SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA
(in alphabetical order)
A genus for one species related to Aploneura and Slavum but with more normal distribution of rhinaria on the antennae of the alatae, which fold their wings roof-like in repose. The large characteristic horn-like galls can be formed on several species of Pistacia.
Plate 1h Producing large, elongate horn-like galls
15-22 cm long (fig.
126C) on Pistacia spp.,
especially P. palaestina, in the Mediterranean
area, and also in north-west
Berberidaphis lydiae (Narzikulov) Apterae are shiny pale yellow, BL 1.7-2.7 mm. On undersides of leaves of Berberis spp. in mountainous regions of Tajikistan, eastern Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2009a) and northern Pakistan (Naumann-Etienne & Remaudičre 1995). Oviparae and small apterous males appear in October-November (Narzikulov 1957, as Liosomaphis lydiae).
Six species are known, all from
east and south-east
Alatae are pale green with dark tibiae, large (about 3.5 mm), very
active, on leaves of Alnus spp. (hirsuta, japonica, matsumurae)
luminifera Zhang Alatae yellow; BL 2.6-3.5 mm, on leaves of
Betula luminifera in
Alatae are pale lemon-yellow to apricot, with black basal,
sensoriated, part of third antennal segment, black tibiae, two black bars on
the dorsal abdomen, and black siphunculi; BL 2.4-3.1 mm. On leaves of Betula spp. (ermannii, maximowicziana, platyphylla var. japonica)
prunicola R.C. Basu, A.K. Ghosh & Raychaudhuri Alatae light yellowish green with dark
tibiae, dark transverse bars on ABD TERG 3-5 or 4-5 and dark siphunculi; BL
1.9-2.2 mm (A.K. Ghosh & Quednau 1990).
Described from adults and immatures on Prunus cerasus in
querciphaga R.C. Basu, M.R. Ghosh &
Raychaudhuri Alatae light grenish
yellow with dark markings like B.
odaiensis except for the dorsal longitudinal head stripe and differences
in wing vein pigmentation; BL 2.4-3.2 mm.
sikkimensis R.C. Basu, M.R. Ghosh &
Raychaudhuri BL of alata 2.4-3.2 mm,
appearance in life unrecorded but presumably pale, with third antennal
segment and tibiae darkened only at apices (cf. other species). The siphunculi are black on distal half
only and there is often a consolidated or broken dark central patch on
abdominal tergites 4 and 5. Described
from Quercus sp. - which is
probably only a reserve host - in
genus of 6 or 7 species rather evenly distributed through the holarctic on Betula. They are small, rather flat oval aphids
with short 6-segmented antennae, the PT being about as long as the base of
ANT VI. Viviparae have a short,
conical cauda and a bilobed anal plate.
Oviparae have dark dorsal markings and the posterior abdomen is
extended as an "egg-laying organ".
Males are apterous with extensive dark dorsal markings. Fundatrices are unusual in being either
apterous or alate (at least in B.
quadrituberculata). Stroyan (1977)
gave a detailed generic diagnosis, and accounts are available for North
brevipilosa Borner (= helvetica Hille Ris Lambers)
are pale to grass-green aphids, BL 1.5-2.0 mm, with the tips of the antennae
and the tarsi dark. Alatae almost
always have a dark dorsal abdominal patch.
This species is frequently confused in the literature with B. quadrituberculata. It seems to feed mostly on Betula pendula, usually on the upper
surfaces of the leaves, in north and central
Appearance in life is unknown.
BL of aptera about 1.7-1.9 mm.
Chakrabati (1988) redescribed both apterous and alate viviparae, and
also apterous oviparae and males.
Recorded from various Betula
species (hissarica, alnoides, turkestanica, utilis) in
Appearance in life and biology unrecorded, and alatae are
unknown. BL of aptera 1.1-1.6 mm. Found on various Betula species in
longicornis Quednau & Chakrabarti Apterae yellow: BL 2.3-2.9 mm. The alatae lack a dorsal abdominal dark
patch, and have numerous (26-35) closely-spaced elongate transverse secondary
rhinaria an antennal segment III.
Apterous and alate viviparae are described by Quednau &
Chakrabarti (1980), and apterous oviparae and males by Chakrabarti
(1988). Recorded from Betula alnoides and B. utilis in
pelei Hille Ris Lambers (fig. 31C)
are yellow with dark tarsi and tips of antennae, BL 1.4-1.7 mm. Alatae sometimes have a dark dorsal
abdominal patch. On Betula nana with a boreo-alpine
quadrituberculata Kaltenbach (fig. 31A,D)
have BL 1.5-2.0 mm and are pale yellowish green or pale yellow to almost
white, sometimes with patches of darker pigment (especially in autumn),
normally feeding on the undersides of leaves (see
influentialpoints.com/Gallery). Alatae sometimes have a dark dorsal
abdominal patch. Recorded from various
Betula species, especially B. pubescens and also occasionally
found on Alnus incana. Widely distributed in
Five species in the
Bicaudella astragalensis Rusanova (Fig.16a) Apterae are pale brownish or dirty yellow,
BL 1.1-1.5 mm. On Astragalus spp.
Bicaudella denaensis (Remaudičre) Apterae are squat-bodied, yellowish with
dark dorsal markings and black siphunculi; BL 1.1-1.5 mm. On Astragalus sp. in
Bicaudella farsiana (Remaudičre) (Fig.16b,d) Apterae are yellow, rather pale, BL
1.6-1.9 mm. On an Astragalus sp. of
the microthrix group in
laurestanica (Remaudičre) (Fig.16c,e) Apterae are yellowish with dusky head and
thorax and black dorsal abdominal spots; BL 1.3-1.6 mm. On an Astragalus sp. in
Bicaudella rostrata (Remaudičre) Apterae are
yellowish, rather pale; BL c.1.2-1.4 mm. On Astracantha gossypina in
A genus for two nearctic species on Cirsium related to Artemisaphis and Obtusicauda but with a distinctive cauda and anal plate. Miller & Jensen (2006) reviewed the genus, removing one species from synonymy. They are active aphids, and seem invariably to be ant-attended.
Plate 28h Apterae have a pale pink head and
thorax, brownish purple abdomen, with last two segments pale green, and black
antennae, black legs except for yellow basal parts of femora, black
siphunculi and black cauda; BL 2.5-3.5 mm. In ant-attended colonies on leaves
and stems of Cirsium spp. (ochrocentrus, arvense) in
torticauda Gillette (Fig.22e) Apterae are brick red to ochre red with
black antennae, black legs except basal parts of femora, black siphunculi,
and anal plate and cauda reddish to dusky; BL 2.5-3.8 mm. In ant-attended
colonies on leaves and stems of Cirsium
spp. (there are records from Carduus and
Cnicus, but these are probably
referable to this genus). In western
A genus for one species closely resembling Acaudella in many features such as shape of siphunculi and lack of an evident cauda, but with a much longer processus terminalis.
Blackmania eastopi Kanturski & Wieczorek Apterae are red-brown in life (V.F. Eastop, field notes); BL of aptera c.1.6 mm. Alata has 21-31 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Polygonum equisetiforme in Israel and Cyprus (Kanturski & Wieczorek 2015b). The life cycle is unknown.
Two species on Senecio in South America with dark cylindrical siphunculi having a little poorly-defined reticulation at apices, and 5 hairs on first tarsal segments. A third species from Cuphea in Brazil mentioned under this genus name by Blackman & Eastop (2006; p. 1106) has subsequently been identified as Impatientinum paranaense. Originally described as Blanchardia, the name was changed to Blanchardaphis by Ortego et al. (1998).
Blanchardaphis capitophoroides (Blanchard) Apterae are dark reddish; BL c. 3 mm. Apterae have 18-20 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae are undescribed. On Senecio sp. in Argentina. Ortego et al. (1997, as Blanchardia) compared measurements with those of B. poikila.
Blanchardaphis poikila (Ortego, Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante) Apterae are dark pink with a narrow longitudinal greenish mark on abdominal tergites 2-5; BL 2.2-3.0 mm. Apterae have 5-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 16-19. In dense colonies on flowering stems of Senecio subumbellatus in Argentina. Monoecious holocyclic, with alate males (Ortego et al. 1997, as Blanchardia).
A genus of 4-5 species associated with Alnus (including Duschekia). The apterae are dorso-ventrally flattened, rather elongate oval, and apply themselves closely to the leaf surface. They have paired anteriorly-directed rectangular projections on the head, lateral abdominal hairs arising from asymmetric tubercles that give the abdominal margin a stepped appearance, and typically 5-segmented antennae. The alatae are more normal-looking Calaphidini. One species (occidentalis) differs in that the apterae often have 6-segmented antennae, the frontal projections are only weakly developed and the abdominal margin is more indented than stepped. Hille Ris Lambers & Hottes (1962) revised the genus.
Boernerina alni Takahashi (fig. 29A,B) Apterae are pale yellowish-white, dorso-ventrally flattened, elongate oval, BL 1.7-2.6 mm. Alatae are whitish and waxy. Sorin (1970a) described the apterous male and ovipara, collected in mid-August in Japan, on Alnus spp. Pashchenko (1983b) described a subspecies (insularia) in east Siberia, which is very likely to be the aphid from the Irkutsk region described by Rupais (1989b) as B. sibirica. This subspecies is also now reported from the Nenets region of north-west Russia (Stekolshchikov 2017).
Boernerina depressa Bramstedt Apterae are whitish, flattened and elongate oval, BL 1.5-2.5 mm, on undersides of leaves of Alnus viridis in the Alps and Carpathians, and also reported from A. fruticosa in western Siberia and A. maximowiczii in the Kuril islands (see Holman 2009). Oviparae and very small apterous males are produced in July-August (Hille Ris Lambers & Hottes 1962).
Boernerina occidentalis Hille Ris Lambers & Hottes Apterae are pale, flattened, oval, BL 1.7-2.4 mm, with broad sclerotic bars on abdominal tergites, the anterior ones being sometimes browhish pigmented. Alatae are variably pigmented, darker specimens have blackish-brown sclerotic bars on abdominal tergites. On Alnus sinuata in Alaska, also collected in Oregon (BMNH collection; leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers), and now also recorded from A. alnobetula ssp. fruticosa (=A. fruticosa) in north-east Siberia (Chukotka; Stekolshchikov & Khruleva 2015). Oviparae and small, slender apterous males are produced in July in Alaska (Hille Ris Lambers & Hottes 1962).
Boernerina variabilis Richards Apterae are pale to bright yellow with black on distal parts of antennae and legs, flattened, elongate oval, BL 1.9-2.6 mm. Alatae vary in pigmentation; when well-pigmented they have broad dark bars dorsally and ventrally on the abdomen. On undersides of leaves of Alnus spp. (sinuata, rugosa, alnobetula) in east and west Canada (British Columbia, Northwest Territory, Ontario, Quebec, Labrador). Oviparae and small, apterous males occur in August in Northwest Territory (BMNH collection, R. O'Doherty), but oviparae were collected in October in northern Ontario (BMNH collection, leg. J. S˙pkens). 2n=16*.
This genus of c.50 mainly palaearctic species is characterised by the large round spiracular apertures, short often semicircular cauda, and siphunculi with a subapical annular incision. Brachycaudus is primitively heteroecious with Prunus as primary hosts, and about 14 species still host-alternate. There are species groups associated with secondary hosts in Ranunculaceae (subgenus Brachycaudina), Caryophyllaceae (subgenus Acaudus), Boraginaceae and Compositae (subgenus Prunaphis), and plants formerly in Scrophulariaceae but now placed in Orobanchaceae (subgenus Scrophulaphis). For an introduction to the genus and more detailed accounts of seven of the Prunus-feeding species see Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.246. Heie (1992) reviewed the species in Fennoscandia and Denmark, and Blackman (2010) reviewed the British species (but there are errors in the subgeneric classification in the latter work). Burger (1975) reviewed European species then placed in Acaudus. Andreev (2004) revised the subgeneric classification (but his synonymy of subgenus Thuleaphis with subgenus Mordvilkomemor is not accepted here – see Blackman & Eastop 2011). Cocuzza et al. (2007) made a morphological and molecular study of subgenus Appelia. Coeur d’acier et al. (2008) and Jousselin et al. (2009, 2010) studied the molecular phylogenetics of Brachycaudus species and their bacterial symbiont, which largely confirm the subgeneric groupings used here. Jousselin et al. (2010) analysed their data further to reconstruct ancestral character states, and reached the rather surprising conclusion that several species may have reacquired the primary host after periods of monoecy on secondary hosts. This interesting finding requires further investigation.
(Thuleaphis) acaudata (Hille Ris
Lambers) Colour of apterae in life
unknown, probably greenish with extensive blackish dorsal sclerotisation; BL
1.5-1.7 mm. Alatae have 10-14 secondary rhinartia on ANT III. The host of
type specimens from Greenland is unknown, but it has subsequently been
collected from stems of Persicaria
viviparum in arctic Canada (Baffin Island; Richards 1963a). Records
acaudata from Rhodiola (= Sedum) rosea in
Brachycaudus (Brachycaudina) aconiti (Mordvilko) Apterae are shining black, BL 2.0-2.6 mm. Apterae have 0-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and alatae have 7-13. On Aconitum spp. and Delphinium spp. colonising flower stems and leaf petioles, and rarely on undersides of leaves. In central, south and south-east Europe, Central Asia and Siberia. Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males (Nosyrev 1968). Closely related to B. napelli in western Europe; differing rhinarial numbers on ANT III are often given as a discriminant between the two, but may not always be reliable due to alatiformity.
Brachycaudus (Appelia) almatinus Nevsky Apterae according to the original description are pale brown with black lateral spots, black siphunculi, femora, tibial apices and tarsi, and dusky antennae. BL about 1.8 mm. The cauda is very short and broad. Alata have a pale brown abdomen, presumably without a dark dorsal patch. Found in Kazakhstan on several Prunus spp., rolling leaves longitudinally (Nevsky 1951, Kadyrbekov 2014d). Biology is unknown.
Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) amygdalinus (Schouteden) Host-alternating between Prunus dulcis or P. persica and Polygonaceae. Apterae are green with variably developed dark dorsal markings, squat-bodied with rather short pale legs and antennae; BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Alatae have a dark central abdominal patch and secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-21, IV 0-1 (spring migrants) or III 9-16, IV 0 (gynoparae). Colonies in spring cause rolling of young almond or peach leaves and stunting of new growth. The leaves are rolled somewhat obliquely with respect to the mid-rib. rather than perpendicularly to the mid-rib as in B. helichrysi. Migration occurs to Polygonum (particularly small-leaved) species, Persicaria maculosa and Fagopyrum cymosum. On Polygonum aviculare they feed hidden under the thin bracts surrounding the nodes (Talhouk 1977). It is also frequently anholocyclic on Polygonaceae, even where primary hosts are available. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa (Tunisia: Boukhris-Bouhachem et al. 2007, Algeria: Laamari et al. 2010), Central Asia, Pakistan and South Africa. Darwish (1983) described the morphology of the spring generations. See also Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.246. 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) ballotae (Passerini) Colour of apterae in life unknown, probably shiny dark green to black; BL c.1.7-1.9 mm. On shoots of Ballota nigra, attended by ants (Szelegiewicz 1981a). In continental Europe (Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, north Italy and Poland). Monoecious holocyclic. Molecular data (Jousselin et al. 2010) indicate that B. lamii is probably a synonym.
(Nevskyaphis) bicolor (Nevsky) (Fig.9b) Apterae are shining yellowish tinged with
pink, to pale green, with a large shiny black dorsal abdominal patch (see influential
points/gallery); BL c.2.1-2.4 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria
distributed III 28-52, IV 0-8, V 0. Ant-attended colonies occur on root
collars, and at bases of leaves near ground level, of Boraginaceae (e.g. Anchusa, Cerinthe, Cynoglossum,
Echium, Lindelofia, Myosotis)
and also recorded from a species of Codonocephalum
= Inula (Compositae). In
Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) brevirostratus Pashchenko Apterae are dirty green to pale brown; BL c.1.3 mm. On Polygonum spp. in east Siberia. Possibly this is a synonym of B. rumexicolens.
Brachycaudus (Prunaphis) cardui (L.) Plate 10a Apterae on herbaceous plants are shiny black dorsally, light green to yellowish or reddish ventrally (immatures are green or reddish) (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.9-2.3 mm. Alatae have extensive dark dorsal pigmentation, and secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-39, IV 0(-4). B. cardui lives in dense ant-attended colonies on stems and leaves of many species of Compositae (e.g. Arctium, Carduus, Cirsium, Cynara, Chrysanthemum, Tanacetum, Matricaria) and Boraginaceae (e.g Borago, Cynoglossum, Echium, Symphytum), and also frequently on other plants, e.g. Capsella. In Europe, Asia, north Africa and North America. Heteroecious holocyclic in continental climates with a sexual phase on Prunus, esp. P. domestica or P. spinosa (or sometimes P. avium or P. armeniaca). Apterae in rolled leaves of plum in spring, are usually green with the dorsal cuticle sclerotic and often brownish, but not shiny black like the summer generations on secondary hosts. Spring migrant alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 20-30, IV 0(-1). According to Börner (1952), the aphids which use P. spinosa as primary host and migrate to basal parts of stems of Compositae are a distinct species, B. lateralis (q.v.), but further work seems necessary to confirm this. Central Asian populations with longer hairs are regarded as a subspecies, B. cardui ssp. turanica Mordvilko (differentiated by Andreev 1999). See also Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.247. 2n=10.
Brachycaudus cerasicola Mordvilko ex Nevsky (= phlomicola Nevsky) Apterae are shiny yellowish brown to dark brown or black due to extensive dorsal sclerotic shield; BL 1.7-2.1 mm. Immatures are dirty brown. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 21-50, IV 2-23, V 0(-5). Spring colonies roll and twist the leaves of Prunus spp. and turn them red. There is apparently a facultative host alternation to Lamiaceae (Dracocephalum, Eremostachys, Nepeta, Perovskia, Phlomis, Stachys) and Orobanchaceae (Pedicularis) (Shaposhnikov 1964b, as phlomicola; Narzikulov & Daniyarova 1990). Kadyrbekov (2014d) records it also from plant genera in several other families, including Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) and Gentiana/Gentianella (Gentianaceae), where there is possible confusion respectively with B. sedi and B. gentianae. In Central Asia. This species was erroneously synonymised with B. pilosus by Blackman & Eastop (1994).
Brachycaudus (Appelia) cerinthis Bozhko Apterae are shining blackish, BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 8-12, IV 0-2, V 0. On stems, flower stalks and bracts, and deforming flower buds, of Cerinthe spp. In France, Italy, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Ukraine. Monoecious holocyclic on Cerinthe (Cocuzza et al. 2007).
Brachycaudus crassitibiae Nevsky Apterae are dark brown with paler appendages; BL c.1.3-1.4 mm. Alatae have 4-6 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Turgenia (~Caucalis) latifolia in south Kazakhstan.
Brachycaudus (Acaudus) divaricatae Shaposhnikov Host-alternating between Prunus cerasifera (sometimes P. domestica or P. spinosa) and Caryophyllaceae (usually Silene latifolia s. lat.) in east Europe and the Middle East. Apterae are shining dark brown to black, BL 2.0-2.2 mm, rolling leaves of Prunus in spring. Spring migrant alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 16-31, IV 0, but later generations have III 30-50, IV 3-4, V 0. The migration to Silene is apparently facultative (Shaposhnikov 1962). In recent years this species has spread north-westward to the eastern Baltic coast, where it has an abbreviated life cycle, staying on P. cerasifera and producing sexual morphs and eggs from late June (Rakauskas & Juronis 2006, Rakauskas & Turčinavičiene 2006). It has also now reached the Czech Republic, where its morphology and DNA have been compared with eastern Baltic populations (Bašilova et al. 2012). Havelka et al. (2017) have compared its DNA with that of the closely related B. lychnidis. The male genitalia were described and illustrated by Wieczorek et al. (2011). Native predators attacking B. divaricatae in Lithuania were studied by Danilov et al. (2016).
Brachycaudus divaricatellus Shaposhnikov Apterae are shiny yellowish-rose, elongate oval, BL c.2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 30-50, IV 15-22, V 0. On undersides of leaves of Prunus cerasifera, causing slight curling of tips and discoloration. In south-west Turkmenistan (Shaposhnikov 1964a). Life cycle is unknown. Shaposhnikov (1964b) described the ovipara.
Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) eurotiae (Mamontova-Solukha) Apterae are shiny yellow, without wax; BL 1.1-1.6 mm. On Krascheninnikovia (=Eurotia) ceratoides, living in galls formed by curling and thickening of the upper sides of the leaves. Alatae have 5-7 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only, and dark dorsal markings. In Ukraine (Mamontova-Solukha, 1968, as Cryptosiphon eurotiae), Kazakhstan and western China (Kadyrbekov et al., 2002). Kadyrbekov (2002) erected a new genus (Scythaphis) for this species which has an unusually setose abdominal tergite 8 and lacks marginal tubercles (and has a somewhat distinctive biology), but Stekolshchikov (2007) transferred it to Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis).
gentianae Daniyarova Apterae are shining brown; BL c. 1.8
mm. On Gentiana olgae in
Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach) Plate 9i Apterae are very variably coloured (but always pale); pale green, pale yellow, whitish or pinkish (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 0.9-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 13-46, IV 0-18. On stems and in flowerheads of numerous plant species, esp. Compositae/Asteraceae (e.g. Achillea, Ageratum, Aster, Bidens, Chrysanthemum, Cineraria, Erigeron, Gnaphalium, Helianthus, Matricaria, Senecio) and Boraginaceae (e.g. Anchusa, Cynoglossum, Myosotis, Symphytum), but also many others including Rumex, Saxifraga, Trifolium, Veronica. World-wide, and a major pest (for further information see Eastop & Blackman 2000, p.247). Heteroecious holocyclic with sexual phase on Prunus spp. (especially P. domestica, P. insititia, P. spinosa) in colder climates. Apterae in spring populations on Prunus are green, brownish or yellowish, shiny and slightly waxy, causing leaves to roll up tightly perpendicular to the mid-rib. BL is 1.4-2.0 mm on Prunus, down to 0.9 mm on secondary hosts. Darwish (1984) described the morphology of spring generations. Anholocyclic populations occur in warmer regions and in glasshouses, and are sometimes found on new growth of various trees. Molecular studies have now revealed that populations identified as B. helichrysi throughout the world comprise two forms that are sufficiently distinct to be regarded as sibling species, genetically isolated from each other (Pifaretti et al. 2012, 2013a,b and possibly Rebijith et al. 2013). Host alternation to Prunus domestica and related species only occurs in one of these forms (H1), in regions with a continental climate. The second form (H2) is mainly anholocyclic, and is mostly absent from the coldest regions, but has now been shown to have a sexual phase on Prunus persica in northern India (Pifaretti 2013b). Mixed populations of the two forms often occur on herbaceous hosts, and no clear differences in host preference on herbaceous plants between these two forms have so far been detected. Further studies have revealed a third form (H3) restricted to East Asia, associated with apricots and Prunus species endemic to that region (Popkin et al. 2017). 2n=12.
(Prunaphis) iranicus Davatchi
& Remaudičre (Fig.9a) Apterae are greenish yellow to pale green
with shiny brown dorsal markings (a transverse bar on the mesonotum, a central
abdominal patch and presiphuncular sclerites) and brown siphunculi; BL
1.6-2.0 mm. On undersides of leaves of
Anchusa azurea (= italica) and A. strigosa, feeding close to the main veins, in the
(Prunaphis) jacobi Stroyan Apterae are black and shiny dorsally,
olive green ventrally; BL 1.4-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria
distributed III 6-16, IV 0-2. At base of stem or on roots of Myosotis and Pulmonaria spp., ant-attended. In
(Acaudus) klugkisti (Börner) Apterae are shining black dorsally,
red-brown ventrally; BL 1.5-2.5 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria
distributed III 11-31 (in a row), IV 0-8. On upper parts of Silene (incl. Melandrium) spp. In
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) lamii Koch Apterae have a shining black dorsum; BL 1.8-2.2 mm. On Lamium spp., especially L. album, in Europe (Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Italy, Slovakia). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae in October (BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers). Molecular data (Jousselin et al. 2010) indicate that this is probably a synonym of B. ballotae.
Brachycaudus (Scrophulaphis) linariae Stroyan Apterae are deep blackish green, shiny, immatures being paler green (see influential points/gallery); BL 1.4-1.9 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 11-37, IV 5-10, V 0-2. On basal parts of Linaria spp., attended by ants. In UK, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and most of eastern Europe (Andreev & Mamontova 1998). Monoecious holocyclic; Patti & Barbagallo (1997) described oviparae and apterous males collected from L. purpurea in Sicily in October.
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) lucifugus Müller Apterae are yellowish green with shiny dark brown to black dorsum; BL 1.3-2.2 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 15-30, IV 0-9, V 0-1(-5). On roots and at leaf bases of Plantago lanceolata, in Europe (UK, Germany, Hungary, Italy). Ant-attended. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males (original description and Stroyan 1964a).
Brachycaudus (Acaudus) lychnicola Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are reddish brown with shining black dorsal shield; BL 1.9-2.3 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III (15-) 23-36, IV 0-4. On roots, stem-bases and lower leaves of Lychnis flos-cuculi and Silene (incl. Melandrium) spp., attended by ants. In north-west Europe (Netherlands, Sweden). Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males (original description). Molecular data (Jousselin et al. 2010) indicate that, if the specimens from Czech Republic used in their analysis are correctly identified as this species, then it is probably a synonym of B. lychnidis.
Brachycaudus (Acaudus) lychnidis (L.) Apterae are reddish brown with shining brown-black dorsal shield (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.8-2.9 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 15-34, IV 0-4. On stems, leaves and flowers of Lychnis and Silene (incl. Melandrium) spp. Europe, eastward to west Siberia, Turkey, Caucasus and Kazakhstan. Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males (Heie 1992). 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) malvae Shaposhnikov Apterae are shining blackish green (see influential points/gallery); BL 1.8-2.3 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 17-31, IV 0-3, V 0. On Malva spp., in ant-attended colonies at base of stem and on lower leaves. In England, Spain, southern Russia, Ukraine, and also China, if Brachycaudus atuberculatus Zhang 1981 is a synonym (see Andreev 2004). 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Scrophulaphis) mimeuri Remaudičre Apterae are shining pale to dark brown; BL 0.7-1.4 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-33, IV 1-10, V 0-1. On roots of Euphrasia and Odontites spp. in southern and eastern Europe; for distribution see Jörg & Lampel 1988, but also in Denmark (Heie 1992) and Sicily (Barbagallo & Stroyan 1982), and possibly also in South Australia on Parentucellia latifolia (Eastop 1966, as ?B . persicaecola). Not attended by ants (Hille Ris Lambers 1967). Presumably anholocyclic, and closely related to B. persicae (q.v.).
Brachycaudus (Prunaphis) mordvilkoi Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are green with shiny black dorsal shield; BL 1.7-2.3 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-21, IV 3-6, V 0-1. On certain Boraginaceae (Anchusa, Echium, Solenanthus, Symphytum), with one record from Compositae (Hieracium pilosella). Widely distributed in Europe (but not recorded from British Isles, Scandinavia or Iberian peninsula). Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males (Müller 1975a).
Brachycaudus (Brachycaudina) napelli (Schrank) (Fig.6b,c) Apterae are shining black with end of abdomen red, immatures are brown; BL 2.0-2.9 mm. Alatiform apterae occur with 3-25 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, alatae have 17-37 on III and 0-4 on IV. On Aconitum spp., esp. napellus, forming colonies on stems, flowers and fruits, and sometimes on leaves. Only occasionally on Delphinium spp. In west and north-west Europe (not UK), south to Spain, and also recorded from Austria and Czech Republic (Cocuzza et al. 2010). Closely related to B. aconiti (q.v.). Monoecious holocyclic with apterous males.
Brachycaudus (Acaudus) pallidus Andreev Apterae are shining dark brown; BL 1.5-2.2 mm. On roots of Silene nutans in Moldova.
Brachycaudus (Scrophulaphis) persicae group Apterae have a shiny dark brown or black dorsum, and black siphunculi (see influential points/gallery); BL 1.5-2.2 mm. Alate spring migrants have secondary rhinaria distributed III 23-51, IV 9-21, V 1-6. B. persicae (Passerini) s.str. is most commonly found in large spring colonies on young stems of Prunus persica or P. armeniaca, often persisting into the summer on root suckers. Alatae from Prunus have been transferred successfully to Euphrasia sp. and Rhinanthus glaber and subsequently to Melampyrum pratense (Burger 1975), so it seems probable that there is a facultative host alternation from Prunus to Orobanchaceae (Euphrasia, Melampyrum, Rhinanthus), at least in Europe, but anholocyclic overwintering is also common on Prunus roots. On Orobanchaceae it lives on the above-ground parts (Heie 1992). Aphids commonly regarded as this species are also widely distributed on peach outside Europe, in the Middle East, Central Asia, southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North and South America. Similar aphids also occur commonly in Europe on P. domestica and P. spinosa, and occasionally on Pyrus communis and Chaenomeles japonica. These all form a complex of which the host relationships and life cycles need further clarification. Müller & Steiner (1988a) applied the name B. semisubterraneus Börner to anholocyclic populations on plum in Germany, and suggested that the form distributed world-wide on peach was also an anholocyclic species, to which they applied the name B. persicaecola (Boisduval). However, aphids of the B. persicae group are recorded from Orobanchaceae in both Australia and Chile (BMNH collection), indicating that some host alternation occurs in southern continents, and Burger (1975) showed that not all populations on plum and peach are anholocyclic, so the application of the names semisubterraneus and persicaecola is still unclear. There are also records from Odontites, but these may be referable to B. mimeuri (q.v.), a closely-related anholocyclic form on roots of Orobanchaceae that has also become widely distributed. 2n=10.
Brachycaudus (Mordvilkomemor) pilosus (Mordvilko ex Nevsky) Apterae are black with pale appendages and cauda; BL 1.1-1.7 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 16-23, IV 6-8, V 0-1. On various Prunus spp., especially P. ulmifolia (= P. triloba), damaged leaves of which develop gall-like thickenings and red spots, and P. bucharica, the leaves of which are only slightly curled and reddened (Narzikulov 1965c). Possibly there is no host alternation; populations on P. prostrata in Pakistan included apterous males and oviparae in May together with fundatrices, and apterous and alate viviparae, and additional sexual morphs were collected in August (Naumann-Etienne & Remaudičre 1995). In mountainous regions of central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan), India and Pakistan (BMNH collection).
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) plantaginis Holman & Szelegiewicz Apterae are yellowish brown with shiny
dark dorsum; BL c.1.9-2.1 mm. Alatae are undescribed. Ant-attended, on root
collar of Plantago depressa and P. major in
Guercio) Apterae are red-brown with
shiny black dorsal shield; BL 1.6-2.9 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria
distributed III 19-36, IV 0-3. On upper parts of Silene
spp., widely distributed in
Brachycaudus (Appelia) prunicola (Kaltenbach) Apterae are shiny black, dark green or deep yellow-green with black dorsal markings, immatures grey-green; BL 1.4-2.4 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 23-43, IV 7-16, V 0-3. In spring on new growth of Prunus (in Europe usually P. spinosa, sometimes P. domestica or P. insititia), causing severe leaf curl and discoloration. Host-alternating between Prunus and Tragopogon, but part of the population - possibly a subspecies - may live without alternation on P. spinosa. In continental Europe, Siberia (Stekolshchikov et al. 2008) east to Irkutsk (Stekolshchikov & Shaposhnikov 1998), Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2005c) and Pakistan (Baluchistan; Naumann-Etienne & Remaudičre 1995). [Note: the sample (no. 992) identified as B. prunicola from Brittany used in DNA analysis by Jousselin et al. (2010), and branching separately from the rest of the prunicola/schwartzi/tragopogonis group in their phylogeny, was B. prunifex (q.v).] 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Appelia) prunifex (Theobald) Apterae are shiny dark green to black; BL 1.5-2.4 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-41, IV 2-13, V 0(-2). Colonies occur all-year-round on Prunus spinosa, in spring causing severe leaf curl and discoloration to new growth. There is also a record from P. cerasifera var. atropurpurea. Suggestions of a facultative host alternation to Tragopogon do not appear to be substantiated. Alate males have been collected in September (BMNH collection), but oviparae are not yet recorded. In England, Wales, Ireland, and northern France. This species has been synonymised previously with B. prunicola (Kaltenbach), which occurs on the same host throughout the rest of Europe and in central Asia, but it can be distinguished from that species (and from B. schwartzi) by the longer hairs on the antennae and anterior abdominal tergites (Blackman 2010). 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Acaudus) rinariatus Andreev Apterae have a shining black dorsal shield; BL 1.7-2.2 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 36-48, IV 16-19, V 1-6. On Linaria vulgaris in eastern Europe (Russia, Moldova, Ukraine).
Brachycaudus (Brachycaudina) rociadae (Cockerell) (Fig.6a) Apterae are shining reddish brown to black, fading to hazel brown anteriorly and posteriorly; BL c. 2.0 mm. Immatures are bright coral red. Alatae have 2-13 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only. On stems and leaves of Delphinium spp.; feeding on leaves causes them to curl tightly (Palmer 1952) . Widely distributed in North America. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males in mid-July (Ontario; BMNH collection, leg. S.F. MacDonald) or early October (Colorado and Manitoba).
Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) rumexicolens (Patch) Apterae are reddish with variably developed dark dorsal markings; BL 1.3-2.1 mm. Alatae have more-or-less fused cross-bands on posterior abdominal tergites, 6-22 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and 0(-1) on IV. In inflorescences of Rumex acetosella, and sometimes on other Polygonaceae (Fagopyrum, Persicaria, Polygonum. Rheum). In Europe, north Africa (Tunisia: Boukhris-Bouhachem et al. 2007), west and Central Asia, north-east Siberia (Chukotka: stekolshchikov & Khruleva 2015), India, Australia, North and South America. Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males (Tuatay & Remaudičre 1964). B. brevirostratus in east Siberia might be this species. 2n=12.
salicinae Börner Apterae are shining grey-black; BL
1.4-1.9 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 16-38, IV 3-13, V
0. In rolled leaves of Inula spp.,
especially salicina, and also Pulicaria dysenterica (Holman 2009);
Brachycaudus (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner) Apterae of BL 1.4-2.1 mm, shiny yellow-brown to dark brown with extensive dorsal black sclerotization; immatures are yellow-brown. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 23-36, IV 6-17, V 0(-1). Living without host alternation on Prunus persica; spring colonies cause severe curling and distortion of peach leaves. In Europe, Iran, North Africa (Tunisia, Egypt), India, South America and California. Records from other Prunus spp. with the possible exception of P. serotina, may be referable to other species. Records of B. tragopogonis from peach in the literature are referable to this aphid. Darwish (1983) gave descriptions of all developmental stages. A morphometric and molecular study by Cocuzza et al. (2007) indicated that this species should perhaps be treated as a subspecies of B. prunicola. (See also Blackman & Eastop 2000, p.249). 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) sedi (Jacob) Apterae are yellowish green, with dark cross-bands on posterior abdomen; B: 1.0-2.1 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 11-19, IV 0-5, V 0(-1), VI base 0(-1). On stem apices and flowers of Rhodiola (= Sedum) rosea, causing distortion. There is also a record from Sedum anacampseros (Cocuzza et al. 2010). In Europe (including Iceland, as Thuleaphis acaudata; Prior & Stroyan 1960) and west Siberia (Ivanoskaya 1975, as Rhodiolaphis cholsunensis). Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and apterous males appearing in August (original description). 2n=8*.
Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi Narzikulov Apterae are shining yellowish green with black dorsal sclerotic markings, siphunculi pale with tips darker; BL 2.1-2.7 mm. Alatae have 15-18 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Monoecious holocyclic on Atraphaxis spp. in Tajikistan (Narzikulov & Daniyarova 1990) and Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2014e).
Brachycaudus spiraeae Börner Apterae are light green to greyish brown with variable dark dorsal markings; BL 1.2-1.8 mm. Apterae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 0-11, IV 0-1, and alatae have them distributed III 19-34, IV 4-13, V 0-2. On Spiraea spp., in leaves rolled and curled into narrow “pods”. In Europe, west Siberia and Central Asia. Generally regarded as monoecious holocyclic on Spiraea, but molecular work has revealed a close relationship with H3 populations of B. helichrysi, possibly involving introgression, and implying some degree of migration from Spiraea to herbaceous hosts (Popkin et al. 2017). 2n=12.
Brachycaudus (Appelia) tragopogonis (Kaltenbach) Apterae are shining grey-brown to dark brown with dark dorsal sclerotic markings (see influential points/gallery); BL 1.4 –2.3 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 27-49, IV 6-22, V 0-4. On aerial parts of Tragopogon spp. in Europe, west Siberia, Central Asia (Kazakhstan; Kadyrbekov 2005c, 2009a), and introduced to western USA and South America (Brazil, Chile). Monoecious holocyclic. In western Europe there is possible confusion with the morphologically similar B. prunicola, which has a sexual phase on Prunus spinosus. Hille Ris Lambers (1948) described a subspecies with long dorsal hairs, B. tragopogonis ssp. setosus, on T. longirostris in Israel, and collections from south-west and Central Asia and Pakistan may be of this form (Mostafawy 1967), which is also reported from Hungary (Basky 2015). 2n=12 (2n=11 and 12 for samples of ssp. setosus from Israel and Iran respectively).
Brachycaudus umbelliferarum Nevsky Apterae are pale brown or yellowish green with dark brown pleural and marginal spots, or entirely dark brown; BL c. 2.4 mm. On roots of an umbelliferous plant, probably Heracleum sp. south-east Kazakhstan. With marginal tubercles on prothorax, abdominal tergites 1, 2 and 7, this species is unlikely to be a Brachycaudus, and is regarded by Andreev (2004) as a nomen dubium.
Brachycaudus (Nevskyaphis) virgatus Shaposhnikov Colour of apterae in life is unknown, probably greenish with darker head and dorsal markings; BL 1.6-1.8 mm (2 specimens). On stems and leaves near base of host plants, which are Boraginaceae (Anchusa, Symphytum) and the composite Senecio fluviatilis (= nemorensis). Alatae have not been described. Only known from southern Ukraine.
Brachycaudus viridanus (Nevsky) Apterae are pale green, BL 1.3-1.7 mm. On stems of Cousinia sp. in Uzbekistan. Alatae are also pale (brownish head and thorax and pale green abdomen), and have about 7 rhinaria on ANT III. This species was synonymised by with B. cardui (presumably ssp. turanica), and could possibly be a dwarf form of that species lacking dark sclerotisation.
Four or five species with very short broad-based conical or barrel-shaped flangeless siphunculi and triangular cauda associated with Caryophyllaceae. Heie (1992) and Blackman (2010) reviewed the species in western Europe.
Brachycolus aestivus Zhang, Qiao & Zhang Colour of apterae in life unrecorded; BL c.1.5 mm. On Bupleurum chinense in Shanxi province, China (L. Zhang et al. 2008). To judge from the host association this species might belong in Semiaphis.
Brachycolus brachysiphon Richards Colour of apterae in life unobserved; BL c. 1.8 mm. On Stellaria longipes in northern Canada.
Brachycolus cerastii (Kaltenbach) (Fig.51b) Apterae are dirty green, wax-powdered; BL 1.3-1.7 mm. Alatae have 3-6 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. On Cerastium spp., esp. C. arvense, causing shoots to be stunted and deformed into gall-like structures. Apparently widely distributed in Europe, but rarely collected. Also recorded from Kazakhstan on C. davuricum (Kadyrbekov 2014e). Monoecious holocyclic (but sexual morphs are apparently undescribed). 2n=14.
Brachycolus cucubali (Passerini) Plate 13d Apterae are whitish yellow to pale green, wax-powdered; BL 1.4-2.2 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 9-16, IV 0-2. On Silene spp., rolling leaves into elongate pseudogalls (Heie 1992, as Hayhurstia). Widely distributed in Europe, and in north Africa. Monoecious holocyclic (but sexual morphs are apparently undescribed).
Brachycolus stellariae (Hardy) Apterae are pale green, wax-powdered; BL 1.1-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 4-9, V 0-1. On upper sides of leaves of Stellaria spp., which are rolled into oblong pseudogalls. Also recorded from Moehringia trinervia. In Europe. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and very small apterous males produced in September (Blackman 2010).
Two palaearctic species with different biologies, similar to Brachycolus but with shorter antennae and terminal processes, and very short conical siphunculi.
Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) Apterae are green, covered with grey mealy wax; BL 1.2-1.8 mm. On Asparagus spp., causing stunting of shoots and “rosetting” of leaves, which turn blue-green. In Europe (not yet in UK, but recently expanding its range), North Africa (Tunisia; Boukhris-Bouhachem et al. 2007), Central Asia (Kazakhstan; Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005), China, and introduced into North America (see also Blackman & Eastop 2000). Monoecious holocyclic with alate males. 2n=10.
Brachycorynella lonicerina (Shaposhnikov) (Fig.38c) Apterae are green, dusted with greyish wax powder, BL c.1.8 mm. On Lonicera spp., feeding on upper sides of leaves, which are folded in half (Shaposhnikov, 1964, as Semiaphis). In Central Asia, southern Russia, Ukraine, Iran and Pakistan (Naumann-Etienne & Remaudičre 1995). Heteroecious holocyclic but with with an unknown secondary host (Remaudičre & Remaudičre 1997, p. 298). Oviparae and alate males appear on Lonicera in late September-October (Narzikulov 1965b; Mukhamediev & Akhmedov 1982). 2n=10*.
One species in India with a Myzus-like head but with thick truncate siphunculi and an unusual cauda.
Brachymyzus jasmini A.N. Basu Apterae have head, thorax and antennae blackish brown, abdomen greenish, BL 1.6-2.1 mm. On leaves and young shoots of Jasminum humile in north-east India (West Bengal). Oviparae were described from Sikkim on Nellia (Neillia?) sp. (Rosaceae), and an alate male was found on Pilea microphylla (Mondal et al. 1978). There is possibly host alternation between Neillia and Jasminum.
One or two species of grass-feeding aphids in east and south-east Asia, with distinctive very short black siphunculi and a long dark rather hairy cauda.
Brachysiphoniella apiaca Zhang & Zhang Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded; BL c.1.6 mm. On Apium graveolens in China (L. Zhang & G. Zhang 2000a). The host needs confirmation, as this aphid is very similar to the grass-feeding B. montana.
About 40 species mainly on xerophytic plants, mostly Amaranthaceae.
Related to Aphis but with a very short
antennal terminal process (usually shorter than in Aphis subg. Protaphis)
and very short, often pale siphunculi. The clypeus is often globose, but the
extent of its enlargement varies considerably, and subgeneric separation of Xerophilaphis on grounds of greater
enlargement of clypeus (Remaudiere & Halbert 1996) does not seem
warranted. Many palaearctic species and one described from
Braggia Gillette & Palmer
Braggia agathona (Hottes) Apterae are pinkish brown, often with a dark central spot on the abdomen, the whole body covered with white wax; BL 1.4-1.8 mm. On undersides of leaves of Eriogonum corymbosum in Colorado and Utah, USA. Monoecious holocyclic, with oviparae and alate males in October (original description).
Braggia columbiana Pike Apterae are black or blackish brown with a white or whitish grey waxy dorsal pattern (see http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandnine/4606202941/); BL 1.4-2.6 mm. On Eriogonum spp., predominantly E. compositum, in Oregon and Washington, USA (K.S.Pike et al. 2009). Apterous and alate viviparae occur from about mid-May to mid-September, sexual morphs are undescribed.
Braggia deserticola Hille Ris Lambers Apterae are shining black dorsally, grey and wax-powdered ventrally, with black appendages; BL 1.1-1.8 mm. Found in small numbers in flowerheads of Eriogonum fasciculatum, incl. ssp. polifolium, in California and Utah, USA, and in Mexico. A sample from Eriogonum sp. at a higher altitude in California with shorter R IV+V and paler tibiae was distinguished as a subspecies, B. deserticola thanatophila Hille Ris Lambers.
Braggia echinata Gillette & Palmer (Fig.27e) Apterae are greyish olive-green, usually with a slight rusty area at base of each siphunculus, and with white dorsal reticulations and pale, thick hairs giving a frosted appearance; BL 1.3-1.9 mm. On leaves and stems of Eriogonum corymbosum and Eriogonum sp. in western USA (Colorado, Utah). Oviparae and alate males in October (Palmer 1952).
eriogoni (Cowen) Plate 8d (Fig.27a,b,g) Apterae are black or brownish black with a
dorsal pattern of white reticulation, accentuated by a wax secretion; BL
1.1-2.1 mm. On leaves, stems and
flowerheads of Eriogonum spp. in western
Braggia longicauda Pike Apterae are black, blackish grey or blackish brown, with white wax powdering; BL 1.5-2.9 mm. On Eriogonum spp., predominantly E. elatum, in western USA (Washington, Oregon, California). Oviparae and alate males occur in September-October (K.S.Pike et al. 2009).
Braggia uncompahgrensis Hottes (Fig.27f) Apterae are pale grey-green, with frosty appearance due to thick pale dorsal hairs; BL 0.9-1.4 mm. On Eriogonum corymbosum in Colorado and Utah, USA. Oviparae and alate males occur in October (Palmer 1952). Doubtfully distinct from B. echinata.
Braggia urovaneta (Hottes) (Fig.27c,d) Apterae are black, appearing grey due to powdering with wax; BL 0.9-1.9 mm. On flower stems and upper parts of Eriogonum sp(p). in western USA. Oviparae and alate males were collected in Colorado on E. corymbosum in early October (Hottes 1950). Hille Ris Lambers (1966a) distinguished a population with a shorter R IV+V on E. latifolium in California as a subspecies, B. urovaneta ssp. pachysiphon.
Brevicoryne van der Goot
Eight palaearctic and two nearctic species all except one of which live without host alternation on Brassicaceae. The exception is a Salix feeder and should possibly be given its own genus. Brevicoryne are related to Lipaphis and characterised by very low rounded antennal tubercles, short siphunculi and broad triangular cauda. Eastop in Hodjat (1981) gave a key to alate viviparae of Middle Eastern species.
Brevicoryne arctica Richards Apterae are very dark blue or green, with wax; BL 1.7-2.mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-13, IV 5. On Lesquerella arctica in northern Canada (Ellesmere Island). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in late July (original description).
Brevicoryne barbareae Nevsky Apterae are dark green, dark brown to black, with appendages dark except for pale ANT III and tibiae (black at apices); BL 1.5-2.0 mm. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 17-20, IV 3-5. On undersides of leaves of Barbarea vulgaris in Uzbekistan. This name has been applied to a species on Barbarea and Nasturtium in north-west India that differs from Nevsky’s species in several respects, having apterae with extensive dorsal sclerotisation, dark tibiae, a much longer cauda, and alatae (brachypterae) with rhinaria distributed III 35-36, IV 0-1 (David & Hameed 1975). Alate males have been described of this Indian species (L.K. Ghosh et al. 1980, as B. barbareae).
Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) Cabbage Aphid or Mealy Cabbage Aphid Plate 12f Apterae are greyish green or dull mid-green with dark head and dark dorsal thoracic and abdominal markings, densely coated in greyish white mealy wax (see influentialpoints.com/Gallery); BL 1.6-2.6 mm. Alatae have a dark head and thorax and dark cross-bands on dorsal abdomen. It occurs on many genera and species of Brassicaceae, and is a major pest of field crops (Blackman & Eastop 2000) in all temperate and warm temperate parts of the world. Feeding is stimulated by the presence of mustard oil glycosides, so other plants with these compounds, e.g. Reseda, are also colonised. Monoecious holocyclic with alate males in colder regions, anholocyclic wherever winters are mild. Mustaţă et al. (2000) studied the large complex of natural enemies of B. brassicae in Romania. Ruiz-Montoya et al. (2003) used enzyme electrophoresis to look for host-related genetic structure in Mexican populations, and Ruiz-Montoya et al. (2005) and Ruiz-Montoya & Núńez-Farfán (2013) studied phenotypic differences between populations on two sympatric Brassica species. The finding by Rebijith et al. (2013) of CO-I barcode differences indicative of possible cryptic species within Indian populations of B. brassicae on Raphanus sativus requires further investigation. 2n=16.
Brevicoryne crambe Bozhko (= Brevicoryne crambinistataricae Bozhko) Apterae are pale green, wax-dusted, BL 1.9-2.8 mm. On terminal shoots and stems of Crambe tatarica, and also recorded from species in other crucifer genera (e.g. Barbarea, Isatis, Diplotaxis, Sisymbrium). In Hungary, Moldova, Armenia, Bulgaria Turkey and Ukraine.
Brevicoryne fraterna (Strom) Apterae are pale green to yellow-green; BL 1.2-1.8 mm. On leaves and young twigs of unidentified species of Salix in USA (Illinois, Ohio, Utah, Colorado). Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in October (Palmer 1952).
Brevicoryne jiayuguanensis (Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li) Apterae are silvery whitish green, powdered with wax; BL 1.5-1.8 mm. On Armoracia rusticana in Gansu province, China (Zhang 1999, as Brachycolus). The broadly triangular cauda and many (15-19) thick hairs on abdominal tergite 8 as well as the host association indicate that the species belongs in this genus.
Brevicoryne lonicerina Mukhamediev & Akhmedov Apterae are pale green with brown appendages; BL 2.3-2.6 mm. On Lonicera spp. in Central Asia.
nigrisiphunculata Hodjat Apterae are yellow to dusky green, with
short black siphunculi; BL 2.1-2.7 mm.
On undersides of older leaves of
Crambe and Brassica in
Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi Narzikulov Apterae are pale green dusted with grey wax; BL c.1.6-1.7 mm. On Lonicera spp. in Central Asia (Mukhamediev & Akhmedov 1982).
A genus with two species resembling Brachyunguis but with protruberant eyes lacking ocular tubercles. [Placed in Macrosiphini by Remaudičre & Remaudičre (1997), perhaps because of the absence of marginal tubercles, but the spiracles on abdominal segments 1 and 2 are widely spaced, which is a more reliable indicator that it should be placed in Aphidini.]
Brevicorynella quadrimaculata Nevsky Apterae brown, dark brown or dark green covered with a fine pruinose secretion, antennae pale yellow with articulations and all of last segment black, abdomen with four blackish-brown dorsal spots; BL 1.1-1.6 mm. The aphids cluster on the ends of shoots of Tamarix spp., and are attended by ants (Crematogaster). In central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan) (Nevsky 1928b), and also recorded from Tamarix chinensis (= T. ramosissima) in China (Xinjiang; G. Qiao, pers. comm.).
Brevicorynella sexmaculata Qiao & Zhang Apterae are green covered with a fine pruinose secretion, with three pairs of dark patches on dorsal abdomen; BL 1.3-1.6 mm. Alatae are undescribed. On Tamarix chinensis (= T. ramosissima) in Xinjiang province, China (Qiao et al. 2004b).
Brevisiphonaphis Stekolshchikov & Qiao
A genus for one Artemisia-feeding species in north-east China, related to Microsiphum and Macrosiphoniella but with an unusual form of cauda and long fine hairs on body and appendages. Alatae are unknown.
Brevisiphonaphis hirsutissima Stekolshchikov & Qiao Colour of apterae in life is unrecorded, BL 1.6-1.8 mm. On Artemisia argyi in Liaoning prov., China (Stekolshchikov & Qiao 2008a, b). Life cycle is unknown.
One African species superficially resembling Paczoskia, but with R IV+V having numerous short stiff hairs and very long siphunculi without subapical reticulation. Alatae are unknown.
Burundiaphis autriquei Remaudičre Apterae are shining greenish black; BL 2.2-2.9 mm. On Davallia chaerophylloides ( = denticulata) epiphytic on oil-palms, often in mixed colonies with Micromyzella. Only known from Burundi (Remaudičre & Autrique 1985).
Two species described from galls on the primary host (Zelkova), one of which is now known to migrate to Carex. Alate spring migrants, emerging from pseudogalls on Zelkova, have an unbranched media, only one oblique vein in the hind wing, and inconspicuous ring-like siphunculi. Resembling Kaltenbachiella in many characters, but in Byrsocryptoides the secondary rhinaria are less annular and the processus terminalis is relatively longer, and a detailed cladistic study by Sano & Akimoto (2011) placed this genus in a basal position in the tribe Eriosomatini. Dzhibladze (1965) provided keys to fundatrices, apterous fundatrigeniae and spring migrants of the species on Zelkova.
The galls (pseudogalls) on Z.
carpinifolia in Georgia are formed by rolling, distortion and blistering
of a terminal or subterminal leaf, starting at the base. Alatae (fig.
leaving the galls in June are small (BL about 1.2-1.3 mm), rather
long-bodied, with dark brown head, meso- and metathorax and pale yellow to
green prothorax and abdomen (Dzhibladze 1960b). They migrate to aerial parts of Cyperaceae;
apterae of elongate form with a long last rostral segment collected on Carex riparia in
Byrsocryptoides zelkovaecola Dzhibladze Galls (fig. 125A) are similar to those of B. zelkovae, and occur on Zelkova carpinifolia in Georgia. Alatae (fig. 120C) of BL 1.1-1.4 mm emerge in June-July. The life cycle is unknown (Dzhibladze 1965b).