SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA
(in alphabetical order)
About 45 species with enlarged spiracular
openings, cylindrical siphunculi, and apterae with sensoria on ANT III. About two‑thirds of the species are
nearctic; nearly half are associated with the related families Saxifragaceae
and Grossulariaceae, host‑alternating species having Ribes as primary hosts. The
Nasonovia (Aconitaphis) alativica Kadyrbekov (Fig.6g) Apterae are dingy green or pale brown, with
red eyes, antennae and legs dingy yellow with apices of segments dark brown,
siphunculi and cauda dark brown; BL 2.5-3.2 mm. On flowers and flower stems
of Aconitum spp., often forming
large colonies, in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) alpina (Gillette
& Palmer) Apterae are pale
green, sometimes with dark intersegmental markings; BL 2.1-2.5 mm. On
Orobanchaceae (Mimulus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis) in western
Nasonovia (Ranakimia) altaensis Stenseth Apterae are pale green; BL 2.4-2.9 mm.
Alatae have dusky to dark dorsal abdominal markings. On Thalictrum simplex ssp. boreale
(= rariflorum) in northern
Nasonovia (Kakimia) aquilegiae (Essig) Apterae are pale or with a dark dorsal
patch; BL 1.6-3.0 mm. On Aquilegia spp.,
widely distributed in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) arizonensis Heie Colour of apterae when alive is unknown,
immatures are dirty greenish; BL 1.9-2.4 mm. On an uncultivated Ribes sp. in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) borealis Heie Colour of apterae in life is unknown, probably
pale yellowish with antennae and tips of leg segments and siphunculi dark; BL
1.9-2.9 mm. On Heuchera richardsonii in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) brachycyclica Holman Apterae are bright green or pinkish, with
shining brown-black dorsal sclerotisation; BL 2.2-3.0 mm. Alatae are mainly
dark brown to black. On Ribes
Nasonovia (Kakimia) brevipes (Börner) Apterae are probably pale brown; BL c.1.8
mm. Börner (original description) believed that the host was Hieracium, which would be unusual for
a Kakimia, and requires
confirmation. We have included it in
the key to apterae on Saxifraga, as
this is a more likely host in the type locality (Heie 1979). Described
Nasonovia (Kakimia) carolinensis Heie Apterae are greenish, dirty yellow, or
slightly brownish; BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On Saxifraga
michauxii (now Spatularia michauxii)
Nasonovia (Kakimia) castelleiae (Sampson) Colour of apterae is unrecorded; BL
1.9-2.5 mm. On Castilleia spp. in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) collomiae Palmer Apterae are pale yellowish; BL 1.2-2.2 mm. On leaves of Collomia linearis in western USA (Colorado, Utah, Washington). Oviparae and alate males occur in October-November (Palmer 1952).
compositellae (Theobald) Apterae are shining black dorsally (see
influential points/Gallery); BL 1.6-2.5 (ssp. iberica 2.3-3.1) mm. On Hieracium
Nasonovia (Capitosiphon) crenicorna Smith and
Knowlton (Fig.30b) Apterae are light green with a faint dark
spinal stripe; BL 3.5-5.1 mm. On Geranium
richardsonii and G. viscosissimum in western
Nasonovia (Kakimia) cynosbati (Oestlund) Plate 21i Apterae are pale green, usually with dark
tips to antennal segments and siphunculi; BL 1.8-3.0 mm. Alatae have very
variable dorsal abdominal pigmentation; pale green or (esp. in more northerly
populations) with variably developed cross-bands or a Myzus-like patch. On wild and cultivated Ribes spp., and also recorded from Heuchera (Heie 1979, 1980a). Widely distributed in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) dasyphylli Stroyan Apterae are pale green to yellowish
green, sometimes tinged with red, and with a variably developed black dorsal
abdominal patch; BL 1.3-3.0 mm. On Crassulaceae (Sedum, Aichryson, Sempervivum) and Saxifragaceae (Saxifraga). In
Nasonovia (Kakimia) davidsoni Heie Apterae are dark reddish brown with
extensive dark dorsal sclerotisation and dark appendages; BL c.2.0-2.1 mm. On
flowerstalks of Heuchera spp. in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) dzhetisuensis Kadyrbekov
Apterae are green; BL c. 2.8-2.9 mm. On Polemonium caucasicum, feeding singly on stems, in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) grossa Heie Apterae have an extensive dark dorsal
abdominal patch and black siphunculi; BL 2.9-3.2 mm. On Ribes spp. in the
Nasonovia (Ranakimia) heiei Kadyrbekov Body colour of apterae is unrecorded but
probably dark, shiny, with red eyes, and appendages pale green darker at
apices; BL 1.8-2.9 mm. On Aquilegia spp.
Nasonovia (Kakimia) heucherae (Thomas) Apterae are tan to light brown with
variable dorsal sclerotisation, and appendages mainly dusky to dark brown; BL
1.8-2.4 mm. On Heuchera spp. in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) hottesi Heie Apterae are unknown; BL of alatae 2.5-3.2 mm. Only known from alatae collected from Polemonium sp. (probably the true host; Heie 1979) and Antirrhinum sp. In Illinois, USA.
Nasonovia (Kakimia) houghtonensis (Troop) Apterae are pale yellow-green to
straw-yellow; BL 1.5-2.9 mm. Alatae have a pale abdomen with no dorsal
markings. The species seems to be a complex of races or subspecies monoecious
holocyclic on Ribes spp. in
jammuensis Verma Apterae are pale brown with darker brown
head and thorax; BL 2.1-3.2 mm. On undersides of leaves of Delphinium spp. in north-west
Nasonovia (Kakimia) muesbecki Knowlton
& Allen Colour of apterae in
life is unknown, probably pale with dusky markings; BL 2.4-2.8 mm. On Ribes sanguineum in western
nivalis (Börner) Apterae are shining yellow-brown with
brown segmental markings or cross-bars; BL 1.7-2.3 mm. On Hieracium spp. in
(Börner) Apterae are shining green with a series
of paired dark dorsal markings to almost black (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.2-2.5 mm. On Hieracium spp. living in spring inside upwardly rolled leaves,
later moving onto stems and flowers (Hille Ris Lambers 1949). Throughout most
Nasonovia (Kakimia) polemonii (Gillette and Palmer) Apterae are pale to mid green, with distal parts of antennae and legs dark; BL 2.4-c.3.2 mm. On leaves and stems of Polemonium spp. in western USA (Colorado, Idaho, Utah). Apparently heteroecious, as Jensen has collected this species from Ribes sp(p). in Washington, Oregon and Arizona (aphidtrek.org).
Nasonovia (Ranakimia) purpurascens (Oestlund) Apterae are green, yellowish green or
pale olive-green; BL 2.2-3.3 mm. Alatae have the dorsal abdomen pale or with
indistinct markings. On Thalictrum spp.
Nasonovia (Ranakimia) ranunculi Heie Apterae are rather pale, colour unknown;
BL c. 2.8-2.9 mm. On Ranunculus sp.
Nasonovia (Kakimia) ribifolii (Davidson) Apterae are yellowish green with variable
dark markings; BL c. 2.0 mm. On Ribes spp.
ribisnigri (Mosley) Plate 21h Apterae are shiny pale green to
apple-green, sometimes reddish, with a dorsal pattern of dark brown markings
when on secondary hosts (see
1.3-2.7 mm. Alatae have a conspicuous pattern of black abdominal markings. In
small colonies at shoot tips and in curled young leaves of Ribes spp. in spring, migrating to
various plants in Compositae (Cichorium,
Crepis, Hieracium, Lactuca, Lampsana), Brassicaceae (Sinapis, Sisymbrium), Orobanchaceae (Euphrasia),
Plantaginaceae (Veronica) and
Solanaceae (Nicotiana, Petunia). It seems more able to
colonise plants with sticky hairs than most other aphids. In
rostrata David & Hameed Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded,
probably rather pale; BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Originally described (both apterae and
alatae) from Clerodendron infortunatum,
and there have been subsequent collections from Compositae/Asteraceae (Adenocaulon, Conyza)
and Acanthaceae (Strobilanthes).
Heie (1979) redescribed the aptera. On
Strobilanthes spp. the aphids
infest both undersides of leaves and inflorescences, and produce oviparae and
alate males in October (Saha & Chakrabarti 1988a), so these are probably
the true hosts. In northern
Nasonovia (Aconitaphis) salebrosa (Ivanoskaya) Apterae are shining pale green with dark
brown head, antennae, legs, cauda and dorsal markings, red eyes and pale
siphunculi; BL c. 3.7 mm. On Aconitum and
Delphinium spp. in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) sampsoni Heie Apterae are pale green, BL 1.8-2.5 mm.
Living between the flowers of Castilleia
spp. in western
Nasonovia (Ranakimia) saurotarbagataica Kadyrbekov Apterae are bright yellow; BL 2.0-2.5 mm.
Alatae are unknown. On flowers and flower stalks of Thalictrum spp. (collinum,
simplex) in east
Nasonovia (Kakimia) saxifragae (Doncaster
& Stroyan) Colour of apterae in
life is unknown, presumably often very dark dorsally, and with dark
appendages; BL c. 2.0-2.1. On Saxifraga
Nasonovia (Kakimia) smithi Heie Apterae are yellow tan, usually brownish
or greenish, with extensive dark dorsal sclerotisation and mainly dark
appendages; BL 1.3-2.5 mm. On Heuchera
villosa in western mountains of
Nasonovia (Kakimia) stroyani Heie Colour of apterae in life is unknown,
probably pale yellow or pale green with antennae dark distally, siphunculi
dusky-dark distally and cauda dusky-dark; BL 2.3-2.8 mm. Alatae have dark
cross-bands on the dorsal abdomen, fused into a patch on tergites 3-5. On
leaves and upper parts of stems of Tellima grandiflora and Boykinia occidentalis (= elata) in western
Nasonovia (Kakimia) takala (Hottes) Apterae are yellowish green; BL 2.3-2.9
mm. On leaves of Ipomopsis aggregata in western
Nasonovia (Kakimia) tiarellae Heie Apterae are unknown. BL of alatae is
1.7-2.4 mm. On Heuchera
Nasonovia (Kakimia) vannesii Stenseth Apterae are dark green; BL c. 3.0-3.1 mm.
Alatae have a black dorsal abdominal patch and cross-bands. On cultivated Ribes in
Nasonovia (Kakimia) vockerothi (Richards) Apterae are pale, colour not recorded; BL
2.1-2.7 mm. Alatae have dark dorsal cross-bands, partially fused. On Saxifraga tricuspidata in north-eastern
Nasonovia (Aconitaphis) wahinkae (Hottes) (Fig.6d,e,f) Apterae are shining green-bronze to dark
green or orange-yellow (see aphidtrek.org);
BL 2.3-3.6 mm. On Aconitum columbianum
and Delphinium occidentale in
werderi Lampel Colour of apterae in life is unknown, BL
2.3-2.4 mm. On Aquilegia alpina in
williamsi (Smith and Parron) Apterae are shining yellowish green to
amber-yellow (for photo see http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandnine/4641689281);
BL 1.5-2.3 mm. On undersides of leaves of Potentilla
spp., causing tight leaf-curl. In western
About 12 North American species having short siphunculi ornamented with closely-spaced rows of small spinules or nodules and a short, usually triangular, cauda. Probably most of them alternate between Pomoideae as primary hosts and Leguminosae or Orobanchaceae as secondary hosts, but host alternation has only been confirmed by experimental transfers for two species. Most species are poorly known; it is quite likely that those Nearctaphis species recorded from one species of primary host may also utilise other species or genera of Pomoideae. Hille Ris Lambers (1970a) revised the genus, and Robinson (1984) briefly reviewed the genus and provided a key to species.
& Palmer Apterae are pale; BL
1.4-1.7 mm. On roots of Potentilla
Nearctaphis bakeri (Cowen) Plate 9e (Fig.40i) Spring colonies infest tips of twigs, young leaves and blossom buds of woody Pomoideae in spring in North America (Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Pyrus). Apterae in spring populations are pale green to yellow green, sometimes pinkish anteriorly; BL 1.4-2.3 mm. Alatae have a black dorsal abdominal patch. Heteroecious holocyclic, producing abundant alatae in the third and subsequent generations which migrate to Leguminosae (e.g. Medicago, Melilotus, Trifolium, Trigonella), and sometimes on plants in other families (Capsella, Castilleja, Valeriana, Veronica). It is an important pest on Trifolium pratense (Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.311). Apterae on secondary hosts are dark green to salmon pink with variably developed dorsal dark spots or patches. Smith (1923) gave a detailed account of this species. Native to and widely distributed in North America, and introduced into Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, India and Japan. Introduced populations all seem to be anholocyclic on secondary hosts. 2n=12.
Nearctaphis californica Hille Ris Lambers Colour of apterae in life is unknown, probably dark; BL 2.2-2.9 mm. On Melilotus albus and “either Trifolium or Medicago”, in California, USA, and probably migrating to Sorbus as primary host, as apterae collected in British Columbia, Canada on Sorbus aucuparia appear to be this species (Robinson 1984). Appearance on Sorbus in life is also unknown; adult apterae are probably rather dark with broad dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands, BL 1.5-2.0 mm (specimens from Sorbus, BMNH collection, leg. Cho-kai Chan). 2n=12.
clydesmithi Hille Ris Lambers Apterae and alatae on Crataegus in spring and early summer are dark brown to black,
somewhat shiny; BL 1.6-2.1 mm.
Apparently heteroecious, but secondary host generations are
unknown. Oviparae and alate males were
collected on C. crus-galli in
October (Hille Ris Lambers 1970a). In
crataegifoliae (Fitch) Apterae in spring colonies on Crataegus are greenish or reddish, BL
1.6-2.5 mm, twisting and curling the leaves and turning them dark
purple. Heteroecious holocyclic,
migrating in May-June to stem bases, runners and roots of Leguminosae (Trifolium, Melilotus, Lathyrus). Apterae
on the secondary hosts are olive-yellow or pink to brilliant red; BL 1.7-2.3
(1915b) described the life cycle (as Aphis
brevis). In central and eastern
hottesi Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are greyish green with a very
irregular dorsal abdominal pattern of
“twisted lines in olive to reddish brown”; BL c.1.4-1.8 mm. In flower heads of Castilleja
kachena (Hottes) Apterae are dark green, mottled with dark
brownish black,with yellowish green siphunculi; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. In flower
heads of Castilleia spp. in western
nigrescens Hille Ris
Lambers Colour of apterae in life is
unknown, probably dark green to black; BL c. 2.7-2.8 mm. On Melilotus albus in
Apterae in spring colonies are dark brown; BL about 1.9 mm. It is apparently heteroecious holocyclic between
Crataegus douglasii and Lathyrus nutalli in
sensoriata (Gillette & Bragg) Apterae in life are brown to blackish; BL
2.0-2.2 mm. On leaves and twigs of Amelanchier sp(p). in western
vera (Shaposhnikov) Apterae are undescribed; alatae are dirty
green, BL c.2.7 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 42-44, IV
25-27, V 10-13. On Oxytropis sordida in
Bradley Apterae in life are dark
brown, BL 1.7-2.2 mm, in dense ant-attended colonies on new growth and
flowers of Sorbus scopulina in
zabapsis (Richards) Colour of apterae in life has not been
observed, probably dark; BL c.1.5 mm. On roots of Trifolium sp. in
Two species with clavate siphunculi related to Wahlgreniella but with shorter antennae with a shorter terminal process, and apterae have no rhinaria on ANT III.
kalmiae Mason Apterae are pale green with pale
appendages and variably developed, ill-defined, dark brown to black dorsal
pigmentation; BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Immatures are pale and slightly waxy. Alatae
have paired dark sclerites on abdominal tergites 3 and 4, and sometimes on
other tergites. On Kalmia angustifolia in
Neoamphorophora ledi (Wahlgren) Apterae in life are yellowish green to dark green or brownish pink, with darker dorsal abdominal markings, their siphunculi dark brown with paler bases; BL 1.8-2.9 mm. Alatae have a variably developed dark dorsal abdominal patch and 35-40 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only. On Rhododendron (=Ledum) palustre in northern Europe, and now reported from Rhododendron spp. in Japan by Barjadze & Özdemir (2017) who provided a full redescription of apterae and alatae. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males (Heie 1995).
Two species differing from Pterasthenia in the absence of wax glands, and alatae having secondary rhinaria on ANT III-V (Remaudière & Autrique 1985, Quednau 2010).
aeschynomenidis (van Harten
& Ilharco) Apterae are green, BL
1.25-1.7 mm. In small numbers on growing tips of Aeschynomene dimidiata in
Neoantalus humulariae (van Harten &
Ilharco) Apterae are bright yellow
to dark green; BL 1.5-1.9 mm. On undersides of leaves and sometimes on
flowers of Humularia welwitschii in Angola. Alatae have also been trapped in
oriental genus on Betulaceae, nominally with five species, but the
differences between Neobetulaphis alba
Higuchi Apterae are pale yellow in life,
BL c. 1.5 mm. Alatae are
undescribed. On Betula platyphylla var. japonica
chaetosiphon Quednau & Chakrabarti Colour in life is not recorded, apterae
are presumably rather dark, brownish; BL 2.1-2.3 mm. Alatae have no dorsal black abdominal
patch. On Alnus nepalensis and Betula
spp. (alnoides, utilis) in
Apterae are pale yellow; BL 1.2-1.5 mm. Alatae are undescribed. Originally described from Rosaceae in
Apterae are yellowish green with dark green cross-bands on thorax and
abdomen; BL 1.7-2.3 mm. Alatae have a
black patch on abdominal tergites 4-6 and dark siphunculi. On undersides of leaves of Betula spp. (alnoides, utilis), and
possibly Alnus sp., in
Two east Asian species feeding on twigs and branches of Betulaceae, and visited by ants. They are stout-bodied aphids with pigmented wings, long dorsal abdominal hairs and a very short antennal terminal process. Quednau (2003) provided a key and illustrations. (A third western Palaearctic species on Ostrya, ostryae Börner, was placed in this genus by Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers (1976), but is here regarded as a Pterocallis).
carpinicola (Takahashi) All viviparae are alate, stout-bodied, dark
brown with forewings almost wholly pigmented (see Moritsu 1983); BL 1.7-2.0
mm. On undersides of twigs and
branches of Carpinus spp. in
All viviparae are alate, stout-bodied, brownish, with maculate
forewings; BL 1.6-2.2 mm. On twigs and
branches of Corylus spp. in
Neocranaphis Ghosh & Quednau
Two Asian bamboo-feeding species originally placed in Shivaphis, but distinguished by the setiform empodial hairs and other characters (A.K. Ghosh & Quednau 1990). Phyllaphoides is also closely related. Quednau (2003) provided a key and illustrations of both species.
arundinariae (Takahashi) All viviparae are alate, elongate-bodied,
white, dusky on thorax, without dorsal abdominal markings, secreting cottony
wax on anterior part of body, hind legs and (slightly) on antennae; BL c. 2.1
mm. On undersides of leaves of Arundinaria
(Pleioblastus) sp. in
Neocranaphis bambusicola (David, Rajasingh & Narayanan) All viviparae are alate, elongate-bodied, white, with powdery wax covering body, legs and antennae; BL 2.7-3.0 mm. On undersides of leaves of Bambusa sp. in West Bengal, India. An ovipara and an apterous oviparoid (intermediate) female were collected in November (David et al. 1970, as Cranaphis).
Apterae are elongate oval, black; BL c. 0.7 mm. Collected from twigs
of Quercus glauca in
Apterae are black with white wax powder on lateral perpendicular
areas; BL c. 0.9 mm. Collected on branches of Quercus glauca in
species in east Asia with alatae having unusual wing venation, the media, Cu1a
and Cu1b all arising from a common stem. A fourth species
tentatively assigned to this genus has been collected on Quercus (= Cyclobalanopsis)
Galls on upper sides of leaves of Distylium
stellare in Java are pale greenish, semiglobose, downy, about 1.5 cm in
diameter, usually arising singly from the mid-rib or a smaller vein. Alatae (BL 1.4-1.8 mm, with black eyes and
dark grey abdomen) leave the gall in September through a small hole on the
underside of the leaf (Noordam 1991). Migration occurs to Quercus sp.; BL of apterae on Quercus is 0.8-1.0 mm, appearance in
life unknown, but probably secreting some form of wax. (Immature alatae on Quercus may secrete wax filaments as
they have similar wax glands to the undescribed species from
quercisucta Qiao, Guo & Zhang Apterae are black, with short wax threads
on marginal area and with 3-4 thick wax threads dorsally; BL 0.7-1.0 mm.
Alatae and life cycle are unknown. On an unidentified Quercus sp. in
Neohormaphis wuyiensis Qiao & Jiang Apterae on undersides of leaves of
unidentified species of Lithocarpus and Quercus in
Neomariaella Swedo &Osiadacz
One species possibly related to Brachycolus or Brachycorynella but with a short rounded cauda as well as very short conical siphunculi, and apterae having 5-segmented antennae.
Neomariaella lambersi (Szelegiewicz) Apterae are pale green to yellow, dusted with grey wax powder; BL 1.1-1.8 mm. On young shoots of Myricaria spp., described from Poland (Szelegiewicz 1961b, as Mariaella lambersi), and since recorded from Slovakia, alpine France, Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan and Mongolia (Szwedo & Osiadacz 2010). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous (alatiform) males in Poland in October (BMNH collection, leg. J. Nast). Remaudière et al. (2006, as Mariaella lambersi) provided a redescription, including the males and oviparae.
Neomyzus van der Goot
About eight Asian species with distinctive black dorsal markings, previously placed as a subgenus of Aulacorthum but differing in several morphological features (shape of head, hairs on R IV+V, immatures with spinulose hind tibiae) that place them closer to the Myzus group of genera.
Neomyzus circumflexus (Buckton) Mottled Arum Aphid Plate 19c Apterae are shining nearly white or pale yellow to bright green, with distinctive sclerotic dorsal markings, consisting of transverse bands or paired patches on the thorax and a large roughly U-shaped, patch on the abdomen (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.2‑2.6 mm. Extremely polyphagous, feeding on numerous species of both monocots and dicots, and even ferns and gymnosperms. In temperate climates N. circumflexus is found especially in glasshouses and on house plants (e.g. Cineraria, Cyclamen, Fuschia, Zantedeschia). Virtually world‑wide, presumably due to transportation by man. Its origin is unknown, but east Asia seems most likely. Apparently it is entirely anholocyclic; no sexual morphs have been recorded. See also Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.244, as Aulacorthum (Neomyzus). 2n=8 ( except one record of 2n=10; Kar & Khuda-Bukhsh, 1986) .
Neomyzus codonopsis (
Neomyzus dendrobii (A.N. Basu) (Fig.25d) Apterae are creamy yellow, ornamented with a pattern of brown to purplish brown segmental markings; BL 1.6-2.4 mm. On young stems of Dendrobium sp. in West Bengal, India. Anholocyclic.
Neomyzus dicentrae (A.N. Basu) Apterae are
pale yellowish with brown dorsal markings; BL 1.6-2.5 mm. Alatae have a large
dark dorsal abdominal central patch. Forming colonies on undersides of leaves
of Dicentra thalictrifolia (= Dactylicapnos scandens) in north-east
(Takahashi) Apterae are green with a brown-black
dorsal abdominal patch; BL 1.0-1.3 mm. Described from Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Vitaceae), and also collected on Schizophragma hydrangeoides (Hydrangeaceae;
BMNH collection, leg. R.L. Blackman). Only known from
primulus (A.K. Ghosh, Banerjee &
Raychaudhuri) Apterae are white with
black dorsal markings; BL 1.6-1.8 mm. On Primula
Ghosh) Colour of apterae in life is
unrecorded; BL 2.1-2.4 mm. On young shoots of Strobilanthes atropurpureus in
Neomyzus taiwanus (Takahashi) Apterae are
white with black dorsal markings; BL c. 2.3 mm. On Codonopsis javanica (ssp. japonica) in
A genus for two species with prosoma distinctly separate from abdominal tergites 2-7 and bearing numerous fine hairs.
Neonipponaphis pustulosus Chen & Qiao Apterae are aleyrodiform, reddish brown or blackish brown in life, brown in mounted preparations; BL 1.4-1.6 mm. Living on twigs of Castanopsis eyrei, attended by ants (Chen & Qiao 2012b). In China (Fujian province). A redescription of the aptera was provided by Qiao et al. (2018). Alatae and life cycle are unknown.
shiiae Takahashi (fig. 36B) Apterae are aleyrodiform, blackish brown to
almost black in life, but pale in cleared preparations; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. On branches and shoots of Castanopsis cuspidata in
Neopemphigus Mamontova & Kolomoets
One palaearctic species feeding on poplar roots, closely related to Pachypappa and possibly belonging in that genus.
Neopemphigus turajevi Mamontova & Kolomoets In dense wax-dusted colonies causing gall-like swellings on fine roots of Populus bolleana (= P. alba var. pyramidalis) in Ukraine (Mamontova & Kolomoets 1981). Alate sexuparae appear in September. Apparently it lives without host alternation on Populus, but the life cycle needs to be clarified. Severe damage by this aphid has been reported (Kolomoets 1984).
18 species on Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae in the southern hemisphere and
mountains of the tropics, and extending northward into
Apterae are broadly oval, bright yellow to yellowish orange; BL
1.1-1.5 mm. On young growth of Araucaria spp. in Mauritius (original
description), Java, New Guinea, Australia, Hawaii, Costa Rica (BMNH
collection), Bahamas, Mexico and USA (Florida, California). Perhaps native to
brimblecombei Carver Apterae are cream-coloured under a coating
of greyish wax; BL 1.4-2.1 mm. On Podocarpus elatus in
burostris Qiao & Zhang
Appearance in life is unrecorded: BL of aptera c. 1.6 mm. Alatae are
undescribed. On Podocarpus macrophyllus
(Chileaphis) cuschensis Nieto Nafría & Delfino Apterae are brown with thorax and abdomen
covered in ash-coloured wax powder; BL 1.5-2.3 mm. In compact groups on young
branches of Podocarpus glomeratus
Neophyllaphis fransseni Hille Ris Lambers Appearance in life is unrecorded; BL of aptera 1.0-1.6 mm. On Podocarpus spp. in Java. Alate oviparae are produced in January-March (Russell 1982; and BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers).
gingerensis Carver Apterae are purplish blue, with a coat of
white wax; BL 1.4-1.8 mm. On Podocarpus alpina, living singly or in
small groups on leaves, in the mountains of
Apterae are orange-coloured under a thick coat of wax; BL 1.7-1.8
mm. On Podocarpus spp. in
(Chileaphis) iuiuyensis Mier Durante & Ortego Apterae are pale green with longitudinal
bands of varying intensity, pale yellowish legs and antennae, and thorax and
abdomen very lightly covered in ash-coloured wax powder; BL 1.7-2.5 mm. In
compact groups on young branches of Podocarpus
Neophyllaphis lanata Hales & Lardner Apterae are deep reddish brown to reddish purple, covered in a woolly white wax exudate; BL c. 1.5 mm. On stems and leaves of young shoots of Podocarpus spinulosus (a shrub). Hales & Lardner (1988) described enzyme, chromosome and other differences from N. brimblecombei, with which it was previously confused. Alate oviparae and males start to occur in early spring (September). 2n=24 (Hales & Lardner 1988).
(Chileaphis) michelbacheri (Essig) Apterae are broadly oval, whitish grey in
life due to covering of wax powder; BL c. 1.8 mm. Alatae have dark dorsal abdominal
Plate 8 c,d Apterae are broadly oval, reddish purple
thickly dusted with bluish white wax; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. On leaves, young twigs and fruit stems of Podocarpus spp. and Nageia nagi in
(Chileaphis) podocarpini Carrillo Apterae are green and red in life; BL c.
2.2 mm. On Podocarpus salignus in
(Chileaphis) propinqua Quednau Colour of aptera in life is unknown; BL
2.1-2.5 mm. On Podocarpus lambertii
(Chileaphis) pueblohondensis Quednau Colour of aptera in life is unknown; BL
2.0-2.4 mm. On Podocarpus sp. in
rappardi Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are dark brown-purple, covered
with wax; BL c. 1.7 mm. On Agathis labillardieri in
Apterae are dark purplish brown, dusted with whitish wax powder; BL c.
2.8 mm. On Podocarpus spp. in
Neophyllaphis varicolor Miller & Halbert Apterae are purple to dark wine-red, wax-dusted; BL 1.2-1.6 mm. Immatures may be yellow, orange, red or purple. In colonies on new growth of Podocarpus macrophyllus, Podocarpus sp. and Afrocarpus sp. in Florida, USA, presumably introduced from East or South-East Asia (Miller & Halbert 2014). Sexual morphs have not been recorded.
Apterae are dark green, covered with thick wax powder; BL 1.5-1.8
mm. On Podocarpus (= Afrocarpus)
One nearctic species with host alternation between Acer and Smilax.
aceris (Monell) (fig.18A) Apterae
in life are covered in white wax; BL 3.3-5.3 mm. On undersides of twigs and branches of Acer saccharum in spring, sometimes
extending onto petioles and leaves.
Throughout range of A. saccharum
Neopterocomma Hille Ris Lambers
little-known genus of three species, two from basal and underground parts of Salix in
asiphum Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are reddish (Heinze 1961),
probably wax-covered; BL 2.5-3.1 mm.
On lower part of trunk of various Salix
spp., attended by ants. Widely
distributed in central and eastern
populivorum Zhang Appearance in life is not recorded; BL of
aptera c. 2.8 mm. On Populus sp. (feeding site not
verhoeveni Hille Ris Lambers (fig. 106B) Apterae are covered with fine wax powder,
dirty reddish or purplish grey; BL 2.0-2.6 mm. In small colonies on underground parts of
older branches of Salix repens,
attended by ants. Only known from the
species described from Quercus in
Aptera are blackish brown to black, almost circular with dorsum
somewhat domed; BL c. 0.8 mm. On Quercus
Two east Asian Myzus-like species with a sexual phase on Lonicera, migrating to unknown secondary hosts.
lonicericola (Takahashi) Apterae (fundatrices) are dirty yellow,
with black-tipped siphunculi; BL 2.7-3.5 mm. On Lonicera spp., feeding on undersides of leaves, which turn yellow
and spotted with purple, but are not curled (Hori 1938b, as Amphorophora lonicericola). All
progeny of fundatrices are alatae, with 8-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT III
only, migrating to an unknown secondary host. Return migrant females (with
secondary rhinaria distributed III 34-58, IV 19-34, V 0-12), oviparae and
alate males (with secondary rhinaria distributed III 54-79, IV 23-35, V 1-7)
are found on Lonicera in late
lonicerisuctus Zhang, Zhang
& Zhong Apterae (fundatrices)
are dark brown, dusted with white wax powder; BL c.2.6 mm. On Lonicera spp. in
Neosaltusaphis Hille Ris Lambers
A single species related to Subsaltusaphis, but with the posterior corners of abdominal tergite 7 and the anterior corners of the pronotum developed into processi, and the dorsal hairs minute and spatulate. The genus was reviewed and illustrated by Quednau (2010).
Neosaltusaphis bodenheimeri Hille Ris Lambers (Fig.20a) Apterae are straw-coloured, with antennae black on distal halves; BL c. 2.3 mm. Alatae are unknown. The host is unknown, but “presumably a Carex species” according to the original description, although swept from a wet meadow which included other Cyperaceae.
Neosappaphis Hille Ris Lambers
Two species resembling Anuraphis but with smooth flangeless siphunculi (flangeless in the type species) and 4- or 5-segmented antennae.
franzi Hille Ris Lambers Appearance of apterae in life is unknown;
BL 1.6-1.95 mm. Apterae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 2-3, IV 11-24
(also present in immatures), alatae are unknown. Sieved from a meadow in
which Armeria (presumably maritima) was the dominant plant, on
Islas Cies, north-west
paradoxa (Mamontova-Solukha) Apterae are pale greenish; BL c.1.9 mm.
On roots of Sisymbrium polymorpha in
A genus for one Nothofagus-feeder related to Neuquenaphis, but the aptera has finger-like processes only on abdominal tergites 7 and 8, and a strong pattern of polygonal reticulation of the dorsal cuticle (Quednau 1990, 2010).
Appearance in life is unknown, probably dark under a covering or
dusting of wax; BL of aptera 1.0-1.4 mm.
On Nothofagus obliqua (incl.
var. macrocarpa) in
About 14 species superficially resembling Symydobius but associated with nearctic oaks. Probably the resemblance to Symydobius is a result of convergence due to occupation of similar feeding sites and ant attendance, as Neosymydobius is closer to Myzocallis or Tuberculatus, whereas Symydobius is nearer to Calaphis. They usually feed on bark of terminal twigs, extending onto leaf petioles and along basal parts of main leaf veins. Quednau (1994) reviewed the genus, described five new species and provided a key, and Quednau (1999) illustrated all the species.
acutipilosus Quednau Colour of apterae in life is unknown,
probably brownish with banded antennae and black hind legs; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. On
Quercus undulata in
agrifoliae (Essig) Apterae
are plump-bodied, dark reddish brown with a paler yellowish Y-shaped mark on
dorsum (Essig 1917), banded antennae and dark hind legs; BL 1.6-2.3 mm. Alatae have dark-bordered wing veins. Monoecious holocyclic on Quercus spp. (agrifolia, chrysolepis,
Apterae are somewhat flattened dorsoventrally, yellowish white with
black-banded antennae; BL 1.1-1.8 mm.
Collected on undersides of leaves of Quercus mexicana, and from Q.
Apterae and alatae are shining black or brown with a whitish spinal
stripe (Hottes 1926a) and/or white waxy areas around pale siphunculi
(Richards 1968), banded antennae and black hind legs; BL 1.4-1.9 mm. On Quercus
spp. (alba, macrocarpa, michauxii, palustris, stellata) in eastern
Apterae are dark shiny chocolate-brown, with black hind legs; BL
1.6-2.1 mm. On Quercus mexicana in
Apterae and alatae are brown, with conspicuously pale siphunculi; BL
1.7-2.1 mm. On Quercus spp. (chrysolepis,
engelmanni, gambelii) in western
Apterae are yellowish (only one aptera is known, and they are
apparently rare in comparison with alatae).
Alatae have brown head and thorax and pale green-yellow abdomen; BL
1.2-1.4 mm. On Quercus nigra and Q.
memorialis Hottes & Frison Apterae have a yellowish head and abdomen
and light dusky brown thorax; BL 1.2-1.5 mm.
Alatae have chestnut-brown head
and thorax and lemon yellow abdomen.
On Quercus stellata in
Apterae are shining dusky to dark greenish brown; BL c. 1.6 mm. Alatae have a green abdomen with darker
brownish-green cross-bars. On Quercus alba in
neomexicanus Quednau Colour of apterae in life is unknown,
probably brownish with antennae almost entirely black and hind tibiae dark
except for distal third; BL 1.6-1.9 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Quercus arizonica in
paucisetosus Quednau Colour in life is unknown; BL of aptera
1.7-2.5 mm. On various Quercus spp.
(agrifoliae, chrysolepis, douglasii, dumosa, lobata, wislizeni) in
peregrinus Quednau Colour of aptera in life is unknown,
probably brownish with banded antennae and dark hind tibiae; BL 1.7-2.0 mm.
Alatae are undescribed. On Quercus
turbinella and Q. arizonica in
quercihabitus Miller Apterae and alatae are dark brown, with
conspicuously banded antennae: BL 1.5-2.2 mm.
On Quercus stellata in
rumorosensis Quednau Apterae and alatae are chocolate brown,
shiny, with banded antennae and a pale middle section to hind tibia; BL of
aptera 1.9-2.4 mm (Quednau 1994). On Quercus
douglasii and Q. dumosa in
Neothelaxes Chakrabarti & Quednau
Two species on Parthenocissus in north
& Quednau Appearance in life is
unknown; BL of alata 1.0-1.5 mm. On Parthenocissus
ten species mainly known from Quercus in east Asia. Apterae are very small, black, sclerotic,
and lack siphuncular pores, and their legs have much reduced tarsi, with the
fore- and mid-legs concealed but the hind legs usually projecting a little
behind the body. Host alternation and
gall formation on Distylium is only
established for one species (yanonis). Several species seem to be anholocyclic on
evergreen Quercus, with the
apterous vivipara the only known morph.
Most species were originally described in Thoracaphis. Takahashi
(1958d) and A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri (1973a) gave accounts of the genus
and keyed species under Microthoracaphis,
which is here included within Neothoracaphis. Chen et al. (2011c) reviewed the genus, Tao
(1966) keyed the species in
Apterae are elongate oval, black, with pale hind legs projecting
behind body; BL c. 0.7 mm. They live throughout the year on foliage of
evergreen Quercus spp. in
garwhalensis Chakrabarti & Raha Apterae are oval, black, with pale hind
legs projecting a little behind body; BL 0.7-0.8 mm. In ant-attended colonies on leaves of Quercus spp. (incana, serrata) in
Apterae are oval, indented at frontal margin, black, with much wax
mid-dorsally, and with yellow hind legs protruding behind body; BL 0.8-1.0
mm. They live throughout the year on
foliage of Quercus glauca in
Adult apterae are black, broadly oval, without wax; BL c. 0.9 mm
(Takahashi 1924a; as Astegopteryx). Immatures are yellow and secrete much
wax. Alatae have black head and thorax
and dusky yellowish brown abdomen.
Living parthenogenetically all year on undersides of leaves of Quercus variabilis in
querciphaga (Takahashi) Apterae are black, narrowly oval, with
protruding hind legs; BL c. 0.8 mm.
Living all year on foliage of Quercus
saramaoensis (Takahashi) Apterae are black, elongate oval, indented
on frontal margin, with white wax dorsally, including a pair of long whitish
wax "horns" arising from middle of anterior part of prosoma, and
also "a wide, very thin whitish secretion behind the hind end"
(Takahashi 1935c). Hind legs
projecting posteriorly, pale brown. BL
0.5-0.7 mm. On undersides of leaves of
Quercus variabilis in
Neothoracaphis semicarpifolia Chen, Yang & Qiao Apterae are oval, flattened, strongly sclerotised, with white wax mid-dorsally and fine bluish-white wax threads around the entire margin; BL 0.6-0.8 mm. On undersides of leaves of Quercus semecarpifolia at an altitude of 3330m in Tibet (Chen et al. 2011c). The life cycle is unknown.
Apterae are broadly oval, black with much white wax mid-dorsally, and
black hind legs protruding behind body; BL 0.5-0.7 mm. On undersides of leaves of a tree of the
Fagaceae (probably Quercus sp.) in
tarakoensis (Takahashi) Apterae are broadly oval with frontal
margin indented, black, with much white wax mid-dorsally, and black hind legs
protruding behind body; BL 0.9-1.0 mm.
On undersides of leaves of Quercus
Host-alternating between Distylium
racemosum and deciduous Quercus
spp. (dentata, serrata) in
A genus for six Myzus-like aphids with clavate
siphunculi and dark-bordered wing-veins, probably of oriental origin. Three species
are now widespread and at least the adventive populations seem to be entirely
anholocyclic; Peréz Hidalgo et al.
(2011b) provided a key to separate these species. Three species in east Asia
host-alternate with Caprifoliaceae as primary hosts, as in the somewhat
similar genus Rhopalomyzus.
Accounts are available for
Neotoxoptera abeliae Takahashi Apterae (fundatrices) are green, BL c. 2
mm. Alatae have black head, thorax, antennae and siphunculi, and broadly
banded wing veins. On Caprifoliaceae (Abelia,
Lonicera) in spring, apparently
migrating in the second generation to an unknown secondary host. In
Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) Apterae are shining magenta-red to dark reddish brown or almost black (see influential points/gallery); BL 1.6-2.3 mm. Alatae are very dark red to black with the wing-veins heavily black-bordered, the borders being of rather constant width along the lengths of the veins. On leaves of Allium spp., or on bulbs in store. In east and south-east Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, Brazil, Panama, Guadaloupe (Etienne & Champoiseau 2011), North America, St Helena, Canary Islands (Peréz Hidalgo et al. 2011b), and throughout much of Europe; Norway, Finland, UK (Halstead 2000), Germany, Italy (Barbagallo & Ciampolini 2000), France and Netherlands (Piron 2010a). Apparently completely anholocyclic everywhere. Hori & Komatsu (1997) studied repellency of rosemary oil and its components to this aphid, and Hori (2007) analysed the attractive compounds present in Allium spp. 2n=12.
oliveri (Essig) Plate 19d (Fig.59b) Apterae are dark-red to almost black; BL
1.1-2.0 mm. Alatae have wing veins heavily black-bordered, the borders
widening out at base and apex of each vein. The host range of N. oliveri is remarkably similar to
that of Myzus ascalonicus; most commonly on certain Alliaceae (Allium), Caryophyllaceae (Stellaria) and Violaceae (Viola), but also recorded from plants
in several other families. Almost cosmopolitan; recorded from southern Europe
violae (Pergande) (Fig.59a) Apterae are purplish or dark wine-red; BL
1.0-1.7 mm. Alatae are dark wine-red with broadly banded wing-veins. On
undersides of leaves of Viola spp.
In North and
weigeliae Lee and Seo (Fig.61d) Apterae (fundatrices?) are greenish; BL
1.0-1.3 mm. Alatae are dark brown with large black dorsal abdominal patch and
forewings with dark pterostigma (cf. Micromyzus
diervillae) and diffusely
bordered veins. On Weigela spp. in
yasumatsui Sorin Apterae are reddish to deep brown; BL
c.1.4-1.5 mm. Alatae are blackish brown with a large central dorsal abdominal
patch and broadly banded wing-veins. On Kalimeris
lautureana (as Aster lautureanus) in
Japan, forming small colonies that distort apical parts of subterranean stems
and young leaves at or just below ground level (original description).
Heteroecious holocyclic; migration to the primary host Weigela praecox is recorded in east
South American genus of about twelve species associated with Nothofagus, closely related to Sensoriaphis in
bulbicauda Hille Ris Lambers Colour of apterae dark grey-brown,
immatures green; BL of apterae 2.2-3.1 mm. On leaves of Nothofagus dombeyi in
(Spicaphis) chilensis Essig
Essig 1953b p. 69) Colour in life is
unknown, but probably rather dark with a covering of powdery wax; BL of
apterae and alatae 2.2-3.1 mm. Alatae
have dark-bordered wing veins. On
leaves of Nothofagus dombeyi in
Colour in life is unknown, probably rather dark with a covering of
powdery wax; BL of apterae and alatae 1.8-2.6 mm. On various Nothofagus spp. (
(Spicaphis) essigi Hille Ris Lambers Appearance in life is unknown, probably
rather dark, perhaps with greyish wax.
Apterae are very broadly oval;
BL of apterae and alatae 2.0-2.4 mm.
On Nothofagus obliqua (incl.
var. macrocarpa) in
michelbacheri Essig (1953 p. 66) Apterae are unknown, alatae have dark
spots at ends of wing veins; BL of alata 1.7-2.3 mm. On Nothofagus dombeyi in
neobulbicauda Quednau & Remaudière Appearance in life is unknown; BL of aptera
2.1-2.3 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Nothofagus
palliceps Hille Ris Lambers
Appearance of apterae in life is unknown; larger and probably paler
than most other described species. Alatae pinkish with three short bars of
wax on anterior abdomen; BL of apterae and alatae 2.2-2.9 mm. On Nothofagus
spp., especially N. dombeyi, in
schlingeri Hille Ris Lambers Appearance of apterae in life is unknown,
probably rather pale. Alatae pale brown with white wax markings and darkish
wing veins; BL of apterae and alatae 1.4-1.8 mm. On Nothofagus
spp. (alessandrii, glauca, obliqua) in
sensoriata Hille Ris Lambers
Plate 8 a,b Apterae in life dark brownish green, with
pale dorsal processes and a dusting of wax. Alatae have basal part of ANT III
conspicuously pale compared with dark rest of antenna, dark but unbordered
wing veins, white wax markings on head and thorax, and two rows of white
patches on dorsal abdomen including spinal processes; BL of apterae and
alatae 1.7-2.1 mm. Immatures are shiny
red-brown (slide label, BMNH collection).
On Nothofagus spp.
(especially glauca, obliqua) in
similis Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are elongate oval, of unknown
colour but probably rather pale; BL 2.6-2.8 mm. Alatae are unknown. In
staryi Quednau & Remaudière Appearance in life is unknown; BL of alata
1.4-1.9 mm (BL of aptera unrecorded). On Nothofagous alessandri in
valdiviana Carrillo Apterae according to the original
description are lemon yellow with rows of dark finger-like processes; BL
c.1.7 mm. On Gunnera chilensis (= tinctoria) in
sampsoni Drews Apterae are dirty yellow to reddish
brown, often mottled; BL c. 1.9 mm. In colonies on roots of Seriphidium tridentata, sometimes
Three species closely related to Iziphya, but with accessory rhinaria on ANT VI placed close to the primary rhinarium, no modification of the basal dorsal hairs on the tibiae, and dorsal hairs very numerous, short and mushroom-shaped. Nevskya tuberculata (Zhang & Zhang) differs from either of the species below in having a pair of tubercles posteriolaterally on the pronotum, and a longer antennal terminal process. Quednau (2010) reviewed the genus, keyed the species and illustrated all available morphs. [Nevskya Ossiannilsson 1953 has been reinstated as the valid name for the genus in place of Nevskyella Ossiannilsson 1954; see Quednau 2010 p.70 (footnote).]
fungifera Ossiannilsson (= Subsaltusaphis
sinensis Zhang, Zhang & Zhong 1995, = Nevskyella similifungifera Qiao & Zhang 2004; synonymies by
Quednau 2010) Apterae are yellow or
brownish yellow, sometimes with dark paired dorsal patches on metathorax and
abdomen, or uniformly brownish; BL c.1.6-1.7 mm. Alatae have bordered wing
veins with dark spots at their apices. On Carex
spp. and Cyperus spp., living
on all above-ground parts of the plant. Described from Sweden, and also found
in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009b, as Nevskyella
fungifera) and China (as Subsaltusaphis sinensis and Nevskyella similifungifera).
Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males in
meridionalis (Hille Ris
Lambers & van den Bosch) Apterae
are creamy to yellowish, with paired dark dorsal patches; BL 1.5-1.7 mm. On undersides of leaves of Carex
tuberculata (Zhang &
Zhang) Described from a single alata
One South American species resembling Uroleucon (Lambersius) but with an enlarged clypeus.
euclypteata Ortego Apterae are greenish yellow to dark
green, sometimes with a darker green, orange or reddish brown band between
and around bases of siphunculi; BL 1.6-2.2 mm. Alatae have 11-19 secondary
rhinaria on ANT III. On apices of young stems of Eupatorium patens in western
Nigritergaphis Zhang, Lou & Qiao
One species described from Isodon in China with long stiff dorsal hairs, extensive dark dorsal sclerotisation and short siphunculi and cauda.
Nigritergaphis crassisetosa Zhang, Lou & Qiao Apterae are shining black, BL 1.4-1.6 mm, immatures are green. On Isodon eriocalyx, curling, twisting and blistering the leaves, in Yunnan province, China (B. Zhang et al. 2013). Alatae have dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands and secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 18-34, IV 7-12 and V 1-3. Apterae collected in October had 5-segmented antennae, and those collected in December had 6-segmented antennae. No sexual morphs were observed.
Nippodysaphis Hille Ris Lambers
One species in
deutziae (Hille Ris Lambers) (Fig.32d) Appearance in life is unknown; BL
(fundatrix) c.2.35 mm. On Deutzia
An oriental genus of 4-5 species characterized by the absence of an ocular tubercle. They are associated mainly with Eriobotrya, but parthenogenetic generations may utilise other woody Rosaceae. A.K. Ghosh (1982b) reviewed the genus.
bengalensis Basu & Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are long-bodied, pale green; BL
2.6-3.3 mm. Alatae have a variable
sclerotic pattern on the dorsal abdomen.
On undersides of leaves of Eriobotrya
dubia in West Bengal, India (Basu & Hille Ris Lambers 1968); also
recorded from Pyrus pashia and Photinia arguta in Meghalaya, and from
cultivated pears in
Nippolachnus himalayensis (van der Goot) Apterae are broadly oval, dirty greyish to brick red with whitish intersegmental bands of wax, and mainly black legs: BL 3.5-5.5 mm. In large colonies on undersides of leaves of Eriobotrya petiolata in West Bengal, India (as eriobotryae; Basu & Hille Ris Lambers 1968). The life cycle and sexual morphs unknown.
15 a,b Apterae are long-bodied,
pale green with some bluish white dorsal wax, with pale brown legs and
antennae; BL 3.0-3.7 mm. On the
undersides of leaves, feeding along main veins, of Eriobotrya japonica, and also recorded from Pyrus spp., Raphiolepis
umbellata and Sorbus alnifolia.
There are also Japanese records, possibly of vagrants, from Castanea crenata and Betula platyphylla (Higuchi &
Miyazaki 1969). In India,
15 east Asian species, some with host alternation between galls on Distylium and Fagaceae, others
apparently anholocyclic on Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Moraceae. The galls of the
species studied in detail (N.
distyliicola and N. monzeni)
take more than a year to mature, and the complete life cycle can take 2-5
years. Apterae on secondary hosts are aleyrodiform, with the strongly
sclerotised prosoma bearing pustulate ornamentation. Alatae have smoky wings. Qiao et
al. (2018) reviewed and keyed two of the Chinese species, Takahashi
(1962) reviewed the species on Distylium
Nipponaphis brevipilosa Noordam Apterae are pale brown with antennae, legs and margins of abdominal plate yellowish; BL 1.3-1.6 mm. In dense colonies on young and older twigs of Castanopsis argentea in Java (Noordam 1991). Alatae were collected in May. The life cycle is unknown.
(= Nipponaphis litseae
Takahashi) Large galls are produced
on the stems of Distylium racemosum
distyliicola Monzen Plate 3 e,f Closed green fig-shaped or globular galls
are produced on the twigs of Distylium
Nipponaphis ficicola Hille Ris Lambers & Takahashi Apterae are very broadly oval, wrinkled, dark purple to blackish in life; BL 1.0-1.3 mm. On the bark of about 1 cm diameter branches and twigs of Ficus benjamina and Ficus sp. in Java (Hille Ris Lambers & Takahashi 1959). Apterae were collected in June-November. The life cycle is unknown.
Nipponaphis javanica Noordam Apterae are brownish, with some wax powder; BL. c. 1.8 mm. In dense colonies on young shoots, and on under and upper sides close to mid-ribs of youngest leaves, of Castanopsis acuminatissima in Java (Noordam 1991). Alatae were collected in August and January. The life cycle is unknown.
This species, described from Magnolia
fuscata (= M. figo var. figo) in
Nipponaphis loochooensis Sorin (= N. machili? of Sorin 1987) Galls on twigs of Distylium racemosum in Okinawa, Japan are glossy, yellowish green, fig-shaped, 3.3-5.9 cm long and c. 3 cm wide (Sorin 1996). Alatae emerge in late January and migrate to Machilus thunbergii, larvipositing on the undersides of the leaves. Apterae on the secondary host are blackish brown, box-like, almost circular; BL c. 1.8 mm, and feed on young shoots and twigs. They differ from other Machilus-feeding Nipponaphis (machili, machilicola) in having fewer and shorter dorsal hairs and lacking hairs on perpendicular margins of the prosoma. Alate sexuparae return to Distylium in April. Sorin (1996) provided descriptions of all morphs except the fundatrix.
Apterae are blackish brown, almost circular; BL c. 1 mm. On undersides
of leaves of Machilus sp. in
Nipponaphis machilicola (Shinji) Green, globular galls are produced on twigs of Distylium racemosum in Okinawa, Japan (Aoki et al. 2015). Alate emigrants from these galls have BL 1.7-2.0 mm and secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 34-44, IV 16-22, V 13-19, and fly to form colonies on branches of Machilus thunbergii. Apterae on the secondary host are almost circular, dorsally flattened, dark bluish brown with pale yellow markings (see Moritsu 1983); BL 1.5-2.2 mm. Populations on Machilus are also recorded from Honshu (Kanagawa Prefecture), where they may persist on the secondary host throughout the year. Alate sexuparae produced in March in Okinawa and in late May in Kanagawa were described by Aoki et al. (2015). [But for the feeding site, body size and greater variation in shape of dorsal pustules, these apterae strongly resemble those of N. machili, and its taxonomic status requires confirmation. N. amamiana Takahashi (1962a) appears to be a synonym.]
Nipponaphis manoji Ghosh & Raychaudhuri Apterae are almost circular, dorsally flattened, dark brown, not strongly sclerotised; BL 1.2-1.4 mm (A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri 1973b). In large, ant-attended colonies on leaves and young stems of Litsea spp. (?corymbosa, monopetala) in West Bengal, India. Aphids on Machilus yunnanensis in China (Yunnan) have also been identified as this species (Huang et al. 2012). The life cycle is unknown; alatae (sexuparae?) were collected in February. A Nipponaphis species described (but not named) from apterae on Litsea polyantha (= monopetala) in Nagaland (Raha & Raychaudhuri 1981) is very similar, except for the apparent lack of posteriomedial hairs on abdominal tergite 7.
Nipponaphis minensis Zhang The host of this species, described from China (Fujian), is not given in the original description, but is listed as a Quercus sp. by Qiao et al. (2018), who provide a redescription.
Galls on Distylium racemosum in Japan are large, hard, variously shaped,
pyriform, conical or almost globular, pale brown, maximum diameter 2-6 cm (figs 130E-G;
Sorin 1958, Moritsu 1983, Kurosu & Aoki 2009). Self-sacrificing repair of
damage to the gall by first instar larvae was described by Kurosu et al. (2003), and the longer-term consequences
of gall repair were studied by Kutsukake et
al. (2009). Alatae (BL c. 3.0 mm) emerge from a round hole in the side of
the gall in November-December and migrate to evergreen Quercus spp. (glauca, myrsinaefolia, phillyraeoides), Castanopsis
sieboldii, and also Lithocarpus edulis. [A.K. Ghosh (1988)
recorded this species from Machilus (=
Persea) in northern
Nipponaphis multisetosa Noordam Apterae are brownish; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. On young and older twigs of Castanopsis javanica in Java (Noordam 1991). Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.
Nipponaphis semiglabra Noordam Apterae are brown with a transparent coat of wax, the prosoma having a paler brown spinal band, two paler thin transverse lines along the posterior margin of the pronotum and abdominal tergite 1, and seven pairs of small black spots; BL 1.2-1.5 mm. In small numbers on older twigs of Lithocarpus bennettii in Java (Noordam 1991). Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.
Nudisiphon Chakrabarti & Bhattacharya
A genus for one Indian species with flangeless siphunculi. Apterae have a peculiar cauda with a curved, horn-like hairless apex, whereas in alatae the cauda is elongate triangular with a hairy apex.
Nudisiphon folisacculata (Kumar & Burkhardt) Apterae are presumably pale, wax-covered; BL 2.2-2.4 mm. Alatae have numerous secondary rhinaria distributed over half the circumferences of ANT III-V. On Spiraea sp. in India (Himachal Pradesh), causing leaves to fold upwards and parallel to the midrib, forming “fluffy sac-like pseudogalls” (original description, as Xenosiphonaphis). An alate male was collected in August. Also recorded from the same region on Indigofera (?) sp. (Chakrabarti & Bhattacharya 1982, as Nudisiphon chitinicauda).
species forming flower-like galls on Rhus
in east Asia, and migrating in autumn to unknown secondary hosts, likely to
be mosses. Tsai & Tang (1946)
provided a review of the Chinese species, and Tao (1970) keyed the species in
Nurudea ibofushi Matsumura (= sinica Tsai & Tang) Galls are pale yellowish brown with a pinkish tinge, irregular in shape, maximum diameter 4.5-5.5 cm; on leaves of Rhus chinensis (= semialata) in China and Japan. Alatae (BL c.1 mm) with brown head and thorax and pale yellow-green or yellow-brown abdomen emerge in autumn (Tsai & Tang 1946; as N. sinica). Molecular studies (Ren et al. 2013, 2017) have grouped this species with Schlechtendalia chinensis and suggested possibly synonymy, but the morphological differences indicate that this requires further investigation.
Galls are inflorescence-like, densely pubescent, pinkish (see fig. 4a
in C. Zhang et al. 2008), on leaflets
of Rhus chinensis in
(= Fushia rosea
Matsumura) Galls are rosy red (see
fig. 4c in C. Zhang et al. 2008, as
Nurudeopsis rosea), on leaflets of Rhus chinensis in