THE APHIDS

 

 

         SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA

        (in alphabetical order)

 

 

V

 

Vesiculaphis

Viburnaphis

Vietaphis

Viteus

Volutaphis

 

 

Vesiculaphis Del Guercio

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

About 12 palaearctic species associated with Ericaceae and/or Cyperaceae, characterised by apterae having the front of the head projected forward above and in front of the antennal bases, either as a ledge or as three lobes. Miyazaki (1980a) reviewed this genus. M.R. Ghosh et al. (1976) reviewed the Indian species, and Fang et al. (2008)  reviewed and redescribed two species found in China.

Vesiculaphis angusticeps Miyazaki    Apterae are elongate oval, pale yellow to dull yellowish brown, sometimes with a green tint; BL 1.7-2.2 mm. On undersides of leaves of  Carex spp. in Japan. Alatae and other morphs unknown.

Vesiculaphis caerulea Miyazaki    Apterae are flattened, oval, light green with dark blue head and thorax; BL 1.15-1.25 mm. On undersides of leaves of  Carex spp. in Japan. Alatae are undescribed. 2n=6.

Vesiculaphis caricis (Fullaway)  Plate 20f  (Fig.18b,d)   Apterae (fundatrices) on Rhododendron spp. yellowish green with a brownish tinge, or dark reddish brown, with dark siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.6-2.0 mm. Heteroecious holocyclic, migrating to various Cyperus spp. and Kyllinga brevifolia in Japan (where it is an important pest of “Sichito” sedge, C. monophyllus; Miyazaki 1980a), Korea (Lee et al. 2002c), China (Fang et al. 2008) and east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a). Originally described from Carex sp. in Hawaii, where apterae were brownish yellow, with concolorous antennae, legs and siphunculi and a darker cauda (BL c.1.5 mm). Also recorded from Cyperus rotundus in Taiwan and West Bengal, from Rhododendron (azaleas) in USA (California, North Carolina, New Jersey, Virginia), and there are trapped alatae in the BMNH collection from New Guinea, Philippines, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

Vesiculaphis cephalata Miyazaki    Apterae on Carex are flattened, elongate oval, dull yellow; BL 2.0-2.3 mm. On undersides of leaves of Carex spp. in Japan. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 26-35, IV 5-14, V 0-7. Heteroecious holocyclic; the primary host forms on Rhododendron spp. are recorded from east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a). 2n=20.

Vesiculaphis grandis A.N. Basu    Apterae are dark brownish; BL 3.6-4.7 mm. Alatae have dark dorsal spots. On young stems and lower parts of petioles of unnamed Rhododendron spp. in West Bengal, India. Apparently this species does not host-alternate.

Vesiculaphis kongoensis Takahashi    Apterae are unknown, alatae are yellow; BL of alata 1.7-2.0 mm. On Rhododendron reticulatum in Japan (Miyazaki 1980a), and also on Rh. dauricum and Rh. mucronulatum in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a). Related to V. caricis, and probably also with host alteration to Cyperaceae.

Vesiculaphis nubilimaculata Miyazaki    Apterae are dark brown, BL 1.36-1.6 mm. On undersides of leaves of Carex sp. in Japan. Alatae and other morphs are unknown.

Vesiculaphis pieridis A.N. Basu    Apterae are yellowish brown, BL 1.7-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 44-49, IV 6-7, V 0-1. On undersides of leaves of Lyonia (=Pieris) ovalifolia in India (Assam, West Bengal). Viviparae as well as oviparae have been found in winter (original description, and Agarwala & Mahapatra 1990), and there are alate males in the BMNH collection (leg. S.K. Mahapatra, Darjeeling, 1986; month of collection unknown). [Apterae, alatae and immature stages identified as this species have been redescribed from China (Sichuan province; Fang et al. 2008) on Cerasus duclouxii (= yunnanensis); the anomalous host association needs confirmation, and although very similar in most respects to Indian specimens, apterae of the Chinese aphid have longer, 6-segmented antennae with a longer processus terminalis.]

Vesiculaphis polygonii Bhattacharya & Dey   Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL c.1.6-1.7 mm. Alatae are undescribed. Collected from Polygonum alatum in Uttar Pradesh, India (Bhattacharya & Dey 2001). This species is misplaced in Vesiculaphis and is almost certainly a Myzakkaia, possibly a synonym of Myzakkaia verbasci.

Vesiculaphis pruni Chakrabarti & Medda   Appearance in life is not recorded; apterae are broadly oval, sclerotized, BL 1.7-2.1 mm. Collected in May on Prunus cornuta in Uttar Pradesh, India (Chakrabarti & Medda 1989). Other morphs and biology are unknown.

Vesiculaphis rhododendri A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri    Colour of apterae in life is not recorded; BL 1.9-2.1 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Rhododendron sp. in India (Assam, Meghalaya). The life cycle is unknown; viviparae were collected in February (original description), indicating anholocycly.

Vesiculaphis rotunda Miyazaki    Apterae are broadly oval, pale green with extensive blackish brown to black sclerotisation of dorsum; BL. 1.2-1.4 mm. Living solitarily on undersides of leaves of Carex siderosticta in Japan.  Alatae and life cycle are unknown.

Vesiculaphis sikkimensis Mandal, Agarwala & Raychaudhuri    Apterae are brownish, BL 1.2-1.6 mm. Alatae have 15-17 rhinaria distributed along the length of ANT III. In inflorescences of Carexfilicosa” (error for filicina?) in Sikkim, India (Mandal et al. 1979). The life cycle is unknown. To judge from its description, this species clearly belongs in Carolinaia (Juncomyzus), and is closely related to C. scirpus.

Vesiculaphis theobaldi Takahashi  Plate 20g  (Fig.18c)   Apterae are variable in colour, yellowish green, pale to mid-green or brownish green to almost black; BL 1.7-2.1 mm. . Alatae have secondary rhinaria distrubuted ANT III 20-35, IV 8-17, V 4-11. On undersides of leaves of Carex spp., visited by ants, mainly in shady and humid situations. Also recorded from Eriophorum vaginatum (BMNH collection, leg. R.N.B. Prior) and Scirpus maritimus (BMNH collection, leg. V.F. Eastop). Widely distributed in Europe, and eastward to west Siberia. Monoecious holocyclic on Carex, with alate males, but viviparous females may be found through the winter months in England (Wood-Baker 1957, 1958). 2n=36*, 38* (samples from UK anholocyclic(?) populations, and 40 (Netherlands, Gut 1976).

 

Viburnaphis Pashchenko

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

A genus for one east Asian species related to Sappaphis.

Viburnaphis viburnicola (Sorin)    Apterae (fundatrices) are bluish green, dusted with wax powder; BL 2.3-2.7 mm. On young leaves of Viburnum spp. in spring, crumpling and discolouring leaves. In Japan and east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988c, as V. pseudosensoriata). Heteroecious holocyclic, migrating in the second generation to an unknown secondary host. Oviparae and alate males were collected on V. sielboldii in early December (original description, as Sappaphis).

 

Vietaphis Su, Jiang & Qiao

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

A genus for one fern-feeding species in China, possibly related to Macromyzella but with low antennal tubercles, a non-spiculose head and siphunculi without subapical reticulation.

Vietaphis aliquanti Su, Jiang & Qiao   Apterae yellowish green with dark antennal segments III-VI, pale legs and pale, dark-tipped siphunculi; BL 1.2-1.4 mm. On Plagiogyria japonica, forming loose colonies on undersides of fronds, in Guizhou province, China (Su et al. 2014). Alatae (with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 33-37, IV 13, V 2-6) were collected in June. Life cycle is unknown.

 

 

Viteus Shimer  see  Daktulosphaira Shimer

 

 

Volutaphis Börner

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Four western palaearctic species associated with Silene, closely related to Aphidura but without mesosternal tubercles, and apterae of three of the species have secondary rhinaria on the distal part of ANT III, or III and IV. Kadyrbekov (2007) provided a key to the apterae of all four species.

Volutaphis alpinae Prior    Apterae are pale yellow green powdered with white wax; BL 1.9-3.0 mm. On Silene alpina, distorting and discolouring apical parts of plant. In Austria. Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males (original description).

Volutaphis centaureae (Börner)    Apterae are pale green; BL c.1.7-1.8 mm. Described originally from Centaurea, but the true hosts are Caryophyllaceae (Lychnis, Silene, Viscaria), where it feeds on lower and rosette leaves which are turned upwards and discoloured. In Europe (France, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, Ukraine, east Kazakhstan).

Volutaphis karatavica Kadyrbekov    Apterae are yellowish green, with reddish eyes; BL 2.1-2.3 mm. Described from flowers and flower stalks of a plant identified as ?Barbarea arcuata, but probably this was mislabelled (Kadyrbekov 2007), with the true host being a species of Silene (Kadyrbekov 2014f). In southern Kazakhstan (west Tien Shan).

Volutaphis schusteri (Börner)  Plate 11h   Apterae are yellowish to yellow-green; BL 1.7-2.4 mm. On Silene spp. (latifolia, multiflora), causing yellowing of leaf veins. Widely distributed in continental Europe, and in Turkey, south-west Siberia and Kazakhstan. Monoecious holocyclic, but the male is apparently undescribed (Hille Ris Lambers 1947a, as Silenobium).