THE APHIDS

 

 

         SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA

        (in alphabetical order)

 

 

Q

 

Quadrartus

Quednaucallis

Quernaphis

 

 

Quadrartus Monzen

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

Two species in Japan on Quercus spp., one of them migrating from galls on Distylium. Apterae on Quercus have the dorsal cuticle subdivided into ornamented plates, lateral outgrowths of the venter, and greatly reduced antennae and tarsi (fig. 91I, as Atarsaphis) . Alatae have 4-segmented antennae. Sorin (2001) reviewed the genus.

Quadrartus agrifoliae (Ferris)   Anholocyclic, feeding throughout the year on young branches and along petioles and mid-ribs of evergreen oak leaves (Takahashi 1958b, as Atarsaphis quercus).  Apterae in life are dark purplish brown; BL c. 0.6 mm. Developmental stages were fully described by Sorin (1961).  Apparently no alate morphs or sexuales are ever produced.  Q. agrifoliae is only found on Quercus phylliraeoides in Japan, where it is presumably native, but it is also recorded, and was first described, from California USA, on Q. agrifolia (Hille Ris Lambers 1966a). Sorin (2001) synonymised Atarsaphis with Quadrartus because of its affinity with the newly-discovered secondary host form of Q. yoshinomayai.

Quadrartus yoshinomayai Monzen   Galls on twigs of Distylium racemosum are closed, pouch-like, maximum diameter 2-4 cm, with numerous wart-like protruberances; greenish, becoming brown when mature, thick-walled, clothed with short hairs (Sorin 2001). The galls are initiated in early April by first-instar fundatrix nymphs that hatched from eggs in autumn and overwintered as nymphs, and they take a year to develop to maturity (Uematsu & Shibao 2013). Emigrant alatae emerge in April of the following year from holes at apices of protruberances, flying to Quercus acutissima, where their progeny feed along leaf mid-ribs and on young shoots (Monzen 1954, Takahashi 1962, Sorin 2001). The emigrant alatae have 4-segmented antennae with secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-27, IV 3-5, hyaline wings, yellowish green abdomen, and BL 1.6-2.0 mm. Sorin (1987) illustrated an embryo from an emigrant alata. Adult apterae on Quercus are yellowish brown to brown, secreting greyish needle-like wax; BL c. 0.7 mm. The return migration to Distylium probably takes place in July to October of the following year, after 4 generations on Quercus (Sorin 2001), so that the complete life cycle may take three years (Uematsu & Shibao 2013). Defense of the galls on Distylium by 1st instars was studied by Uematsu et al. (2007).

 

Quednaucallis Chakrabarti

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

One species on Dalbergia closely related to Tinocallis but without lateral displacement of spinal hairs on abdominal tergites 3 and 5. It was restored to full generic status by Quednau (2003).

Quednaucallis nigropunctata (Tao)  Alatae are yellowish-white with banded antennae and a dark spot at the base of the pterostigma; BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Described from an unidentified plant in China (Tao 1964); subsequently collected from Dalbergia hupeana (Zhang & Zhong 1980c, as Tinocallis dalbergiae). Some alatoid nymphs believed to be this species were collected from Phyllanthus in Bhutan (A.K. Ghosh 1976, as Sarucallis), but this is unlikely to be a true host. Sexual morphs and life cycle are unknown.

 

Quernaphis Takahashi

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

One or two oak-feeding species with small, flattened aptera having an oddly irregular shape.  Alatae of the type species have an unbranched media in the forewing and a hindwing without any oblique veins.

Quernaphis chui Zhang  Apterae are unknown. Alatae collected on an unidentified Quercus sp. in China are yellowish green, BL c. 1.3 mm, and differ from those of the type species in having the media of the forewing once-branched (G. Zhang et al. 1992b). The generic placement requires confirmation.

Quernaphis tuberculata (Takahashi)  (fig. 91J)   Apterae are yellow to white, not strongly sclerotised, very variable in shape with legs concealed beneath body; BL c. 0.5 mm.  On undersides of leaves of Quercus gilva, feeding along the veins, in Taiwan and Japan (Takahashi 1958a).  Alatae have dusky forewings, a pale greenish yellow abdomen and 4- or 5-segmented antennae with rhinaria distributed III 9-10, IV 2-4, V (if present) 2-3 (Takahashi 1933d).  Apparently entirely anholocyclic on Quercus, in both Taiwan and Japan.