THE APHIDS

 

 

         SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA

        (in alphabetical order)

 

 

M

 

Macchiatiella

Machilaphis

Macromyzella

Macromyzus

Macropodaphis

Macrosiphoniella

Macrosiphum

Macrotrichaphis

Maculolachnus

Mastopoda

Matsumuraja

Megoura

Megourella

Megourina

Meguroleucon

Meitanaphis

Melanaphis

Melanocallis

Melaphis

Meringosiphon

Mesocallis

Mesothoracaphis

Mesotrichosiphum

Metanipponaphis

Metathoracaphis

Metopeuraphis

Metopeurum

Metopolophium

Mexicallis

Micraphis

Microlophium

Micromyzella

Micromyzodium

Micromyzus

Microparsus

Microsiphoniella

Microsiphum

Microunguis

Mimeuria

Mindarus

Misturaphis

Miyazakia

Mollitrichosiphum

Monaphis

Monellia

Monelliopsis

Monzenia

Mordvilkoiella

Mordwilkoja

Moritziella

Muscaphis

Myzakkaia

Myzaphis

Myzocallis

Myzodium

Myzosiphum

Myzotoxoptera

Myzus

 

 

Macchiatiella del Guercio

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

Two or (probably) more palaearctic species associated with Rhamnus and Polygonum, and probably with at least a partial host alternation between these two plant genera.  The genus is well-defined, being characterised by a very long antennal terminal process, spiracles of abdominal segments 1 and 2 well separated, and the cauda reduced to such an extent that it is almost indiscernible. Apterae have secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and alatae have them on III-IV (-V). The antennal tubercles are smooth and divergent, and the siphunculi are tapering and rather short. The species-level taxonomy is difficult and in need of further work.

Macchiatiella itadori  (Shinji)  Plate 11g   Apterae are yellow, brownish yellow or green with shiny black dorsal abdominal patch and black siphunculi; BL 1.7-2.2 mm. They are found on Polygonum and related genera (Aconogonon, Fallopia, Fagopyrum, Reynoutria). in Japan, Korea and east Siberia. Populations thought to be the primary host generations of the same species occur on Rhamnus spp. (japonica, purshiana) in Japan and Korea (Miyazaki 1971). Apterae on Rhamnus are shining yellow-brown or yellow-green with a brown head, an extensive black dorsal abdominal patch, banded antennae and legs, and black siphunculi (for illustration see Moritsu 1983); BL 1.8-2.1 mm.  Large colonies are formed on the leaves, young shoots and woody stems, causing leaf-curl (Hori 1927, as Acaudus rhamni).  However, host transfers have not been made and the life cycle is uncertain, being based on synonymy with Hori’s species, which may not be correct, because Hori (1927) stated that his aphid lived all year on Rhamnus and produced apterous as well as alate males. Alatae produced on Rh. japonica were shining green according to Hori (1927), whereas those produced on Rh. purshiana were yellow (Miyazaki 1971), so possibly two or more species are involved. Oviparae and males have been collected or Rh. japonica in September-October (Hori 1927, and BMNH collection).  2n=12.

Macchiatiella rhamni (Boyer de Fonscolombe)  Apterae on Rhamnus are yellow-brown or yellow-green, and have antennae ringed with black, pale legs with black tarsi, pale siphunculi and variably developed black markings on abdominal tergites 3-5, which are sometimes completely absent; BL 1.9-2.3 mm.  Populations on Rhamnus occur in southern France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and east to Turkey (BMNH collection).  Remaudičre (1959) found a population on Phillyrea latifolia (Oleaceae), in the south of France resembling those on Rhamnus but with shorter and thicker appendages. As in M. itadori, there are uncertainties about the life cycle. Anholocyclic populations occur on Rh. alaternus in the Mediterranean area (Barbagallo & Stroyan 1982).  Contrary to Blackman & Eastop (1994), there appear to be no authentic western European records of this species from Polygonum. Host alternation to Polygonum is however reported from Ukraine (Chumak 2004), and a form regarded as a subspecies, M. rhamni ssp. tarani, is believed to alternate between Rhamnus spp. and Polygonum in Central Asia (Nevsky 1929a, as Neanuraphis; Kadyrbekov 2009b). Aphids assigned to M. rhamni s. lat. occur on the undersides of leaves of Polygonum spp. in Central Asia, Mongolia and Korea. Specimens in BMNH collection from Polygonum in Mongolia (leg. H. Szelegiewicz) and Korea (leg. W.H. Paik) have more extensive dark pigmentation and longer cephalic hairs. Those from Mongolia have spinal and marginal abdominal tubercles, but less frequently than in European specimens, and those from Korea are without tubercles (as in M. itadori). M. rhamni is also recorded from Siberia on Bassia (= Echinopsilon) sedoides (Ivanoskaya 1977, as Neanuraphis rhamni), but the Siberian aphid has longer siphunculi. It seems likely that more than one species is involved.

 

Machilaphis Takahashi

Phyllaphidinae

Two oriental species on Lauraceae, resembling Phyllaphis and Diphyllaphis but differing in the form of the empodial hairs and structure of the last rostral segment. Until recently there was thought to be only a single species in the genus, but Quednau (2010) has distinguished the specimens from Japan described as machili by Takahashi (1960c) as a second species.

Machilaphis machili (Takahashi)  Apterae are elongate oval or pear-shaped , pale green or yellowish; BL 1.6-2.0 mm.  On undersides of leaves of Lauraceae (Machilus, Neolitsea, Phoebe) and there is also a record from Cinnamomum camphora (as Shivaphis cinnamomophila Zhang).  Recorded from Japan, Thailand, China, Taiwan and India (Assam, Meghalaya).  According to A.K. Ghosh et al. (1971d), a waxy secretion is produced on the host plant.  Biology and life cycle have not been studied, and sexual morphs are unknown.

Machilaphis pseudomachili Quednau  Colour of apterae in life unknown; BL 1.3-1.9 mm. On ?Machilaphis sp. (probably thunbergii) and Cinnamomum japonicum in Japan (Takahashi 1960c, as M. machili; Quednau 2010). A series of specimens (including the holotype and paratypes) was also purportedly collected from Quercus glauca, but this is an unlikely host and may have been an error of identification or labelling. For further information see Quednau (2010).

 

Macromyzella Sorin & Arakawa

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Two east Asian species related to Macromyzus but with shorter hairs and unsclerotised dorsum, one of which is a fern feeder like Macromyzus, but the other is described from Celtis, a host unlikely enough to require additional confirmation.

Macromyzella celticola Sorin & Arakawa   The appearance of apterae in life is unknown; BL c.1.8 mm. The host is recorded as Celtis jessoensis. In Japan (Honshu). Alatae viviparae and alate males possibly belonging to this species but collected on various other plants (presumably vagrant individuals) were described (as Macromyzella sp.) in the same paper (Sorin & Arakawa 2005).

Macromyzella polypodicola (Takahashi)    Apterae are yellow, orange or cream-coloured, with black siphunculi and cauda; BL c.2 mm. On ferns (Asplenium, Cheilanthes, Christella, Cyclosorus, Diplazium, Polystichum) in east and south-east Asia (Japan, Okinawa, Korea, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Britain). Takahashi (1963a), as Macromyzus) provided a redescription.

 

Macromyzus Takahashi       

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Four medium-large Asian fern-feeding species with spiculose head, siphunculi with subapical reticulation, and a rugose dorsal cuticle with raised dark hair-bearing sclerites. The apparent relationship with Tuberoaphis would be substantiated if the host alternation reported for M. woodwardiae, with a sexual phase and a remarkably modified fundatrix on Hydrangea (Miyazaki 1972), could be experimentally confirmed. The genus was reviewed by Su & Qiao (2010a).

Macromyzus (Anthracosiphoniella) maculatus (A.N. Basu)     Apterae are yellowish green with dark brown dorsal markings; BL c.2.4-2.6 mm. On undersides of fronds of various ferns (Asplenium, Athyrium, Deparia, Diplazium, Dryopteris, Eriosorus, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Pronephrium) in northern India and China (Su & Qiao 2010a, Su et al. 2014). Apparently anholocyclic (original description, and A.K. Ghosh 1974a).

Macromyzus manoji Raha & Raychaudhuri    Apterae are presumably brown with pale-tipped siphunculi: BL c. 2.4 mm. On ferns (Asplenium, Cheilanthes), and also recorded from “Disclesrea alata”, presumably an error for Dioscorea alata, although this this is unlikely to be a true host. In India (West Bengal). Records of M. woodwardiae in West Bengal may refer to this species, including one of oviparae on an unidentified plant in January (A.K. Ghosh 1974a, and see original description).

Macromyzus spinosus Su & Qiao     Apterae are elongate oval, yellow-brown; BL 1.8-2.0 mm. On undersides of young leaves of Plagiogyria japonica in Hunan province, China (Su & Qiao 2010a).

Macromyzus woodwardiae (Takahashi)  Plate 22b  (Fig.32b, Fig.43c)   Apterae on ferns are brown with black siphunculi, legs with black distal parts to femora and yellowish tibiae; BL 2.2-2.8 mm. In Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, Nepal and India. On undersides of fronds and new growth of ferns in many genera. Anholocyclic on ferns in most places, but in Japan it is apparently also partially heteroecious holocyclic, orange-yellow fundatrices and alate spring migrants having been described from Hydrangea (Miyazaki 1972). Moritsu (1983) records this species from five Hydrangea spp., and also from Deutzia gracilis (Hydrangeaceae) and Weigela coraeensis (Caprifoliaceae); an odd concordance of primary hosts with Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae. Fundatrices have long dorsal processes like those of Tuberoaphis on Hydrangea, and the two genera are evidently closely related, so the unknown secondary hosts of  Tuberoaphis may be ferns. However the life cycle of M. woodwardiae still needs experimental confirmation with host transfers. Records of M. woodwardiae from West Bengal are referable to M. manoji (Raha & Raychaudhuri 1978). 2n=12.

 

Macropodaphis Remaudičre & Davatchi

Macropodaphidinae

A distinctive genus of about six Asian species with greatly enlarged fore femora and numerous dorsal tubercular processes bearing hairs and wax glands. Life cycles are unknown, and host relationships are unclear; most species are found on Potentilla, but three species have Artemisia and Carex also recorded as hosts (although the morphology is not that expected of a Carex-feeding aphid). Ivanoskaya (1981) provided a key to species then known, and (1982) discussed relationships within the genus. W. Zhang et al. (1995d), Qiao & Zhang (2003d) and D. Zhang & Qiao (2008a) reviewed the genus in China. Quednau (2010) reviewed and keyed the species, making several synonymies, and illustrated all available morphs.

Macropodaphis alexandri Ivanoskaya-Shubina  (= M. tsherepanovi Ivanoskaya)   Apterae are pale green or yellowish green, BL 1.5-2.5 mm. Alatae are unknown. On Potentilla spp. (chrysantha, supina), and also recorded from Artemisia frigida and Carex duriuscula (an unlikely host?) in Russia (west Siberia, Gorno-Altaisk). Closely related to M. paradoxa, but removed from synonymy with that species by Quednau (2010).

Macropodaphis dzhungarica Kadyrbekov    Apterae are glaucous lilac-colured, with mainly dark appendages; BL c. 1.5-1.7 mm. Alatae are unknown. On Potentilla (=Pentaphylloides) parviflora in Kazakhstan, and redescribed from the Tibetan Plateau (D. Zhang & Qiao 2008a). Closely related to M. primigenius.

Macropodaphis paradoxa Zachvatkin and Aizenberg   (= M. kuraijensis Ivanoskaya)   Plate 3i  (Fig.12c)   Apterae are pale green or yellowish green, appendages mainly pale with dark apices; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. One alata has secondary rhinaria distributed III 26, IV 20, V 3. Described from Carex in east Siberia, but subsequently also recorded by Ivanoskaya (1965) in west Siberia from Artemisia frigida (as M. kuraijensis), and this is more likely to be the true host. M. damrosei Ivanoskaya, described from a single trapped alata, is a possible synonym (Quednau 2010).

Macropodaphis primigenius Ivanoskaya   (= M. bamensis Ivanoskaya, = M. dasiphorae Ivanoskaya)   Apterae are pale green or glaucous lilac, with dark head, antennae, femora, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.6-3.8 mm. Apterae have 0-5(-7) secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and one alata has them distributed III 19, IV 2, V 0. On Potentilla fruticosa in Siberia and Kazakhstan, and on ?Carex sp. in Mongolia (BMNH collection, leg. H. Szelegiewicz). Differences in size and colour between populations are considered to be attributable to intraspecific variation (Quednau 2010). An ovipara collected in west Siberia in late August on Potentilla sp. is illustrated by Quednau (2010).

Macropodaphis rechingeri Remaudičre & Davatchi   (= M. kulundensis Ivanoskaya, = M. ivanoskajae Kadyrbekov)  (Fig.12a,b)    Apterae are pale green (original description and Kadyrbekov 1991, as M. ivanoskajae) or yellowish grey (Ivanoskaya 1963, as M. kulundensis), with dorsal tubercles very evident; BL 1.4-2.1 mm. An alata has secondary rhinaria distributed III 22, IV 10, V 0. On undersides of leaves of Artemisia austriaca var. orientalis in Iran, moving very quickly when disturbed (original description). However, Kadyrbekov (2012a) recorded it on Potentilla bifurca in Kazakhstan. M. kulundensis, collected on Salvia stepposa (= dumetorum) in Siberia, is regarded as a synonym, as also is M. ivanoskajae, found dispersed on upper and lower sides of leaves of  Potentilla sp. in Kazakhstan (Quednau 2010).  

Macropodaphis tubituberculata Zhang & Zhang   Apterae are green, with whitish dorsal tubercles evident; BL c.2.2 mm.  Alatae are unknown. On Carduus crispus in China.

 

Macrosiphoniella del Guercio

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 115 palaearctic and 5 nearctic species, mostly having siphunculi and cauda similar in length, with siphunculi reticulated over distal half.  Most species feed on Anthemideae and have a stiletto-shaped R IV+V.  At least half the species feed on Artemisia and 6‑8 species are known from each of Achillea, Aster, Helichrysum, Centaurea, and other Cynareae, with fewer from Chrysanthemum and other Anthemidae. The numerous species colonising Artemisia with little evidence of host specificity, and often without apparent biological differences, is difficult to understand and worthy of closer study. Host alternation does not occur.  Although found throughout the Northern Hemisphere the genus has a distinctly continental distribution, with about 30% described from Central Asia, Siberia, Mongolia and China.  Accounts are available for western Europe (Hille Ris Lambers 1938), Fennoscandia and Denmark (Heie 1995), UK and Ireland (Blackman 2010), Switzerland (Lampel & Meier 2007), European Russia (Shaposhnikov 1964), Siberia (Ivanovskaya 1977), India (R.C. Basu & Raychaudhuri 1976b), Mongolia (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1974b, 1978), Korea (Szelegiewicz 1980, Lee et al. 2002c, Holman et al. 2006a, b), China (Tao 1963), east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998a-b, 1999a-b), Japan (Miyazaki 1971) and North America (Robinson 1987). 

Macrosiphoniella abrotani (Walker)    Apterae are greyish green or dull grass green, wax-dusted, with a dark medial stripe with mainly pale legs and antennae, and siphunculi brownish with darker apices; BL 2.4-3.1 mm.  Usually found on young stems of Artemisia abrotanum; also recorded from some other Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. and from Tripleurospermum (=Matricaria) inodora, with a single record from Achillea millefolium. In Europe, the Middle East, south-west Asia (Iran), Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009a) and north Africa, and introduced to South Africa, Australia, north-eastern USA and Canada. A form corresponding morphologically to southern European populations has been introduced into Argentina (BMNH collection, leg. J. Ortego, and Ortego et al. 2006).  Populations in east Asia have been distinguished as subspecies; A. abrotani ssp. chosoni Szelegiewicz on Artemisia spp. in Korea and China (Holman et al. 2006b, Lee et al. 2002c, Szelegiewicz 1980, Zhang et al. 1987), also recorded from Tanacetum boreale in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998a), and A. abrotani ssp. sainshandi Szelegiewicz on A. sieversiana in Mongolia (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1978), also recorded from Altai, Russia (Kadyrbekov 2014g). Two species described from A. scoparia in north-west China (Zhang et al. 1999), M. hofuchui and M. tsizhongi, are also members of this group and are not clearly distinct from abrotani (but the illustration of a siphunculus ascribed to M. hofuchui is of a member of the M. antennata group). Oviparae and alate males appear on A. abrotanum in Europe in September-October.

Macrosiphoniella absinthii (L.)    Apterae are reddish brown, wax-powdered, with black head, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda, and a black spot in the centre of the abdomen (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.7-2.5 mm. Commmonly on upper parts of stems of Artemisia absinthium in northern and central Europe, eastward to Siberia and Iran; also in north Africa and the Mediterranean area, where it  occurs on other Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. There are also records from Dendranthema zawadzkii (in Poland; Heie 1995) and Tanacetum praeteritum.  Introduced to USA and Canada, and to Argentina (Ortego et al. 2006). Apterous males and oviparae occur in October in England (Blackman 2010). However, alate males have been recorded from Latvia (Opmanis 1928).  2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella achlys Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Apterae are shining black; BL c.2 mm. On stems of Artemisia scoparia in Xinjiang-Uygur region of China (Zhang 1999). A member of the atra group.

Macrosiphoniella aetnensis Barbagallo  (Fig. 31m)   Apterae are green, covered with greyish wax powder except for a bare central dorsal abdominal area; BL 1.7-2.2 mm. On Helichrysum italicum, living on stems and undersides of leaves, in Italy. Apparently the production of sexual morphs occurs late in the season; viviparae were present in November, and an ovipara was collected in December (Barbagallo 1970).

Macrosiphoniella ajaniae Kadyrbekov    Apterae are shining black, BL 1.3-1.5 mm. In small colonies on flowerheads of Ajania fastigiata in south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999a). Probably a member of the atra group.

Macrosiphoniella aktashica (Nevsky)    Apterae are very pale, whitish to pale green, with siphunculi dark distally, antennae somewhat pigmented and tibial apices and tarsi dark; BL 2.0-3.1 mm. On undersides of leaves of Tanacetum sp(p). in Central Asia, and also now recorded from various Achillea spp. in Iran and Turkey, Remaudičre et al. (2006) providing morphometric data and recording oviparae and apterous males from those countries. A longer-haired form on T. pseudoachillea and Achillea sp. was described as a subspecies, M. aktashica ssp. hirsuta Daniyarova . The distinction from the very similar M. tapuskae needs to verified. [Note: M. (Asterobium) aktaschica Nevsky from Aster is another species, see under M. asteris.]

Macrosiphoniella alatavica (Nevsky)    Apterae are rather elongate-bodied, pale green with antennae and upper halves of siphunculi dusky; BL 2.0-2.8 mm. On flower stalks of Artemisia dracunculus in Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan). Records from other Artemisia species should be treated circumspectly as the name has been wrongly applied. M. alatavica has been placed as a member of the nitida group (e.g. Holman & Szelegiewicz 1978), close to M. dracunculi,  but this does not fit well with the original description. M. lambersi (q.v.) has been erroneously placed as a synonym. M. tadshikana may be closely related.

Macrosiphoniella albiartemisiae Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Apterae are blackish brown; BL c.1.7 mm. On Artemisia stelleriana in Qinghai Province, China (Zhang 1999).

Macrosiphoniella altaica Ivanoskaya    Apterae are pale green with dark antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL c. 2 mm. On upper parts of stems of Artemisia frigida in Siberia. Kadyrbekov (2011c) assigned aphids on A. austriaca in west Kazakhstan to this species. Probably a member of the nitida group.

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) antennata Holman & Szelegiewicz  (Fig.13h)   Apterae are elongate spindle-shaped, bluish or pinkish pruinose with brown head and a dark spot between siphunculi, and with appendages (including siphunculi and cauda) mainly blackish brown; BL 2.7-4.2 mm.  On Artemisia spp., living singly or in small groups on the lower sides of leaves. In Mongolia, east Siberia and Korea, and also now possibly in California, USA, although this needs further confirmation (A. Jensen, pers. comm. and aphidtrek.org). M. antennata ssp. takahashii is placed as a synonym by Lee et al. (2002c).  M. annulata Zhang, described from China on Artemisia capillaris, resembles antennata but is green in life, and mounted specimens have pale middle sections to the tibiae.  A second sample of antennata-group aphids from China (BMNH collection, VFE 18,135), from Artemisia ?annua, also has pale middle sections to the tibiae, but the siphunculi are shorter, like antennata s. str. from Mongolia. Until this variation in pigmentation and siphuncular length has been studied further it seems best to apply the name antennata to all members of this group.   2n=12 (for VFE 18,135).

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) arctica Pashcshenko    Apterae are greenish grey, sometimes with pinkish tinge, wax-dusted; BL c.2.5 mm. In small dense colonies on upper parts of Artemisia arctica in north-east Siberia (Pashchenko 1999a). Other morphs unknown.   

Macrosiphoniella arenariae Bozhko    Apterae are green with appendages mainly dark and with dark dorsal abdominal markings, especially on segments 2-4; BL c. 2 mm. On stems of  Artemisia arenaria (= A. campestris ssp. inodora) in Ukraine, and later recorded from other Artemisia spp (Bozhko 1976), and in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2012a).  It is possibly a member of the atra group, although these are usually black in life.

Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe)  (Fig.13m)   Apterae are greyish green, wax dusted, with appendages mainly black (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 2.3-3.6 mm. A yellow mutant form was found in England (Blackman 2006). Common on upper parts of Artemisia vulgaris, especially between inflorescences, and frequently forming large colonies. Several other species of Artemisia are also recorded as hosts, and there are also records from Leucanthemum vulgare and Tanacetum parthenium. Throughout Europe, eastward to Siberia, Pakistan, Mongolia and China, and introduced to North America and Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004). Populations on Artemisia arborescens in Sicily were described as a subspecies, M. artemisiae ssp. meridionalis Barbagallo, distinguished by smaller size, shorter siphunculi and fewer secondary rhinaria and caudal hairs. Similar aphids are also found in the Canary Islands. The east Asian M. yomogifoliae is closely related and has been regarded as a subspecies. M. sibirica Ivanoskaya, on Artemisia spp. in Siberia, cannot be differentiated from M. artemisiae using its published description, and M. tanacetaria ssp. divia described from Tanacetum and Ambrosia in east Siberia (Pashchenko1999a), may also be a synonym. Oviparae and alate males appear in September-October in western Europe.  2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) asteris (Walker)    Apterae are brownish green with black dorsal spots, body somewhat wax-powdered, with appendages mainly dark; BL 2.3-3.2 mm. On Aster tripolium, in small colonies on upper parts of stems and in the inflorescences; also recorded from Galatella sedifolia (in Spain).  Throughout Europe, and also recorded from Korea (Lee et al., 2002c).  Possibly it also occurs in Central Asia, if  M. erigeronis ssp. villosae Smailova is a synonym. Oviparae and apterous males occur in early October (northern Italy; Hille Ris Lambers 1938). [M. (A.) aktaschica Nevsky, described from Aster in Central Asia as a subspecies of M. asteris, and recorded also (as M. aktashica) from Aster (= Pseudolinosyris) grimmii and Heteropappus altaicus respectively by Kadybekov (2005b) and Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova (2005), as well as from two species of Erigeron (Kadyrbekov 2014d), has relatively longer siphunculi (c. 0.2 × BL and c.1.3 × cauda).]

Macrosiphoniella atra (Ferrari)    Apterae are shiny black with mainly black appendages; BL c.1.8-2.1 mm. In shoot tips and inflorescences of  Artemisia alba (= camphorata) in Italy (Roberti 1958), and also found on other Artemisia spp. and in other parts of Europe (France, Netherlands, Hungary, former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece), and in west Siberia.  Holman & Szelegiewicz (1978) described a subspecies, M. atra ssp. latysiphon, from Mongolia, and this form is reported from Artemisia spp. in Korea (Lee et al. 2002c, Holman et al. 2006b), Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009a) and the Altai (Kadyrbekov 2014g), and also from east Siberia on Tanacetum boreale (Pashchenko 1988a). Another subspecies, M. atra ssp. turanica, was described from Tajikistan (Narzikulov & Umarov 1969, as M. affinis ssp. turanica), and was given full species status by Remaudičre & Remaudičre (1997, as M. affinis), but seems to be based only on size-related differences. Holman & Szelegiewicz (1978) discussed morphological variation in  the atra group, which includes M. atrata Umarov (on Artemisia sp. in Tajikistan), and M. nigropilosa Nevsky (described from Artemisia persica in Kazakhstan, and also recorded from other Artemisia and Seriphidium spp., and from Thymus serphyllum in Central Asia; see Narzikulov & Umarov 1969). Umarov (1964) described Central Asian populations of M. nigropilosa differing from Nevsky’s as a subspecies, M. nigropilosa ssp. pamirica. A member of the atra group is also present in north-west India (Bindra & Sekhon 1969, as hikosanensis).  The atra group may also include M. achlys, M. ajaniae, M. albiartemisiae, M. brevisiphona, M. himalayana and M. santolinifoliae.  Kadyrbekov (1999a) provided a key to distinguish some of these species then described.

Macrosiphoniella austriacae Bozhko    Apterae are pale brown (with darker transverse bars on dorsal abdomen), densely covered in white wax powder; BL c. 1.8-1.8 mm. On stems of Artemisia spp., specially A. austriaca, in Ukraine, Moldova, south-east Russia and western Siberia, and also recorded from east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2004b).  Close to M. teriolana.

Macrosiphoniella borealis Pashchenko    Apterae are green with mainly pale brown appendages; BL  c.2.6 mm. On flower stems of Artemisia arctica, A. tanacetifolia and (one sample) Tanacetum boreale, usually forming small dense colonies, in north-east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998a), and also recorded from Artemisia rupestris in eastern Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009b). Oviparae and an apterous male were collected in Siberia in August.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) bozhkoae Remaudičre    Apterae are dark green, wax-dusted; BL c. 2.5 mm. On Linosyris (= Galatella) villosa in Ukraine (Bozhko 1976, as M. ucrainica), and also recorded from south-east Russia and west Kazakhstan.

Macrosiphoniella brevisiphona Zhang    Appearance in life is unknown, probably dark as it appears to be a member of the atra group; BL c. 2.4 mm. On Artemisia sp. in Tibet.  A paratype specimen has been examined, and seems close to M. atra ssp. latysiphon.

Macrosiphoniella capillaricola Holman, Lee & Havelka    Apterae are dark brown to shiny black; BL 2.0-2.8 mm. Immatures are reddish brown. On stems of Artemisia in South Korea, clearly preferring A. capillaris (Holman et al. 2006b).

Macrosiphoniella caucasica (Wojciechowski)    Apterae are matt brownish black; BL 1.7-1.9 mm. On flowers and fruits of Pyrethrum sp. in  Russia (Caucasus).

Macrosiphoniella cayratiae Tseng & Tao    Colour in life is unknown; BL of aptera c.2.4 mm. On Cayratia japonica in China.

Macrosiphoniella cegmidi Szelegiewicz    Apterae are bright greenish, with siphunculi dark at apices; c. BL 1.7-2.0 mm. On Artemisia sp. in Mongolia. (See comment under M. szalaymarzsoi.)

Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella) chaetosiphon Takahashi & Moritsu  (Fig.13e)   Apterae are dark red with black siphunculi and cauda, BL 2.0-2.5 mm. On Artemisia spp. in Japan and Korea.  Oviparae were found on A. princeps in October in South Korea (Holman et al. 2006a). Generic placement was discussed by Holman & Szelegiewicz (1979).

Macrosiphoniella chamaemelifoliae Remaudičre & Leclant  (Fig.13o)  Apterae are pale green, wax dusted, with head, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda black; BL 1.6-2.6 mm. In colonies, often very dense, on shoots of  Artemisia chamaemelifolia at altitudes of 1,600-2,000m in the French Alps. Oviparae and both apterous and alate males appear from August-October,  fundatrices in late June. Aphidius absinthii and Ephedrus niger are recorded as parasitoids of this species (original description).

Macrosiphoniella cinerascens Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are bright sea-green, with dorsal pattern of white powder; BL 2.1-2.6 mm. On lower leaves of Achillea californica (= millefolium), turning their tips brown. In western USA (California, Idaho, Oregon, Washington).

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) confusa Holman, Lee & Havelka    Colour in life is unknown; BL 2.3-2.9 mm. On Tanacetum boreale in Korea (Holman et al. 2006a).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) crepidis Holman & Szelegiewicz    Apterae are yellowish green, covered with a greyish wax powder, with dark appendages; BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On Crepis spp. in Mongolia. Other morphs have not been described.

Macrosiphoniella cymbariae Bozhko    Apterae are dark yellow-brown; BL c.2.2 mm. On Cymbaria borysthenica in Ukraine.

Macrosiphonella (Asterobium) davazhamci Holman & Szelegiewicz    Apterae are matt green, dusted ventrally with greyish wax powder; BL 1.9-2.6 mm. On Aster hispidus in Mongolia, on Aster canescens (Nees) Fisjun (= Kalimeris altaica) in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2012a), and on Aster sp. in China, near Beijing (BMNH collection, leg. V.F. Eastop). Immature oviparae and alate males were found in September (original description).

Macrosiphoniella dimidiata Börner   (Fig.13j)   Apterae are are brown or greenish, wax powdered, with black head, siphunculi and cauda, and mainly black (except at bases) antennae and legs; BL 1.8-2.7 mm. On upper parts of shoots of Artemisia spp. (usually campestris) throughout most of continental Europe, and east to Turkey . In Israel it occurs on A. monosperma (BMNH collection). M. lena Pashchenko, described from Artemisia commutata (= pubescens) in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998a), is possibly this species, and M. kirgisica Umarov in Central Asia also seems closely related. [There is an argument for using the earlier name fasciata del Guercio for this species (Leclant 1968b), but the application of this name is confused and we therefore here retain the more generally accepted name dimidiata.]   Oviparae and apterous males occur in October in Finland (Heikinheimo 1997). 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella dracunculi (Umarov)    Apterae are green with dark siphunculi, BL c. 2.6-2.8 mm, on stems of Artemisia dracunculus in Kyrgyzstan.  Probably close to M. nitida, but with shorter antennal terminal process and longer siphunculi (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1978).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) elegans Pashchenko    Apterae are shining black; BL c. 2.9 mm. On shoot apices and flower buds of Galatella dahurica in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1999a).

Macrosiphoniella elenae Pashchenko    Apterae are dark brown; BL c. 1.9 mm. Found in small sparse colonies on stems of Artemisia stolonifera, visited by ants (the short siphunculi and cauda are clearly adaptations for ant attendance). In east Siberia (Pashchenko 1999b).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) erigeronis Nevsky    Apterae are shining brown, with black siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.7-2.5 mm. Forming dense colonies on flower stalks of Erigeron acer in Central Asia (Uzbekistan). A population on Galatella villosa in Kazakhstan was described as a subspecies, M. erigeronis ssp. villosae Smailova, but could possibly be M. asteris.

Macrosiphoniella erythraea Zhang & Qiao   Apterae are red in life. Described from two apterae and immatures on Artemisia sp. in Fujian province, China (Qiao & Zhang 1999c, 1999d). It is said to be near M. myohyangsani, except for its colour in life and paler, more hairy cauda.

Macrosiphoniella femorata Bozhko    Apterae are dark green; BL c.1.9 mm. On Hieracium umbellatum in Ukraine. This species could not be included in the key to aphids on Hieracium on the basis of the published description.

Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae Takahashi    Apterae are shiny black with mainly blackish brown appendages, BL c. 1.8-2.2 mm. On stems of Artemisia spp. in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, east Siberia, Mongolia and India. Sexuales do not appear to have been described; the species is anholocyclic in Taiwan (Takahashi 1923). Holman & Szelegiewicz (1978) compared Mongolian and Japanese material. 2n=10.

Macrosiphoniella frigidae Ivanoskaya    Apterae are yellowish-green with a pattern of dark dorsal abdominal pigmentation and dark appendages; BL c. 2.7 mm. In small colonies on Artemisia frigida and Artemisia sp. in Siberia, and also recorded from east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2004b). Probably it is a member of the dimidiata/teriolana group.

Macrosiphoniella frigidicola Gillette & Palmer    Apteraea are bluish green, wax-powdered, with siphunculi dusky at apices; BL c.1.6-1.7 mm. On leaves of Artemisia frigida, and perhaps sometimes on other Artemisia spp. and Seriphidium tridentatum, although there is possible confusion with M. abrotani.  In central and western North America; records from eastern North America are more likely to be abrotani. A record from Krascheninnikovia lanata was probably of vagrants. Oviparae and apterous males appear in October in Colorado (Palmer 1952).

Macrosiphoniella frigidivora Holman & Szelegiewicz  (Fig.13l)    Apterae are green or pinkish green dusted with fine grey wax powder, with blackish antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.6-2.2 mm. At ends of shoots of Artemisia frigida in Mongolia. A paratype specimen of M. hokkaidensis in the BMNH collection from Japan is very similar, and the distinction between these two species needs to be confirmed.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) galatellae Bozhko    Apterae are shining brownish black with black appendages; BL 2.3-2.7 mm. In small colonies of very mobile aphids on  flower stems of Aster and Galatella spp., dropping readily when disturbed (Bozhko 1976b).  In eastern Europe (Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine), southern Russia (Ciscaucasia) and Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2004b, 2012a). A species described from China, M. quinifontana, is very similar and possibly a synonym.

Macrosiphoniella gaoloushana Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Apterae are black; BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On Artemisia japonica in Gansu Province, north-west China (Zhang 1999).

Macrosiphoniella glabra (Gillette & Palmer)    Apterae are shining “shamrock green”, with dusky spots at bases of dorsal hairs, mainly black legs and antennae, and black siphunculi; BL 1.8-2.3 mm. Singly or in small colonies on leaves and flowerheads of  Artemisia dracunculus in western USA from Washington to New Mexico, and there is also a record from Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. Oviparae and apterous males appear in September-October (Palmer 1952).

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) gmelinicola Szelegiewicz    Apteraea are shiny black with blackish antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL c.3.2-3.3 mm. On upper parts of stems of Artemisia spp. in Korea and east Siberia.

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) grandicauda Takahashi & Moritsu    Apterae are pale yellow or pale green with mainly dark brown antennae and legs, black siphunculi and pale cauda; BL 2.5-3.9 mm. On Artemisia spp., especially on older leaves, and there are also host records from Ainsliaea aptera, Arctium lappa and Petasites japonicus. In Japan, China, Korea, east Siberia, India and Nepal, and also recorded from Maryland, USA (Foottit et al. 2006). A record from Algeria (Laamari et al. 2013) requires additional confirmation. 2n=12 (Chen & Zhang, 1985b).

Macrosiphoniella helichrysi Remaudičre  (Fig.31f)   Apterae are grey with black appendages, the body covered in wax powder except for a shiny black central dorsal abdonimal patch and spots anterior to bases of siphunculi; BL 1.4-2.6 mm. On shoot apices and in flowerheads of Helichrysum spp., the adult apterae dropping readily from the plant when disturbed. In southern Europe, Turkey, and introduced to South Africa. Aguiar & Ilharco (2005) provided a detailed redescription. Sexual morphs are apparently unknown.

Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella) hikosanensis Moritsu  (Fig.13g)   Apterae are reddish-yellow with reddish head and prothorax, mainly pale antennae and tibiae, mainly dark femora, dark antesiphuncular spots, and black siphunculi and cauda (Moritsu 1983); BL 1.5-2.8 mm. On undersides of older leaves of Artemisia spp. in Japan, Korea, and east Siberia. Indian records of M. hikosanensis apply to other species, mostly kikungshana, but Bindra & Sekhon (1969) had a member of the atra group.

Macrosiphoniella (Ramitrichophorus) hillerislambersi Ossiannilsson    Apterae are reddish with (in life) a large black dorsal abdominal spot, and dark appendages including siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.6-1.9 mm. On Helichrysum arenarium, colonising parts near or just below ground level. Attended by ants. In Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Lithuania (Rakauskas et al. 2008) and Switzerland (Heie 1995). There is also a record from Arctium tomentosum in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2014d).

Macrosiphoniella himalayana Saha & Chakrabarti    Apterae are blackish; BL 1.9-2.4 mm. on undersides of leaves and in inflorescences of  Artemisia spp. in India and Pakistan.  Oviparae and alate males were collected in October (original description). Probably a member of the M. atra group (q.v.).

Macrosiphoniella hokkaidensis Miyazaki    Apterae are yellowish green, without wax according to original description (but see Lee et al. 2002c), with head reddish brown, and antennae, legs (except base of femora), siphunculi and cauda black; BL 1.8-2.6 mm. Described from Artemisia montana in Japan, and there are also records from several Artemisia spp. in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a) and Korea (Lee et al. 2002c, Holman et al. 2006b).  M. frigidivora Holman & Szelegiewicz on A. frigida in Mongolia is closely related and possibly the same species, although described as wax-powdered in life. 

Macrosiphoniella huaidensis Zhang    Apterae are green; BL c.2.5 mm. On Artemisia sp. in China. 2n=12 (Chen & Zhang 1985b)

Macrosiphoniella huochengensis Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Colour of apterae in life and BL are unrecorded. On leaves of Artemisia scoparia in Xinjiang-Uygur region of China (Zhang 1999). Also recorded from Euphorbia lunulata (= esula), but these were presumably vagrants.

Macrosiphoniella insignata Kadyrbekov    Apterae are shining black; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. At shoot apices of an Artemisia sp. in south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999a).

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) iranica Nieto Nafría & Pérez Hidalgo   Colour of apterae in life is unknown, BL 2.8-3.2 mm.  On an unidentified Centaurea sp. in western Iran (Nieto Nafría & Pérez Hidalgo 2013b).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) ixeridis Holman, Lee & Havelka    Apterae are pale green to yellowish green with dark head, dark tips to appendages and black siphunculi; BL 2.3-2.9 mm. On upper parts of Ixeris chinensis and Youngia sonchifolia in Korea (Holman et al. 2006).

Macrosiphoniella (Ramitrichophorus) janckei Börner  (Fig.31g)  Apterae are reddish brown to black, with green spots at bases of siph., powdered with wax; BL 1.8-2.0 mm. On stalks, flowerheads and undersides of leaves of  Helichrysum arenarium. In northern Germany, Poland, Lithuania (Rakauskas et al. 2008), Ukraine, west Siberia and west Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2011c). Oviparae and apterous males Germany in late September (Müller 1975a).

Macrosiphoniella jaroslavi Szelegiewicz    Apterae are green, dusted with fine grey wax powder, with blackish antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.6-2.3 mm. On tips of shoots and in inflorescences of Artemisia messerschmidtiana (var. discolor) in North Korea.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) jaroslavi Stekolshchikov & Khureva    Apterae are green, yellow-green or green with yellow-green abdomen, dull glistening, without wax powder, with antennae dark except at base of ANT III, legs mainly pale except for tarsi and apices of femora and tibiae, siphunculi mainly dark and cauda pale to grey; BL 3.2-3.8 mm. On shoot apices and in inflorescences of Artemisia spp. (arctica, tilesii) in north-east Siberia (Chukotka). The life cycle is abbreviated; old fundatrices, apterous and alate viviparae, oviparae and apterous males were all collected in early August (Stekolshchikov & Khureva 2015). [The name is a secondary homonym of M. jaroslavi Szelegiewicz.]

Macrosiphoniella kalimpongense R.C. Basu & Raychaudhuri    Appearance of apterae in life is unknown; BL 2.6-3.3 mm. On Artemisia vulgaris  and Artemisia sp. in India (West Bengal) and Nepal (BMNH collection).

Macrosiphoniella kareliniae Kadyrbekov, Renxin & Shao    Apterae are greenish with grey wax film, siphunculi brown with basal third pale; BL 2.0-2.5 mm. On stems of Karelinia caspia in central and south Kazakhstan and Xinjiang-Uygur region of western China (Kadyrbekov et al. 2002).

Macrosiphoniella  kaufmanni Börner  (Fig.13m)    Apterae are green, lightly wax-dusted (according to Bozhko 1976), with dark siphunculi and cauda; BL c.1.9-2.2 mm. On  Artemisia pontica in Czech Republic and Hungary, and also recorded from Ukraine on A. arenaria (Bozhko 1976), and from Italy on A. alba (Barbagallo & Pollini 2014). There is no adequate description of this species. Remaudičre & Leclant (1972) distinguish it from M. chamaemelifoliae.  Monoecious holocyclic according to Börner (1952), but sexual morphs are undescribed.

Macrosiphoniella kermanensis Mehrparvar & Rezwani    Apterae are greyish green thinly covered in wax powder; BL 2.1-2.6 mm. Alatae have 5-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. In sparse colonies in April on shoots of Artemisia (= Seriphidium) sieberi in Iran (Mehrparvar & Rezwani 2007). Life cycle and sexual morphs are unknown. Very similar to M. seriphidii and M. terraealbae, and the characters distinguishing it from those species could be those of the fundatrix morph.  

Macrosiphoniella kikungshana Takahashi    Apterae are shining brown with mainly dark brown appendages; BL 2.1-3.2 mm. On undersides of older leaves of Artemisia spp. in China, Korea, east Siberia, Nepal and India (Sikkim).  Szelegiewicz (1980) redescribed the species, and also described a population on A. sylvatica in Korea with shorter dorsal hairs and paler femora as a subspecies, A. kikungshana ssp. sylvaticae, but Holman et al (2006b) regard the subdivision as unjustified. Oviparae occur in October (Sikkim). Some of the Indian records of  M. hikosanensis should be referred to this species (see R.C. Basu & Raychaudhuri 1976b). 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella kirgisica Umarov    Apterae are greyish green with dark green spots on dorsal abdomen, and dark brown antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL c. 2.0-2.1 mm.  In large colonies on stems of several Artemisia/Seriphidium spp. (Kadyrbekov 2003c) in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Xinjiang-Uygur region of China). We could not distinguish this species from M. dimidiata on the basis of the published description.

Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella) kuwayamai Takahashi  (Fig.13f)   Apterae are dull green-black dusted with transverse bands of grey wax powder, reddish head and mainly black antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.5-3.2 mm. On Artemisia spp., usually living on lower parts of stems and older leaves. In Japan, Korea, China and E Siberia. Szelegiewicz (1980) redescribed apt. and al. vivip. of this species from Korea.

Macrosiphoniella lambersi Verma    Colour of apterae in life unknown; siphunculi pale and cauda with 7 hairs in the holotype according to the original description, but an apt. in the BMNH collection labelled as a paratype (leg. K.D. Verma) has dark siphunculi and its cauda has 11 hairs.  The measurement of the base of ANT VI must also be wrong in the original description; the paratype has ANT PT/BASE ratio of  3.86.  On Artemisia scoparia in India (Jammu). It has been erroneously synonymised with M. alativica in catalogues.

Macrosiphoniella lazoica Pashchenko    Apterae are blackish green; BL c.2.3 mm. At stem bases of Saussurea pulchella, attended by ants. In east Siberia (Pashchenko, 1999b). 

Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi (Ferrari)    Apterae are yellowish green, with a darker green or reddish brown band between the siphunculi, and appendages with contrasting pale and dark sections; BL 2.3-2.7 mm. Alatae have conspicuously brown-bordered wing veins. On undersides of basal leaves of  Leucanthemum spp. in Europe (Italy, Hungary, France, Netherlands), and also recorded from USA (Oregon, Pennsylvania, Maryland). Stoetzel & Miller (1999) provided a redescription of apterae and alatae.

Macrosiphoniella lidiae Umarov    Apterae are green, powdered with wax, with appendages dark except for bases of ANT III and siphunculi; BL  c. 1.9 mm. In large colonies at tops of stems of an  Artemisia sp. in Kazakhstan.

Macrosiphoniella lijiangensis Zhang, Zhong & Zhang (= Macrosiphoniella sensorinuda Zhang, Zhong & Zhang)     Appearance in life is unknown: BL 2.4-2.8 mm. On Artemisia vulgaris in China (Hengduan mountain region).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) linariae (Koch)  (Fig.15a,b)  Apterae are brownish black, with black appendages; BL c. 2.4-2.8 mm. On stems of Aster linosyris in Germany and northern Italy. Oviparae and alate males occur in October (Hille Ris Lambers 1938).  

Macrosiphoniella lithospermi Bozhko    Apterae are shining brown with dark brown dorsal markings, siphunculi and cauda black; BL c. 3 mm. In colonies on stems of Lithospermum arvense in Ukraine (Bozhko 1976b).

Macrosiphoniella longirostrata Holman & Szelegiewicz    Apterae “in life probably resembling M. frigidivora (q.v.), as it was collected with that species and only distinguished subsequently in slide-mounted preparations; BL 1.6-2.1 mm.  On Artemisia frigida in Mongolia. [The specimens recorded under this name from A. stellariana in Sakhalin by Pashchenko (1988a) were presumably M. sachalinensis (q.v.). See also comment under M szalaymarzsoi.]

Macrosiphoniella lopatini (Umarov)    Apterae are grass green powdered with greyish wax, with siphunculi dark only on  reticulated part; BL c.3.4-3.6 mm.  On stems of an Artemisia sp. in Tajikistan. Alatae are unknown.

Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae (Oestlund)    Apterae are glaucous green or yellowish green dusted with greyish white wax; BL 2.0-2.8 mm. Commonly on leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana, but it has also been recorded from A. vulgaris. A record from Tanacetum sp. may have been a misidentification, and a record from Krascheninnikovia (=Axyris) lanata was probably of vagrants. Widely distributed in North America (Palmer 1952, Robinson 1987).  Oviparae and alate males occur in October.  2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella maculata Nevsky    Apterae are yellow-green or green with black dorsal spots and antesiphuncular sclerites; BL 1.8 mm. On Medicago sativa (which is unlikely to be its true host) in the Pamirs at 3,600 m, in Tajikistan.  

Macrosiphoniella madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco   Apterae are pale grey mostly covered with fine whitish wax powder but leaving black central dorsal spot; BL 1.9-2.9 mm. On terminal shoots and leaf petioles of Helichrysum melaleucum in Madeira (Aguiar & Ilharco 2005).

Macrosiphoniella (Ramitrichophorus) medvedevi (Bozhko)  (Fig.31e)   Apterae are grey with brownish red speckling, or reddish yellow; BL 1.6-2.6 mm. On stems and flowers of  Helichrysum arenarium in Ukraine and Poland, attended by ants (Szelegiewicz 1958, as M. nasti). 

Macrosiphoniella miestingeri (Börner)    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL 2.7-3.0 mm. Under lower leaves of Tanacetum corymbosum, which are curved and yellowed. Only known from Germany.

Macrosiphoniella millefolii (De Geer)  Plate 27a  (Fig.5g)  Apterae are yellowish green, powdered with grey wax except for spinal stripe on abdomen and presiphuncular spots, and with black appendages (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 2.1-3.6 mm. On Achillea spp., especially A. millefolium, forming colonies especially in the inflorescences. Also occasionally found on plants in related genera (Leucanthemum, Tanacetum, Tripleurospermum). Common throughout most of Europe, in west Siberia, and introduced to North America. In east Siberia a form occurs with more secondary rhinaria in apterae (38-59, as opposed to 8-28 in European populations) and a rather shorter antennal terminal process (M. millefolii ssp. orientalis Pashchenko 1998). M. sudkharis (q.v.) could be a cold-temperature form of M. millefolli.  Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October in north-west Europe (Heie 1995). Sobhani (1970) studied the biology, life cycle and morphology of M. millefolii in Germany. Morlacchi et al. (2011) studied its developmnet on A. collina. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella mutellinae Börner    Apterae are thickly dusted with grey wax; BL 1.7-2.3 mm. On Artemisia genepi and A. mutellina  in Austria. A single, presumably vagrant, aptera was found on Leontopodium alpinum in the French Alps (Remaudičre 1954).

Macrosiphoniella (Chosoniella) myohyangsani Szelegiewicz    Apterae are pale green, with lead-coloured posterior abdomen and blackish appendages; BL 2.7-3.7 mm. On lower parts of stems of Artemisia spp. in Mongolia, east Siberia, China and Korea (Lee et al. 2002c). Holman et al. (2006a) pointed out that this species may not be specifically distinct from M. spinipes. 2n=12 (Chen & Zhang 1985b).

Macrosiphoniella (Ramitrichophorus) nikolajevi Kadyrbekov    Apterae are reddish brown; BL 2.1-2.4 mm. On flower stalks of Helichrysum maracandicum in south Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999b). Alatae are undescribed.

Macrosiphoniella nitida Börner    Apterae are light olive-brown or reddish, shiny on back but wax-powdered on abdomen, with dark antennae and tibiae, mainly pale femora and black siphunculi and cauda; BL c. 2.6-2.9 mm. On Artemisia dracunculus in Germany, former Yugoslavia, Iran (BMNH collection) and Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2012a).  Aphids collected on this host in Mongolia with a longer R IV+V and shorter dorsal hairs are regarded as a subspecies, M. nitida ssp. soongarica Szelegiewicz (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1978), although should perhaps have full species status. This subspecies is also recorded from south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005). M. dracunculi appears to be closely related, as also does M. piceaphis, described from north-west China on Picea sp. (G.Zhang 1999, as Piceaphis).

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) oblonga (Mordwilko)   Plate 27c   Apterae are long-bodied, pale green or apple green, with a darker green spinal stripe, and mostly pale appendages (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.0-5.1 mm. Usually found dispersed on undersides of lower leaves of Artemisia vulgaris, also sometimes on other Artemisia spp., on cultivated florists’ chrysanthemum (Dendranthema indicum, morifolium, frutescens), and occasionally on plants in other related genera (Leucanthemum, Tanacetum). Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October in western Europe. M. oblonga occurs throughout Europe and across Asia to Japan and Taiwan. Some Asian populations have been given the status of separate species; M. hidaensis Takahashi & Moritsu in Japan and east Siberia, M. paraoblonga R.C. Basu & Raychudhuri in India, and M. similioblonga Zhang in China (also recorded from Korea; Lee et al. 2002c). Further work would be needed to show that these are not all one geographically variable species. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella olgae (Nevsky)    Apterae are brownish yellow, with dark dorsal spots, wax-dusted; BL 2.2-2.8 mm. On Gnaphalium spp. (sylvaticum, supinum) in Central Asia. Alatae are unknown.

Macrosiphoniella oronensis Szelegiewicz    Apterae are shiny brown, with mainly pale antennae and legs and blackish brown siphunculi and cauda; BL 2.0-2.4 mm. On undersides of older leaves of Artemisia japonica in North Korea.

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) pallidipes Holman, Lee & Havelka    Apterae are green with black antennae, tips of legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 3.1-3.5 mm. On Artemisia spp. in Korea (Holman et al. 2006).

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) papillata Holman    Apterae are greyish green, covered with a waxy secretion, with black appendages; BL 2.1-3.2 mm. On stems and undersides of leaves of  Centaurea spp., and also found on Crupina vulgaris (with heavily infested Centaurea close by). Described from Crimea, and since found in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005), Iran, Syria, Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece and France (Remaudičre & Remaudičre 1997, p.305).

Macrosiphoniella (Ramitrichophorus) paradoxa (Bozhko)    Apterae are matt dark brown, with black antennae and siphunculi; BL c.1.6 mm. On shoot tips and among flowers of Helichrysum suaveolens (? an untraceable name) in Ukraine and southern Russia (Shaposhnikov 1964). It is closely related to U. janckei, and possibly a geographical or seasonal variant of that species.

Macrosiphoniella paucisetosa Robinson    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded, probably pale greenish except for blackish brown antennae (beyond base of III), tibiae and siphunculi (except basally); BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On Artemisia spp. in Manitoba, Canada (Robinson 1987).

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) pennsylvanica (Pepper)    Apterae are green with two longitudinal rows of wax markings; BL 1.9-2.5 mm. On Achillea millefolium in North America. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in October (original description, as Macrosiphum).

Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) persequens (Walker)    Apterae are green, with darker green spinal stripe, and dark apices to antennae, legs and siphunculi; BL 4.2-5.2 mm. On undersides of lower leaves of Tanacetum vulgare in Europe, and also recorded from Pyrethrum millefoliatum (Bozhko 1976b). Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella procerae Bozhko    Apterae are matt green, lightly wax-dusted, with dark apices of siphunculi; BL c. 1.9 mm. In small colonies on upper parts of stems of Artemisia procera (= abrotanum) in Ukraine (Bozhko 1976b) and south-west Russia (Kadyrbekov 2014g), and also recorded from A. glauca (= dracunculus) in western Siberia and A. terrae-albae in Kazakhstan.

Macrosiphoniella pseudoartemisiae Shinji    Apterae are pale yellow-brown with greenish tinge (slide label, Japanese specimens, BMNH collection); BL 1.8-2.8 mm. A common species on Artemisia spp. in east and south-east Asia (Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka) and introduced to South America (Argentina, Ortego et al. 2006); Brazil, BMNH collection). There has been some confusion with another common and widely distributed east Asian species, M. yomogifoliae, which has entirely black tibiae. This is usually a reliable means of distinguishing the two species, but one population of M. pseudoartemisiae from Java in the BMNH collection also has entirely black hind tibiae.  Another discriminant is the caudal hair number; 10-14 in pseudoartemisiae, 16-32 in yomogifoliae.  2n=10 (Pal & Khuda-Bukhsh 1982, Dutta & Gautam 1993) or 2n=12 (Kar & Khuda-Bukhsh 1988; perhaps this was misidentified yomogifoliae?).

Macrosiphoniella ptarmicae Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are green, wax-powdered, with olive patches at bases of siphunculi; BL 2.2-3.3 mm. On Achillea ptarmica in Europe, and eastward to Central Asia. Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October. Sobhani (1970) studied the biology, life cycle and morphology of M. ptarmicae in Germany.

Macrosiphoniella pulvera (Walker)    Apterae are greyish green or greyish white, heavily wax-powdered; BL 1.9-2.9 mm. On undersides of leaves of Seriphidium maritimum, with which they are concolorous.  There are also records from several other Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. Widely distributed mostly in coastal regions of Europe (except Iberian peninsula?), and eastward across Asia to Mongolia; the Mongolian aphids, collected on A. adamsi, differed in some respects from European populations (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1978). M. pulvera ssp. khinganica, described as shining green in life and collected on A. mongolica in east Siberia, differs from M. pulvera in several morphological features, including longer antennal hairs (Pashchenko 1998b), and is probably a distinct species.  Oviparae and apterous males of M. pulvera appear in September in Europe.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) quinifontana  Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL c.1.6 mm. On stems of Aster tataricus and Artemisia sp. (a less likely host) in Gansu Province, China (G. Zhang 1999). It’s distinction from M. galatellae needs to be verified.

Macrosiphoniella remaudierei Barbagallo & Nieto Nafría    Colour of apterae in life is unknown, probably green with wax dusting; BL 1.6-2.3 mm. On Helichrysum armenium in mountainous regions of Iran (Barbagallo & Nieto Nafría 2016). Probably closely related to M. aetnensis.

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) riedeli Szelegiewicz    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL 2.9-3.4 mm. On Carduus, Centaurea and Cuprina in south-west Asia (Syria, Lebanon, Sinai, Iran). Alatae are not described and the biology is unknown. The only difference between this species and M. papillata seems to be in the degree of pigmentation, and it should possibly be synonymised with that species.

Macrosiphoniella sachalinensis Pashchenko    Apterae are grey-green, wax-dusted; BL c.1.9-2.0 mm. In inflorescences of Artemisia stellariana in Sakhalin (Pashchenko 1998b).

Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gillette)  Plate 27b   Apterae are shiny, dark red‑brown to blackish brown, broadly spindle‑shaped, with black, relatively short and thick siphunculi, shorter than the black cauda; BL 1.0-2.3 mm. A cosmopolitan pest on cultivated florists’ chrysanthemum  (Dendranthema indicum, morifolium, frutescens) on undersides of leaves.  Of east Asian origin, where it often occurs on other Compositae (Anthemis, Artemisia, Aster).  Sexual morphs are unknown.  See also Blackman & Eastop (2000).  2n=12 (many samples from UK and India, and one from China; but Chen & Zhang (1985a,b) recorded 2n=10 for a sample from China).

Macrosiphoniella santolinifoliae Kadyrbekov    Apterae are shining blackish brown; BL 1.6-1.9 mm. On flower stalks of Artemisia santolinifolia in south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999a). A member of the M. atra group.

Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella) saussureae Holman & Szelegiewicz   (=  Macrosiphoniella chita Pashchenko)   Apterae are reddish brown to brownish black; BL 1.5-2.2 mm. Apterae have secondary rhinaria distrbuted III 9-24, IV 0-4, and alatae have them ditributed III 20+, IV 5-6. On flower stalks of  Saussurea salicifolia, attended by ants (the short siphunculi and cauda are modifications for ant attendance). Mongolia and east Siberia (Pashchenko 1999b, as M. chita).

Macrosiphoniella scopariae Bozhko    Apterae are rose pink, finely dusted with greyish wax, BL c. 2.3 mm. In large, fairly dispersed colonies on undersides of leaves of Artemisia scoparia in Ukraine (Bozhko 1976b).

Macrosiphoniella sejuncta (Walker)  (Fig.5h)   Apterae are variable, often a mix of green and brown individuals, or green mottled with brown, with pale-based siphunculi (see influential points/Gallery); BL 2.5-3.1 mm. On Achillea millefolium, living on leaves close to ground level. Europe, and eastward to west Siberia. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males in September-October (Heie 1995). 2n=10.

Macrosiphoniella seriphidii Kadyrbekov    Apterae are pale green with silvery sheen, siphunculi dark distally; BL 2.1-2.7 mm. On Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang-Uygur region of China (Kadyrbekov 2000, Kadyrbekov et al. 2002), and also recorded from Tajikistan (Kadyrbekov 2013c) and Russia (Altai; Kadyrbekov 2014g). It is very similar to M. terraealbae.

Macrosiphoniella sibirica Ivanoskaya    Apterae are greenish brown with dark antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda: BL c. 3.1 mm. On stems and influorescences of Artemisia spp. in Siberia and Kazakhstan.  Close to or synonymous with M. artemisiae.

Macrosiphoniella sieversianae Holman & Szelegiewicz    Apterae are green, powdered with whitish wax, with antennae and legs mainly dark, and siphunculi dark distally; BL 2.2-2.8 mm. On upper parts of stems of Artemisia sieversiana in Mongolia, and also in Kazakhstan and Russia (Kadyrbekov 2009b, 2014g).

Macrosiphoniella sikkimartemisiae Agarwala & Raychaudhuri    Appearance in life and size of apterae are unknown; antennae and legs partly pale, siphunculi and cauda dark. On Artemisia sp. in India (Sikkim).

Macrosiphoniella sikhotealiensis Pashchenko    Apterae are green, wax-dusted, with dark brown to black appendages; BL c.3.6 mm. Other morphs are unknown. On upper parts of stems of Artemisia stolonifera in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998b).

Macrosiphoniella silvestrii Roberti    Apterae are covered in white wax except for shiny black areas on dorsum; BL 2.8-3.0 mm. On upper parts of stems of  Achillea, Anthemis arvensis and Matricaria in southern Italy (Barbagallo 1970, Barbagallo & Stroyan 1982).

Macrosiphoniella sojaki Holman & Szelegiewicz    Appearance of apterae in life is unknown, probably wax-powdered, with blackish brown antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.7-2.3 mm. On Artemisia rutifolia in Mongolia (original description) and eastern Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009a).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) soosi Szelegiewicz    Apterae are light green with black head and appendages; BL 1.9-3.0 mm. On Galatella punctata, living on undersides of leaves, in Hungary, and also recorded from G. sedifolia ssp. biflora, G. fastigiiformis and G. chromopappa. In Hungary, Romania and south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005).

Macrosiphoniella (Chosoniella) spinipes A.N. Basu   (Fig.13d)   Apterae are shiny green with blackish siphunculi and dusky cauda; BL 1.8-3.8 mm. On undersides of leaves and young shoots of Artemisia vulgaris in north India (R.C. Basu & Raychaudhuri 1976b). 2n=10 (Kar et al. 1990).

Macrosiphoniella staegeri Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are dark brown to black, dusted with whitish wax; BL c.2.7-2.9 mm. On leaves and stems of  Centaurea spp. in southern Europe, Turkey, Armenia and Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2014e).  A subspecies was described from Ukraine (M. staegeri ssp. ucrainica Bozhko). Oviparae and alate males were found in Turkey in October (Tuatay & Remaudičre 1964); probably anholocyclic in mild climates, e.g Sicily (Patti 1983).   

Macrosiphoniella subaequalis Börner    Apterae are light brown to pinkish dusted with whitish grey wax, with dark antennae, siphunculi and cauda; legs with femora dark except at base and tibiae with pale middle section. BL 2.1-3.1 mm. On young shoots of Artemisia campestris (where it may be mixed with M. dimidiata), and also recorded from A. rupestris and A. variabilis.  In continental Europe (France, Poland, Austria, Switzerland, Italy). Jorg & Lampel (1988) review information about this species.

Macrosiphoniella subterranea (Koch)    Apterae are reddish brown dusted with greyish wax except on mid-dorsum and around bases of siphunculi, appendages with contrasting pale and black sections, siphunculi and cauda black; BL 2.6-3.5 mm. On undersides of leaves of Leucanthemum spp., causing yellow spots. Widely distributed  in Europe (Heie 1995), and also in North America (Ontario, Pennsylvania, Robinson 1987; Oregon, A. Jensen, aphidtrek.org). Oviparae and alate males occur in October-November. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella sudhakaris Banerjee, A.K. Ghosh & Chakrabarti    Apterae are pale green (immatures are white), with mainly dark appendages; BL 1.3-1.6 mm. On inflorescences and young leaves of Achillea millefolium at a high altitude in Uttar Pradesh, India. This is possibly a cold-temperature form of M. millefolii.

Macrosiphoniella szalaymarzsoi Szelegiewicz    Apterae are green, powdered with fine grey wax, with antennae dark distally, legs dark except for bases of femora and middle parts of hind tibiae, and siphunculi dark distally and paler at base; BL c. 2.3-2.5 mm. On terminal shoots of Artemisia alba ssp. saxatilis (= alba) in Hungary; also collected on A. herba-alba in Israel (BMNH collection, leg. V.F.Eastop), and recorded from Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2004b, 2009b, 2014e). It is separated in the key from three similar species (cegmidi, longirostrata, taesongsanensis) on the basis of the published descriptions, but the discriminants given are liable to environmentally induced variation, and the group evidently requires further study. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella tadshikana Narzikulov    Apterae are green, wax-dusted,  with siphunculi dark except at bases; BL c.2.6 mm. On upper parts of stems of Artemisia ferganensis in Tajikistan.  M. alativica may be closely related.

Macrosiphoniella taesongsanensis Szelegiewicz    Apterae are green, powdered with fine grey wax. The head is dark brown, with a colourless, semicircular spot at posterior margin. Antennae and siphunculi are pale basally and dark distally, legs mainly pale; BL c. 1.7-2.0 mm. On terminal parts of shoots of Artemisia spp. in Korea (Lee et al. 2002c), China (Zhong & Liu 1986), east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a) and east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2004b). (See comment under M.  szalaymarzsoi.)

Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria (Kaltenbach)    Apterae are grey-green, dusted with fine wax powder, with black antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.2-4.1 mm.  The principal host plant is Tanacetum vulgare, where it colonises the flowers and flower stems in summer, but the range of reserve hosts seems greater than in most Macrosiphoniella, including records from other Tanacetum spp., species of Achillea, Anthemis, Artemisia, Aster, Bidens, Chamaemelum, Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema and Matricaria, and also Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).  Monoecious holocyclic on T. vulgare, with alate males. Throughout Europe, Morocco, Israel, Georgia, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Siberia, and introduced to North and South America.  Two forms in the Mediterranean region and one in Central Asia are regarded as subspecies; one of these, M. tanacetaria ssp. bonariensis Blanchard, has siphunculi longer relative to the cauda, and is the form that has been introduced into South America. Another,  M. tanacetaria ssp. italica Hille Ris Lambers, occurs in Italy, Austria and former Yugoslavia and appears to be specific to Tanacetum corymbosum. The third, M. tanacetaria ssp. tianshanica Narzikulov & Umarov, is described from alatae in Tajikistan which have fewer rhinaria on ANT III and a much shorter cauda. Massonet et al. (2002) and Massonet & Weisser (2004) studied genetic variation in French and German populations, and Loxdale et al. (2011a, b) analysed variation on a smaller spatial scale using microstatellite markers. 2n = 12.

Macrosiphoniella tapuskae (Hottes & Frison)   Plate 27d  (Fig.5i)   Apterae are pale green, with a darker green spot on abdominal tergite 5 between the siphuncular bases; BL 2.5-3.3 mm. On various Anthemidae (Achillea, Anacyclus, Anthemis, Argyranthemum, Artemisia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Tanacetum), usually feeding on lower leaves. Europe, eastward to central and southern Russia, south-west and Central Asia, North Africa and North America, and more recently recorded from Argentina (Ortego et al. 2006). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in September-November. M. aktashica (Nevsky), and also M. aktashica ssp. hirsuta (q.v.), are possible synonyms. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella teriolana Hille Ris Lambers  (Fig.13i)   Apterae are yellowish green, powdered with grey wax, with appengages all black except for base of ANT III; BL c.1.7-2.0 mm. On Artemisia campestris in northern Italy. It is only known definitely from the type locality; other records refer to M. dimidiata.

Macrosiphoniella terraealbae Kadyrbekov    Apterae are pale green with silvery sheen, antennae and legs brown to dark brown, siphunculi dark except basally; BL 1.5-2.4 mm. On Artemisia terrae-albae in Kazakhstan, south-west Russia and Xinjiang-Uygur region of China (Kadyrbekov 2000, 2014g; Kadyrbekov et al. 2002). Very similar to M. seriphidii.

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) tuberculata (Nevsky)    Apterae are green, with siphunculi brown, paler at base; BL 1.8-2.9 mm. On stems and undersides of leaves of Picnomon acarna, and also recorded from Cousinia sp. (as M. cousiniae Lampel & Rezwani). The original host was recorded as Carduus sp., but this was perhaps a misidentification. Middle East and Central Asia (Israel, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Uzbekistan). Monoecious holocyclic in Turkey with ovipare and alate males in October (Tuatay & Remaudičre 1965).

Macrosiphoniella (Papillomyzus) tuberculatumartemisicola Bozhko    Apterae are green, powdered with grey wax, with appendages mainly dark; BL c. 2.8 mm. In small colonies on flower stems of Seriphidium tauricum in Crimea, and also recorded from Iran (Rezwani 1994).

Macrosiphoniella umarovi Narzikulov  (Fig.13k)   Apterae are green, wax-dusted, with mainly brown appendages but pale spots at apices of femora, and pale cauda; BL c. 1.9-2.2 mm. On leaves and stems of an Artemisia sp. in Afghanistan.  Keyed on basis of specimens in BMNH collection agreeing with the original description, collected in 1975 from Artemisia sp. in Afghanistan (leg. R. van den Bosch).

Macrosiphoniella usquertensis Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are brownish, powdered with greyish wax, with antennae and legs yellow and black, siphunculi and cauda black; BL 2.4-3.2 mm. Principal host plant is Achillea millefolium, but also on other Achillea spp., and sometimes found on Artemisia campestris.  It lives on the lower leaves of Achillea, which eventually turn brownish and wither (Heie 1995). Widely distributed in Europe, and an alata has been found in Quebec, Canada (Robinson 1987).  Oviparae and alate males occur in north-west Europe in late August-October. Sobhani (1970) studied the biology, life cycle and morphology of M. usquertensis in Germany, and Sobhani & Iglisch (1972) compared morphology of males with that of M. ptarmicae.

Macrosiphoniella vallesiacae Jörg & Lampel     Apterae are dark green powdered with greyish white wax, with appendages mainly pale to dark brown; BL 1.7-2.4 mm. On apices of young shoots of Artemisia vallesiaca in alpine Switzerland and Italy (Lampel & Meier 2007).

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) victoriae Kadyrbekov    Apterae are dark green, with mainly dark brown appendages; BL 2.2-2.4 mm. On Saussurea elegans in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 1999a), and subsequently recorded from Jurinea (=Pilostemon) filifolia (Kadyrbekov 2014d).

Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi Bozhko    Apterae are pale brown with black appendages; BL 2.2-3.0 mm. On Xeranthemum spp. in eastern Europe.

Macrosiphoniella xinjiangica Kadyrbekov, Renxin & Shao    Apterae are bright green; BL 2.5-3.0 mm. On stems of Artemisia dracunculus in Xinjiang-Uygur region of western China (Kadyrbekov et al. 2002).

Macrosiphoniella  yangi Takahashi    Only apparently known from original collection, from “a composite”. Placed in Asterobium by Szelegiewicz (1980), but it does not seem to belong there, and it is unclear where the host record from Aster sp. originated.

Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) yomenae (Shinji)  (Fig.15c)   Apterae are dirty yellow-brown to green with brown-black head and pronotum,  brown presiphuncluar sclerites, and brown-black appendages; BL 2.6-3.5 mm. On Aster and related genera (Boltonia, Erigeron, Galatella, Kalimeris) in Japan, Korea, China and east Siberia. Also recorded from Hieracium sp. in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a), and from Artemisia and Chrysanthemum in Korea (Lee et al. 2002c, and BMNH collection), which may indicate a wider host range, but this needs further confirmation. 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella) yomogicola (Matsumura)    Apterae are grey to rust brown with dark transverse bars on dorsal abdomen, and dark antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 2.0-3.2 mm. On Artemisia spp., frequently visited by ants under earthen shelters (Miyazaki 1971).  In Japan, China, and east Siberia (Sakhalin, Kuril Islands). Also recorded from Dendranthema indica. A record from Ixeridium dentatum in Korea is probably based on a misidentification (Holman et al. 2006a).

Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae (Shinji)     Apterae are yellow-green to deep mid‑green, powdered with grey wax, with mainly dark antennae and legs, black siphunculi and brown cauda; BL 2.0-3.5 mm.  On Artemisia spp., Bidens spp., Chrysanthemum spp. (morifolium, nipponicum) and Tanacetum spp. in east and south-east Asia (Japan, Korea, China, east Siberia, India, Nepal, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia). Also recorded from Gnaphalium multiceps (= affine) in Korea (Lee et al. 2002c). Closely related to European M. artemisiae, but more often confused with M. pseudoartemisiae (q.v.). 2n=12.

Macrosiphoniella zeya Pashchenko    Apterae are brown, BL c.1.9-2.0 mm; immatures are greenish pinky brown. On upper parts of stems of  Artemisia messerschmidtiana in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1998b).

 

Macrosiphum Oestlund

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 120 species with long antennae and legs, long siphunculi usually with polygonal reticulation on distal 5‑30% (mostly 8‑18% in apterae and 15‑25% in alatae), hairs of medium length, and little or no dorsal abdominal pigmentation.  Several of the well‑known species (rosae, euphorbiae, pallidum) alternate from Rosa to herbaceous secondary hosts, but most species are monoecious holocyclic on a wide variety of herbs and shrubs, with a few on trees,  including subgenus Neocorylobium which has six species associated with Betulaceae. Males are usually alate. About half the species are described from North America, although some of these have seldom or never been recognized again and may really be synonyms of better known species.  About 36 species are known from Europe and the remainder are from central and east Asia.  Three South American species may also belong in Macrosiphum.  Sitobion, often treated as a subgenus of Macrosiphum, is now regarded as a separate genus.  Accounts of Macrosiphum are available for Europe (Hille Ris Lambers 1939, Heie 1994), UK and Ireland (Blackman 2010), Germany (Muller 1969b), Switzerland (Meier 1961, Lampel & Meier 2007), Central Asia (Nevsky 1929a, Narzikulov & Umarov 1969), Japan (Miyazaki 1971), Korea (S. Lee et al. 2001b, 2009), China (Tao 1963) and India (David 1976).  North American Macrosiphum were reviewed by Palmer (1952 ‑ Rocky Mountain region), Hottes & Frison (1931 ‑ Illinois), Patch (1919 ‑ eastern USA), and Soliman (1927 ‑ California).  MacGillivray (1968) and Jensen (1998) gave more recent information on some North American species, and Jensen (1997) clarified the distinction between Macrosiphum and Sitobion. Colour photographs of many western North American species are available at aphidtrek.org. Fern-feeding species, which seem to form a distinct group within Macrosiphum (or possibly a separate genus with 2n=16, whereas Macrosiphum typically have 2n=10) were reviewed and keyed by Jensen & Holman (2000).

Macrosiphum adianti (Oestlund)  (Fig.43f)   Apterae are yellow, greenish or pink; BL 1.0-2.1 mm. On Adiantum spp., esp. A. pedatum, in North America. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males. Records from other ferns are probably due to misidentification (Jensen & Holman 2000).

Macrosiphum aetheocornum Smith & Knowlton  (Fig.30a)   Apterae are greenish; BL c.3.0-3.5 mm. On Geranium spp., especially G. richardsonii, in western USA. This species is unusual in having some specimens (but not all) with hairs on siphunculi (Palmer 1952, BMNH collection, leg. G.F. Knowlton, and aphidtrek.org).

Macrosiphum agrimoniellum (Cockerell)    Apterae are broadly spindle-shaped, light apple-green with apices of antennal segments and tibiae darker; BL 2.8-3.3 mm.  Forming large colonies on flower stems of Agrimonia eupatoria, and also recorded from Potentilla sp. (aphidtrek.org). Widely distributed in North America (New Mexico, Utah, Illinois, New York, Massachusetts, New Brunswick).

Macrosiphum albertinae Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are apple-green with antennae, tibiae and siphunculi mainly dark, and cauda pale green; BL 2.4-2.9 mm. In small numbers on upper sides of leaves of Thesium intermedium in northern Italy, former Yugoslavia (BMNH collection, leg. V.F. Eastop) and Czech Republic (BMNH collection, leg. H.L.G. Stroyan), and on Th. divaricatum in France (BMNH collection, leg. G. Remaudičre). Alatae are undescribed.

Macrosiphum albifrons Essig   Lupin Aphid    Apterae are pale bluish-grey-green, dusted with white wax (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.2-5.1 mm. Alatae have a brown pterothorax. On leaves, stems and flowers of Lupinus spp., and also recorded from Thermopsis montana. In North America, and introduced to Europe and South America (Brazil). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males. See also Blackman & Eastop (2000). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum alpinum Meier    Apterae are pale yellowish green; BL 4.3-4.8 mm. On Senecio alpinus, feeding on undersides of middle and lower leaves, and also collected from S. fuchsii (= ovatus). Described from Switzerland, and also recorded from Cicerbita alpina in Ukraine (Chumak 2004). Monoecious holocyclic with sexual morphs in October (Lampel & Meier 2007). Very similar to, and possibly synonymous with, M. polanense.

Macrosiphum amelanchiericolens Patch  Described from Amelanchier spicata in Maine (Patch 1919), but not recorded since, and the types are lost (MacGillivray 1968).  Apparently a distinctive species, with numerous secondary rhinaria on ANT III in both apterae and alatae.  Appearance in life and biology are unknown.

Macrosiphum atragenae Holman    Apterae are whitish green with dark apices to antennal segments, legs and cauda; BL 3.7-4.55 mm. In small groups on undersides of leaves of Clematis alpina in the Carpathians (Slovakia, Romania). It is also recorded from C. glauca in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2013d).

Macrosiphum audeni Macdougall    Apterae are pale green; BL 2.3-2.9 mm. On upper sides of leaves of Nuphar lutea in north-western USA (Washington) and Canada (British Columbia). This species is very similar to M. euphorbiae, but specimens in the BMNH collection (leg. A.P. Macdougall) have a relatively longer antennal terminal process and shorter hind tarsus II.

Macrosiphum badium Jensen    Apterae are dark reddish brown, brick-coloured (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.3-3.1 mm. On Maianthemum spp. in western USA. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and both apterous and alate males in October (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum bisensoriatum Macdougall    Apterae are dark green; BL c.3.4 mm. On undersides of leaves of Ribes lacustre in British Columbia, Canada. The life cycle is unknown.

Macrosiphum bupleuri Kadyrbekov    Apterae are yellow or yellow-green, with dark tips to siphunculi; BL 2.6-3.6 mm. On inflorescences and undersides of leaves of Bupleurum aureum in south-east Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2000).

Macrosiphum californicum (Clarke)  Apterae are elongate spindle-shaped, green with long, yellowish green, dusky-tipped siphunculi; BL 1.9-2.6 mm.  Alatae are rather pale and have only 5-10 secondary rhinaria, confined to basal half of ANT III.  On young growth of Salix spp., common and widely distributed in North America, and also recorded from Honduras (Evans & Halbert 2007).  Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and alate males occur in October (Palmer 1952).  2n=10.

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) carpinicolens Patch  Apterae are green with dark legs, antennae and distal parts of siphunculi; BL 1.8-2.6 mm.  On young shoots and leaves of Carpinus caroliniana in eastern North America.  Monoecious holocyclic; Hottes & Frison (1931) described the fundatrix, alatae vivipara, ovipara and alate male.  The sexuales occur in October.  See also MacGillivray (1968).

Macrosiphum centranthi Theobald    Apterae are whitish green, yellowish green or green with darker green spinal stripe, with dark brown eyes (not red as in euphorbiae), and femora and siphunculi darker towards apices; BL 2.0-3.6 mm. Alatae have 17-26 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On leaves and stems of Valerianaceae (Centranthus, Valeriana), sometimes in mixed colonies with M. rosae, and colonies also occur sporadically on various other plants. Europe (UK, Switzerland), India, and Africa (Mozambique, Tanzani, South Africa). Indian populations seem more polyphagous, with records fron Chrysanthemum, Cineraria, Mangifera, Rosa, Tibouchina, etc. (David 1976). Monoecious holocyclic in Europe, with alate males (Meier 1961), probably anholocyclic elsewhere. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum cerinthiacum Börner    Apterae are pale yellow with dark brown apices to antennae, legs and siphunculi, and dark “knees”; BL c.3.5 mm. Alatae have c.35-40 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On undersides of leaves of Cerinthe minor in France (BMNH collection, leg. J.H. Martin), Spain, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and Turkey.  The life cycle is unknown.

Macrosiphum cholodkovskyi (Mordvilko)  (= Macrosiphum corallinum Theobald)    Apterae are yellow-green to dark blue-green or vivid coral-pink to red, with femora and siphunculi dark distally (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.1-5.1 mm. Immatures often have a darker green mid-dorsal stripe. Alatae have 9-28 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On upper leaves, stems and inflorescences of Filipendula ulmaria, and occasionally on Valeriana spp. In Europe, eastward to Turkey, west Siberia, Transcaucasus and Kazakhstan. Monoecious holocyclic, with alate males (Heie 1994). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum chukotense Stekolshchikov & Khureva    Apterae are very variable in colour, yellow-green with a dark green spinal stripe, green, purple, reddish purple or red-brown, with appendages mainly pale; BL 2.4-3.8 mm. On shoot apices, stems and inflorescences of plants in several families; Asteraceae (Artemisia, Petasites), Ericaceae (Vaccinium), Fabaceae (Astragalus), Onagraceae (Epilobium), Orobanchaceae (Pedicularis), Polemoniaceae (Polemonium), Polygonaceae (Persicaria), Ranunculaceae (Anemone), Rosaceae (Comarum, Rubus), Saxifragaceae (Saxifraga) and Valerianaceae (Valeriana). In north-east Siberia (Chukotka). Fundatrices were collected from plants in five of these families, confirming this species’ polyphagy. Morphologically it is close to M. euphorbiae, but there is no host alternation and the life cycle is abbreviated, with oviparae and alate males in late July-early August (Stekolshchikov & Khureva 2015). There is also a close parallel to M. valerianae, a similar species in western North America that also lives without host alternation on a wide variety of host plants.

Macrosiphum claytoniae Jensen    Apterae are dark reddish or greenish brown (see aphidtrek.org); BL 1.8-2.7 mm. Immatures are dusted with purplish or bluish grey wax. On Claytonia spp., especially C. sibirica, in western USA (Colorado, Oregon) and Canada (British Columbia). Apparently entirely anholocyclic, surviving the winter in mild humid areas west of the Cascade Mountains (Jensen 2000). 2n=16.

Macrosiphum clematifoliae Shinji    Apterae are rather large, spindle-shaped, pale yellow green to green with a darker blue-green spinal stripe, and black siphunculi that are pale at their bases; BL 2.8-3.5 mm. On Clematis spp., feeding on both sides of leaves. In Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan. Monoecious holocyclic in Japan (Miyazaki 1971). 2n=18 (the karyotype suggests that this species may be a Sitobion).

Macrosiphum clematophagum Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li    Apterae are green; BL c. 2.3 mm. On leaves of Clematis florida in Gansu Province (Xinglongshan mountains, 2200m), China (Zhang 1999).

Macrosiphum clum Jensen  Apterae are mid-green; BL 1.7-2.6 mm. On leaves and stems of Clematis ligusticifolia, in low densities and usually in exposed and dry or rocky sites. In north-west USA (Oregon, Idaho, Washington). Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae were collected in October (Jensen 2015).

Macrosiphum clydesmithi Robinson  (Fig.43g)   Apterae are pale green; BL 1.7-3.0 mm. Heteroecious holocyclic, migrating from Holodiscus discolor to Pteridium aquilinum in western North America, from Mexico to Washington. In western Oregon remigration to Holodiscus occurs in October-November, a few weeks earlier than M. pteridis, which utilises the same hosts (Jensen & Holman 2000). 2n=16.

Macrosiphum constrictum Patch    Colour of apterae in life is unknown, and BL unrecorded. On Pedicularis sp. and Saxifraga sp. on St Paul and St George (Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea). Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae occurred (on Pedicularis) in June (original description). The generic position is uncertain.

Macrosiphum corallorhizae Cockerell    Apterae are green, with long siphunculi, blackish in middle and at apices; BL 2.5-3.0 mm. On Corallorhiza spp. in USA (New Mexico) and Canada (British Columbia; Forbes & Chan 1989).

Macrosiphum cornifoliae (Shinji)   Apterae are translucent, whitish, with banded antennae; BL c. 2.2mm. Alatae are pale yellow-green with yellow-brown thorax and dusky appendages (Moritsu 1983). On undersides of leaves of Cornus spp. in Japan and Korea. Presumably monoecious holocyclic; oviparae were collected in November (Miyazaki 1971). [An undescribed Macrosiphum sp. from Cornus stolonifera in British Columbia, Canada may key out to this species, but is distinct.] 2n=14 (based on 2n male =13; Shinji 1931).

Macrosiphum corydalis (Oestlund)     Apterae are green, BL not recorded. Very similar and almost indistinguishable in morphology to M. euphorbiae, but monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males. On Fumariaceae (Dicentra formosa, Corydalis aurea) in North America; so far known from British Columbia, Washington, California, Minnesota Wisconsin and Maine. In late summer it can occur in dense colonies with M. dicentrae  on flower stalks of Dicentra (Jensen & Chan 2009). [This species was for many years known only as alatae, and has been treated in catalogues as a synonym of Acyrthosiphon pisum.]  2n=10.

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) coryli Davis   Apterae have reddish brown head and prothorax, abdomen mainly green suffused with dark brown laterally and posteriorly, antennae and legs mainly dark, and siphunculi black contrasting with the pale cauda (Davis 1914); BL 1.6-2.2 mm.  On shoot tips and undersides of young leaves of Corylus americana and C. cornuta (incl. var california) in USA (more northerly states) and across Canada.  Presumably monoecious holocyclic, but life cycle and sexuales are apparently unknown.

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) corylicola Shinji   Apterae are dull yellow to yellowish green, often suffused dorsally with dark brown, antennae, legs and siphunculi mainly black, cauda dusky; BL 2.5-3.1 mm (Miyazaki 1971).  On Corylus spp. and Carpinus laxiflora in Japan, east Siberia and Korea (Paik 1972). Biology and sexuales are unrecorded.

Macrosiphum creelii Davis     Apterae are pale green, pink or yellow; BL 2.3-4.0 mm. On various Leguminosae/Fabaceae (Lathyrus, Lens, Medicago, Phaseolus, Pisum, Vicia) in western North America. Halfhill (1982) studied its host plant preferences and temperature relations. Apparently monoecious holocyclic, but males are not yet described. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum cuscutae Holman     Apterae are broadly spindle-shaped, orange with black appendages; BL 2.5-3.0 mm. On Cuscuta umbellata in Cuba; this appears to be the main host, and its colour is identical to that of the aphid, but smaller colonies have been also found on plants in genera in other familes (Cissus, Pavonia and Ruellia; original description). 

Macrosiphum cyatheae (Holman)    Apterae are pale green, with dark brown antennae and tibiae; BL 1.6-3.0 mm. Singly or in small colonies on undersides of fronds of Cyathea balanocarpa and Pteridium caudatum in Cuba (original description, as Acyrthosiphon), and subsequently found on Pteridium in Venezuela, and on Pteridium sp. and unidentified epiphytic ferns in eastern Mexico (Jensen & Holman 2000).

Macrosiphum cystopteris Robinson    Apterae are dark green to greenish black; BL 2.2-2.5 mm. On undersides of fronds of Cystopteris bulbifera in USA (Pennsylvania), and also recorded from Cystopteris sp. in Mexico (Jensen & Holman 2000). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae in late September (in USA).

Macrosiphum daphinidis Börner    Apterae are pale yellowish or whitish green with slightly darker spinal stripe, with dark brown eyes (cf. euphorbiae), entirely pale femora, and siphunculi only slightly darker at apices; BL 2.4-4.2 mm. Alatae have 26-47 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Daphne spp., especially D. mezereum, forming small, rather loose colonies on growing buds and shoots, and scattered on undersides of leaves (Watson 1982).  In Europe, and introduced to western North America (Oregon, British Columbia).  Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males (Heie 1994) in September. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum dicentrae Jensen & Chan    Apterae are yellowish to mid-green dusted lightly with wax; BL 2.4-3.8 mm. Alatae have 4-13 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Monoecious holocyclic on Fumariaceae, mostly feeding on Dicentra formosa; also found on Dicentra sp., Corydalis scouleri and C. aurea. In western North America. Oviparae and alate males appear in September-October (Jensen & Chan 2009). 2n=16.   

Macrosiphum diervillae Patch    Apterae are milky white with pale appendages; BL 2.9-3.4 mm.  Living singly on undersides of leaves of Diervilla lonicera in north-eastern USA and eastern Canada. Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and males (immature) were collected in September in New Brunswick (MacGillivray 1968).

Macrosiphum doronicicola Leclant    Apterae are spindle-shaped, green to greenish white with dark apices to appendages: BL 2.9-4.2 mm. Forming small colonies on flower stems and flowerheads of Doronicum austriacum in south-west Europe (France, Spain). Monoecious holocyclic, apparently with an abbreviated parthenogenetic phase; fundatrices were collected in mid-June, and oviparae and alate males were present in mid-July (original description).

Macrosiphum dryopteridis (Holman)    Apterae are yellowish green to bright or pale green, sometimes pale yellow or pinkish; BL 1.7-2.4 mm. On various ferns (Athyrium, Dryopteris, Gymnocarpium, Thelypteris), feeding on undersides of fronds along veins. In north and central Europe. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in September-October (original description). Possibly there are host-specific populations; Müller (1988) found that a bright green form on Gymnocarpium dryopteris and a yellowish green form on Athyrium filix-femina bred true in the laboratory, with hybrids having intermediate colouration.

Macrosiphum dzhibladzeae Barjadze   Apterae are yellow with a green spinal stripe; BL 3.1-3.9 mm. In dense colonies on the stems and undersides of leaves of Euphorbia macroceras in Georgia (Barjadze & Gratiashvili 2010). Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Macrosiphum echinocysti Bartholomew    Apterae are forest green, with slight whitish bloom, head paler, eyes dark red, and with a dark green spinal stripe; BL 2.4-3.5 mm. On Echinocystis sp. in California, USA (San Francisco), in large numbers on the undersides of leaves and dropping readily when disturbed (original description).  The author could not find this species again when he visited the site the following year, and it has not been collected since.

Macrosiphum edrossi Essig    Apterae are yellowish or greenish, with mainly dark appendages; BL 2.3-2.8 mm. On an Urtica sp. in Peru.

Macrosiphum equiseti (Holman)    Apterae are spindle-shaped, uniformly green or pinkish with apices of appendages dark brown to blackish; BL 1.6-2.6 mm. In small groups on undersides of branches of  Equisetum spp. in Europe and Canada (British Columbia). Monoecious holocyclic on E. sylvaticum in Czech Republic, with oviparae and apterous males in September (original description). 2n=16.

Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas)  Potato Aphid   Plate 25g   Apterae are broadly spindle-shaped, usually green, sometimes yellowish, pink or magenta, with red eyes, and femora and siphunculi pale or only slightly darker towards apices (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.7-3.6 mm. Immatures are rather long-bodied, paler than adults but with a dark spinal stripe, and are dusted with greyish wax. Alatae are rather pale, with a pale greenish to yellow-brown thorax, only the antennae and siphunculi noticeably darker than in apterae, and have 12-21 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Of  North American origin, now almost world-wide. Heteroecious holocyclic with a sexual phase on Rosa in north-eastern USA, but elsewhere probably mainly or entirely anholocyclic on secondary hosts in more than 20 different plant families. Raboudi et al. (2011, 2012) studied the genetic diversity of populations on different host plants in Tunisia. See also Blackman & Eastop (2000, p.291). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum euphorbiellum Theobald (= M. amygdaloides Theobald; synonymy established by Watson 1982, and published in Blackman 2010)    Apterae are broadly spindle-shaped and very variable in colour - yellow green, mid green, pink, magenta or wine red - with black apices to antennae, femora, tibiae and siphunculi (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.5-3.7 mm. On stems and flowerheads of Euphorbia spp. in Europe (southern England, southern Ireland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Corsica, Italy and Turkey). Monoecious holocyclic with red oviparae and red alate males occurring in late September-October (in Switzerland; Meier 1961). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum fagopyri A.K.Ghosh & Raychaudhuri     Apterae are pale yellowish with yellowish brown siphunculi; BL 4.2-4.8 mm On young growth and undersides of leaves of Fagopyrum sp., and later recorded from F. cymosum (Raychaudhuri et al. 1980), in north-east India. Males possibly of this species were described by David (1976).

Macrosiphum floridae (Ashmead)    Apterae are shining pale green, with pale siphunculi. On Rosa laevigata in Florida.

Macrosiphum funestum (Macchiati)    Apterae are rather dull mid to dark green, or magenta to reddish brown, with mainly dark antennae and siphunculi (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.9-4.0 mm. On young shoots and leaves of Rubus spp., esp. R. fruticosus s. lat. Throughout Europe, eastward to Moldova and Turkey, and also recorded from Canada.  Monoecious holocyclic, with alate males; probably anholocyclic in areas with mild winters. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum fuscicornis Macdougall    Apterae are dark olive-green, with red eyes and uniformly dark tibiae; BL c.3.2 mm. Found on stems and leaf buds of Epilobium angustifolium in Canada (British Columbia), and apparently not recorded since its original description.

Macrosiphum gaurae (Williams)    Apterae are bright green or pink, with dark antennae, mainly dark brown to black siphunculi and a dusky cauda; BL 2.7-3.9 mm. On Gaura and Oenothera spp., widely distributed in North America. Oviparae have been collected on Gaura in Oregon in October (aphidtrek.org). MacGillivray (1968) provided a redescription. Records of the very similar M. pallidum from Onagraceae should probably all be referred to this species.

Macrosiphum gei (Koch)    Apterae are spindle-shaped, mid-green  to bluish green, or mauve with green mottlings to wine red, with femora and siphunculi dark at apices (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.9-5.4 mm. Alatae have 8-26 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Geum spp., especially G. urbanum, where it forms dense colonies on upper parts of flower stems, and it can also occur on certain Umbelliferae/Apiaceae (Anthriscus, Chaerophyllum, Conium, Myrrhis, Torilis), and occasionally on Caryophyllaceae, usually scattered or in small colonies on the undersides of the leaves. Dense colonies form on upper parts of stems of G. urbanum during flowering.  In Europe, west Siberia, and introduced to North America (USA, Canada, Bermuda). Monoecious holocyclic on Geum, with alate males. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum geranii (Oestlund)    Apterae have a glaucous appearance due to a covering of fine white powder; BL of apterae is unrecorded, BL of alatae 2.3-3.3 mm (Oestlund 1887, and BMNH collection, leg. J.O. Pepper). On Geranium maculatum in eastern USA. Records from western USA may all be referable to M. euphorbiae, and aphids from a cultivated Geranium sp. in Manitoba (Robinson & Bradley 1965) are an undescribed Macrosiphum species with shorter siphunculi (BMNH collection, leg. A.G. Robinson). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum hamiltoni Robinson    Apterae are pale green with antennal joints, tarsi and tips of siphunculi dusky to black; BL 2.2-3.1 mm. Originally described from specimens collected on Humulus lupulus in Manitoba, Canada, but since collected from Cornus spp. in Manitoba and New Brunswick. From dates of collection host alternation seems unlikely, so Cornus is probably the usual host. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum hartigi Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are green, with a faint greyish wax bloom, antennae and legs yellowish brown, with apices of  tibiae and tarsi brown, siphunculi green with black apices, cauda green; BL c.3.6 mm. On Silene vulgaris, feeding on upper parts of flowerstalks and under leaves (Hille Ris Lambers 1931b, as M. montanum). In southern Europe (Italy, Austria, Switzerland). Oviparae (vagrants?) have been recorded in October from Linum alpinum in Switzerland (Lampel & Meier 2007). 

Macrosiphum helianthi (Tao)    Apterae are yellowish green with antennae, apices of femora and tibiae, tarsi and whole of siphunculi blackish brown; BL c. 2.4 mm. Described from specimens collected on Helianthus annuus in Szechuan Province, China, in 1936, and apparently not recorded since.

Macrosiphum hellebori Theobald & Walton    Apterae are yellow-green with darker marbling, with dark apices to antennal segments, femora, tibiae and siphunculi (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.7-4.3 mm. On undersides of leaves of Helleborus spp. in Europe, Georgia (Barjadze et al. 2009), and introduced to New Zealand and Australia (Valenzuela et al. 2009a). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in September in continental Europe, but overwintering mainly as viviparae in UK. Badmin (1991) studied the population ecology of this species in south-east England. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum holmani Leclant    Apterae are green or red, with brown head, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 2.1-3.1 mm. On flower-stalks and flower-heads of Sanicula europaea in Europe (Corsica, northern Italy, Czech Republic, Romania). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in late August-October (original description).

Macrosiphum holodisci Jensen    Apterae are white (for fundatrix see aphidtrek.org), BL 2.0-3.4 mm. Monoecious holocyclic on Holodiscus discolor in north-western USA (Idaho, Oregon). Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum impatientis Williams    Apterae are shining green to dark green with strikingly black siphunculi; BL 1.7-3.8 mm. In north-eastern and midwestern USA. Heteroecious holocyclic, migrating from Rosa spp. (multiflora, carolina) to Impatiens spp. (Jensen 1998). Some records of  M. pallidum on Impatiens (e.g. MacGillivray 1968) may be referable to this species. A record from Turkey (Akyurek et al. 2010) is probably due to a misidentification. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum inexspectatum Leclant    Apterae are green, similar in colour to host plant; BL 1.6-3.2 mm. On Euphorbia insularis, and apparently specific to this host, in Corsica. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males.  

Macrosiphum insularis (Pergande)    Apterae  are pale brownish yellow, with appendages mainly pale; BL 2.5-3.4 mm. On undersides of leaves of Asparagaceae (genera formerly placed in Comvallariaceae; Maianthemum, Polygonatum, Streptopus) in western North America (Colorado, Arkansas, Utah, British Columbia and St. Paul Island). Monoecious holocyclic, with  oviparae and alate males in September (Palmer 1952, as M. yagasogae Hottes; see also Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum (Unisitobion) isodonis (Sorin)    Apterae are yellowish green, with broad lateral longitudinal dark stripes, black antennae, legs and siphunculi, and a pale cauda; BL 1.9-2.2 mm. Immatures are whitish (Moritsu 1983; as Unisitobion ?corylicola). On undersides of leaves of Isodon japonicus in Japan. Closely related to M. perillae on related hosts in China and Korea.

Macrosiphum jasmini (Clarke)    Apterae are yellowish green, with pale siphunculi. In small colonies on undersides of leaves of Jasminum sp. in California, USA. Apparently not found since original description.

Macrosiphum jeanae Robinson    Apterae are green with slightly darker appendages; BL c.1.8-2.0 mm. Feeding inside the pitchers of  Sarracenia purpurea  in Manitoba, Canada. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in September (original description). A very similar, undescribed species occurs on Darlingtonia californica in California (BMNH collection, leg. D.W. Nielsen).

Macrosiphum knautiae Holman (= M. silvaticum Meier)   Apterae are yellowish green to grass-green, more rarely pinkish red, with dark head and thorax and black siphunculi; BL 2.3-3.8 mm. On undersides of leaves and shoot apices of Knautia spp. in central and eastern Europe, south to Greece (Papapanagiotou et al. 2012). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in October in Czech Republic (original description). M. silvaticum was shown to be a synonym by morphological and molecular studies (Rakauskas 2003a, Turčinavičiene & Rakausakas 2009). Buga et al. (2012) studied the morphological distinction between M. rosae and M. knautiae on Knautia.

Macrosiphum lambi Robinson    Apterae are green: BL 2.3-3.1 mm. Apterae have 4-45 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and alatae have 62-106. On Athyrium filix-femina in eastern North America, and also collected on Thelypteris confluens (= palustris) in Alaska (BMNH collection, leg. A.G. Robinson). 

Macrosiphum lapponicum Shaposhnikov    Apterae are green, yellow or red; BL c.4 mm. Apterae have 37-46 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae are unknown. On Athyrium alpestre (host identity requires confirmation) in north-west Russia (Khibiny Mountains).

Macrosiphum laseri Holman    Apterae are yellow to yellowish green, sometimes covered with a white waxy secretion; BL  3.1-4.2 mm. On Laser trilobum and Laserpitium latifolium, mostly feeding on upper part of stem and in inflorescences, more rarely on undersides of leaves, which turn yellowish. In Crimea, Hungary (Szelegiewicz 1966a), France (BMNH collection, leg, G. Remaudičre) and Italy (Barbagallo & Massimino Cocuzza 2014).

Macrosiphum lilii (Monell)    Apterae are red and yellow with dark siphunculi; BL 2.5-3.2 mm. On Lilium spp. (and possibly other Liliaceae) in eastern USA. The  aphids were described from bulbs imported from Japan (Comstock 1879), but there have been no subsequent Japanese records.  See also Blackman & Eastop (2000).

Macrosiphum lisae Heie    Apterae are whitish or yellowish white, with antennae pale except for dark segmental apices, and legs pale; BL 2.5-3.7 mm. On Epilobium angustifolium, colonising undersides of middle and lower leaves of the smaller plants that grow in shady places and rarely flower, reproducing vegetatively. In northern Europe. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males appearing in August-September (original description).

Macrosiphum longirostratum Jensen & Holman   Apterae are green with dark tips to antennae, legs and siphunculi; BL 2.2-2.8 mm. Feeding singly or in small groups along mid-ribs on undersides of leaves of Woodsia mollis in Mexico. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in October (Jensen & Holman 2000).

Macrosiphum manitobense Robinson   Apterae are pinkish green; BL 2.5-2.8 mm. On Cornus sericea (= stolonifera) in Manitoba, Canada. Robinson (1965) described all morphs, including oviparae and alate males in late September, but did not rule out host alternation, as no specimens were found on Cornus in July-August. 2n=10.  [Specimens of a Macrosiphum from C. sericea in British Columbia (BMNH collection, leg. C.K. Chan) appear to be another, undescribed species.]

Macrosiphum martorelli Smith   Apterae are bright yellow-green with siphunculi dark except at bases; BL 2.7-2.9 mm. On flowers, young leaves and pods of Theobroma cacao in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica). Attended by the ant Solenopsis geminata (original description).

Macrosiphum meixneri Börner    Apterae are yellowish green, dusted with white wax; BL 3.2-4.5 mm. On Euphorbia sp. (austriaca, hyberna) in Austrian and French Alps, and in Spain (Cantabrian mountains). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males (Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante 1991).

Macrosiphum melampyri Mordvilko    Apterae are green with dark distal parts of antennae , femora, tibiae and siphunculi; BL  3.2-4.0 mm. On Melampyrum spp. in northern Europe (northern England and Scotland to north-west Russia). It is also recorded from Digitalis ambigua (not D. purpurea, contrary to Blackman & Eastop 2006). Heie (1994) gave a redescription. Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and alate males occur on Melampyrum pratense in Sweden in late August (BMNH collection, leg. F. Ossiannilsson). A related, undescribed species was found on Melampyrum sp. in Pennsylvania, USA (BMNH collection, leg. H.L.G. Stroyan).

Macrosiphum mentzeliae Wilson    Apterae are light to mid green with dorsal reddish patch, or pinkish; BL 1.8-3.0 mm. On leaves of Mentzelia aspera (= M. albicaulis), and possibly other Mentzelia spp., in western USA and Mexico.  Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males occurring in October (Palmer 1952).

Macrosiphum mertensiae Gillette & Palmer    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL 2-3 mm. On leaves of Mertensia, including M. platyphylla (aphidtrek.org) in western USA. 

Macrosiphum mesosphaeri Tissot    Apterae are yellowish green to bottle green, with dark antennae, legs and siphunculi; BL 1.9-3.2 mm. On Hyptis and Ocimum spp. in southern USA (Florida), Mexico, Panama (Quirós et al. 2009), Puerto Rico, Cuba, Venezuela and Argentina (the latter as M. hyptidis Blanchard 1944), and on Plectranthus sp. in Jamaica (Tannice Hall, pers. comm). Large specimens that are apparently this species have also been collected on Quercus in Colombia, Mexico (BMNH collection, leg. R. Peńa) and Costa Rica (BMNH collection, leg. J.H. Martin). The life cycle is unknown. It has been treated as a synonym of  M. salviae; differences between apterae of the two species are given by Remaudičre & Remaudičre (1997), and in the key to aphids on Ocimum.

Macrosiphum miho Jensen & Holman    Apterae are pale yellowish green; BL 1.1-2.2 mm. On “Aspidium sp.” growing in rock walls (Hottes & Frison 1931, as M. adianti), which is probably either Dryopteris marginalis or Polypodium virginianum (Jensen & Holman 2000). In USA (Illinois, Wisconsin). Apparently monoecious holocyclic, as fundatrices were collected in May.

Macrosiphum minatii (Das, Raychaudhuri & Raychaudhuri)    Apterae are pale brown, BL 1.8-4.4 mm. On Delphinium sp., with collections also from other unidentified Ranunculaceae, in Himachal Pradesh, India. Described in Uroleucon, but transferred to Macrosiphum by Chakrabarti & Medda (2004).

Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki    Apterae are green or yellowish green with shiny black head and prothorax, mainly black antennae and black siphunculi; BL 2.5-3.8 mm. Apterae have 23-36 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 30-40. On undersides of young leaves of Rosa spp., especially R. rugosa, in east Asia (not usually on cultivated roses). A record from Turkey (Kaygin et al. 2010) requires further conformation. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae in October (original description).   

Macrosiphum multipilosum Nevsky    Apterae are undescribed. Alatae have pale green or pale yellow abdomen and brownish thorax, smoky cauda, darker siphunculi, black antennae and legs; BL c. 2.7 mm. Alatae have c.50 rhin. on ANT III, and numerous long dorsal body hairs. On stems and undersides of leaves of Helichrysum punctatum (? name is untraceable) in southern Kazakhstan. This species has subsequently been collected on H. maracandicum (Kadyrbekov 2014d, as Macrosiphoniella multipilosa; it is more likely to belong in Macrosiphoniella or Uroleucon than in Macrosiphum).

Macrosiphum nasonovi  Mordvilko    Apterae are greyish green or red, BL 2.0-3.6 mm. Alatae have a dark brown head and thorax and green abdomen and 7-11 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Morphologically it is very similar to M. euphorbiae. Recorded from several genera of Ericaceae (Andromeda, Chamaedaphne, Oxycoccus, Vaccinium) in northern Europe (Finland, Latvia, Russia) and France (Pyrenees).  Monoecious holocyclic on Vaccinium and Andromeda, with oviparae and alate males in September (Müller 1989).

Macrosiphum nevskyanum MacGillivray   Only alatae are described (Nevsky 1929a, as Macrosiphum crataegi Monell); BL 1.9-2.1 mm. On Crataegus monogyna in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2002).

Macrosiphum niwanistum (Hottes)    Apterae are pale green, dusted with white wax powder; BL c. 2.8-3 mm. On undersides of leaves of Mertensia paniculata in western USA, and there is also a record from Ohio (Smith & Parron 1978). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males in late August-September (Palmer 1952, and BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers).

Macrosiphum occidentale (Essig)    Apterae are very pale yellow to whitish; BL 2.6-3.5 mm. On undersides of leaves of Oemleria cerasiformis, and possibly Prunus emarginata (see Jensen 2000), in north-western USA and Canada (British Columbia). Monoecious holocyclic on Oemleria, with alate males (Jensen 2000). 2n=16

Macrosiphum olmsteadi Robinson    Colour of living apterae unknown, probably pale green; BL 2.6-3.0 mm. Described from Eurybia macrophylla in Ontario, Canada. An aptera identified as this species on E. conspicua in Idaho is illustrated by A. Jensen at http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandnine/4749821046/, who has also collected samples on Eurybia in the Rocky Mountain parts of Montana, Alberta and Washington. Illinoia (Masonaphis) magna (Hille Ris Lambers), described from unidentified Compositae in Alberta and British Columbia, may be a synonym (A. Jensen, pers. comm.). Oviparae and alate males occur in October (original description).

Macrosiphum opportunisticum Jensen   Apterae are medium to dark green, sometimes pink or reddish (for colour photo go to aphidtrek.org); BL 2.1-3.1 mm. Alatae have a dark brown head and thorax and dark green or pink abdomen with paired dark pleural abdominal markings, and 9-17 secondary rhinaria on ANT III.. This species feeds on a wide range of broad-leaved shrubs, particularly in montane habitats, in north-western USA and British Columbia. Hosts are mainly Ericaceae (Menziesia, Azaleastrum, Bryanthus, Pieris, Vaccinium), but it has also been found on Liquidambar, Symphoricarpos, Holodiscus, Sorbus and Spiraea, and under certain conditions it can even colonise Tsuga (A. Jensen, pers. comm.). The aphids live dispersed on the host plants and drop readily when disturbed, an unusually large proportion of individuals being alate. Monoecious holocyclic, with alate males; all morphs are described by Jensen (2012), who also discussed the opportunistic feeding on various shrubs by this aphid. 2n=16.

Macrosiphum oredonense Remaudičre    Apterae are pale green, with very long legs, pale except at apices; BL 2.4-4.5 mm. On undersides of leaves, and later in small compact colonies on stems and young fruits of Lonicera nigra in south, central and eastern Europe. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and reddish-brown alate males produced in August (Müller 1989).

Macrosiphum oregonense Jensen    Apterae are shiny green (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.3-3.7 mm. On undersides of leaves of Lysichiton americanum, often in semiaquatic situations. In western North America (Oregon, Washington, British Columbia). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in October (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum orthocarpus Davidson    Apterae are bright pea-green, with black antennae and siphunculi; BL more than 3 mm. Among flower-spikes of Orthocarpus purpurascens (= Castilleja exserta) in California, USA.

Macrosiphum osmaroniae Wilson    Apterae are pale to mid green; BL 2.7-3.5 mm.  On spring growth of Oemleria cerasiformis, migrating in late April-May to pass the summer in small populations on Pteridium aquilinum (Jensen & Holman 2000), with a return migration to Oemleria in September-October. In north-western USA (Oregon, Washington) and Canada (British Columbia). 2n=16*.

Macrosiphum pachysiphon Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are very pale pink with stout black siphunculi; BL 3.0-3.5 mm. Alatae have a dusky sclerotic pattern on the dorsal abdomen. On Rubus spp. (especially lasiocarpus) and sometimes on other Rosaceae (Rosa, Potentilla, Spiraea). Records from other plants (Berberis, Rumex) are probably of vagrants. In India and Pakistan. A record from Turkey (Şenol et al. 2014c) requires additional confirmation. The life cycle is unknown. 2n=18.

Macrosiphum paektusani Lee & Havelka    Apterae are green, BL 3.4-4.3 mm. On Rosa spp. in North Korea (S. Lee et al. 2009).  Similar to M. mordvilkoi but with paler head and pale bases to siphunculi. The life cycle in unknown. 

Macrosiphum pallens Hottes & Frison    Apterae are pale whitish green, with pale siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.9-2.4 mm. Alatae are pale yellow-green, without marginal sclerites. On Silphium integrifolium in Illinois, USA, with records also from Ambrosia trifida and Aster (=Symphyotrichum) novae-angliae (the latter from New Brunswick, Canada; aphidtrek.org).

Macrosiphum pallidum (Oestlund)  Plate 25h   Apterae are green or pink, with antennae, femoral apices, tibiae, tarsi dark, and siphunculi dark except at bases; BL 2.1-4.6 mm. Apterae have 3-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 14-22. On wild Rosa spp. and various other Rosaceae (Agrimonia, Fragaria, Geum, Potentilla), and also apparently able to colonise a wide range of other plants, although some records may be misidentifications of other species (e.g. records from Oenothera are probably all M. gaurae). Widespread in North America. The life cycle still seems to be unknown. MacGillivray (1968) provided a detailed redescription. A very similar but paler species on Oxalis oregona in Oregon (BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers) is undescribed. A record from Turkey (Akyürek et al. 2010, repeated in Görür et al. 2012) is based on a misidentification. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum parvifolii Richards  (Fig.56a,b)   Apterae are whitish or pale pink, powdered with white wax, with dark tips to appendages; BL 2.8-3.4 mm. Alatae are very pale whitish except for sclerotised parts of head and thorax, with 6-12 secondary rhinaria on ANT III (Jensen 2012). On Vaccinium spp. in British Columbia, Canada (Richards 1967 and BMNH collection), and in north-western USA (Oregon, Idaho, Montana), where it is also recorded from Menziesia ferruginea (Jensen 2012). 2n=16.

Macrosiphum pechumani MacGillivray    Apterae are milky white, with black head and appendages; BL 2.5-3.1 mm. On Asparagaceae (in genera formerly placed in Convallariaceae; Convallaria majalis, Maianthemum racemosa) in north-eastern USA (New York, Washington DC) and Canada (Ontario; BMNH, leg. M. S˙pkens).  Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in September–November (original description). Records from plants in other families (Fragaria, Hibiscus, Pyrola) are likely to be vagrant individuals, although Leonard (1968) recorded oviparae from Hibiscus.   

Macrosiphum penfroense Stroyan    Apterae are bright apple green, immatures have a wax bloom; BL 1.9-3.4 mm. On Silene uniflora (= maritima) in England and Wales, feeding in small groups in flowers, or singly on buds or on upper surfaces of leaves. Apparently anholocyclic, with delayed production of ovipariform apterae under laboratory conditions (G.W. Watson, unpubl. observations). Described as a subspecies of M. sileneum (= M. stellariae),  but the consistent differences in morphology and host plant indicate that it should have separate species status (Watson 1982). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum (Unisitobion) perillae (Zhang)    Apterae are pale yellow with broad dark lateral longitudinal stripes, black antennae , legs and siphunculi, and a pale cauda; BL 1.8-2.9 mm. On upper parts of stems and undersides of leaves of certain Lamiaceae (Isodon, Mentha, Perilla) in China and Korea. Monoecious holocyclic on Isodon inflexus, with oviparae and alate males in October (S. Lee et al. 2001b). (A record from Rosa multiflora could be a misidentification of host plant.)  2n=18 (Chen & Zhang 1985a).

Macrosiphum polanense Pašek    Apterae are yellowish white to pale green; BL 3.8-4.6 mm. In large colonies on flower stems of Cicerbita alpina in Slovakia (Pol’ana). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in September (original description). M. alpinum is possibly a synonym.

Macrosiphum potentillae (Oestlund)    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL c. 2.2 mm (BMNH collection, leg. D Hille Ris Lambers). On undersides of leaves of Potentilla anserina and Potentilla sp. in USA (Minnesota, Kansas, Oregon).

Macrosiphum potentillicaulis Miller    Apterae are pale red with mainly dark appendages; BL 2.4-3.4 mm. On Potentilla bakeri in Idaho, and subsequently collected on a Potentilla sp. in Wyoming (BMNH collection, leg. G.F. Knowlton). This is likely to be a synonym of  M. valerianae.

Macrosiphum prenanthidis Börner    Apterae are green, pinkish or violet brownish, slightly wax-powdered; BL 3.2-3.8 mm. Apterae have 9-16 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 20-30. On Prenanthes purpurea, in small colonies on stems in spring/summer, and later on undersides of leaves. In central and eastern Europe, and recently recorded from northern Italy (Barbagallo et al. 2011). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males.

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) pseudocoryli Patch  Apterae are green with antennae, tibiae and siphunculi dusky to dark, especially at apices; BL 2.4-3.6 mm (MacGillivray 1968).  On young growth and undersides of leaves of Ostrya virginiana and Corylus spp. in north-eastern USA and Ontario, Canada.  Presumably monoecious holocyclic; oviparae were collected in Virginia in late September (BMNH collection, leg. R.L. Blackman).  2n=10*.

Macrosiphum pseudogeranii Chakrabarti & Raychaudhuri    Colour of apterae in life is not recorded; BL 2.8-3.5 mm. On Geranium spp. in north-west India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh). Probably monoecious holocyclic; Raychaudhuri et al. (1980) described the ovipara (from Polygonum – a vagrant?), and Maity & Chakrabarti (1984) described the alate vivipara and male.

Macrosiphum ptericolens Patch    Apterae are pale yellowish green to darker shiny green, with mainly pale appendages; BL 2.3-3.3 mm. Alatae are pale green with appendages also mainly pale (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery). Apterae have 3-35 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 27-66. On Pteridium aquilinum in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and introduced to Europe (Lawton & Eastop 1975) and South America (Brazil). Records from other ferns are probably attributable to other Macrosiphum species (see Jensen & Holman 2000). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males on Pteridium, but in the USNM collection there are alatae, oviparae and a male that are apparently M. ptericolens collected on Ilex verticillata in Pennsylvania, suggesting that host-alternation might also occur. Probing behaviour and stylet penetration were studied by Halarewicz & Gabryś (2012).  2n=16.

Macrosiphum pteridis Wilson  (Fig.43h)   Apterae are very pale green; BL 2.5-4.2 mm. Heteroecious holocyclic, migrating from Holodiscus discolor to Pteridium aquilinum in western USA and Canada (Jensen & Holman 2000). Detailed descriptions of all morphs occurring on Holodiscus are given by Forbes & Chan (1993, as Sitobion blackmani). Wilson’s type material included M. clydesmithi, and there is also confusion in the literature with M. rhamni (e.g. Robinson 1980).  2n=16.

Macrosiphum pulcherimum (Nevsky)    Apterae are bright green, with a slightly mealy coat, siphunculi and cauda pale green; BL 1.8-2.2 mm. On stems and leaves of  Lactuca saligna and Lactuca sp. in Central Asia.

Macrosiphum pyrifoliae MacDougall   Apterae, according to the original description, are dusky brown, with head slightly darker; BL 2.4-3.6 mm.  Described from Pyrus occidentalis (= Sorbus sitchensis) in British Columbia, Canada (MacDougall 1926).  MacDougall counted 14-17 secondary rhinaria on ANT III of apterae, but apterae identified as this species from the type locality (Merritt) in MacDougall's collection have only 3-8 secondary rhinaria.  Aphids believed to be this species were collected more recently in the Vancouver area, from Sorbus aucuparia and S. sitchensis (BMNH collection, leg. C.K. Chan).  These had green and red colour morphs (C.K. Chan, pers. comm.). Apparently monoecious holocyclic on Sorbus, although sexuales have not been described.  Very similar to M. euphorbiae.  2n=10, 11 and 12*.

Macrosiphum ranunculi Pašek    Apterae are yellowish white to pale greenish yellow; BL is unrecorded. Described from Ranunculus auricomus in Slovakia, and since recorded from other Ranunculus spp. (Holman 2009). Monoecious holocyclic (original description).

Macrosiphum raysmithi Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are very pale green to whitish green, with pale appendages except for tarsi and apices of antennal segments; BL 3.4-3.7 mm. In large, very compact colonies on undersides of leaves of Lonicera  ledebourii in California, USA. 

Macrosiphum rebecae Jensen & Holman    Apterae are green to bright green with front of head darker; BL 1.8-2.3 mm. On pedicels and along veins on undersides of fronds of Adiantum sp(p.) in Mexico. Probably heteroecious holocyclic, migrating to an unknown primary host (Jensen & Holman 2000).

Macrosiphum rhamni (Clarke)    Apterae on undersides of leaves of Rhamnus in spring are yellow-green, with a large round patch of reddish internal pigment in the centre of the dorsum (Essig 1917), and have antennae ringed with black and pale siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.8-2.4 mm. Fundatrices occur in March on R. purshiana in British Columbia (BMNH collection, leg. C.K. Chan). Heteroecious holocyclic; migration occurs to ferns (Pteridium aquilinum, Polypodium hesperium; Jensen et al. 1993). Apterae on ferns are pale yellow; BL 1.8-2.6 mm. Colonies are frequently ant-attended. In western North America. Closely related to M. clydesmithi but ranging further west (California) and north (British Columbia). 2n=16.

Macrosiphum rosae (L.)  Plate 25i  Apterae are green or deep pink to red-brown or magenta, with shiny black head and prothorax, bicoloured yellow and black antennae and legs, black siphunculi and pale yellow cauda (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.7-4.2 mm. On young growth of wild and cultivated Rosa spp. in spring, migrating to Dipsacaceae (Dipsacus, Knautia, Succisa) and Valerianaceae (Centranthus, Valeriana), and also sometimes in summer on other plants, especially other Rosaceae (including Pyrus); also some Onagraceae, and Aquifoliaceae (Ilex). Host alternation is facultative; colonies can remain on Rosa through the summer, producing some sexuales in autumn, and anholocyclic overwintering occurs in warmer regions. World-wide, except for east and south-east Asia; records from Japan apply to M. mordvilkoi. Tomiuk & Wöhrmann (1984) studied genotypic (allozyme) variation in European populations. A host-specific parasitoid, Aphidius rosae Haliday, has ben introduced into Australia as a biological control agent (Kitt 1996, Kitt & Keller 1998).  See also Blackman & Eastop (2000). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum rubiarctici Heikinheimo    Apterae have dark reddish violet head and thorax, and brownish violet abdomen, with greenish brown spots at bases of siphunculi, and antennae and siphunculi black except at bases; BL 2.5-3.4 mm. On flowerstalks of Rubus spp. (arcticus, saxatilis, stellatus) in Scandinavia and Russia (near Moscow; BMNH collection, leg. J. Holman). The life cycle is unknown.

Macrosiphum rudbeckiarum (Cockerell)  ( = Macrosiphum cockerelli Hottes)    Apterae are pale green, with mainly pale appendages, somewhat darker in autumn (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.9-4.2 mm. On undersides of leaves of Rudbeckia spp. in western USA. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in September. Hottes (1949a) gave a very full description.

Macrosiphum salviae Bartholomew    Apterae are dark chestnut brown with black antennae, legs and siphunculi, and usually a central black dorsal abdominal patch; BL 2.0-2.5 mm. On Lamiaceae (Inga, Salvia, Leonurus, Ocimum) in California, USA, Cuba, Honduras (Evans & Halbert 2007) and Puerto Rico. (The record from Ocimum could be misidentified M. mesosphaeri, which was for some time regarded as a synonym.)

Macrosiphum schimmelum Jensen   Apterae are pale to mid-green, sometimes pink or yellowish, usually wax-dusted; BL 2.2-3.7 mm. On undersides of leaves, and later on flowers and fruits, of Lonicera utahensis in north-western USA (Idaho, Oregon, Washington) and British Columbia. Possibly also on Symphoricarpus, although the host may have been misidentified. Monoecious holocyclic, with fundatrices present in May-July and oviparae and alate males in September (Jensen 2015).

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) skurichinae Pashchenko  Apterae are brown, with antennae and legs mainly pale, living on Corylus sieboldiana var. mandshurica in envelopes of nuts, attended by ants. In east Siberia (Pashchenko 1985).

Macrosiphum (Unisitobion) sorbi Matsumura    Apterae are pale yellow to yellow-green, with brown head and variably developed brown spinal and marginal longitudinal stripes, joined in region of  siphunculi, which are jet black; BL 2.3-3.8 mm. On undersides of leaves of Sorbaria sorbifolia in Japan and Korea (S. Lee et al. 2001b). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in late October in Japan (Miyazaki 1971). The host was originally given as Sorbus japonica, but this may have been in error.

Macrosiphum stanleyi Wilson   Apterae are broadly spindle-shaped, green; BL 3.0-4.4 mm.  Alatae have brown-black head and thorax.  On leaves and stems of Sambucus spp. (callicarpa, cerulea, pubens) in western North America, from Colorado to Alaska.  Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and alate males occur in August in Colorado (Palmer 1952), but in British Columbia oviparae are present as early as June (BMNH collection, leg. C.K. Chan).  2n=16*.

Macrosiphum stellariae Theobald  (= Macrosiphum sileneum Theobald)  (Fig.51a)   Apterae are yellowish green, green or red, all segments of appendages, including femora and siphunculi, having blackish apices; BL 1.8-4.4 mm. In small, loose colonies on young shoots of  various Caryophyllaceae (Dianthus, Gypsophila, Moehringia, Silene, Stellaria), and sometimes on certain other plants (Papaver, Ranunculus, Valeriana), although pale specimens may easily be confused with M. euphorbiae.  In north-western, northern and central Europe, Georgia (Özdemir & Barjadze 2015), and introduced to Canada (British Columbia) and New Zealand. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum symphyti Barjadze & Chakvetadze    Apterae are yellow or yellowish green with paler spinal stripe, dark apices to antennal segments, legs and siphunculi, and a pale cauda; BL 2.6-4.3 mm. Alatae have 18-34 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. In sparse colonies on undersides of leaves and stems of Symphytum asperum in Georgia, and also now identified from Anchusa sp. in Iran (Özdemir & Barjadze 2015). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males and oviparae collected in early November (Barjadze & Chakvetadze 2008).

Macrosiphum tenuicauda Bartholomew    Apterae are green, BL 1.7-2.6 mm. On Urtica spp. in western North America (California, Oregon, Colorado, British Columbia). C.-k. Chan (pers. comm.) was able to rear this species for two years on young celery plants in the laboratory. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum tiliae (Monell)  Apterae are green or pink, with dark antennae, tibiae and siphunculi; BL 2.4-2.7 mm  Colonies occur on new growth, especially suckers, of Tilia americana (Hottes & Frison 1931). Widely distributed in northern USA.  Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and alate males occur in September in Wisconsin (Davis 1914).

Macrosiphum timpanogos Knowlton     Apterae are pale, BL 4.1-5.0 mm. Probably collected on “a lupine of some kind” in western USA (Utah).

Macrosiphum tinctum (Walker)   (= Macrosiphum epilobiellum)    Apterae are mid to blue green with a darker spinal stripe (a red form is recorded from Switzerland), femora entirely pale and siphunculi dusky at apices (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 2.0-4.0 mm. Alatae have11-26 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Epilobium spp., especially E. angustifolium and E. montanum, feeding in small numbers on stems, flower-buds and seed-cases. Widely distributed in Europe. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in late August-September. 2n=10.

Macrosiphum tolmiea (Essig)    Apterae are green with black-tipped siphunculi; BL c. 3 mm. On three spp. of Saxifragaceae, Tolmiea menziesii, Tellima grandiflora and Mitella caulescens, near streams or seeps in shady locations, in north-western USA and British Columbia, Canada. Probably anholocyclic in some areas (Jensen 2000), but Jensen (2012) found fundatrices on early spring growth of Tolmeia menziesii in a montane habitat in Washingon.

Macrosiphum trollii Börner    Apterae are pale yellowish or pale green; BL 3.0-4.3 mm. On undersides of leaves and on flowers of Trollius europaeus. In Europe, with a boreoalpine distribution. Monoecious holocyclic, but males are undescribed.

Macrosiphum tuberculaceps (Essig)    Apterae are yellowish with mainly pale appendages and dark-tipped siphunculi (see aphidtrek.org); BL 3.5-4.3 mm. On Achlys triphylla in north-western USA and British Columbia. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males and oviparae in October-November (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum valerianae (Clarke)   (= Macrosiphum kiowanepum (Hottes))    Apterae are reddish, or greenish with a reddish tinge, pruinose, with very long, usually dark brown to blackish, antennae, tibiae and siphunculi; BL 2.1-4.0 mm. A polyphagous species, colonising leaves and stems of  a wide range of host plants, particularly in mountains and foothills throughout  western USA and Canada. Jensen (2012) established its synonymy with M. kiowanepum (Hottes), and recorded its occurrence on hosts in nine families of flowering plants; Apiaceae (Lomatium), Asparagaceae (Camassia), Asteraceae (Hymenoxys, Rudbeckia, Taraxacum), Brassicaceae (Arabis), Melanthiaceae (Zigadenus), Onagraceae (Epilobium), Rosaceae (Geum, Potentilla, Rosa), Scrophulariaceae (Pedicularis, Penstemon) and Valerianaceae (Valeriana). Monoecious holocyclic, and perhaps utilising various overwintering hosts. Pale specimens do occur and on slides these are almost indistinguishable from M. euphorbiae (see Jensen 2012). Antolin & Addicott (1988) studied habitat selection and competition with Aphis varians on E. angustifolium in Colorado.

Macrosiphum vancouveriae Jensen    Apterae are very pale green to white with pale brown eyes; BL 2.2-3.8 mm. On Vancouveria hexandra in north-western USA. The life cycle is uncertain, but probably monoecious holocyclic on Vancouveria, alate males and oviparae occurring in October-November (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) vandenboschi (Hille Ris Lambers)  Apterae are pale green, with black-tipped antennae, legs and siphunculi; BL 2.1-2.2 mm.  On Corylus cornuta var. californica in California (Hille Ris Lambers 1966; as Corylobium vandenboschi).  Biology and sexual morphs are unknown.

Macrosiphum venaefuscae Davis    Apterae are pale green; BL 2.5-2.8 mm. On Polygonaceae (Fallopia, Polygonum, Rumex) in eastern North America. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males; sexual morphs and eggs are found on Rumex (original description).

Macrosiphum verbenae (Thomas)    Apterae are bright pea-green with 2-3 darker green longitudinal stripes on abdomen, antennae pale with dusky tips, eyes black, siphunculi pale, cauda rather short and whitish (original description); BL is unrecorded (“medium size”). On leaves of a Verbena sp. in Illinois, USA. Since recorded from Verbena spp. in numerous states (Smith & Parron 1978), but there are no type specimens and no further account of this species, and many of these records could be M. euphorbiae.

Macrosiphum vereshtshagini Mordvilko    Apterae are green, wax-dusted, with apices of antenane and siphunculi darker; BL 3.9-4.8 mm. On Cimicifuga foetida (= Actaea cimicifuga) in Russia (Altai region).

Macrosiphum violae Jensen    Apterae are very pale green, with pale brown eyes (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.2-3.3 mm. On Viola glabella in north-western USA. Attempts to transfer to two other Viola spp. were unsuccessful (Jensen 2000). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in September-October.

Macrosiphum walkeri Robinson    Apterae are yellow, green, pink or red; BL 1.7-3.3 mm. On numerous genera and species of ferns (Adiantum, Asplenium, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Davallia, Dicksonia, Dryopteris, Matteuccia, Nephrolepis, Osmunda, Pellaea, Polypodium, Polystichum, Woodwardia) in western North America. Anholocyclic in western Oregon, overwintering on Polypodium and Polystichum, although oviparae (without males) were found on Athyrium. 2n=16.

Macrosiphum weberi Börner    Apterae are dark red or dark violet, with black siphunculi; BL 1.8-3.0 mm. In small, frequently ant-attended colonies on stems of Succisa pratensis, and sometimes also on Scabiosa spp. Europe. Records from Knautia are probably all referable to M. knautiae. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males.

Macrosiphum willamettense Jensen    Apterae are shining pale greenish white, immatures are slightly waxy (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.3-3.5 mm. On young growth of Spiraea douglasii in north-western USA and Canada (British Columbia, Oregon, Washington). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae in October (Jensen 2000). 2n=10.

Macrosiphum wilsoni Jensen    Apterae are pale yellowish white (see aphidtrek.org); BL 2.2-3.9 mm. On Disporum (= Prosartes) spp. in north-western USA (Oregon, Idaho, Washington) and Canada (British Columbia). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in October (Jensen 2000).

Macrosiphum woodsiae Robinson    Apterae are dark green, BL 1.3-2.5 mm. Described from Woodsia ilvensis in northern Canada, and subsequently found on other Woodsia spp., Cryptogramma crispa and Pellaea sp. in Oregon, USA, perhaps specialising on ferns at high altitudes/latitudes (Jensen & Holman 2000). Probably monoecious holocyclic on Woodsia. 2n=16.

Macrosiphum zionense Knowlton    Apterae are green, yellow or orange with black antennae, tibiae and siphunculi (see aphidtrek.org); BL c.4.1 mm. On Lupinus sp. and Thermopsis spp. in western USA (Utah, Idaho, Oregon, Washington; BMNH collection, leg. S. Paulaitis and G.F. Knowlton).

 

Macrotrichaphis Miyazaki

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Two east Asian species related to Uroleucon but with siphunculi bearing hairs. First tarsal segments all have 5 hairs. Their biology is hardly known.

Macrotrichaphis rarissima Pashchenko    Apterae are dark brown; BL c. 2.3 mm. On apical leaves of Saussurea sp. in east Siberia.

Macrotrichaphis yatsugatakensis Miyazaki  (Fig.13a)   Colour of apterae life is unknown; BL 1.9-2.3 mm. Described from an unknown host in Japan, but there are specimens in the BMNH collection from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis in Korea (leg. W.H. Paik).

 

Maculolachnus Gaumont      

Lachninae: Lachnini

Three species related to Lachnus but assocated with Rosaceae, without any distinct pattern of pigmentation of forewings, and with dorsal hairs often placed on dark sclerites.

Maculolachnus rubi A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri    Apterae are dark brown; BL 2.7-3.0 mm. On apices of stems of Rubus sp., attended by ants, in Meghalaya, India.

Maculolachnus sijpkensi Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are yellowish brown to dark brown or blackish; BL 2.4-3.8 mm. On wild Rosa spp., in colonies on stems near ground, probably ant-attended. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males. In North America and Mongolia. 2n=10.

Maculolachnus submacula  (Walker)  Plate 3e   Apterae are yellowish brown to dark chestnut brown (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 2.7-3.8 mm. On stems near ground or (in summer) on surface roots of wild and cultivated Rosa spp., invariably ant-attended. In summer it has also been found on roots of Geranium spp. and Potentilla anserina (Kadyrbekov 2012a). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in September-October. The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2012).  Throughout Europe, eastward to Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and India. Gottschalk (1989) gave an account of this aphid in Germany. 2n=10.

 

Mastopoda Oestlund

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

One North American species with greatly reduced tarsi and 5-segmented antennae, possibly with host alternation between Viburnum and ferns like Shinji in east Asia, although this needs to be confirmed.

Mastopoda pteridis Oestlund     Apterae are yellowish white; BL c. 1.7 mm. On Pteridium aquilinum in north-eastern USA and Ontario, Canada (Patch 1910a, Robinson 1966). Possibly heteroecious holocyclic, as also collected from “ant sheds on leaf petioles” of  Viburnum sp. (Robinson 1966, citing J.O. Pepper). Males are recorded from Pt. aquilinum in September.

 

Matsumuraja Schumacher

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

About 14 east Asian species, plus one undescribed from Australia (see below), with long capitate hairs arising from tubercles, which are often extended into fingerlike processes. They are associated with Rubus (except one species described from Ficus, which is probably not the true host). However, unusually, Rubus may be the ancestral secondary host, as the only species in which the life cycle has been clarified has a sexual phase on Clethra (the fundatrix having a very distinctive morphology, see Takahashi 1959). Takahashi & Sorin (1965) and Miyazaki (1971) keyed the Japanese species, and Lee (2002b) redescribed and keyed the two species in Korea.

Matsumuraja calorai Calilung   Apterae are brownish yellow; BL 1.1-1.3 mm.  On Ficus ribes var. cuneata in the Philippines (Calilung 1972).  Other morphs, biology and life cycle are unknown

Matsumuraja capitophoroides Hille Ris Lambers  (Fig.47c,e)   Apterae are pale yellow, with antennae dark at segmental apices; BL 1.3-2.3 mm. On Rubus spp. in Pakistan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka. According to Chakrabarti & Banerjee (1993a) there is host alternation between Rubus (as primary host) and Poa annua (as secondary host) in India, but this seems very unlikely and needs confirmation. As noted by Hille Ris Lambers (original description), this species differs from the description of M. formosana only in lengths of tubercular bases of spinal hairs, which could vary according to environment or degree of alatiformity. 2n=14.

Matsumuraja formosana Takahashi     Apterae are white, with antennae dusky at segmental apices; BL c.1.8 mm. Alatae are unknown. On Rubus sp. and Fragaria × ananassa in Taiwan (Tao 1963). M. capitophoroides is a possible synonym (see above). An aptera collected on Duchesnea indica in Fujian province, China (Qiao & Zhang 1999c), and described under the name Chaetosiphon anguifragum Zhang & Qiao, is possibly this species.

Matsumuraja hirakurensis Sorin  (Fig.47k)   Apterae are orange, with antennae dark except for basal part of III; BL c.1.2-1.3 mm. On Rubus idaeus and Rubus sp. in Japan.

Matsumuraja nuditerga Hille Ris Lambers     Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL 1.2-1.4 mm. On Rubus sp. in Japan. There is also a record from ?Pilea sp. in West Bengal (A.K. Ghosh & Raychudhuri 1972), but the specimens had a shorter R IV+V and may not be this species. 2n=14.

Matsumuraja rubea Sorin  (Fig.47i)   Apterae are entirely white; BL c.1.2 mm. On Rubus sp. in Japan (Takahashi & Sorin 1965). 2n=14.

Matsumuraja rubi (Matsumura)  (Fig.47b)   Apterae are pale yellowish or greenish white; BL 1.0-1.6 mm. On Rubus spp. in Japan, east Siberia  and Korea. Heteroecious holocyclic, with gynoparae and alate males produced in late October, returning to unknown primary host (Takahashi 1959c). 2n=14.

Matsumuraja rubicola Takahashi  (Fig.47a)   Apterae are yellow, with antennae dusky at segmental apices, BL c. 1.8-2.0 mm. Alatae have a large black dorsal abdominal patch and secondary rhinaria distributed III 32-36, IV 14-17, V 4-7. On Rubus sp. and Fragaria × ananassa in Taiwan (Tao 1963). 

Matsumuraja rubifoliae Takahashi  Plate 20a  (Fig.47h,l)   Apterae (on Rubus) are yellow or white, antennae with segmental apices often blackish; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. Alatae have a black dorsal abdominal patch, black clavate siphunculi and many secondary rhinaria on ANT II-V. On shoot tips and undersides of young leaves of Rubus spp. in east Siberia, China, Thailand, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Ryukyu. Aphids collected on R. rosifolius in Queensland, Australia (BMNH collection, leg. V. F. Eastop, 15.vi.89) may also be this species, although differing by characters given in the key to apterae on Rubus. Heteroecious holocyclic in Japan (Takahashi 1959c), with sexual phase on Clethra barbinervis; the fundatrix is a very different, much larger, pale yellow aphid (BL 3-4 mm). Commonly also anholocyclic on evergreen Rubus in Japan, and probably elsewhere. Small forms occur on certain Rubus spp. in summer with small dorsal hairs and thicker, more swollen siphunculi (Takahashi & Sorin 1965). 2n=14.

Matsumuraja rubiphila Takahashi  (Fig.47d)   Apterae are yellow, with apices of antennal segments and of siphunculi blackish; BL c. 1.5 mm. On Rubus palmatus in Japan (Takahashi & Sorin 1965). 2n=14.

Matsumuraja sorini Takahashi  (Fig.47g,m)   Apterae are whitish yellow with mainly pale appendages; BL c.1.7-1.8 mm. On Rubus peltatus in Japan (Takahashi & Sorin 1965).

Matsumuraja taisetsusana Miyazaki  (Fig.47j)   Apterae are pale yellow, with apices of antennal segments and of siphunculi dusky; BL 1.6-1.9 mm. On Rubus idaeus var. aculeatissimus in Japan, and on R. sachalinensis and Rubus sp. in Sakhalin and east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a).

Matsumuraja sp.  (Fig. 47f)   Apterae are yellow-green, BL 1.1-1.6 mm. On Rubus rosaefolius in Queensland, Australia (BMNH collection, leg. V. F. Eastop, 15.vi.89). A single alata trapped at Galton Research Laboratory, Queensland, 29.iv.87 (BMNH collection, leg. J.Thomas) is probably also this species. 2n=18.

 

Megoura Buckton

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Eight species in Europe and Asia, and one recently described from New Zealand, with swollen cigar-shaped siphunculi, associated with Leguminosae/Fabaceae.  Regional accounts are available from north-west Europe (Heie 1995), Japan (Miyazaki 1971), and Korea (S. Lee et al. 2002b). W. Lee et al. (2014) provided a key to the world species. Kim & Lee (2008b) studied the molecular systematics of the genus, comparing results of analysis of four mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA sequences.

Megoura brevipilosa Miyazaki    Apterae are of unknown body colour; BL c. 2.6-3.0 mm.  Alatae are reddish vermilion with a little white wax powder dorsally. On Lespedeza spp. in Japan and east Siberia; on  L. bicolor var. japonica it was found on undersides of old leaves. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in November-December (Sorin & Shinohara 1973). Molecular study indicates a close relationship to M. lespedezae (Kim & Lee 2008).

Megoura crassicauda Mordvilko    Apterae are green with black head, prothorax, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 3.0-3.7 mm. On stems and growing points of Vicia and Lathyrus spp. in east Asia (east Siberia, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea). In Korea it is also recorded from Pisum sativum and Amphicarpaea edgeworthii. [The name M. japonica (Matsumura) has been used for this species by Chinese and Japanese authors.]  2n=10.

Megoura dooarsis (A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri)     Apterae are green to dark green with purplish brown head, and dorsal abdomen with three rows of roundish or transversely oval whitish wax spots; BL 2.2-2.9 mm.  On both sides of leaves and on twigs of Indigofera spp., especially I. heterantha, and also recorded from a Hedysarum sp. (plant species name on label is campanulatum), and Tephrosia purpurea. In India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir and Thailand. 2n=20 (Dutta & Gautam 1993).

Megoura lathyricola Lee & Akimoto   Apterae are pale green with yellowish-brown head, dark antennae and siphunculi, mainly pale legs and a pale cauda; BL 4.0-4.5 mm. On stems and young leaves of Lathyrus japonicus (ssp. japonicus) in coastal localities in Japan (W. Lee et al. 2014). Life cycle is unknown; a clone from Nagasaki reared in short-day conditions failed to produce sexual morphs so was apparently anholocyclic.

Megoura lespedezae (Essig & Kuwana)  Plate 25a   Apterae are greenish to yellowish with dark brown antennae, legs dark brown except for distal halves of tibiae, black siphunculi and yellow cauda; BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On Lespedeza spp. in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Korea, east Siberia and Japan. Also recorded from Cajanus cajan, Desmodium trifolium (= triflorum?) and Indigofera teysmanni (= zollingeriana) in India (Raychaudhuri 1984, partly as Neomegouropsis cajanae), and from L. thunbergii in Switzerland (Giacalone & Lampel 1996). 2n=14.

Megoura litoralis Müller    Apterae are pale green with brownish head and prothorax and appendages, and darker brown siphunculi; BL 3.0-4.4 mm. On young growth, flowers and fruits of Lathyrus japonicus ssp. maritimus in north-west and north Europe (not UK). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males (Heie 1995). Rakauskas et al. (2008) reviewed its distribution and habitat.

Megoura nigra Lee   Apterae are dark reddish brown; BL 3.1-4.3 mm. On young stems and undersides of leaves of  Vicia venosa in South Korea. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in mid-October (Lee et al. 2002b).

Megoura stufkensi Eastop   Apterae are green with appendages mainly pale, the antennae and siphunculi darker towards apices; BL 1.6-2.0 mm. Alatae are unusual in having only 0-1 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and dark-veined forewings with the media only once-branched. On Carmichaelia spp. in New Zealand, feeding on plant stems deep within bushes (Eastop 2011). The life cycle and sexual morphs are unknown. This is the only apparently indigenous species of Macrosiphini in New Zealand, and has unique features, but DNA data indicate that it has closest affinity with this genus (Teulon et al. 2013).

Megoura viciae Buckton  Plate 25b   Apterae are dark bluish green to apple-green with black head, prothorax, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.0-5.0 mm.  On young apical parts of stems of Leguminosae/Fabaceae, especially Lathyrus and Vicia spp. In Europe, Middle East, north and Central Asia, and Ethiopia. Some Asian populations have been given subspecies status (M. viciae ssp. abchasica Mordvilko, M. viciae ssp. turanica Nevsky), but with little apparent justification. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in August-September. Studies on this aphid included the classic work on photoperiodism and morph determination by Lees (1973), and the first characterisation of an aphid sex pheromone (Dawson et al. 1987). See also Blackman & Eastop (2000). 2n=10.

 

Megourella Hille Ris Lambers

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Two species related to Megoura but with longer siphunculi, a dorsal pattern of dark spinal, pleural and marginal sclerites in both apterae and alatae, and a habit of living on basal parts of their host plants. Blackman (2010) reviewed the genus.

Megourella purpurea Hille Ris Lambers   Plate 25c   Apterae are dirty reddish violet, pink or greenish, with black dorsal spots; BL 2.1-2.9 mm. On Lathyrus pratensis, on basal parts at or near ground level. In north-west, northern, central and southern Europe. Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and apterous males have been reared in October in the Netherlands (Hille Ris Lambers 1949).

Megourella tribulis (Walker)    Apterae are dark green to black with black antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 2.4-3.0 mm. On Vicia sepium, feeding on base of stem at or near ground level. In north-west, northern and central Europe. Monoecious holocyclic; sexual morphs were found in late September-October in the Netherlands (Hille Ris Lambers 1949).

 

Megourina Hille Ris Lambers

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

A genus for one western North American species superficially similar to Megourella but perhaps more closely related to nearctic Nasonovia (Kakimia), with 4-5 hairs on first tarsal segments and long, somewhat capitate hairs, the marginal ones being placed on unusual domed sclerites (Hille Ris Lambers 1974b).

Megourina lagacei Hille Ris Lambers     Apterae are of unknown body colour; BL 2.5-3.0 mm.  Alatae have black head and thorax, 47-55 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and dark (not bordered) wing veins. On Aquilegia formosa in California. Biology and sexual morphs are unknown.

 

Meguroleucon Miyazaki

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

A genus for one east Asian Macrosiphum-like species with an unusual pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and 4 hairs (including 2 sense pegs) on all first tarsal segments (Miyazaki 1971). [A second species described in this genus, M. longqishanense Zhang & Qiao (in Qiao & Zhang 1999c, 1999d), seems to be based on vagrant individuals of  a Uroleucon sp.]

Meguroleucon codonopsicola Miyazaki    Apterae are yellowish green with a milky tint, with brown head, black antennae and siphuculi, very large black postsiphuncular sclerites, and a pale cauda; BL 2.2-2.6 mm.  Alatae have 37-44 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Codonopsis spp. in Japan and Korea (Lee et al. 2002c), living on stems and undersides of young leaves without causing any deformation. In Korea it has also been collected on Platycodon grandiflorum. Biology and sexual morphs are unknown.

 

Meitanaphis Tsai & Tang

Eriosomatinae: Fordini

One, two or three little-known east Asian species with an elongate pterostigma tapering around curve of wing as in  Schlechtendalia, but having 6-segmented antennae and galls with exit located at base.

Meitanaphis elongallis Tsai & Tang  Galls are jujube-like in form, maximally 4.1 cm long, green, becoming red or purplish when mature with many fine longitudinal ridges. On undersides of leaflets of Rhus punjabensis var. sinica in China (Tsai & Tang 1946). Alatae (BL c. 1.3 mm) emerge through a large slit in autumn. The life cycle is unknown.

Meitanaphis flavogallis Tang  Galls are pea-like to jujube-like in form with yellow hairs, on undersides of leaflets of Rhus punjabensis var. sinica in China (pictured in C. Zhang et al. 2008). The description of this species has not been seen, but the antennal rhinariation was described by Yang et al. (2009). The morphology of the antennal rhinaria and DNA analysis (Yang et al. 2010) both indicate that it may be more correctly placed in Kaburagia.

Meitanaphis microgallis Xiang  Galls are small, papilliform, on Rhus potaninii in China (Xiang 1980/81). In the DNA analysis of Yang et al. (2010) this species clustered with Kaburagia, but a misidentification may be involved as this does not accord with the original description of the forewing having an elongate pterostigma tapering around its tip.

  

Melanaphis van der Goot

Aphidinae: Aphidini

 

About 25 palaearctic species with short siphunculi, closely related to Rhopalosiphum, and with the same association with Rosaceae (Pyroidea) and Poaceae, although only a few species have proven host alternation.  Alatae have dark forewing veins with media twice-branched. Three species are European, but most of the remainder are native to east Asia and associated either with Miscanthus, or with Arundinaria and related bamboos. The taxonomy of the east Asian species is in need of further study. Accounts are available for the Iberian peninsula (Nieto Nafría et al. 2005a), Japan (Sorin 1970b), China (L. Zhang et al. 2001), Taiwan (Liao 1976), India (Raychaudhuri & Banerjee 1974, A.K. Ghosh & L.K. Ghosh 2006) and north-east India (Raychaudhuri et al. 1980b). Halbert & Remaudičre (2000) compared species in the miscanthi/sacchari group.

Melanaphis arthraxonophaga Zhang, Qiao & Zhang    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL c. 1.1 mm. On Arthraxon hispidus in China (Liaoning Province; L. Zhang et al. 2001).

Melanaphis arundinariae (Takahashi)  Apterae are purplish brown (Liao 1976); BL 1.2-1.7 mm.  Alatae have numerous secondary rhinaria distributed III 26-38, IV 14-29, V 7-19. On undersides of leaves of bamboos of the Arundinaria group (Pleioblastus, Yushania niitakayamensis) at high altitude in Taiwan.  The life cycle is unknown.  Specimens from India described as M. arundinariae (e.g. Raychaudhuri & Banerjee 1974) have apterae with 6-segmented antennae and several other differences from the Taiwanese species, and are more likely to be the secondary host forms of M. pahanensis. Reports of Pyrus pashia as the primary host of M. arundinariae, (e.g. Chakrabarti & Banerjee 1993b, Saha & Chakrabarti 1988d) are also likely to be referable to M. pahanensis. Other long-haired Melanaphis from northern India, but with shorter siphunculi, have been described as a distinct species, M. meghalayensis (q.v.). 

Melanaphis bambusae (Fullaway)  Apterae on bamboos are dark brown to black with waxy grey dorsal abdominal markings, legs and antennae mainly pale; BL 0.8-1.4 mm.  Alatae (on bamboos) have secondary rhinaria distributed III 14-28, IV 7-15, V 0-7. Host-alternating in Japan between Photinia villosa and bamboos (Sorin 1962); elsewhere (and also commonly in Japan) populations are anholocyclic on bamboos (Arundinaria, Bambusa, Phyllostachys).  Ant-attended. Indigenous to east Asia, now in south-east Asia, Australia, India, the Mediterranean area and southern Europe (Egypt, Morocco, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Madeira), USA (Louisiana, Hawaii), and a population has been found on Phyllostachys vivax in UK under glass (R. Hammon, pers. comm.).  Yi & Su (1985) studied predation by a coccinellid in China.  2n=8, 10 or 12 (the reason for the discrepancy needs further investigation).

Melanaphis daisenensis (Sorin)    Apterae are blackish, with yellow antennae and tibiae and black tarsi: BL c.1.5-1.6 mm. On Miscanthus sp. in Japan. Very closely related to, and possibly not distinct from, M. miscanthi.

Melanaphis donacis (Passerini)    Apterae in life are dark brown with an extensive and distinctive pattern of white wax (see Pérez Hidalgo et al. 2009); BL 1.5-2.2 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 3-13, IV 0-3, V 0. On Arundo donax, and also recorded from Phragmites spp. Attended by ants. In southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, Azores, Madeira, Canaries, north Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, eastward to India and Pakistan and introduced to Argentina and Chile (Ortego et al. 2004). Monoecious holocyclic on Arundo in southern France, with apterous males (BMNH collection), but commonly also anholocyclic. 2n=8.

Melanaphis elizabethae (Ossiannilsson)    Apterae are dark brown, slightly wax-powdered; BL 2.0-2.7 mm. In inflorescences and under leaves of Phragmites australis (= communis). In northern Europe (Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland - Heikinheimo 1997). Monoecious holocyclic (Heie 1986).

Melanaphis graminisucta Zhang    Apterae are reddish brown; BL 1.5-1.8 mm. On an unidentified grass species in Hunan Province, China.

Melanaphis indosacchari (David)    Apterae are dull dark brown; BL 1.1-1.5 mm. In ant-attended colonies on exposed upper leaves of Saccharum officinarum in south India, and also sometimes on Iseilema laxum. Some specimens in mixed populations with M. sacchari on Echinochloa colonum in the Philippines (BMNH collection, leg. M.R. Gavarra) seem also to be M. indosacchari (or M. sorini, if the two are indeed distinct species). Varma et al. (1978) studied its ecology and control measures in India.

Melanaphis jamatonica (Sorin)    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL 1.3-1.8 mm. On Miscanthus sp. in Japan. Specimens from Miscanthus sinensis in Korea (BMNH collection, leg W.H. Paik) will also key to jamatonica, but differ from the Japanese material by lacking scent glands on the hind tibiae.

Melanaphis japonica (Takahashi)    Apterae are yellow or purple, dusted with wax (Moritsu 1983); BL 1.3-1.6 mm. On Miscanthus sinensis in Japan, and also recorded from Korea (Lee et al. 2002c – but these specimens might be M. jamatonica. Oviparae and alate males occur in September, and eggs are laid on undersides of leaves (Sorin 1970b). 2n = c.22.

Melanaphis koreana (Sorin)    Apterae are pale yellowish grey; BL 1.5-1.8 mm. Alatae were described by W.K. Lee & Seo (1992). On Miscanthus sinensis in Korea and east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a). [Specimens in the BMNH collection, determined by Sorin as M. koreana (leg. W.H. Paik, Yangi, Korea, 11.vi.61), have shorter siphunculi than the type material (1.0-1.1 × longer than basal width, compared with c.1.45 × basal width)] .

Melanaphis luzulella (Hille Ris Lambers)    Apterae are dark green, almost black; BL 1.2-1.8 mm. On Luzula spp., in spring and early summer at stem bases and on upper surfaces of basal parts of leaves, tented over by ants, and later also onto aerial shoots. In northern, central and eastern Europe. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males (Heie 1986). Prior (1971) described the ovipara.

Melanaphis meghalayensis Raychaudhuri & Banerjee   Apterae are greenish to dark brown, often dusted with wax; BL 1.3-1.9 mm.  Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 18-20, IV 4-8. On undersurfaces of leaves, or on stems at ground level, of unidentified grasses and bamboos in Meghalaya and West Bengal, India (Raychaudhuri & Banerjee 1974).  A population described as a subspecies, M. meghalayensis bengalensis, with fewer hairs on the cauda and genital plate, was recorded from Arundinaria sp. in West Bengal.  The life cycle has not been studied.  Agarwala & Mahapatra (1990) described oviparae of M. meghalayensis from an unidentified bamboo, indicating that this species may be partly holocyclic and monoecious on Poaceae.  However it is not clearly differentiated morphologically from the secondary host form of M. pahanensis. M. grossisiphonellus Zhang, Qiao & Zhang, described from a Bambusa sp. in China (L. Zhang et al. 2001), is possibly this species.

Melanaphis miscanthi (Takahashi)    Apterae are yellowish grey, dirty yellow or dark purple; BL 1.2-1.9 mm. On Miscanthus sp. in Taiwan. This species was redescribed by Halbert & Remaudičre (2000).

Melanaphis montana (Sorin)    Apterae are greenish dark brown (but see also Moritsu 1983, p.184); BL c.1.2-1.3 mm. On Miscanthus sinensis in Japan, and also found on Leersia in Thailand (BMNH collection, leg. Napompeth). Very close to, and possibly synonymous with, M. tateyamaensis.

Melanaphis pahanensis (Takahashi)  Host-alternating between Pyrus spp. and unidentified Poaceae in northern India (Raychaudhuri & Banerjee 1974, Medda & Chakrabarti 1992).  Apterae on Pyrus in spring are dark brown dusted with wax; BL 1.8-2.1 mm.  They feed on the  undersides of the leaves, causing them to curl.  Alatae emigrating from Pyrus have secondary rhinaria distrubuted III 15-28, IV 0-1; return migrants (gynoparae) have them distributed III 51-58, IV 18-28, V 12-15, VI 0-3 (Medda & Chakrabarti 1992). It was originally described (Takahashi 1950, as Aphis pahanensis) from Malaya, as brownish purple apterae secreting cottony wax, BL c.1.25 mm, on an unidentified bamboo of the Arundinaria group, and has subsequently been found on Pennisetum purpureum (BMNH collection, leg. S.K. David). Swirskiaphis bambuciepula Zhang & Zhang, described from Phyllostachys in China (L. Zhang & G. Zhang 2000c) is possibly this species. [Melanaphis pyrisucta Zhang & Qiao, described from Pyrus pyrifolia in China (G. Zhang et al. 1999d) is similarly long-haired, but alate spring migrants have many more rhinaria (III 31-37, IV 9-12, V 2-6).]

Melanaphis pyraria (Passerini)  Pear‑Grass Aphid     Apterae on Pyrus are dark brown, with an extensive brown-black dorsal abdominal patch (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.3-2.1 mm.  In spring on undersides of pear leaves, rolling the leaves transversely or diagonally to the mid-rib, attended by ants (Andrasfalvy 1968).  Host-alternating between Pyrus communis and Poaceae. Spring migrant alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 8-30, IV 0-9, V 0-2. Apterae on grasses are yellowish to reddish purple; BL 1.1-1.7 mm. Their colour differs according to host species and condition; on Arrhenatherum it is reddish purple, hidden under deformed leaves, while on Poa, Brachypodium and Triticum it is a smaller, yellowish aphid. Alatae produced on grasses have secondary rhinaria distributed III 23-45, IV 12-29, V 1-21 . Widely distributed in Europe, in Madeira, the Canaries and the Azores, Mediterranean region and  Middle East, Caucasus and Transcaucasia. 2n=8 (the chromosomal distribution of heterochromatin and rDNA was studied by Criniti et al. 2004).

Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (= formosana Takahashi 1921, 1931 nec. Sorin, 1970)    Apterae are very variable in colour according to host plant and environmental conditions; pale yellow, yellow brown, dark brown, purple, or even pinkish; BL 1.1 ‑2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 4-16, IV 0(-6), V 0. In ant-attended colonies on Poaceae, especially Saccharum; also sometimes on other grasses and cereals (Arthraxon, Echinochloa, Oryza, Oryzopsis, Panicum, Pennisetum, Sorghum, Themeda, Thysanolaema), and there are also records from Araceae (Arum, Caladium). In South Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Laos, China, Philippines, Australia, Hawaii, southern USA, Central and South America. Probably anholocyclic almost everywhere that it occurs, but it is reported to be monoecious holocyclic (with alate males) in China (Zhang & Zhong 1983), with Miscanthus sacchariflorus as the overwintering host (Wang et al. 1961). Zimmerman (1948) gave a general account of the biology, including natural control by parasites and predators, in Hawaii. Most of the ecological studies of M. sacchari on cultivated sorghum in Africa and Asia should probably be referred to  M. sorghi (q.v.).  Nibouche et al. (2014) studied genetic diversity of samples identified as M . sacchari from many parts of the world, and showed that certain genotypes have a wide distribution, but their multilocus genotypes “A” and “E” originating from Africa and Asia showed greatest genetic divergence from the rest and were almost all collected from Sorghum bicolor; they should probably be assigned to M. sorghi.  The M. sacchari/sorghi/miscanthi group  is closely related to the host‑alternating M. pyraria in Europe.  2n = 8  for samples from Hong Kong and India; but  Khuda-Bukhsh & Kar (1990) recorded 2n=10 from India. [A record of 2n=22 for M. sacchari in Japan (Blackman 1986) is referable to another, undescribed species.]

Melanaphis siphonella (Essig & Kuwana)  Apterae are dark brown, lightly dusted with white wax; BL 1.4-1.9 mm.  On Pyrus spp. (betulifolia, pyrifolia) in Japan (Essig & Kuwana 1918), Korea (Paik 1965) and China (L. Zhang et al. 2001).  Biology and life cycle are unknown.

Melanaphis sorghi (Theobald)  Plate 8f  Apterae are white or yellow, and sometimes larger individuals have a variably-developed black dorsal abdominal patch; BL 1.1-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 4-13, IV 0(-1), V 0. On Poaceae, especially Sorghum bicolor, favouring the axils of the lower leaves, but large colonies extend over the whole leaf. Also sometimes on other grasses or cereals (Eleusine, Panicum, Saccharum, Zea). In Africa, the Middle East, east and south-east Asia (India, Pakistan, China, Thailand, Japan, Philippines). Probably mostly anholocyclic, although Setokuchi (1975) reported a holocycle on Sorghum in Japan, and  David (1977) recorded oviparae in February-March in north-west India.  Blackman et al. (1990) distinguished this species from M. sacchari. See also Blackman & Eastop (2000).  2n=8.

Melanaphis sorini Halbert & Remaudičre  (= formosana Sorin 1970, not Takahashi 1921, 1931)    Apterae are wine red, purple or tan; BL 1.0-1.8 mm. On Miscanthus spp. in Japan and Taiwan, and introduced to USA (Florida, California; Halbert & Remaudičre 2000). It has also been found in UK on Miscanthus imported from Israel (Hammon et al. 2006). Monoecious holocyclic in Japan, with alate males (Sorin 1970b, as Longiunguis formosanus); the Florida population may be anholocyclic. This species seems closely related to and morphologically almost indistinguishable from M. indosacchari, but the form introduced into Florida would not colonise Saccharum in laboratory tests (Halbert & Remaudičre 2000).

Melanaphis strobilanthi Medda & Chakrabarti    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded, probably pale with darker head; BL 1.2-1.6 mm. On Strobilanthes sp. in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Melanaphis tateyamaensis (Sorin)    Apterae are reddish purple; BL c. 1.6 mm. On undersides of leaves of Miscanthus sp. in Japan. Possibly these are larger specimens of M. montana.

Melanaphis yasumatsui (Sorin)   Apterae are dark purple, with white powdery wax; BL 1.2-1.5 mm. On Miscanthus sp. in Japan, and recorded from M. sinensis in east Siberia (Pashchenko 1988a).

Melanaphis zhanhuaensis Zhang, Qiao & Zhang    Apterae are purplish red; BL c.1.5 mm. On subterranean part of  Imperata cylindrica var. major in China (Shandong Province; L. Zhang et al. 2001). Apart from the colour and subterranean habit this species seems indistinguishable from M. sorghi.

 

Melanocallis Oestlund

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

One nearctic species near Tinocallis, but with differences in the ventral structure of the head, dark marginal sclerites on abdominal tergites 5-7, a squat body shape, infuscated basal parts of wings and a host association with Juglandaceae. It was placed as a synonym of Tinocallis by Remaudičre & Remaudičre (1997) but revalidated as a full genus by Quednau (2003).

Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis)  (fig. 33A)  All viviparae are alate, squat-bodied, very dark green to black with small tufts of white wax and conspicuous paired black dorsal tubercles, those on abdominal tergite 2 being especially large; BL 0.9-1.9 mm.  On both upper and lower sides of leaves of most Carya spp., but especially C. illinoiensis.  Feeding causes yellow spots on leaves, reducing photosynthesis (Wood & Tedders 1986), and large populations can cause defoliation. Apterous oviparae and alate males are produced in October (Hottes & Frison 1931, as M. fumipenella); the ovipara is illustrated by Quednau (2003). The effect of M. caryaefoliae on the yield of pecans was studied by Wood et al. (1987), and Dutcher (1985) evaluated chemical control measures.  For a general account see Bissell (1978).  2n=14.

 

Melaphis Walsh

Eriosomatinae: Fordini

 

One nearctic species related to the east Asian genera of Fordini of subtribe Melaphidina (Nurudea, Kaburagia, Schlechtendalia), and with a similar alternation between Rhus and mosses.  A recent study using both morphological and mtDNA data placed it closest to Schlechtendalia (Pang et al. 2011). The antiquity of the host association was discussed by Moran (1989).

Melaphis rhois (Fitch)  Forming closed, sac-like red and white galls (fig. 129) on leaflets of Rhus spp. (glabra, typhina) in North America.  Emigrant alatae (BL 1.4-1.7 mm) emerge in late August-October and fly to mosses.  Apterae on mosses are pale with darker antennae and legs; BL 0.8-1.2 mm; a detailed redescription of them was provided by Pike et al. (2012). Anholocyclic populations also occur all-year-round on mosses, and have been introduced into Europe (Sweden, UK). Hebert et al. (1991) studied genetic variation in local populations by enzyme electrophoresis.  2n=26*.

 

Meringosiphon Carver

Greenideinae: Cervaphidini

One western Australian species with 6-segmented antennae, long dorsal body hairs arising from low tuberculate bases, and siphunculi with hairs on basal half as well as subapically. Alatae have forewings with twice-branched media.

Meringosiphon paradisicum Carver    Apterae are probably brownish; BL 1.55-1.76 mm. The host plant is uncertain, but it was swept from areas where Daviesia divaricata was the dominant vegetation (Carver 1959). In Western Australia.

 

Mesocallis Matsumura

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

Eight east Asian species principally associated with Betulaceae, resembling Tinocallis except for the lack of spinal tubercles, but probably more closely related to Pterocallis, differing from that genus in that the spinal and marginal hairs on abdominal tergites 1-4 are usually unduplicated.  Accounts are available for Japan (Higuchi 1972), China (Qiao et al. 2005b) and India (Chakrabarti 1988).  Quednau (2003) reviewed the genus as a whole, illustrating all available morphs, and placed Paratinocallis, previously regarded as closer to Pterocallis, as a subgenus of Mesocallis. 

Mesocallis alnicola Ghosh   Colour in life is unrecorded, probably pale yellow.  Apterous as well as alate viviparae are described; BL of apterae 1.0-1.2 mm, of alatae 1.3-1.4 mm.  Alatae have 9-11 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, distributed along most of length of segment.  On Alnus nepalensis in Meghalaya, India (A.K. Ghosh 1974).  Biology and sexuales are unrecorded.

Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola (Higuchi)  Adult viviparae are all alate, pale yellow with usually only ANT V and VI, apices of tibiae and tarsi pale brown; BL c. 1.5 mm.  Described from Corylus sieboldiana in Japan (Higuchi 1972), and also recorded from C. heterophylla in Korea (Quednau 1979) and China (Qiao et al. 2005b). Sexual morphs and life cycle are unknown.  2n=10 (Blackman 1986).

Mesocallis fagicola Matsumura  Alatae are very small, pale yellow; BL c. 0.6 mm.  ANT III has about 6 secondary rhinaria spaced out along segment.  Described from Fagus sylvatica in Japan (Matusumura 1919), and not recorded since.  Biology and sexuales are unknown.

Mesocallis obtusirostris Ghosh   Alatae are pale yellow; BL 1.2-1.5 mm.  ANT III has 3-7 rhinaria, mostly on basal part.  On Alnus nepalensis (with one record from Betula alnoides) in India (Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal) and Nepal (Chakrabarti 1988).  Sexual morphs were reported by Chakrabarti (1988, p.69).

Mesocallis pteleae Matsumura   Alatae are pale yellow, with ANT III brown, rest of antennal flagellum banded with brown, and mainly brown tibiae and tarsi; BL 1.2-1.6 mm.  Described originally (Matsumura 1919) from Ptelea trifoliata, which is unlikely to be a true host. Since recorded from species of Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Carpinus and Ostrya.  In Japan and China.

Mesocallis sawashibae (Matsumura)  Alatae and apterae are pale yellow, with darker antennal joints, dark distal half of fore tibia, and a black spot near apex of hind tibia; BL 0.8-1.5 mm.  On Carpinus cordata and C. japonica, in Japan, Korea, China and east Siberia.  Oviparae occur in October in Japan (Higuchi 1972).  2n=10 (Blackman 1986).

Mesocallis taoi Quednau  Colour in life is unknown, but alatae are probably pale except for black front of head, ANT I-III and distal parts of ANT IV-VI, black fore tibiae and forewing vein Cu1b; BL 1.0-1.2 mm. Apterae also occur, and are pale except for dark antennal joints and tarsi and black spots at bases of dorsal hairs; BL 0.9-1.2 mm. On Alnus cremastogyne in China (Quednau 2003).

Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) yunnanensis Zhang  Colour in life is unknown, BL c.2.1 mm. On Corylus heterophylla in China (Yunnan; Zhang & Zhong 1985c). Described as a subspecies of M. (P.) corylicola and raised to full species status by Quednau (2003).

 

Mesothoracaphis Noordam

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

One species on Loranthaceae and Viscaceae in south-east Asia with sclerotised, box-like body and greatly reduced antennae and legs.

Mesothoracaphis rappardi (Hille Ris Lambers & Takahashi)  (Fig.60a)  Apterae are brownish-black, somewhat shiny; BL 0.95-1.14 mm. On young shoots or older twigs of Dendrophthoë and Viscum spp. in Java (Noordam 1991).

 

Mesotrichosiphum Calilung

Greenideinae: Greenideini

 

A genus with nominally three species close to Eutrichosiphum, but typically with 4-segmented antennae in the apterae and sparse, mostly short hairs, which are mostly blunt in apterae and acute in alatae.

Mesotrichosiphum brevisetosum Noordam  Apterae are pear-shaped, colour in life is unknown; BL c.1.2 mm. Described from a single specimen collected on Lithocarpus bennettii in Java (Noordam 1994).

Mesotrichosiphum pentaiarticulatum Zhang & Qiao   Apterae are pear-shaped, with head and thorax black or blackish green, abdomen brown, and black siphunculi; BL 1.4-1.7 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On young leaves of Castanopsis hainanensis in Hainan, China (D. Zhang & Qiao 2008c). This species would probably be more appropriately placed in Eutrichosiphum, and is close to if not synonymous with Eutrichosiphum nigrum.

Mesotrichosiphum uichancoi Calilung   Apterae are pear-shaped, colour in life is not recorded; BL c. 1.3 mm.  The single described alata has 5-segmented antennae with 13-15 secondary rhinaria along the length of ANT III, forewings with a twice-branched media and hindwings with one oblique vein.  On undersides of young leaves and branch tips of Premna odorata in the Philippines (Calilung 1967).  The life cycle is unknown.

 

Metanipponaphis Takahashi

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

Eight East Asian species distinguished from Nipponaphis by the ornamentation of the tergum, consisting of rounded pustules which are rather evenly spaced and sized over the central part of the prosoma and which, under the light microscope, appear double-walled or ring-like (fig. 36C).  The fused abdominal tergites 2-7 have marginal hairs but there are no spinal hairs on abdominal tergite 7, and abdominal tergite 8 has 2 (or rarely, 4) hairs.  Two species in Japan have been shown to alternate between Distylium and Castanopsis (Sorin 1987), while the other species that probably belong in the genus are only known from Fagaceae.  Metanipponaphis is in need of revision and no key to species on Castanopsis is attempted; A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri (1973a) provided a partial key, and Noordam (1991) gave a detailed generic diagnosis.

Metanipponaphis assamensis Ghosh & Raychaudhuri   Apterae are aleyrodiform, oval, "light brown to yellow" (darker in life?); BL 1.7-1.8 mm (A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri 1973a).  On Castanopsis tribuloides in Meghalaya, India.  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Metanipponaphis cuspidatae (Essig & Kuwana)  Host-alternating between Distylium racemosum and Castanopsis cuspidata.  The galls on the twigs of Distylium are large and globular (Takahashi 1962a).  Emigrant alatae emerging in autumn (BL 1.8-2.1 mm) give rise to dark purple, lightly wax-dusted aleyrodiform apterae (BL 1.5-1.7 mm) on branches of C. cuspidata.  Records from other plants (e.g. Cinnamonum, Ficus, Quercus, Litsea) are likely to be misidentifications.  Alate sexuparae apparently return to Distylium in May, but anholocyclic populations also remain on Castanopsis throughout the year (Takahashi 1962a).  In Japan and Taiwan.

Metanipponaphis echinata Ghosh   Apterae are aleyrodiform, oval, "light to dark brown" (prepared specimens?); BL 0.7-0.9 mm (A.K. Ghosh 1974).  Described from Castanopsis histrix in Meghalaya, India.  The pustules on the pleuromaginal region of the prosoma are elongate, tapering to a blunt apex, and often have a hooked profile; specimens in the BMNH collection from C. carlesii and C. sclerophylla in Hangzhou, China (leg. V.F. Eastop) are rather larger but have similar ornamentation, and may be this species.  The feeding position of the Indian aphids was not recorded, but the Chinese aphids were feeding on the leaves.  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Metanipponaphis lithocarpicola (Takahashi)  Apterae are aleyrodiform, almost circular, black, usually with a little white wax marginally; BL 1.0-1.3 mm.  On undersides of leaves of Lithocarpus sp. in Taiwan (Takahashi 1933), and there is a recent record from Castanopsis sclerophylla in Fujian Province, China (Chen et al. 2014).  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Metanipponaphis rotunda Takahashi   Host-alternating in Japan between Distylium racemosum and Castanopsis spp.  The galls on Distylium are formed on leaf petioles, and sometimes on the fruit.  They are pale green and rather slender, 1.7-2.8 cm long (Sorin 1987).  Alatae migrate to (unidentified) Castanopsis spp., producing aleyrodiform apterae which are black, almost circular, dorsally depressed, BL 1.0-1.3 mm, and live on undersides of leaves.  Alatae (?sexuparae) are produced on Castanopsis in April in the Tokyo region (Takahashi 1959a). This species could not be included in the key to aphids on Distylium as the emigrant alatae from the galls do not seem to have been properly described. Only known from Japan. Sorin (1996) described the inhabitants of yellowish green galls on D. racemosum in Okinawa as a subspecies, M. rotunda nakijinensis.

Metanipponaphis shiicola Takahashi   Apterae are aleyrodiform, black, oval, dorsally not much depressed; BL 1.1-1.5 mm.  On Castanopsis cuspidata in Japan, living on undersides of leaves along basal part of mid-rib (Takahashi 1959).  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Metanipponaphis silvestrii (Takahashi)  Apterae are aleyrodiform, dark brown, almost circular; BL c.1.0-1.1 mm.  Described from leaves of an unknown host plant in Shansi, China (Takahashi 1935).  A.K. Ghosh (1974) collected similar apterae in Assam, India, on Lindera sp.  Probably the species is misplaced in Metanipponaphis.  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

Metanipponaphis vandergooti Noordam   Appearance in life is unknown, probably dark; BL of aptera 1.6-1.8 mm. On Lithocarpus sundaicus in Java. An alata collected in August had BL c.2.2 mm and secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15, IV 7, V 3 (Noordam 1991). The life cycle is unknown.

 

Metathoracaphis Sorin

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

One species with host alternation from Distylium to Quercus in Japan, in which the apterae have very short unsegmented antennae and prosoma partially fused with abdominal plate, and the alatae as well as the apterae lack siphuncular pores.

Metathoracaphis isensis Sorin (= distylicolens Sorin)  Galls protrude from the upper sides of the leaves of Distylium racemosum and are yellowish green, semicircular or helmet-shaped, 1.0-1.6 cm in height. Alatae (with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-16, IV 7-9, V 5-7) emerge in late June and migrate to Quercus gilva. Apterae living on upper sides of leaves of  Q. gilva are aleyrodiform, oval, somewhat convex dorsally, strongly sclerotised, blackish brown dusted with greyish wax; BL c.1.0 mm.  Alate sexuparae produced in October are blackish brown with dark forewing veins, and have secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 40-47, IV 15-19, V 6-9.  Partly anholocyclic; apterae were found on Quercus throughout the year Sorin (2004) confirmed the life cycle by host transfers and described the ovipara.

 

Metopeuraphis Narzikulov & Smailova

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

One species in Central Asia, related to Metopeurum but living on Amaranthaceae and with prothorax and abdominal tergites 2-4 usually having well-developed marginal tubercles.

Metopeuraphis atriplicis Narzikulov & Smailova    Apterae are green dusted with greyish wax, BL c.1.7-1.9 mm. In small colonies on undersides of leaves of Atriplex sp(p). in Kazakhstan. Kadyrbekov (2011c) recorded it from A. cana. Biology and sexual morphs are unknown.

 

 

Metopeurum Mordvilko

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

About ten palaearctic species on Compositae, mostly described from central and eastern Europe, with six of the species known only from Ukraine. They are related to Macrosiphoniella but their morphology, and also their physiology (see Woodring et al. 2006), are adapted for ant attendance. Mamontova & Tshumak (1994) provided a key to species.

Metopeurum achilleae Bozhko    Apterae are pale reddish brown, wax-dusted; BL c.1.8 mm. On flower stalks of Achillea gerberi in Ukraine. This species is very similar to M. capillatum.

Metopeurum borystenicum Bozhko    Apterae are pale bluish or reddish green; BL c.1.9 mm. In dense colonies on stems and leaves of Tanacetum vulgare in Ukraine.

Metopeurum buryaticum (Pashchenko)  (new combination)    Apterae are pinkish lilac, in life with large blackish violet dorsal abdominal spot; BL c.2.8 mm. On flower stems of Tanacetum vulgare, attended by ants (Pashchenko 1999b, as Macrosiphoniella (Sinosiphoniella)). In Siberia (eastern shore of Lake Baikal), and also recently recorded from Georgia (Barjadze et al. 2010b). [Except for the long dorsal body hairs the description closely matches that of M. fuscoviride.]

Metopeurum capillatum (Börner)    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL 2.1 mm (one specimen). On Achillea sp., possibly either atrata or moschata. In Austrian Alps.

Metopeurum enslini (Börner)    Apterae are blackish; BL 2.6-3.0 mm. On stems and root collars of Tanacetum vulgare. In Germany, and Ukraine (Bozhko 1963).

Metopeurum fuscoviride Stroyan  Plate 27g  (Fig.52a)   Apterae have a dark brown head and thorax, reddish, pink or green abdomen with a black central patch (disappearing in preserved specimens), and black siphunculi and cauda (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.8-2.9 mm. In ant-attended colonies on Tanacetum vulgare, and occasionally on other Tanacetum spp., with single records also from Achillea millefolium, Leucanthemum vulgare and Artemisia alba (the latter from Kazakhstan as ssp. kasachstanica; Smailova 1974). In Europe, west Siberia and Central Asia. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in late August-September. Loxdale et al. (2011) analysed variation within and between local populations in Germany using microstatellite markers. Lysiphlebus hirticornis is a host-specific parasitoid. 2n=8.

Metopeurum gentianae Mamontova & Tshumak    Apterae are dark green, with yellow antennae and legs; BL not given. On Gentiana asclepiadea in Ukraine.

Metopeurum matricariae Bozhko    Apterae are reddish brown with darker dorsal abdominal spots, black siphunculi and a pale cauda; BL c.2.2 mm. In dense colonies on stems of Matricaria chamomilla in Ukraine, where it has also been recorded from Tripleurospermum inodorum (Mamonotova-Solukha 1966). It is also reported to occur on Matricaria sp. and Tanacetum (=Pyrethrum) tanacetoides in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2014d).

Metopeurum millefolii Mamontova & Tshumak    Apterae are ash-grey; BL 1.6-1.8 mm. On Achillea millefolium in Ukraine, and also recorded from Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2011b).

Metopeurum urticae Mamontova & Tshumak    Apterae are yellow with dark antennae, head, legs and siphunculi ; BL 2.1-2.4 mm. On undersides of leaves of Urtica dioica in Ukraine.

 

 

Metopolophium Mordvilko

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 18 species resembling Acyrthosiphon but perhaps more closely related to Sitobion, and like that genus typically with Rosaceae as primary hosts and migrating to Poaceae. The generic positions of the few species with other host associations are uncertain. Accounts are available for north-west Europe (Stroyan 1982a, Heie 1994, Blackman 2010) and northern India (Raychaudhuri et al. 1980). Blackman et al. (1989) discussed enzyme differences between closely-related European species.

Metopolophium albidum Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are yellowish white or yellowish green, without a green spinal stripe, but sometimes with green spots at bases of siphunculi; BL 1.9-2.7 mm. On grasses such as Arrhenatherum elatius, sometimes in large numbers causing red and yellow discoloration of grass blades (Stroyan 1950). Throughout Europe. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and alate males in November (original description). 2n=16.

Metopolophium alpinum Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are dull green with pale appendages; BL 2.6-3.8 mm. Alatae have dusky narrow dorsal abdominal cross-bands. In spring colonies on Rosa spp. in the French and Swiss Alps. Presumably heteroecious holocyclic, migrating to grasses, as subsequently found on Poa alpina in Austria. It is also recorded from Carex. Oviparae and alate males occur on wild Rosa leaves in October (original description).

Metopolophium arctogenicolens Richards   Apterous viviparae are undescribed, oviparae are pale green: BL 2.0-2.4 mm. Described from oviparae and one apterous male collected in July-August on Taraxacum arctogenum (= ceratophorum) on Ellesmere Island, North-West Territories, Canada.  Specimens were maintained on this plant in the laboratory (original description).

Metopolophium chandrani (David & Narayanan) (= M. graminum Raychaudhuri, L.K. Ghosh & Das, = M. simlaense Chakrabarti & Raychaudhuri; Eastop & Blackman 2005)    Apterae are yellowish green; BL 1.9-2.6 mm. On grasses (Bromus, Poa) in India. Oviparae and alate males were collected (along with apterous viviparae) on Rubus opulifolius in Himachal Pradesh in December (Agarwala & Mahapatra 1990). Also recorded from Rosa sp., and from an unidentified shrub (as M. simlaense).  

Metopolophium (Metopolophinum) darjeelingense L.K. Ghosh    Apterae are greenish with brighter green spinal stripe, appendages pale except for apices of antennae; BL 2.2-2.5 mm. On Hypericum sp. in West Bengal; the host plant is unusual for a member of this genus, but is confirmed by a subsequent collection (Raychaudhuri, M.R. Ghosh & R.C. Basu 1978, as M. davidi). The species is also unusual in having spinulose femora and 4 hairs on first tarsal segments, justifying its placement in a separate subgenus. [Note: M. darjilingense Raychaudhuri, M.R. Ghosh & R.C. Basu (1978) is a different species, from an unknown host; see also under M. lacheni.]

Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker)  Rose-Grain Aphid   Plate 23h  Apterae are green or yellowish green with a brighter green spinal stripe, and have antennae with dark apices to each segment (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.6-2.9 mm. Alatae have a rather pale abdomen, sometimes with indistinct brownish cross-bars on anterior tergites. In Europe it occurs on wild and cultivated Rosa spp. in spring, and is heteroecious holocyclic, migrating in June to numerous species of Poaceae and Cyperaceae. It is a major pest of cereals, and has become widely distributed especially in temperate regions of the world (see Blackman & Eastop, 2000). Some overwintering on grasses occurs in western Europe, and populations introduced to other parts of the world – or at least those in New Zealand (Nicol et al. 1997) and Brazil (Lopes-da-Silva & Vieira 2007) – seem to be permanently parthenogenetic. 2n=18.

Metopolophium fasciatum Stroyan    Apterae are pale green with a darker green spinal stripe, frequently with yellow spots at bases of siphunculi; BL 1.7-3.4 mm. On grasses, especially Arrhenatherum elatius. Only known from UK, except for a single aptera from Iceland (BMNH collection, leg. R.N.B. Prior). Potentially heteroecious holocyclic, as there is an autumn migration and production of oviparae on Rosa canina, but males are rare in comparison with those of M. dirhodum, and spring populations on Rosa have not been identified, so it is thought to be predominantly anholocyclic in UK (Stroyan 1982a). [We have examined type specimens of M. berberinutritum Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li, described from (vagrants on?) Berberis in China (G. Zhang 1999); this has longer antennae (1.33 × BL as opposed to c.1.0 × BL in UK populations of fasciatum, but is otherwise very similar.]  2n=18*.

Metopolophium festucae (Theobald)    Apterae are rather shiny, evenly yellowish green to green or salmon pink, with antennae progressivly darker from III to VI; BL 1.4-2.2 mm. Alatae have conspicuous dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands. On many genera and species of Poaceae in Europe (including Iceland), with populations on cereal crops showing slight morphological differences and regarded as a subspecies, M. festucae ssp. cerealium Stroyan. There are records of aphids resembling M. festucae from Argentina, Bolivia, and western USA, and populations in Chile and USA have been identified as ssp. cerealium (Remaudičre et al. 1993, Halbert et al. 2013a). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males, but anholocyclic overwintering is common in both subspecies. See also Blackman & Eastop (2000). 2n=16 (including ssp. cerealium).

Metopolophium frisicum Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are shining green, with ill-defined olive or brownish green dorsal abdominal shield, and dark antennae, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.3-2.4 mm. On Poa spp., especially P.trivialis, feeding on upper sides of leaf-blades in shady, damp situations. In north-west, northern and central Europe. An earlier record from North America (Börner 1952) is unsubstantiated (Foottit et al. 2006), but A. Jensen (aphidtrek.org) has collected samples from Washington, Oregon and Colorado that may be this species. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in October (but anholocyclic in UK).

Metopolophium lacheni Agarwala, Mondal & Raychaudhuri    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL c.1.8-2.4 mm. Alatae have dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands. On Rubus sp. in north-east India (Sikkim). Oviparae and alate males were collected in December (original description, as M. darjeeligense ssp. lacheni).

Metopolophium longicaudatum David & Hameed    Apterae are pale; BL 2.2-2.9 mm. On wheat (Triticum sp.) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Other morphs are unknown.

Metopolophium montanum Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are evenly green or apple green, without a darker green spinal stripe; BL 1.8-2.8 mm. Alatae have conspicuous dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands. In spring colonies on wild Rosa spp. in montane regions of  Switzerland, Austria, France and Spain. Presumably heteroecious holocyclic, migrating to grasses as subsequently found on Poa alpina in Austria. Oviparae were found on wild Rosa leaves in October (original description).

Metoplophium mukhamedievi Akhmedov    Apterae are shining pale green: BL 2.2-2.9 mm. On Lonicera microphylla in Central Asia. This species does not seem to be clearly distinct from M. dirhodum.

Metopolophium palmerae (Hille Ris Lambers)  Plate 23i  Apterae are probably green: BL c.2.7 mm. On Elymus sp. in Colorado, USA.

Metopolophium pedicularus (Richards)    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL c 2.8 mm. On Pedicularis seudetica in arctic Canada (North-West Territories). Monoecious holocyclic; oviparae and apterous males were collected in mid-August (original description). The generic position of this species is uncertain.

Metopolophium rosaesuctum Zhang    Apterae are reddish green; BL c. 3.4 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Rosa sp. in China.

Metopolophium sabihae Prior    Apterae are yellow-green, apple green or blue-green; BL 1.3-2.1 mm. On Festuca rubra, Vulpia membranacea and Ammophila arenaria growing in sand dunes. In western Europe (France, Belgium, UK). Aphids identified as this species have now been found on Wrangel Island in eastern Siberia, where fundatrices were collected in July and oviparae in July-August (Stekolshchikov & Khruleva 2014). Anholocyclic, or partially monoecious holocyclic in UK, with oviparae and both apterous (or brachypterous) and alate males produced in culture in November (original description).

Metopolophium tenerum Hille Ris Lambers    Apterae are dirty green or reddish, rather shiny; BL 1.3-2.2 mm. On Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca spp. in north-western and northern Europe. A record from Turkey (Görür et al. 2011b) requires additional conformation. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviperae and alate males in October in the Netherlands (original description).

 

Mexicallis Remaudičre

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

Seven or more very small species on undersides of leaves of Quercus in Mexico. Apterae have 4- or 5-segmented antennae and long thick spiculose spinal and marginal hairs, except subgenus Anacallis which has inconspicuous spinal hairs. Alate viviparae are unknown except for one specimen trapped in Panama. The genus was extensively revised by Quednau & Remaudičre (1996), and reviewed again with illustrations of all species by Quednau (1999).

Mexicallis analiliae Remaudičre   Apterae are white to creamy white; BL 0.7-1.1 mm.  Spinal hair-bearing processes are very variably developed; at least some are usually long and cylindrical.  On Quercus spp. especially Q. rugosa, in Mexico. Alate males and an immature ovipara were described by Quednau & Remaudičre (1996) from a population including apterous viviparae on Quercus sp. in October. Certain characters, such as the length of the last rostral segment, vary greatly between populations, and two subspecies have been described from Mexican populations,  M. analiliae pumilus on a dwarf Quercus (?frutex) (Remaudičre 1982b), and M. analiliae caulifer on Q. rugosa (Quednau & Remaudičre 1996).

Mexicallis (Anacallis) areolatus Remaudičre   Apterae are whitish with dark green marginal spots on each segment; BL 0.8-1.2 mm.  Placed in a separate subgenus (Anacallis) on account of the peculiar development of the frontal and marginal processes. and lack of spinal hairs except on abdominal tergites 7 and 8.  On Quercus rugosa (and one specimen only found on Q. mexicana) in Mexico (Remaudičre 1982b).

Mexicallis (Anacallis) brevituberculatus Quednau & Remaudičre   Colour of aptera in life is unknown; described from one specimen, BL 1.1 mm, on an unidentified Quercus sp. in Mexico (Quednau & Remaudičre 1996).

Mexicallis calvus Remaudičre   Apterae are whitish: BL 0.7-0.9 mm.  Spinal hairs on abdomen are of remarkably different sizes; those on abdominal tergites 2, 6, 7 and 8 are very long with tuberculate bases, whereas those on abdominal tergites 1,3,4 and 5 are minute.  On Quercus sp. (?mexicana) in Mexico (Remaudičre 1982b).

Mexicallis longicaudus Remaudičre  Apterae are similar to M. spinifer, and previously described as a subspecies of that species. On an unidentified Quercus sp. in Mexico. 

Mexicallis panamensis Quednau & Remaudičre   Apterae are white; BL 0.67-0.8 mm. On an unidentified Quercus sp. in Panama (Quednau & Remaudičre 1996), and on Q. oocarpa in Costa Rica (Villalobos Muller et al. 2010).

Mexicallis spinifer Remaudičre   Apterae are dark green, or pale greenish grey with two darker green irregular lateral bands running from pronotum to abdominal tergite 5 or 6; BL 0.7-1.0 mm.  Dorsal chaetotaxy shows considerable variation (Remaudičre 1982).  On Quercus spp. (including crassipes, mexicana, rugosa) in Mexico. Quednau & Remaudičre (1996) described the alate male found on an unidentified Quercus sp. in December, and Wieczorek et al. (2011) described and illustrated the male genitalia.

 

Micraphis Takahashi

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

One species in east Asia of uncertain affinities; possibly related to Coloradoa, except that the eyes have distinct posterior ocular tubercles and although feeding on Artemisia, R IV+V is not stilletto-shaped.

Micraphis artemisiae (Takahashi)    Apterae are yellow or greenish, BL c.1.3 mm.  On leaves and stems of Artemisia capillaris in China, Taiwan and Japan. Alatae have 12-18 secondary rhinaria on III and 4-7 on IV.  The life cycle is unknown.

 

Microlophium Mordvilko

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Four or five species mostly on Urtica, with siphunculi similar to Aulacorthum but with smooth, very large and somewhat divergent antennal tubercles.

Microlophium carnosum (Buckton)  Plate 23e  Apterae are various shades of green, pink or reddish purple (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.1-4.3 mm. Alatae have dark marginal sclerites but only faint spino-pleural markings. On undersides of leaves and up stems of Urtica spp., especially U. dioica. Also recorded from Girardinia cuspidata (Tao 1999). In Europe, Asia east to Pakistan and Mongolia, Africa (Burundi, Rwanda), North America and Chile (Fuentes-Contreras et al. 1997); a record from Argentina (Heie 1994) could not be substantiated. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males. Perrin (1976) studied its population ecology and natural enemies. 2n=20. [In UK another, undescribed species occurs on U. dioica which can be distinguished morphologically by the characters given in the key, and has 2n=16. This is possibly the species with 2n=16 from Crimea listed as M. evansi Theobald by Kuznetsova & Shaposhnikov (1963).]

Microlophium rubiformosanum (Takahashi)    Apterae are green, with antennal and leg segments blackish distally, and siphunculi blackish except at bases; BL c.3.5 mm. Alatae are without dorsal abdominal markings. On Rubus spp.in Taiwan and Japan. 2n=12.

Microlophium sibiricum (Mordvilko)    Apterae are brownish green or dark green; BL 3.4-4.4 mm. Alatae have dark spino-pleural as well as marginal markings. On undersides of leaves and up stems of Urtica spp., especially U. urens. In Europe (not UK) and across Asia to east Siberia, and possibly also in Japan (Miyazaki 1971, as Acyrthosiphon carnosus); also in USA, where populations occur mainly on U. dioica ssp. gracilis and are regarded as a subspecies, M. sibiricum ssp. tenuicauda Hille Ris Lambers, although there seem to be no consistent morphological differences from the Old World form. Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males.  

 

Micromyzella Eastop

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 12 mostly African fern-feeding species related to Micromyzus but with 2-3 hairs (one sense peg) on first tarsal segments, and alatae have more normal wing venation, with wing veins dark but not heavily bordered, radial sector more moderately curved and media once- or twice-branched. Apterae often have dark siphunculi and dusky or dark dorsal sclerotisation. Remaudičre & Autrique (1985) revised the genus, providing keys to apterae and alatae.

Micromyzella anisopappi Remaudičre    Apterae are pale with black siphuncular apices and cauda; BL c.1.5-1.7 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-15, IV 2-4, V 0(-2), and variably developed dorsal abdominal markings. On Anisopappus africanus, often in company with Sitobion hirsutirostris. In Burundi.

Micromyzella davalliae Remaudičre    Apterae are dark with black appendages incl. cauda; BL 1.4-2.5 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 26-42, IV 12-23, V 4-11, and dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands. Common in the rainy season on the epiphytic fern Davallia chaerophylloides (= denticulata) growing on oil palms in Burundi (Remaudičre & Autrique 1985). Monoecious holocyclic, producing oviparae and alate males in late February-April.

Micromyzella eliei Remaudičre    Apterae are black, except for basal parts of antennae and femora, tibiae and cauda; BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 30-34, IV 22-26, V 10-11 (one specimen). On Helichrysum odoratissimum in Burundi.

Micromyzella filicis (van der Goot)    Apterae are grass-green, sometimes with a black dorsal abdominal spot, black antennae and siphunculi; BL c. 1.7 mm. Alatae have 8-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only and no dark dorsal abdominal spot. On undersides of fronds, or in furled fronds, of ferns in many genera (Antrophyum, Asplenium, Blechnum, Pityrogramma, Polypodium, Pteris, Sphenomeris, Thelypteris). In Java (Noordam 2004), and introduced to New Zealand where it was collected on Platycerium sp. (BMNH collection, leg. V.F. Eastop). 2n=36 (in New Zealand).

Micromyzella judenkoi (Carver)    Apterae are undescribed; BL of alatae 1.2-1.7 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 9-18, IV 0-8, V 0-4. Described from alate viviparae and an alate male caught in yellow trays in Australia and Sri Lanka. Subsequently apterae collected on ferns (Asplenium, Athyrium, Cheilanthes) in northern India have been assigned to this species, but without a published description. Alatae have also been trapped in Hong Kong (described by Qiao & Jiang 2005) and the Philippines (BMNH collection).

Micromyzella kathleenae Remaudičre  (Fig.43q)   Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded, probably rather pale, with dark siphunculi and black cauda; BL 1.7-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 15-23, IV 12-16, V 8-12, and paired dark patches on abdominal tergites. On Asplenium aethiopicum (= praemorsum) in Burundi.

Micromyzella pterisoides (Theobald)  (Fig.43p)  Apterae are dark, with antennae and legs mainly dark, black siphunculi and paler cauda ; BL 1.8-2.2mm. Alatae have 7-15 sec. rhin. on III only and an often extensive dusky or dark dorsal abdominal patch. On ferns (Arthopteris, Asplenium, Davallia, Drynaria, Nephrolepis, Osmunda, Pleopeltis) in eastern and southern Africa. Oviparae and alate males occur in colonies in small numbers in rainy season (Remaudičre & Autrique 1985).

Micromyzella sleonensis (Eastop)  (Fig.43o)  Apterae are brown; BL 1.4-1.6 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 2-9, IV 0-2. On stems of ferns of family Adiantaceae (Adiantum, Pellaea), described from Sierra Leone, and also found in Kenya and South Africa (BMNH collection).

Micromyzella sophiae Remaudičre    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded, probably rather pale with variably developed dark sclerotic dorsal markings, antennae, siphunculi, and distal parts of femora dark, and a pale cauda; BL 1.5-1.9 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 14-24, IV 8-15, V 2-6 and paired dark patches on abdominal tergites. On Asplenium aethiopicum (= praemorsum) in Burundi, in mixed colonies with M. kathleenae.

 

Micromyzodium David

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Eight Asian species on a range of host plants including ferns, and related to Micromyzus and Micromyzella, but with long dorsal body hairs. Su et al. (2012) reviewed the species in China.

Micromyzodium dasi Verma    Apterae are bright yellow with dark head, antennae and siphunculi; BL c. 1.9-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 20-35, IV 10-20, V 0-2. Described from undersides of fronds of an unidentified fern, and subsequently recorded (including an alate male) from Adiantum caudatum and Cheilanthes sp. (Saha & Chakrabarti 1988d). In north-west India.

Micromyzodium filicium David  Plate 17b   Apterae are shining black, antennae dark beyond III, legs dark at femoral apices, siphunculi dark at base and apex but with middle part white; BL 1.5-2.0 mm.  Alatae have 12-16 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only. In large numbers on undersides of fronds or on young growth of various ferns (Adiantum, Asplenium, Cheilanthes, Eriosorus, Nephrolepis, Pityrogramma, Polypodium, Pteris, Thelypteris). Also recorded from plants in some angiosperm families; Didymocarpus and Streptocarpus (Gesneriaceae), Aristolochia (Aristolachiaceae), Cypripedium (Orchidaceae) and Geranium (Geraniaceae). The number of such records suggests that these were not all vagrants, but this extended host range needs further confirmation. In Pakistan, north and south India, and Nepal. 2n=12.

Micromyzodium kuwakusae (Uye)    Apterae are yellow with a large black dorsal abdominal patch; BL 1.4-1.8 mm. Alatae have a black patch and secondary rhinaria distributed III 29-37, IV 12-22, V 5–9. On Fatoua villosa (Moraceae) in Japan, and now also recorded from Pilea notata and Urtica fissa (Urticaceae) in China (Su et al. 2012) and Korea (Y. Lee et al. 2014a). This species was described in Macrosiphoniella and regarded as a nomen dubium in catalogues, but rediscovered by M. Miyazaki (pers. comm. 1979), who donated specimens to BMNH collection. [Note: the aphids from Pilea notata listed by Su et al (2012) under the name M. kuwakusae have the same collection data and identification number as specimens described as Kaochiaoja pileophaga Zhang in Zhang et al. (1992a), so Su et al. presumably consider the latter name to be a synonym of M. kuwakusae]

Micromyzodium levipes (R.C. Basu & Raychudhuri)    Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL c.1.5 mm. Described from Chromolaena (=Eupatorium) odorata in India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Micromyzodium nipponicum (Moritsu)    Apterae are dark brown (immatures are pale bluish grey); BL 1.4-1.6 mm. On Perilla frutescens var. crispa and Perilla sp. in Japan, Taiwan, Korea (Y. Lee et al. 2014a) and mainland China (Hunan), where it is also recorded from Agastache rugosa and Cirsium japonicum (an unlikely host) (Su et al. 2012). The colonies on Perilla are formed on the roots.

Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi  (Fig.43j)   Apterae are yellow with blackish antennae, siphunculi and cauda; BL c. 2 mm. Alatae have forewing veins broadly bordered with fuscous, and black dorsal abdominal markings including a large central patch. On unidentified ferns in Japan, and now also recorded from China, with the host identified as Parathelypteris glanduligera (Su et al. 2012).

Micromyzodium spinulosum Miyazaki    Apterae are shining black, with yellowish brown antennae and legs, black siphunculi and a pale cauda; BL 1.1-1.5 mm. Alatae have 7-13 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On stems of grasses (Digitaria adscendens, Oplismenus compositus) in Japan. 2n=10.

Micromyzodium strobilanthi L.K. Ghosh    Apterae are blackish brown, with antennae and legs mainly yellowish, with distal parts of femora dark brown, and dark siphunculi; BL 1.7-2.1 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Strobilanthes dalhousianus (Acanthaceae) in northern India. One greenish black aptera also identified as this species was collected from Ruellia tuberosa (Raychaudhuri et al. 1980).

 

Micromyzus van der Goot

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

About 10 species of mostly east Asian fern-feeding aphids close to Micromyzella but with usually 4 hairs (incl. 2 sense pegs) on first tarsal segments, and alatae having dark-bordered wing veins and a strongly curved radial sector.  

Micromyzus diervillae Matsumura    Apterae are pale green or green; BL c.1.9 mm. Alatae have forewings with a pale pterostigma (cf. Neotoxoptera weigeliae) and veins narrowly bordered with fuscous, and dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands. On Weigela spp. in Japan, Korea and east Siberia. Probably heteroecious holocyclic, with migration to an unknown secondary host (a fern?). The fullest description is that by Takahashi (1965b, as M. weigelae).

Micromyzus hangzhouensis Zhang   Apterae have 1-3 rhinaria on ANT III, siphunculi longer than head width across eyes, and first tarsal segments with 3 hairs; BL c. 2.6 mm.  On Glochidion puberum in China (Zhang & Zhong 1980a). Probably the species is incorrectly placed in Micromyzus, which are typically small fern feeders.

Micromyzus katoi (Takahashi)  Plate 17c  (Fig.43r)   Apterae are black (original description) or shining orange-brown, paler spinally and darker on margins and at bases of siphunculi, antennae and legs banded black and white, siphunculi blackish-brown, cauda pale (Noordam 2004); BL 1.5-2.1 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria on ANT III only, 2-6 (Taiwan) or 8-14 (Java, Australia), and dark-bordered wing-veins. On undersides of fronds of ferns in certain genera (Microsorium, Platycerium, Polypodium). Described from Taiwan, and subsequently recorded from Indonesia and Australia.  However,  the non-Taiwanese material may be a distinct species with different colour in life, a relatively longer R IV+V, and alatae with more secondary rhinaria.

Micromyzus mawphlangensis A.K. Ghosh    Apterae are pale with a brown spinal patch on abdominal tergites 1-3, dark brown siphunculi and a pale cauda; BL c.2.1-2.2 mm. Alatae have 3-9 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only, brown-bordered wing veins and dusky segmental spino-pleural abdominal sclerites. On a Polypodium sp. in northern India.

Micromyzus niger van der Goot  (Fig.43k)   Apterae are shining brown-black, antennae, femora, tibiae and siphunculi pale with black tips, cauda very dark grey, almost black, with white wax on distal part (Noordam 2004); BL 0.9-1.3 mm. On undersides of fronds of ferns, which may be curved inward. Recorded from ferns in several genera (Adiantum, Eriosorus, Pityrogramma, Pteris). Specimens from the grass Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum in the BMNH collection are presumably vagrants. In Indonesia, Singapore, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Micromyzus nikkoensis Miyazaki    Apterae are whitish to pale yellow with antennae black, tibiae mainly dark, siphunculi pale with dark tips, cauda pale; BL 1.5-1.7 mm. On Athyrium (= Deparia) pycnosorum (Miyazaki 1971), Osmundastrum asiaticum (Moritsu 1983) and Gymnogramma totta (BMNH collection, leg. R.L. Blackman) in Japan. 2n=12.

Micromyzus osmundae Takahashi    Apterae are yellow with black antennae and tibiae, and pale siphunculi and cauda; BL c. 2 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Osmunda spp. in Japan.

Micromyzus platycerii Mróz & Depa    Apterae are brown, shiny, with reddish eyes; BL 2.1-2.6 mm. Alatae have 11-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT III and dark-bordered wing-veins. On young shoots of Platycerium coronarium, occurring in large numbers on undersides of leaves, in Thailand.

Micromyzus pojanii (Cermeli & Smith)    Apterae are shiny brown with dusky to black appendages; BL 1.6-1.8 mm. Alatae have strongly bordered wing veins and secondary rhinaria distributed III 13-16, IV 1-4. On an unidentified broad-leaved fern in Venezuela (Cermeli & Smith 1979, as Picturaphis).

Micromyzus vandergooti Noordam     Apterae are orange brown or brownish red, with black siphunculi and a pale cauda; 1.3-1.7 mm. On ferns of genus Pyrrosia (as Cyclophorus, Drymoglossum), found living (in one case) on the upperside of a leaf “protected by a roof" (Noordam 2004). In Java.

 

Microparsus Patch

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 11 nearctic and neotropical species on Leguminosae. They are mostly brightly-coloured aphids and alatae have dark-bordered wing veins. Subgenus Picturaphis have clavate siphunculi. Apterae have marginal tubercles on abdominal tergites 2-4. Cermeli & Smith (1979) provided keys to the species of  Picturaphis.

Microparsus (Picturaphis) brasiliensis (Moreira)  Plate 19e   Apterae are shiny greenish dark brown to black (immatures are paler, brownish yellow); BL 1.6-2.0 mm.  Alatae are dark brown to black with wing veins heavily black‑bordered.  On various Leguminosae/Fabaceae (Centrosema, Dolichos, Indigofera, Phaseolus, Vigna); widely distributed in the Caribbean, Central and South America, and also recorded from Florida, USA. Biology is unknown; presumably mainly anholocyclic. 

Microparsus desmodiorum Smith & Tuatay    Apterae are pale yellowish green to green with head dark yellow to brownish orange, antennae, legs and siphunculi mainly dark, cauda yellow-orange; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. On Desmodium spp., in eastern USA, feeding on terminals and seed-pods without distorting growth. Oviparae and alate males occur in October-November (original description).

Microparsus olivei Smith & Tuatay  (Fig.26c,d)  Apterae are dark green, with head orange to brownish, antennae and legs bicoloured yellow and black, siphunculi black and cauda orange; BL 1.4-1.9 mm. On Desmodium spp. in eastern USA, feeding on leaves and terminals and causing some curling, and also recorded from Mexico, Panama and Costa Rica (Quirós et al. 2009). Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October (original description).

Microparsus (Picturaphis) puertoricensis (Smith)    Apterae are shining reddish brown; BL 1.3-1.9 mm. On Phaseolus adenanthus in Puerto Rico. Alatae were described by Smith & Gaud (1974).

Microparsus rhynchosiae Remaudičre & Peńa Martinez    Apterae are shining green, with antennae black except at base, dark apices to femora, and tibiae, tarsi and distal halves of siphunculi, and a dark band on abdominal tergite 8; BL 1.7-2.1 mm. On a Rhynchosia sp. in Mexico, colonising undersides of  leaves of prostrate stems at soil level.  Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in October (original description).

Microparsus singularis (Hottes & Frison)    Apterae are bright green with orange-brown head, black antennae except for base of segment III, black and yellow legs, black siphunculi and yellow-orange cauda; BL 1.9-2.2 mm. On Lespedeza spp., especially L. repens, in eastern USA. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in October (Smith & Heie 1963, as Megouroparsus kislankoi).

Microparsus tephrosiae (Smith)    Apterae are amber to reddish brown, BL 2.3-2.7 mm. Described from Tephrosia virginiana, on which large colonies may occur and cause stunting of growth. There are also records from Astragalus and Cracca (but the Cracca species involved are now placed in Tephrosia). In eastern USA (Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina). Oviparae and alate males occur in October (original description).

Microparsus variabilis Patch    Apterae are green with head and cauda yellow to dark orange, antennae and legs variably pigmented, siphunculi wholly dark or paler towards bases; BL 1.6-2.0 mm. On Desmodium spp. and Amphicarpaea monoica in eastern USA. It tightly curls the leaves of Desmodium, and lives on stems and undersides of leaves of Amphicarpaea (Hottes & Frison 1931). Oviparae and alate males were found in mid-August (Smith & Tuatay 1960).

Microparsus (Picturaphis) venezuelensis (Cermeli & Smith)  (Fig.26a,b)   Apterae are dull greenish to bluish black (venezuelensis s. str.), or dull reddish brown (M. venezuelensis ssp. meridensis); BL 1.8-2.6 mm. On Desmodium spp. in Venezuela, and also recorded from Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004). The two subspecies in Venezuela are separated by differences in pigmentation, and they possibly also colonise different species of Desmodium.

Microparsus (Picturaphis) vignaphilus (Blanchard)     Apterae are dark brown to blackish; BL 1.9-2.4 mm. On several genera of Leguminosae/Fabaceae (Cologania, Phaseolus, Vigna) in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia), Mexico, and Panama (Quirós et al. 2009).

 

Microsiphoniella  Hille Ris Lambers

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Four North American species  on Anthemideae, related to the palaearctic genus Microsiphum, but with much longer dorsal hairs. Three of the species have a dark sclerotic tergum. Smith & Knowlton (1938) and Palmer (1952) reviewed the genus (as Microsiphum).

Microsiphoniella acophorum (Smith & Knowlton)    Apterae are pear-shaped, shiny brownish black to black, with pale ANT III and mainly pale tibiae (see aphidtrek.org); BL 1.0-1.5 mm. Colonising stems and leaves of Seriphidium tridentatum and Artemisia longifolia in western USA. Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October (Palmer 1952).

Microsiphoniella artemisiae (Gillette)  Plate 27h   Apterae are blackish brown to cinnamon brown, with base of ANT III and most of tibiae pale; BL 1.6-2.0 mm. On stems and leaves of  Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. Widely distributed in North America.  Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October (Palmer 1952).

Microsiphoniella canadensis (Williams)     Apterae are pale green, BL c. 2.4 mm. On stems and leaves (causing some leaf-curl) of Artemisia and Seriphidium spp. in Nebraska, USA, and there are also records from Oregon and Kansas (Smith & Parron 1978). This species, originally placed in Cryptosiphum, has not been adequately described, and its generic placement is problematic.

Microsiphoniella oregonensis (Wilson)    Apterae are shining chocolate brown, with ANT III-IV pale and tibiae mainly pale; BL c.1.2-1.4 mm. On leaves and stems of  Seriphidium tridentatum in western USA (Palmer 1952). It has also been collected on Picrothamnus desertorum (= Artemisia spinescens) (aphidtrek.org) Oviparae and alate males occur in October.

 

Microsiphum  Cholodkovsy

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

About 10 palaearctic species forming ant-attended colonies on stems of Compositae, related to Macrosiphoniella but with much reduced siphunculi (which still have some polygonal reticulation) and a broad-based triangular cauda.  The species in north-west Europe were reviewed by Heie (1995), and those in eastern Europe by Bozhko (1963).  Kadyrbekov (2006) revised the genus and provided a key to species. They all seem to be strictly monophagous.

Microsiphum diversisetosum Kadyrbekov   Apterae are brown, pear-shaped; BL 1.7-2.4 mm. On Artemisia abrotanum in north and west Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2006).

Microsiphum giganteum Nevsky    Apterae are broadly pear-shaped, pale rose-red or pale green with dark head, a broad brown band across the prothorax, and black antennae and legs; BL 2.1-3.2 mm. On stems of  Artemisia spp., especially A. dracunculus, in Ukraine and Central Asia.  Apart from its colour in life this species is difficult to distinguish from M. procerae.

Microsiphum jazykovi Nevsky    Apterae are pear-shaped, shiny brown on head and thorax with abdomen deep green-black, and antennae and legs mainly dark brown-black; BL 1.7-2.2 mm. In dense colonies on upper parts of flower stems of Artemisia absinthium, attended by ants (original description). In Ukraine and Central Asia. Populations with a relatively shorter R IV+V in northern and central Europe were treated as a subspecies, M. jazykovi ssp. wahlgreni Hille Ris Lambers by Kadyrbekov (2006). Fundatrices of this subspecies were described from Switzerland (Hille Ris Lambers 1947a; as M. wahlgreni).

 Microsiphum millefolii Wahlgren  Plate 27i  (Fig.5d,e)  Apterae are pear-shaped, yellowish or greyish red to dark brown with dark head, antennae, legs, siphunculi and cauda; BL 1.8-2.5 mm. On lower parts of stems of Achillea millefolium, attended by ants. Throughout most of Europe, and also recorded from Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2011b). Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males (Heie 1995).

Microsiphum nudum Holman   ( = minus Bozhko; synonymy by Kadyrbekov 2006)   Apterae are pear-shaped, greyish or greenish black; BL 1.75-2 mm. On Achillea spp (millefolium, nobilis), living on basal parts of stem and rootstock, in ant shelters. In eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males in October (original description).

Microsiphum procerae Bozhko    Apterae are pear-shaped, shining brown with dark antennae and legs; BL c. 1.9-2.1 mm.  On upper parts of flower stems of  Artemisia procera (= abrotanum) in Ukraine.  A population from the same host plant in the southern Caucasus is regarded by Kadyrbekov (2006) as a subspecies, M. procerae ssp. subalpicum Mamontova.

Microsiphum ptarmicae (Cholodkovsky)  (= heptapotamicum Kadyrbekov; synonymy by Kadyrbekov 2006)  Apterae are dark brown; BL c.1.5-1.8 mm. Described from Achillea ptarmicae in Ukraine, and also recorded forming ant-attended colonies on roots and at bases of stems of Achillea millefolium in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2000, as M. heptapotamicum). Kadyrbekov (2006) discussed geographical variation in certain characters previously used in species differentiation. 

Microsiphum pyrethri Bozhko    Apterae are brown tinged with red; BL c.1.7 mm. On Pyrethrum millefoliatum (= Tanacetum millefolium) in Ukraine.

Microsiphum woronieckae Judenko    Apterae are pear-shaped, dusky pink on thorax, abdomen reddish black, antennae black, legs black except for yellowish basal halves of femora; BL 2.2-3.0 mm. In compact ant-attended colonies on lower parts of stems of Artemisia vulgaris. In northern, central and eastern Europe, west Siberia, northern Caucasus and Kazakhstan. Oviparae and apterous males occur in September-October (Hille Ris Lambers 1947a).  2n=12.

 

Microunguis Tao

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

One species related to Thoracaphis but the aleyrodiform apterae are without dorsal hairs except on abdominal tergite 8, and have very short unsegmented antennae.  It was erroneously transferred to Neothoracaphis by Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers (1976). 

Microunguis depressa (Takahashi)  Apterae are aleyrodiform, blackish brown, narrowly yellowish brown marginally, without wax; BL c. 0.9 mm.  On undersides of leaves of an unidentified Quercus sp. in Taiwan (Takahashi 1933; Tao 1966, 1969), or possibly according to Tao (1999), on Phoebe sp.  Other morphs and life cycle are unknown.

 

Mimeuria Börner

Eriosomatinae: Pemphigini

 

One palaearctic species related to Paraprociphilus, but the apterae on the secondary host have one-segmented tarsi and a very different association with the host plant.

Mimeuria ulmiphila (del Guercio)   (fig.18B)  Terminal leaf nests are formed on Acer spp., especially A. campestre, by inhibition of shoot growth, twisting and folding of leaves.  Fundatrices are olive green-grey, covered with white wax wool; BL 3.5-4.5 mm.  They give rise to numerous dark brown alatae (BL 2.6-3.3 mm), which fly over an extended period (June-November).  Apterous exules live mainly on roots of Ulmus; they are yellow, thickly wax-powdered, BL 1.3-2.3 mm, encased singly in brown microrrhizal cysts (Marchal 1933, Krzywiec 1964).  Such cysts have also been found on Rubus roots close to Ulmus (Vernon 1957).  Sexuparae are produced in autumn and return to Acer, but anholocycly on Ulmus roots often seems to predominate especially in western Europe.  Krzywiec (1964) suspected that anholocyclic overwintering of immature stages might also occur on bark of Acer.  Recorded from Britain, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Russia and Turkey. For a full account of the life cycle in Poland and descriptions of all stages see Krzywiec (1962, 1964).

 

Mindarus Koch

Mindarinae

 

Nine or more species of conifer-feeding aphids, four nearctic and four or more palaearctic, in which apterae have fused head and pronotum, eyes usually with 3 facets, well-developed wax glands and a blunt triangular cauda.  Alatae have forewings with an elongate pterostigma, tapering to a point at the wing apex.  Heie (1980) reviewed the European species, the biology of which was studied in detail by Nüsslin (1910). There are more recent accounts of this genus from China (G. Zhang & Qiao 1997d, G. Zhang et al. 1999c) and USA (Voegtlin 1995), and a world review with illustrations of all available morphs by Quednau (2010). Favret (2009) reported on mitochondrial DNA sequence data that suggest the existence of two undescribed species in the Rocky Mountain region. The complete mitochondrial genome of one species (M. keteleerifoliae) has been published (Y. Wang et al. 2015)

Mindarus abietinus Koch  Plate 2c, d, (fig. 15B)  Apterae are yellowish green, covered with wax wool, with antennae and legs distinctly darker (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.2-2.0 mm.  Alatae (BL 1.5-2.7 mm) have dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands.  On young shoots of Abies spp. (especially alba, nordmanniana), feeding between the needle bases.  There are only 3 generations per year, alate and apterous progeny of the fundatrix producing very small apterous sexuales.  The eggs, black covered with short white strands of wax, are laid in June-July, but do not hatch until the following spring. The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2012).  Throughout Europe, the Middle East (Lebanon, Turkey), common on Abies pindrow in northern Pakistan (Naumann Etienne & Remaudičre 1995).  There are also records from India, Tibet, China and Thailand, although some of these may be due to confusion with M. japonicus.  Zhang & Qiao (1997d) described some alatae from China (Yunnan) as a subspecies, M. abietinus triprimesensori, but this was synonymised with M. abietinus by Quednau (2010).  Records from North America should be referred to M. pinicolus (Favret 2009). M. abietinus may cause serious damage or kill young shoots, or cause deformation and loss of needles (Klein 1983). During heavy infestations many nymphs may fall onto non-hosts in the forest undergrowth, often reaching the adult stage on them (Naumann Etienne & Remaudičre 1995). 2n=12.

Mindarus guatemalensis Favret & Nielsen   Appearance in life is not described, but probably similar to M. abietinus; BL not recorded. On Abies guatemalensis on Guatemala, causing significant feeding damage, particularly by distortion of growing shoots (Favret & Nielson 2008).

Mindarus japonicus Takahashi   (fig. 15C)   Apterae are not described, but probably similar in life to M. abietinus.  BL of alata is c. 2 mm (Takahashi 1931).  On Abies spp., and also recorded from Cephalotaxa drupacea.  An ovipara from Abies firma is illustrated by Quednau (2010). The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2012). In east Asia (India, Nepal, east Siberia, Japan, Korea, China).

Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang  Appearance in life is unknown.  Described from shoots of Keteleeria evelyniana in Yunnan, China (Zhang & Zhong 1984).  Also recorded from Cunninghamia sp., and from Picea sp. (as M. piceasuctus Zhang & Qiao 1997d; synonymy by Quednau 2010). Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 14-22, IV 0-5.  The complete mitochondrial genome of this species has been published (Y.Wang et al. 2015).

Mindarus kinseyi Voegtlin   Apterae are pale green covered with light wax, increasing with age, when posterior and marginal regions may extrude long wax filaments; BL 1.1-2.3 mm. Alatae have variably developed dorsal abdominal sclerotic cross-bands. Small (BL 0.7-1.0 mm) yellow-gold oviparae and blue to blue-green dwarf apterous males (BL 0.5-0.7 mm) are produced in June through to autumn, but populations also continue to reproduce parthenogenetically through the summer and into autumn.  On Abies concolor in California (Sierra Nevada), and also found on this host in eastern Canada (Quednau 2010). A record from Turkey (Şenol et al. 2014b) is likely to be based on a misidentification. Voegtlin (1995) described all morphs and Ehler & Kinsey (1995) provided a detailed account.

Mindarus obliquus (Cholodkovsky)  Apterae are greenish, covered in white wax wool; BL 1.2-1.9 mm.  Alatae similar to M. abietinus, but smaller (BL 1.0-1.6 mm); differences between the two species were described by Carter & Eastop (1973).  On Picea spp. (engelmanni, glauca, sitchensis, but not abies), feeding between needles on new shoots in spring, but without deforming needles.  In Europe, east to Turkey (or China), Canada and Alaska (BMNH collection).  Presumably, on account of the host species colonised, M. obliquus is of nearctic origin. The life cycle is like that of M. abietinus, with small apterous sexuales in June-September. 2n=12, according to Robinson & Chen (1969), but a sample from P. glauca in British Columbia, Canada (leg. C.K. Chan) had 2n=8 (R.L. Blackman; unpublished data), indicating that there may be more than one species on Picea in Canada.

Mindarus pinicolus (Thomas)     Balsam Twig Aphid     Appearance in life and biology are essentially as in M. abietinus, with which it has been long confused in the North American literature. Voegtlin (1995) observed that fundatrices and their apterous progeny of North American populations always had more wax glands than European populations and suggested that these records may all apply to a native species. He also noted that fundatrices produced a much greater proportion of apterous progeny than the European species. The separate identity of the aphid on native American Abies (balsamea, fraseri, grandis) was then confirmed by Favret (2009) using multiple morphometric analysis of forewing characters, and the name pinicolus was reinstated. This is therefore the aphid studied under the name abietinus by various workers in North America, e.g. Amman (1963; natural enemies in North Carolina), Saunders (1969: damage and control), Fondren et al. (2004; biological control by predators), Mattson et al. (1989; increased susceptibility of infested trees to spruce budworm) and Bradbury & Osgood (1986; chemical control).

Mindarus remaudierei Voegtlin  Appearance in life is unrecorded; BL of aptera 2.0-2.4 mm. On Abies religiosa in Mexico (Voegtlin 1995). Quednau (2010) illustrated an ovipara collected in mid-April.

Mindarus victoria Essig  (fig. 15A)  Apterae are a soft, jade-green, covered with thick white wax wool; BL c. 1.9 mm.  Alatae green, wax-covered, with narrow dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands; BL c. 2.5 mm.  On shoot tips of Abies grandis in British Columbia, Canada.  Oviparae and very small dusky apterous males occur in June.  Essig (1939) described and illustrated all the morphs.

 

Misturaphis Robinson

Aphidinae: Aphidini

One species in Canada apparently related to Aphis but without marginal tubercles on abdominal tergites 1 and 7. Antennae are 5-segmented in both apterae and alatae.

Misturaphis shiloensis Robinson    Apterae are greyish or silvery green to pale green, BL 1.05-1.7 mm. On Artemisia caudata (= A. campestris) in Manitoba, Canada.  Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-14, IV 1-3. Sexual morphs are unknown.

 

Miyazakia Stekolshchikov

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

 

One East Asian species related to Sappaphis but with a strongly sclerotised tergum and stiff hairs on dorsal body and appendages.

Miyazakia ranunculi (Miyazaki)  (Fig.45b,d)   Apterae are dark reddish brown dorsally, yellowish brown to dark brown ventrally, with appendages mainly dark; BL 1.4-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 48-87, IV 18-35, V 12-22. On Ranunculus japonicus (= grandis)  in Japan, and also in Korea (BMNH collection). Heteroecious holocyclic, with a sexual phase on Photinia villosa; Stekolshchikov (2014b) described alate gynoparae, oviparae and alate males collected on this plant in Japan by M. Sorin.

 

Mollitrichosiphum Suenaga

Greenideinae: Greenideini

 

About 16 species. mostly feeding on Fagaceae, or on Alnus, but Meliosma also seems to be a favoured host, and several species may have more polyphagous tendencies (R. Zhang et al. 2012). Body often elongate, with long siphunculi. The genus is characterised by a row of transverse (?stridulatory) ridges on the hind tibia.  The tergum is usually ornamented with conical spinules or nodules.  Raychaudhuri (1956) reviewed the few species then recognised (as Metatrichosiphon), Takahashi (1962b) reviewed the Japanese species, and accounts are available for India (A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala 1993), Nepal (Das & Raychaudhuri 1983), Java (Noordam 1994) and China (D. Zhang & Qiao 2010).  R. Zhang et al. (2011, 2012) studied phylogenetic relationships of seven species in China using molecular methods, and Liu et al. (2013) demonstrated co-evolution with Buchnera endosymbionts. Several species were described from unidentified hosts, so the treatment of the genus here is incomplete.

Mollitrichosiphum glaucae Takahashi    Colour of apterae in life unrecorded, presumably similar to M. nigrofasciatum, as it was originally described as a subspecies of that species; BL c. 2 mm (Takahashi 1962b). On Quercus glauca in Japan, and a single aptera collected on Q. neglecta (= Q. myrsinifolia) in Hong Kong may also be this species (Martin & Lau 2011). 

Mollitrichosiphum godavariense Das & Raychaudhuri   Apterae are pale to dark brown, elongate, collected on undersides of young leaves of an unidentified Quercus sp. in Nepal.  Siphunculi of apterae pale, 0.56-0.59 × BL.  Alate oviparae, with siphunculi 0.75-0.8 × BL, were collected in October (Das & Raychaudhuri 1983). Possibly a synonym of M. tenuicorpus.

Mollitrichosiphum lithocarpi (Takahashi)  Apterae are elongate, yellowish green, with antennae and legs pale yellowish brown; BL c. 2.5 mm (Takahashi 1931a).  Siphunculi of apterae are long, yellowish green, c. 0.6 × BL.  On undersides of young leaves of Lithocarpus spp. (glabra, uraiana) in Taiwan.  Alatae and other morphs have not been described.

Mollitrichosiphum luchuanum (Takahashi)  Apterae are pear-shaped, yellowish brown; BL 2.0-2.3 mm.  Alatae black, with long black siphunculi 0.8-0.9 × BL (siphunculi of the apterous type specimen are missing).  Described from an unidentified Quercus sp. in the Ryukyu islands (“Loochoo”; Takahashi 1930), and since recorded from mainland China (Fujian province; D. Zhang & Qiao 2010), where it has also been collected from Prunus persica and Meliosma rigida (R. Zhang et al. 2011). M. yamabiwae is possibly a synonym.

Mollitrichosiphum montanum van der Goot   Apterae are pale, elongate-bodied; BL 1.8-2.4 mm.  Siphunculi are long, slender, yellow to yellowish brown, 0.52-0.85 × BL in apterae and 0.8-0.9 × BL in alatae.  On Alnus spp. (nepalensis, nitida), feeding on young shoots, attended by ants. In India (Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Bhutan (Chakrabarti & Das 2014), Nepal (BMNH collection, leg. D.Hille Ris Lambers), Tibet (Zhang & Zhong 1981, as alni) and China (Zhang & Zhong 1985, as alni).  A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala (1993) compared the description of montanum with specimens from the type locality and types of alni Ghosh, Ghosh & Raychaudhuri and alnifoliae Chakrabarti & Raychaudhuri, and concluded that they were all synonyms. Saha & Chakrabarti (1986) described the alate oviparae and males (as alnifoliae), collected on A. nepalensis in September-October.

Mollitrichosiphum nandii Basu   Apterae are elongate pear-shaped, light brownish green mottled with darker green, antennae pale dusky, darker at apices of segments, legs pale brown; BL 1.9-2.6 mm.  Siphunculi of apterae are pale to dark brown with darker tips, 0.4-0.5 × BL; siphunculi of alatae are blackish, 0.6-0.75 × BL.  On tender parts of shoots of Alnus nepalensis, particularly the leaf axils, often in large numbers, attended by ants (A.N. Basu 1964).  Described from West Bengal, India.  After examining type material, two other species, M. acutihirsutum Maity & Chakrabarti (1980), described from Uttar Pradesh, and M. buddleiae A.K. Ghosh, Banerjee & Raychaudhuri (1971c), are considered to be synonyms.  M. buddleiae was described from a presumably casual occurrence on Buddleia in Sikkim, but specimens from Alnus nepalensis in Nepal (Das & Raychaudhuri 1983), and from Alnus sp. in China (Zhang & Zhong 1985f), were subsequently identified as this species, and in China it has subsequently been collected from Alnus cremastogyne, Fagus longipetiolata and Psidium guajava (R. Zhang et al. 2011). Saha & Chakrabarti (1986) described the alate oviparae and males, collected in September-October.  2n=16*.

Mollitrichosiphum nigriabdominalis Agarwala, Mondal & Raychaudhuri   Colour of apterae in life is not recorded, abdomen with a central dark patch; BL 2.2-3.0 mm.  Siphunculi are pale, 0.5-0.6 × BL.  On Quercus sp. (identified as Q. rubra, in which case non-native) in Sikkim, India (Agarwala et al. 1982).  Other morphs and biology are unknown.  From the description M. trilokum Agarwala & Ghosh (in A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala 1993) would appear to be large specimens of nigriabdominalis.

Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum (Maki)  Apterae are pear-shaped, pale yellow-green with an extensive and very distinctive brown-black mark covering the pleural areas of the thorax and abdomen on each side and joined medially across abdominal tergites 3-4 (for illustration see Moritsu 1983); BL 1.4-2.0 mm.  Alatae have a broad brown-black patch across abdominal tergites 3-5.  Siphunculi of both morphs are black; c. 0.35 × BL in apterae and 0.5-0.6 × BL in alatae.  On Quercus spp., and also recorded from Lithocarpus spp. (Takahashi 1931a, R. Zhang et al. 2011).  Records from Castanopsis spp. (Q. Liu et al. 2013) require further confirmation. In Japan, China and Taiwan. Sexuales and life cycle are unknown.

Mollitrichosiphum nigrum Zhang & Qiao    Apterae are black with thin dusting of white wax, elongate pear-shaped; BL 2.2-2.6 mm. Siphunculi are black, in aptera 0.6-0.7 × BL, in alata 0.8-1.1 × BL. On Meliosma spp., and also collected from Ailanthus altissima and Elaeagnus pungens, in China (D. Zhang & Qiao 2010).

Mollitrichosiphum niitakaensis (Takahashi)  Apterae are elongate-bodied, yellow, with pale antennae, legs and siphunculi; BL 1.9-2.7 mm.  Siphunculi of apterae are 0.3-0.45 × BL; siphunculi of alatae are dark brown, 0.5-0.6 × BL.  On undersides of leaves of Quercus sp(p). in Taiwan (Takahashi 1937b), and on Castanopsis sp. in Java (as javanicum Raychaudhuri).  Antennae of apterae can be either 5- or 6-segmented; apterae with 5-segmented antennae were originally described as Eutrichosiphum elongatum (Takahashi 1940), which is now regarded as a synonym.  Sexuales and life cycle are unknown.

Mollitrichosiphum rhusae A.K. Ghosh   Apterae are greenish to pale brown, rather elongate-bodied; BL 2.2-2.5 mm. Siphunculi of apterae are dark brown, curved outwards, c. 0.5 × BL, and of alatae are dark brown to black, c.0.7 × BL. On undersides of leaves of unidentified Rhus sp(p). in India (Meghalaya; A.K. Ghosh 1974b).  Aphids collected from Helicia hainanensis in China have also been identified as this species (D. Zhang & Qiao 2010). Sexuales and life cycle are unknown. Samples collected in China were very similar to M. luchuanum in morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequences suggesting possibly synonymy (Q. Liu et al. 2013), but a previous study using a different method of analysis on the same samples and gene sequences found a distinction between these two species (R. Zhang et al. 2011).

Mollitrichosiphum syzygii Noordam   Apterae have pale brown head, thorax and marginas of abdomen, and usually a shiny brown or brownish black central abdominal patch, darker and more extensive in small specimens; BL 1.1-2.3 mm.  Siphunculi are brown, darker in small specimens, 0.25-0.47 × BL in apterae and 0.48-0.63 × BL in alatae. On undersides of young red leaves and developing shoots of Syzygium antisepticum at 1400 m in Java (Noordam 1994). Sexuales and life cycle are unknown; viviparae were collected throughout the year in Java.

Mollitrichosiphum taiwanum (Takahashi)  Apterae are broadly pear-shaped, yellow, antennae and legs yellow with darker apices; BL 1.7-2.0 mm.  Siphunculi of apterae are yellow with black apices, 0.4-0.5 × BL; siphunculi of alatae are black, c. 0.8 × BL.  On Meliosma spp. (rigida, rhoifolia) in Taiwan (Takahashi 1921, Raychaudhuri 1956).  Closely related to M. yamabiwae on Meliosma in Japan, but apparently separable by the key characters given.  Sexuales and life cycle are unknown.

Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus (Okajima)  Plate 11e, f   Apterae are elongate pear-shaped, pale brown with pale legs and antennae; BL 1.9-3.0 mm.  Siphunculi of apterae are dark brown, 0.6-0.8 × BL.  Alata are brown-black,very narrow-bodied, with black siphunculi 0.8-1.0 × BL.  On young shoots of Castanopsis, Litsea and Lithocarpus spp. in India, Java, China, Taiwan, Thailand and Japan.  There are also single records from Castanospermum sp. in Sikkim, India (A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri 1968a), from Castanea crenata in the Philippines (BMNH collection, leg. V.J. Calilung), and from Meliosma rigida and Alnus cremastogyne in China (R. Zhang et al. 2011).  There are also a few records from Quercus spp., but Quercus does not seem to be favoured as a host plant. A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala (1993) compared M. shinjii Raychaudhuri, Ghosh, Banerjee & Ghosh, which was described from an unidentified Quercus sp. in north-east India, with tenuicorpus, and concluded that they were synonyms. Alate oviparae and males are produced in northern India in late September (A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala 1993), and in Japan in autumn and winter (Takahashi & Sorin 1959).  Agarwala et al. (1987) described a new species of parasitoid from this aphid.

Mollitrichosiphum tumorisiphum Qiao & Jiang   Apterae are yellow green in life, with pairs of emerald green dorsal markings and pale brown siphunculi; BL 1.9-2.4 mm. Alatae are  yellow green with green dorsal markings, dark brown forewing veins and dark brown siphunculi. Siphunculi are 0.3-0.4 × BL in apterae and 0.5-0.6 × BL in alatae. On undersides of young leaves of new growth of Fagus longi­petiolata in Taiwan (Jiang et al. 2015). Life cycle and sexual morphs are unknown.

Mollitrichosiphum yamabiwae Suenaga   Apterae are yellow brown; BL c. 2.1 mm.  Alatae have dark brown dorsal abdomen and large paired ventro-lateral black marks on abdominal segments 3-6 (Takahashi 1962b).  Siphunculi are dark, c. 0.6 × BL in apterae and 0.7-0.8 × BL in alatae.  On Meliosma spp. in Japan (Suenaga 1934).  Alate sexuales are produced in summer (Takahashi 1962b).  The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2012). The distinction between this species and M. luchuanum, also now recorded from Meliosma in China, needs to be verified.

 

Monaphis Walker

Calaphidinae: Calaphidini

 

A genus for one large palaearctic species with many distinctive features, feeding on Betula.  See Stroyan (1977) for a generic diagnosis.

Monaphis antennata (Kaltenbach)  (fig. 32A)  All adult viviparae are alate, robust, ventrally flattened, green, with very long thick black antennae and an elongate dark pterostigma in the forewing (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 3.3-4.3 mm.  They live solitarily on Betula spp. in Europe, eastward across Asia to east Siberia, China and Japan, and also (1996) recorded from Ontario, USA (Foottit et al. 2006).  Immatures are cryptic, and usually press themselves close along the mid-ribs on the upper sides of leaves (Hopkins & Dixon 1997, 2000).  They migrate to the undersides of the leaves for the final moult, and the adults produce their offspring at an unusually rapid rate (Hopkins 1998). Monoecious holocyclic; green apterous oviparae and red alate males occur in September-October (Ostanin 1976).  2n=20.

 

Monellia  Oestlund

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

Four North American species on Carya, resembling Monelliopsis but folding their more rounded wings flat over the abdomen when in repose, and probably more closely related to the Tilia-feeding genera Eucallipterus and Tiliaphis (Quednau 2003).  Bissell (1978) comprehensively revised the genus, including much morphological data and keys to alate viviparae and oviparae.

Monellia caryella (Fitch)  All viviparae are alate, pale lemon-yellow to greenish yellow, with banded antennae, seasonally variable; generations from midsummer to autumn bear a continuous broad black band running around front and sides of head and down sides of body as far as abdominal tergite 3, as well as a broad brown-black band along the anterior margin of the forewing.  BL 0.9-2.2 mm.  On leaves of Carya spp., especially C. illinoiensis and C. cordiformis.  Monoecious holocyclic; sexuales occur from mid-October to early December (Mansour & Harris 1988).  Oviparae are dark with black dorsal abdominal cross-bands (Quednau 2003). Widespread in USA (see Bissell 1978), in Ontario, Canada, and introduced into Spain (Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante 1988), Israel (Mansour & Harris 1988), Greece (Papapanagiotou et al. 2012) and Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004).  In Israel it is a serious pest of pecan; biocontrol has been attempted (Mansour et al. 1988), and the impact of native natural enemies has also been studied (Mansour 1998, 1993).  Alverson & English (1990) studied population dynamics, and Edelston & Estes (1987) and Watterson & Stone (1982) studied its natural enemies in South Carolina and Texas respectively. Integrated control of this and other pecan aphids in USA was reviewed by Harris (1983). According to Bissell (1978), Davidson's (1914) account of M. caryella in California applies to a species of Monelliopsis, perhaps bisetosa, and Richards' (1965) description and figures under the name caryella apply to Monelliopsis nigropunctata.  2n=18.

Monellia hispida Quednau   All viviparae are alate, pale yellow or colourless with banded antennae, body often with 4-6 faint yellow spots internally, and later generations with a broad dusky stripe running around front and sides of body, as in M. caryella but much paler; BL 1.2-2.0 mm (Bissell 1978).  Monoecious holocyclic on Carya spp. in eastern North America. Sexuales occur in late September-November.

Monellia medina Bissell    All viviparae are alate, bright yellow with banded antennae, and summer/autumn generations with a heavy black band running around front and sides and along leading edge of forewing as in M,. caryella; BL c. 2.3 mm.  Recorded from Carya spp. in Maryland and Ohio, USA (Bissell 1978).  Very similar to M. caryella.  An ovipara collected in early November is illustrated by Quednau (2003).

Monellia microsetosa Richards   All viviparae are alate, pale yellow, summer generations developing 2-3 pairs of conspicuous spots of intense yellow internal pigment, especially on abdominal tergites 1-2 and 5-6 (Bissell 1978).  Antennae are banded and leading edge of forewing is spotted with black.  BL 1.4-2.0 mm.  On leaves of Carya spp., especially C. glabra, in eastern North America from Quebec to Florida.  Sexuales occur in September-November.  2n=18.

 

 

Monelliopsis Richards

Calaphidinae: Panaphidini

 

Ten North American species associated with Juglandaceae, mainly associated with Juglans; visits to Carya spp. by some species are possibly only "casual".  Similar to Monellia, but holding their wings vertically at rest (as do most aphids).  Quednau (2000) keyed the species, and Quednau (2003) reviewed the genus and provided a key and illustrations of all species.

Monelliopsis bisetosa Richards  (fig. 33F) All viviparae are alate, yellowish with mainly dark antennae, dusky brownish tibiae and tarsi, and a dark dorsal spot near apex of femur (Richards 1966); BL 1.2-1.5 mm.  Described from Juglans sp., "probably rupestris”, in Mexico, and subsequently recorded ?Carya sp., from western USA on J. major (Quednau 2003) and, perhaps as a casual occurrence, on Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Walker et al. 1978).  An ovipara collected in Mexico in October on ?Carya sp. is illustrated by Quednau (2003).

Monelliopsis bisselli Quednau   All viviparae are alate, and very similar in life to M. nigropunctata except for the black mark on the hind subcoxa, with similar seasonal variation in pigmentation; BL 1.5-2.0 mm. On undersides of leaves of Carya spp. in eastern USA (Pennsylvania, Maryland, Georgia). Biology and sexuales have not been described.

Monelliopsis californica (Essig)  Adult viviparae are all alate, yellow with dark antennae and tibiae, and with a narrow black marginal stripe on each side of prothorax and along costal margin of forewing; BL 1.7-2.0 mm.  Immatures have banded antennae (Quednau 2003).  Main host is Juglans californica in California (Richards 1968b) and Utah (BMNH collection); there are also records (perhaps "casual" occurrences) from Carya illinoiensis and Pterocarya spp. (Walker et al. 1978). (This species was wrongly placed in Chromaphis by Blackman & Eastop 1994).

Monelliopsis caryae (Monell)  (fig. 33B) All viviparae are alate, yellow with banded antennae and, in fully pigmented specimens, a dusky median streak on the head and small dusky spots at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs (Richards 1965); BL 1.2-1.8 mm.  Immatures have black patches at bases of dorsal and marginal hairs.  On leaves of Juglans nigra, widely distributed in North America, and introduced in about 1984 to Europe (France, Hullé et al. 1998; Portugal, Pita & Ilharco 1998; Spain, Mier Durante & Pérez Hidalgo 2002).  Oviparae were collected in Utah in October (BMNH collection, leg. G.F. Knowlton).  2n=18.

Monelliopsis nigropunctata (Granovsky)  (fig. 33G,H)  All viviparae are alate, yellow.  Antennae ringed with black, and well-pigmented specimens in later generations have dark sides to prothorax, dark spots at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs, and a dark ventral spot near apex of hind femur (Richards 1965); BL 1.2-1.5 mm.  Immatures have dark spots at bases of dorsal hairs.  On leaves of Juglans spp. and Carya spp., widely distributed in North America.  Most records of this species on Carya illinoiensis should probably be referred to M. pecanis (see below).  Sexuales do not appear to have been recorded.  2n=10.

Monelliopsis pallida Quednau   All viviparae are alate, colour in life unrecorded, with dark antennal joints but otherwise little pigmentation; BL 1.8-2.4 mm  On Juglans spp., especially hindsii, in California USA. Oviparae were collected on J. hindsii in November (Quednau 2000).

Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell   All viviparae are alate, yellow, with darker markings (when developed) similar to M. nigropunctata, but with fewer dark spots per segment; BL 1.2-1.7 mm.  On leaves of Carya illinoiensis in USA, Mexico, and introduced to Egypt (BMNH collection, leg. A.A. Attia), Sicily (Barbagallo & Suma 1999) and South Africa. Dickey & Medina (2010) record it also in Texas on C. aquatica (see below). Sexuales, and differences from M. nigropunctata, with which it was confused for many years, were described by Bissell (1983) and Quednau (2003).  Alverson & English (1990) studied population dynamics, Edelson & Estes (1987) studied natural enemies in South Carolina, and de Villiers & Viljoen (1987) investigated control with systemic insecticides in South Africa. Dickey & Medina (2010, 2011) found selection for genetically divergent host-associated populations on C. illinoiensis and C. aquatica in Texas.

Monelliopsis pleurialis Richards  All viviparae are alate, yellow, very similar to M. pecanis; BL c. 1.2 mm. On undersides of leaves of Carya spp. in eastern North America. The subtle differences between this species, M. nigropunctata and M. pecanis are discussed by Quednau (2003), who also illustrates an ovipara of M. pleurialis collected on C. ovata in Ontario in late August. 

Monelliopsis quadrimaculata Quednau   All viviparae are alate, pale (colour in life unrecorded), with black antennal joints and marginal processes on abdominal tergites 4 and 5 usually pigmented so that there are two pairs of dark marginal spots on abdomen; BL 0.9-1.6 mm. On Juglans major in Arizona, USA (Quednau 2000).  Sexuales have not been described.

Monelliopsis tuberculata Richards   (fig. 33D)  All viviparae are alate, yellow, dark markings when developed as in M. nigropunctata; BL 1.0-1.2 mm.  Described from Juglans sp., "probably rupestris, in Mexico (Richards 1966), and also recorded from J. nigra in New Mexico, Idaho and Utah (BMNH collection).  Oviparae were collected in Utah in October (BMNH collection, leg. G.F. Knowlton).

 

 

Monzenia  Takahashi

Hormaphidinae: Nipponaphidini

 

A genus for two oriental species monoecious on Distylium.

Monzenia globuli (Monzen)  Small green spherical galls are formed on twigs of Distylium racemosum, usually in leaf axils.  There is no host alternation. According to Sorin (1960), there are only 4 generations per year in Japan.  Alate sexuparae (BL c. 1.4 mm) emerge in late October, and produce sexuales on undersides of leaves.  Eggs are laid on the twigs and do not hatch until early September of the following year, the fundatrices mature rapidly and produce one generation of apterae in the galls, which then produce the sexuparae.  However, there are also reports that alatae emerge from galls twice a year, in June and October (Monzen 1954).  Itô & Hattori (1983) reported gall predation by Nola innocua (Lepidoptera).  In Japan and Korea (Paik & Choi 1969). The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2012).

Monzenia ihai Sorin   Galls on twigs of Distylium racemosum in Japan are pale yellowish green, spherical, soft and rather rough-surfaced, 2-4 cm in diameter (fig. 130D). Alate sexuparae (BL c. 1.8 mm) emerge early in December and deposit larvae on undersides of leaves of Distylium that develop into males and dark reddish purple adult oviparae in mid-January, and overwintering eggs are laid on the twigs (Sorin 1996). Hatching of eggs, fundatrix and gall development have not been described.

 

Mordvilkoiella Shaposhnikov      

Aphidinae: Aphidini

Two species on Poaceae currently placed in Aphidini because of a possible relation to Hyalopterus, but with short 5-segmented antennae, siphunculi reduced to pores and no marginal abdominal tubercles. It could have a closer affinity to Holcaphis and belong in Macrosiphini.

Mordvilkoiella jacutensis Pashchenko   Apterae are pale yellowish green; BL c. 2.3 mm. On Festuca pratensis in east Siberia.

Morvilkoiella skorkini  (Mordvilko)    Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL unrecorded.  In leaf sheaths of Phragmites australis in Russia and Ukraine (Shaposhnikov 1964).

 

Mordwilkoja Del Guercio

Eriosomatinae: Pemphigini

One North American species migrating from Populus to Lysimachia, with its secondary host generations very similar to those of Thecabius subgenus Parathecabius. Alatae from galls have antennae with the antennal terminal process longer than the base of the last segment and bearing "clear spots" of unknown function.

Mordwilkoja vagabunda (Walsh)  Host-alternation occurs between Populus spp. of the deltoides group and Lysimachia spp.  Large, irregular, multi-lobed galls are formed from the stipules of cottonwood leaves in North America (fig. 131D, and Ignoffo & Granovsky 1961b).  Emigrant alatae (BL 1.8-2.4 mm) emerge from galls in May-June and found colonies on stems, leaves or roots of Lysimachia (Smith 1971). Apterae on Lysimachia are dirty yellowish white, with wax secretion; BL 2-3 mm. Alate sexuparae returning to Populus in September-November are often larger than the spring migrants (2.1-2.9 mm) and have a shorter, more normal PT.  Ignoffo & Granovsky (1961a) described the gall generations and Smith (1971) gave a full account of the life cycle. Presumably anholocyclic secondary host generations have been found on Lysimachia roots in Germany (Zwölfer 1957, as Parathecabius stammeri) and Japan (BMNH collection, leg. S. Aoki). There is, however, a report of gall populations occurring on P. nigra in Turkey (Yildiz & Toper Kaygin 2010). 2n=20.

 

Moritziella Börner

Phylloxeridae

The two or three species on Fagaceae placed in this genus by various authors including Blackman & Eastop (1994) are now placed in Phylloxera, as there is no valid distinction from the numerous North American species in that genus (Favret et al. 2016). 

 

Muscaphis Börner

Aphidinae: Macrosiphini

Nine species host-alternating between Pyroideae and mosses, or known only from either the primary or the secondary host.  They are Myzus-like aphids perhaps closest to Nearctaphis; fundatrices are densely hairy, and give rise in the second generation to alatae which have irregular dorsal abdominal markings and the forewing media either once-branched or with a second branch close to the wing apex.  The hind tibiae of some species have a row of widely-spaced Toxoptera-like ?stridulatory pegs.  The host alternation has been experimentally confirmed for two species,  M. mexicana (Remaudičre & Muńoz Viveros 1985b) and M. escherichi (Stekolshchikov & Shaposhnikov 1993 – see below). Most attempts to transfer other species from Pyroideae to mosses have so far been unsuccessful.  Primary host generations on Pyroideae are very different from the very small aphids on mosses, and were previously described as Toxopterella.  Remaudičre & Muńoz Vivieros (1985b) keyed the primary host morphs. Heie (1992) and Blackman (2010) reviewed the European species. The North American genus Glendenningia may be related.

Muscaphis canadensis (Hille Ris Lambers)  Apterae (fundatrices) are broadly-oval, colour in life not recorded but probably dark, with dark antennae and legs and black siphunculi; BL 2.1-2.8 mm (Hille Ris Lambers 1960c).  Rolling leaves of unidentified Crataegus sp(p). in eastern North America (recorded from New Brunswick and Ontario, Canada, and North Carolina, USA).  The second generation are alatae (BL 1.6-2.0 mm), and migrate to an unknown secondary host (probably a moss).

Muscaphis cuspidata (Stroyan)    Apterae are dark greenish brown with brown antennae and legs and shiny black dorsum and siphunculi, ; BL 0.9-1.3 mm. Alatae have protruberant transversely oval secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15-24, IV 4-13, V 4-7. On mosses (Calliergonella cuspidata, Drepanocladus aduncus, Brachythecium rivulare) close to or below water-level. In Europe (England, Germany, Czech Republic), This aphid can live submerged, apparently because the papillate sculpturing of the cuticle is able to trap a layer of air around the body (original description, and Müller 1975b, as Aspidaphium cuspidata). Anholocyclic, with a specialised overwintering fourth instar (Müller 1973b). However, Albrecht (2015) pictures an ovipara identified as this species on Brachythecium rivulare.

Muscaphis escherichi (Börner)  Plate 16i  (Fig.44h)   Apterae (fundatrices) are plump-bodied, matt dark brown to purplish black with rather shiny black siphunculi; BL 2.7-4.4 mm. They are found in spring in curled leaflets of Sorbus spp., usually with one fundatrix and its progeny in each leaflet (MacGillivray & Bradley 1961, as Toxopterella drepanosiphoides).  The second generation are almost all alatae (BL 1.7-2.7 mm), and leave Sorbus from late June to early August in northern Russia. Alatae have markedly protruberant transversely oval secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15-20, IV 7-11, V 5-6. Stekolshchikov & Shaposhnikov (1993) succeeded in transferring some migrants from S. aucuparia to the moss Plagiothecium laetum. Only two of the larvae deposited by migrants reached maturity, but the very small adult apterae were morphologically indistinguishable from those of European populations of M. escherichi that live throughout the year on mosses, thus appearing to establish synonymy with the Sorbus-feeding aphid previously known as M. drepanosiphoides. However, M. escherichi is recorded in Europe from many species of moss, yet all attempts at transfer to species other than Plagiothecium have been unsuccessful, and gynoparae and males have never been collected from mosses. Molecular work is needed to determine whether the anholocyclic moss-feeding population in Europe is isolated genetically from the Sorbus-feeding generations, in which case it should perhaps continue to be regarded as a separate species.

       M. escherichi is of  holarctic distribution; across Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick), UK, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Lithuania, Russia (St Petersburg), Czech Republic, and North Korea (Lee & Havelka 2001b).  The sexual phase on Sorbus occurs in northern continental Europe, Czech Republic, Canada and North Korea. Gynoparae and males appear on Sorbus in late August in northern Russia, and mature oviparae are present in September-October. Differences have been noted between the spring forms in Canada, north-east Europe and Korea (Shaposhnikov 1963, Lee & Havelka 2001b), and Shaposhnikov gave the Canadian and north-east European populations sub-species status (as ssp. irae).  2n=12 (for “ssp. irae”).

Muscaphis japonica Sorin   Only the alatae are known, and are blackish brown, BL c.1.5 mm. On Sorbus alnifoliae in Japan (Sorin 2011). In the key to aphids on Sorbus it will possibly key to M. escherichi, but the alatae are without dark dorsal abdominal markings..

Muscaphis mexicana Remaudičre & Muńoz Viveros   Apterae (fundatrices) are plump-bodied, velvety dark brown to reddish brown with black head and siphunculi; BL 1.6-2.4 mm.  Their immature progeny are light brown.  On Crataegus pubescens (=mexicana) in Mexico, distorting and reddening young leaves.  It is also recorded from Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004). Heteroecious holocyclic; the second generation are alatae (BL 1.7-2.1 mm) and migrate to unidentified mosses. Apterae on mosses are yellow or yellowish green, often dark anteriorly, with reddish patches at bases of siphunculi, or (in older adults) almost black; BL 0.6-0.8 mm. Gynoparae and males fly back to Crataegus in November-December; Remaudičre & Muńoz Viveros (1985b) described the life cycle, and recorded heavy predation of spring colonies on Crataegus.

Muscaphis musci Börner  (Fig.44a,b,j)   Apterae are greyish yellow, pale brown, or shiny dark olive-green, with reddish brown siphunculi; BL 0.5-1.0 mm. Alatae are larger (BL 1.1-1.5 mm), and have protruding, transversely oval secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 18-24, IV 10-16, V 6-11. On mosses in the genera Acrocladium, Amblystegia, Calliergon (Amblystegiaceae); Barbula, Tortula (Pottiaceae); Brachythecium, Eurhynchium, Pseudoscleropodium (Brachytheciaceae); Bryum (Bryaceae); Catharinaea, Polytrichum (Polytrichaceae); Hylocomium (Hylocomiaceae); and Mnium (Mniaceae). Europe (UK, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Czech Republic) and North America (New Brunswick, North Carolina, Idaho). The life cycle is uncertain; alate males have been collected in Germany (BMNH collection) and Poland (Wilkaniec & Borowiak-Sobkowiak 2009), and it is possibly heteroecious holocyclic with an unknown primary host, but collection of active stages in autumn/winter (Müller 1973b, as M. stammeri; Tinguely 1993) indicates that it is at least partially anholocyclic.

Muscaphis smithi (Hille Ris Lambers)  Apterae (fundatrices) are very plump-bodied, dark brownish black with a reddish tinge, with jet black siphunculi; BL 3.0-4.0 mm.  In tightly curled and reddened leaves of Malus angustifolia in North Carolina, USA, attended by ants.  Immature progeny are reddish, all developing into redd