3-3.5 Χ BD III 

       ….. Aphis fabae group (incl. A. fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis, A. janischi)

 

Cissampelos                                                 Menispermaceae

      Cissampelos capensis                    Aphis gossypii

        C. mucronata                                Aphis gossypii

        C. pareira                                      Aphis aurantii, gossypii; [Myzus formosanus]

Use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Cissus                                                           Vitaceae

      Cissus ampelopsis = Ampelopsis cordata

        C. arborea                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        C. erosa                                 Aphis gossypii

        C. grisebachii = Cissus microcarpa

        C. japonica = Cayratia japonica

        C. microcarpa                               Aphis illinoisensis

        C. sicyoides = Cissus verticillata

        C. verticillata                                 Aphis aurantii, illinoisensis, spiraecola;

                                                               Macrosiphum cuscutae; Myzus persicae

        C. welwitschii                                Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

        Cissus spp.                                    Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae; Sitobion cissi

Key to apterae on Cissus:-

1      Hind tibiae entirely black                                                                                                  …..2

-      Hind tibiae pale, or at least with pale middle section                                                       …..3

2      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles well-developed, divergent. ANT 1.4-1.7 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 5.5-6.8                  …..Macrosiphum cuscutae

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT 0.7-0.9 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 3.1-4.0                                                                    …..Aphis illinoisensis

3      SIPH dark with subapical polygonal reticulation, Cauda pale. ANT III with 1-6 rhinaria near base, and with hairs all very short, less than 0.5 Χ BD III                             …..Sitobion cissi

-      Without this combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Cistus                     Rock-Roses                   Cistaceae

       Cistus albidus                                [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a, 99]

       C. algarvensis                                Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. clusii                                          [Roepkea marchali]

       C. Χ corbariensis