SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA
(in alphabetical order)
or more oriental species related to Melaphis,
Meitanaphis, Nurudea and Schlechtendalia,
and likewise (in the one species where the life cycle is known) alternating
between galls on Rhus and mosses.
However the alatae from galls on Rhus
have distinctive antennal sensoriation (Yang et al. 2009). Only one
sexuparous generation matures on mosses, overwintering in an immature stage,
as in Schlechtendalia chinensis (q.v.).
A.K. Ghosh (1984) reviewed the Indian species, and Xiang (1980/81) and G.
Zhang et al. (1999c) reviewed the
ailanthi Chowdhuri, Basu, Chakrabarti &
Raychaudhuri Emigrant alatae from
galls are rather elongate-bodied, colour in life unrecorded: BL 1.7-1.8
mm. The host plant given in the
original description, and on the paratype slides in the BMNH collection, is Ailanthus sp., without any mention of
gall formation (Chowdhuri et al.
1969a). Chakrabarti et al. (1985) reported that it forms a
petiole gall on Ailanthus glandulosa,
but no new collection data were given in that paper and the unusual host
association requires additional confirmation.
A more probable host plant would be Rhus punjabensis. In
ovatirhusicola Xiang Galls on leaflets of Rhus potaninii in
Galls on leaflets of Rhus (potaninii, punjabensis var. sinica)
are elongate pear- or fig-shaped, somewhat pointed at distal end, 3-10 cm
long, with some longitudinal striations, yellowish green when mature (Takagi
1937; Xiang 1980/81). Alate emigrants
are dark grey to black (presumably with wax secretion); BL 1.3-1.5 mm. Emigration from galls in northern
species primarily associated with Ulmus
and related to Colopha and Tetraneura, but the hind wing has two
oblique veins, and the feeding position of the first instar fundatrices is
such that the gall arises from the mid-rib of the leaf near its base, rather
than from the leaf lamina. The secondary hosts where known are mostly
Lamiaceae. A.K. Ghosh (1981) reviewed and keyed the
species, and there are also accounts for east Asia (Akimoto, 1985) and
carpinicola A.K. Ghosh, Chakrabarti &
Bhattacharya Reported to form open
galls consisting of a swollen cup-shaped pouch or cavity on leaf blades of an
unidentified Carpinus sp. (A.K.
Ghosh et al. 1981). However the host was apparently
misidentified, because Chakrabarti & Banerjee (1993b) reported that the
primary host was an Ulmus sp.
Alatae collected from these galls in June have an unbranched forewing media
and secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 20-29, IV 7-10, V 10-13 and VI
15-17; BL 2.2-2.6 mm. The life cycle
is unknown. The host plant, and the
position of the gall, which is anomalous, need additional confirmation. In
Apterae are densely wax-coated; BL 1.1-1.4 mm. On Elsholtzia spp., living in small hollows between leaf veins. The
leaves become intensely wrinkled and distorted around the hollows, and turn reddish
purple along the midrib. In
Kaltenbachiella glabra Akimoto Galls are almost globular, unstalked, smooth, projecting upward from the mid-rib of the leaf. Only the gall and fundatrix are described (Akimoto 1985a), so this species could not be included in the key to aphids on Ulmus. On Ulmus uyematsui in Taiwan. Life cycle is unknown.
Galls are globular, covered with fine spine-like projections, green,
projecting upward from the mid-rib, which tends to be bent downwards where
the gall is attached (fig. 134K). Monoecious holocyclic on Ulmus spp. On U.
japonica in Japan the galls occur mainly on mature trees, especially on
shoots growing directly from the trunk, and may occur 4 or more to a
leaf. Alate sexuparae (BL 1.4-1.7 mm)
emerge from galls in July-Aug and produce sexuales in crevices of the trunk,
often near their old galls (Akimoto 1985a).
In Japan and east Siberia.
[Alate specimens trapped in
Galls on Ulmus spp. are
oblong, bag-shaped, with a narrower section at the base, projecting upward
from the mid-rib of the leaf; green, often with reddish tinge distally, covered
in short whitish hairs. Emigrant
alatae have the forewing media usually once-branched but sometimes
unbranched; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. In
Galls on Ulmus spp. are
globular, pale, densely covered in short fine hairs, projecting from the
mid-rib mainly on the upper side of the leaf (fig. 134H). Emigrant alatae (fig. 117B)
have the forewing media usually unbranched, sometimes once-branched; BL
1.8-2.1 mm. They emerge from galls
through a stellate distal opening in June-July, and migrate to found colonies
on roots of Lamiaceae (Mentha, Galeopsis, Origanum, Thymus). Apterous
exules are very plump-bodied to almost globular, yellowish‑white,
secreting flocculent wax; BL 0.9-1.3 mm. Immature stages are pale orange
Europe and in north Africa, Middle East, south-west and central Asia, west
Siberia, China, and reported also from Argentina (Ortego et al. 2004). A population on Mentha haplocalyx in
Galls on Ulmus japonica are
like those of K. japonica (see
above), but generally with larger, thicker spines arranged more irregularly (fig. 134J
and Akimoto 1985a). Emigrant alatae
(BL 1.0-1.4 mm) (fig. 117C)
leave galls in July-Aug for an unknown secondary host. In
ulmifusa (Walsh & Riley) Galls on Ulmus rubra are large, spindle-shaped, bag-like, about 2.5 cm
long, green when young and becoming straw-coloured when mature, projecting
upward from mid-rib of leaf (fig. 134I
and Patch 1910b). Emigrant alatae, BL
1.4-1.5 mm, with media either unbranched or once-branched, leave galls in
June-July to found colonies on roots of Lamiaceae; successful transfers were
made to Lycopus virginicus (Smith
1985). Apterous exules are yellowish
orange with wax-wool (C.F. Smith, pers. comm.); BL
throughout the range of U. rubra in
Two east Asian species similar to Neomyzus, but apterae have no secondary rhinaria. A third species described in this genus, Kaochiaoja pileophaga Zhang (in Zhang et al. 1992), appears to be a synonym of Micromyzodium kuwasukae (q.v.).
(= Micromyzus granotiae Ghosh,
Ghosh & Raychaudhuri) Apterae
from Arthraxon in
Kaochiaoja sikkimensis Joshi & Blackman Apterae are shining black in life with yellowish brown head, siphunculi pale in middle, and yellow cauda; BL 1.3-1.5 mm. Immaturesd are pale yellow to greenish yellow. Alatae have extensive dark dorsal markings. On leaves of bamboos (Phyllostachys sp.), which were turned yellowish by dense colonies. Described from East Sikkim, India (Joshi & Blackman 2017).
One species in
humuliosum Zhang &
Qiao Colour in life is unknown; BL c.2.9 mm. On Humulus scandens in
A distinctive genus of five Asian species on Lamiaceae with hairy RIV+V, first tarsal segments with 5 hairs, and often with rows of marginal, or spinal and marginal, tubercles. The known alatae have brown-bordered forewing veins. Kadyrbekov (2015) provided a key to apterae.
Klimaszewskia altaica Kadyrbekov Apterae are pale green; BL 2.2-3.2 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Nepeta sibirica in East Kazakhstan (south-western Altai) at 1000-1300 m (Kadyrbekov 2015).
dracocephali Szelegiewicz Apterae are whitish yellow; BL c.2.2 mm.
On leaves of Dracocephalum foetidum in
Klimaszewskia katonica Kadyrbekov Apterae are pale green; BL 2.7-3.2 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Dracocephalum grandiflorum in in East Kazakhstan (south-western Altai) at 2000 m (Kadyrbekov 2015).
lophanthi Kadyrbekov Apterae are pale green; BL 2.2-2.5 mm. On
flower stalks of Lophanthus schrenki in
Klimaszewskia salviae (Nevsky) (Fig.48f) Apterae are pale green; BL 2.5-3.0 mm. On stems and inflorescences of Salvia sclarea in Uzbekistan (Narzikulov & Umarov 1969); also found on Salvia rhytidea in Iran (Remaudière & Remaudière 1997, p.303), and an alata has been trapped in France (Leclant & Remaudière 1986). Narzikulov & Umarov (1969) described a subspecies (hissarica) with longer siphunculi from Tajikistan.
One very distinctive species free-living on Styrax in China, with curved blunt-ended frontal and marginal processes, and a single long finger-like process arising from the posterior margin of abdominal tergite 8.
eosocallis Qiao & Zhang Apterae are small, oval, yellow or
yellowish brown; BL 0.9-1.0 mm. On Styrax
odoratissima, feeding on young
shoots and undersides of leaves along the main veins, causing stunting of
shoots and leaf deformation (Qiao & Zhang 2003b, Qiao et al. 2018). In Guanxi Autonomous Region and
One African species characterised by the presence of a pair of spinal tubercles on the head, and alatae with reduced wing venation and without a black dorsal abdominal patch.
ageni (Eastop) Colour of apterae in life is unknown; BL
1.2-1.6 mm. Alatae have forewings lacking a radius in more than 90% of
specimens and a once-branched media, and hindwings without oblique veins. On
etiolated parts of grasses (Digitaria,
About seven species in east Asia, described from Juglandaceae (or from perhaps misidentified trees with similar leaves), and Fagaceae. Closely related to Glyphina, and in fact although Kurisakia are generally paler and less sclerotised than Glyphina, there are no good morphological distinguishing features between these two genera. Many of the characters used to distinguish between species and subspecies of Kurisakia are subject to environmental variation, so that the separate identity of most species needs experimental confirmation. Possibly there are only 2-3 valid species in the genus. There is no information on sexual morphs or life cycles for any species of Kurisakia. Accounts are available for Japan (Takahashi 1960a) and China (Chang & Zhong 1979a).
Kurisakia ailanthi Takahashi Apterae are broadly oval, colour in life not recorded in original description, but probably greenish yellow with green markings, with legs and antennae pale; BL c. 2.7 mm. Described from Ailanthus altissima in Japan (Takahashi 1960a), but almost certainly this was a misidentification of Juglans ailanthifolia, which has very similar leaves. Distinction from K. onigurumi, apart from body size and size-related characters, is not clear. Sorin (1988) gave a detailed description, including dimorphic first instars, of a population described as a subspecies , K. ailanthi sawagarumii, curling leaflets of Pteryocarya rhoifolia in Japan. The life cycle is unknown.
Apterae are oval, colour in life not recorded, antennae and legs pale;
BL 1.6-1.9 mm. Alatae have paired dark
markings on most abdominal tergites.
On undersides of leaves of Engelhardtia
Kurisakia onigurumii (Shinji) Plate 4e, f Apterae are oval, green, with pale legs and antennae; BL 1.2-2.0 mm. Alatae have black head and thorax and paired green markings on ABD TERG 1-6, often fused to form cross-bands (Moritsu 1983, p.212). In folded leaflets of Juglans spp. and Pterocarya spp. in Japan, Taiwan and China. Moritsu (1983) recorded it from Platycarya strobilacea in Japan, but there is possible confusion with K. sinoplatycaryae described from this host in China. The life cycle is unknown; according to Shinji (1924), the individuals produced in July are all alatae, and fly away. 2n=18* (for specimens from Pt. stenoptera in China).
Kurisakia querciphila Takahashi Apterae are yellow, with a pair of longitudinal green dorsal stripes; BL 1.2-2.0 mm. On Q. acutissima in Japan, often forming large populations, and also since recorded from several other Quercus spp. Paik's (1965) record of K. onigurumii on Q. acutissima and Castanea crenata in Korea should be referred to this taxon, which was described (Takahashi 1960a) as a subspecies of K. onigurumii, but is here given full species status.
Kurisakia sinocaryae Chang Described from Carya cathayensis in Zhejiang, China (Chang & Zhong 1979a). Alatae viviparae have more numerous secondary rhinaria than other described Kurisakia species (distributed ANT III 39-51, IV 9-13, V 5-7), and these are not arranged in a row (i.e., the sensoriation is as one would expect to find in a male). Jin (1982) studied the population ecology of this aphid.
Kurisakia sinoplatycaryae Chang Described from Platycarya strobilacea in Zhejiang, China (Chang & Zhong 1979a). Apterae have a rugose tergum and hairs on the hind tibia only about as long as the width of the tibia at midlength, and alatae have a cauda with a distinct basal constriction.
Kurisakia yunnanensis Chang Alate viviparae only are described, from China, on Senna siamea, which is unlikely to be the true host. Similar to, or synonymous with, K. onigurumii.