THE APHIDS

 

 

 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT OF APHID GENERA

In this section we provide information on all the aphids feeding on trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants that were included in the Host Lists and Keys section of the website, treating them in alphabetical order of genera, and of species within genera. All species of which the host plant is known are included, even those appearing in square brackets in the lists because we had inadequate information to include them in the keys. If a species listed in Host Lists and Keys is not found in the alphabetical sequence then it is probably mentioned in the discussion of some other species. The index to aphid species names will show where to look.

 

Here are links to aphid genera beginning with each letter of the alphabet:

 

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M  

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

XYZ

 

 

As in Blackman & Eastop (2000), and on the web at http://aphid.speciesfile.org, the classification of Aphidoidea follows that of Remaudière & Remaudière (1997), as this is likely to be the most widely consulted list for many years to come, with the revisions of family names proposed by Nieto Nafrìa et al. (1997). An alternative classification incorporating fossil aphids was proposed by Heie & Wegierek (2009), and is the system currently followed on the Tree of Life website. Table 3 compares these two classifications and shows the equivalent categories of the extant groups. The main difference between the two is in the level assigned to categories, so that in most cases a simple difference of word ending is involved (following the conventions “-idae” for family, “-inae” for subfamily, “–ini” for tribe and “–ina” for subtribe). However, it is important to note that Drepanosiphidae in the Heie & Wegierek system is not equivalent to Drepanosiphinae as used here, and that there are also other differences within the classification of the “drepanosiphine aphids”. Molecular work on these groups is needed to clarify their relationships.

In the course of compiling the 2006 book Aphids on Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs we recognised more than 100 synonymies and made  several other taxonomic changes. These are listed and discussed in Eastop & Blackman (2005).

Under each genus name we give a short diagnosis and references to the most recent revisionary accounts. The information given for each species wherever possible includes appearance in life and range of body length (BL) of the apterous vivipara (apt.), host plant(s) and feeding site, distribution, life cycle - including whether the aphid is heteroecious or monoecious and holocyclic or anholocyclic - and times of appearance of oviparae and males, any other systematic or biological information that we consider relevant, and chromosome number (2n female; for further information about aphid karyotypes see Gavrilov-Zimin et al. 2015). Some information about the alate vivipara (al.) may also be provided if this can aid identification. BL gives an indication of size, but for many species this will be based on only a few specimens, and it will only accurately reflect the full size range in the case of better-known species.

For many of the species that occur in Britain we have added links to the excellent colour photographs and supporting information provided by Bob Dransfield in his online Gallery (see http://influentialpoints.com/sitemap.htm). Links are also included at the appropriate points to colour images and notes for many species in western North America on Andy Jensen’s excellent new website http://aphidtrek.org/

We have omitted references to original descriptions prior to 1996 as these are available in Remaudière & Remaudière (1997) or, in the case of earlier descriptions, by consulting Smith’s (1972) bibliography after looking up the date of description in Remaudière & Remaudière. We have included references to any significant information about the species published subsequent to its original description, e.g. redescriptions, descriptions of other morphs or biological studies. Previously unpublished information on host plant and distribution from slide labels of specimens in the collection of the Natural History Museum (BMNH) is also included.  The treatment of economically important species is very selective as information about these is available in Blackman & Eastop (2000), and plenty of more up-to-date information can also be obtained by web searches. 

 

REGIONALLY CLASSIFIED FAUNAL WORKS

This is an up-dated list of published works on checklists, keys and systematic accounts of aphids. .

WORLD

Websites:                       http://influentialpoints.com/Gallery/Aphid_genera.htm (many colour photographs of live aphids)

                                      http://aphid.speciesfile.org/HomePage.aspx (taxonomic database with full synonymies and search facility)

                                      http://www.aphidbase.com/aphidbase/ (the aphid genomics database)

                                      http://www.barcodinglife.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=1753 (the BOLD database of DNA barcodes for Aphididae

                                      http://www.barcodinglife.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=22266 (the BOLD database of DNA barcodes for Adelgidae

                                      http://www.barcodinglife.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=1260 (the BOLD database of DNA barcodes for Phylloxeridae

Averill (1945)                                       Index to host-plant genera and species mentioned by Patch (1938).

Baker (1920b)                                       Keys to genera then recognised, now out of date.

Blackman & Eastop (1994)                   Aphid on the world’s trees: keys, information guide.

Blackman & Eastop (2000)                   Aphids on world’s crops (2nd edition): crop-oriented keys and accounts of genera and species of economically important aphids.

Blackman & Eastop (2006)                   Aphids on the world’s herbaceous plants and shrubs: host-plant-oriented keys and information guide.

Bõrner (1930)                                       Keys to genera, less reliable for extra-European groups.

Bõrner & Heinze (1957)                       Accounts of economically important aphids with extensive bibliographies.

Eastop & Hille Ris Lambers (1976)       List of genera and species of Aphidoidea with synonyms.

Favret et al. (2015b)                              Taxonomic and nomenclatural catalogue of world Adelgidae.

Favret et al. (2016)                                Taxonomic and nomenclatural catalogue of world Phylloxeridae.

Martin (1983)                                        Key to tropical pest aphids.

Nieto Nafria et al. (1998)                      Revised family names of Aphidoidea.

Nieto Nafria & Favret (eds) (2011)       Register of family and genus names of Aphidoidea.

Patch (1938)                                          Aphid/host-plant records arranged under plant families, with reference to sources.

Quednau (1999, 2003, 2010)                Atlas of world Calaphidinae (Volumes I - III).

Remaudière & Remaudière (1997)        Lists of genera and species of Aphidoidea with synonyms.

Richards (1976)                                    Aphidoidea listed under genera and species of host-plants, arranged alphabetically.

Wieczorek (2010)                                 Monograph of world Siphini (Chaitophorinae).

 

PALAEARCTIC

Holman, J. (2009)                                 Fully referenced aphid/host-plant catalogue of palaearctic region.

Wojciechowski (2003)                          Monograph of the palaearctic Pterocommatinae.

 

WEST PALAEARCTIC

Websites:                                               http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=12358  List of European aphid species with distribution lists and maps.

                                                              http://influentialpoints.com/sitemap.htm Many photos of live aphids and much information about aphids in Britain.

                                                              https://www.brc.ac.uk/DBIF/invertebrates.aspx Interactive data base of British insects and their food plants.

                                                              http://aphiddb.supagro.inra.fr/  PhylAphidB@se website for molecular identification and information on European aphids

                                                              http://koivu.luomus.fi/elaintiede/hyonteiset/tutkimus/kirvat/atlas.htm

                                                              Checklist and distribution maps for aphids of Finland

                                                              http://www.bladmineerders.nl/gallen/hemiptera.htm Account of leafminers and plant-galling insects of Europe, including descriptions and illustrations of effects of feeding by many aphid species.

Aguiar et al. (1995), Aguiar & Ilharco  Information about aphid fauna of Madeira.

                                          (1997, 2001)

Albrecht (2010)                                     Online atlas of aphids in Finland

Barbagallo et al. (1995)                         Checklist of Italian Aphidoidea

Barbagallo et al. (1997)                         Aphids of fruit-bearing crops in Italy (many colour photographs)

Barbagallo & Ortu (2009)                     Survey of aphids of Sardinia.

Blackman (2010)                                  Handbook of British Macrosiphini (including CD with photomicrographs of all species).

Boukhris-Bouhachem et al. 2007          List of aphids trapped in Tunisia.

Bozhko (1976a)                                    Account of aphids on cultivated plants in Ukraine.

Buga & Stekolshchikov (2012)             Survey of Macrosiphini of Belarus.

Carter & Maslen (1982)                        Account of British conifer-feeding Lachninae.

Coeur d'acier et al. (2010)                     Annotated list of alien aphids introduced to Europe.

Halaj & Osiadacz (2016)                       Illustrated keys for identification of Polish aphids: Hormaphididae, Mindaridae, Phloeomyzidae, Thelaxidae

Heie (1980-1995)                                  Aphidoidea of Fennoscandia and Denmark (in six volumes: 1980, 1982, 1986, 1992, 1994, 1995)

Heinze (1960, 1961a)                           Keys to genera and species of tribe Myzini together with generic diagnoses (many species illustrated).

Heinze (1962)                                       Lachninae, Adelgidae, Phylloxeridae; keys to genera and species, generic diagnoses.

Hille Ris Lambers (1938-1953)             Accounts of European species of many genera of Macrosiphini.

Holman & Pintera (1981)                      Aphids of Rumania and their host-plants.

Laamari et al. (2010)                             Aphid diversity in Algeria.

Lampel (2001)                                      Aphids of Corsica.

Lampel & Meier (2003, 2007)              Aphidoidea of Switzerland (keys, biology, phytopathology)

Mamontova (1953)                               Aphids of agricultural plants in forested steppes of Ukraine.

Mamontova (1955)                               Review of tree-living aphids of Ukraine.

Mamontova (1959)                               Review of grass-feeding aphids of Ukraine.

Maomontova (1972)                             Review of Lachninae of Ukraine.

Mifsud et al. (2009)                              Aphids on native trees of Malta.

Mifsud et al. (2011)                              Aphids on shrubs, herbaceous plants and crops in Malta.

Müller (1969b)                                      Keys to genera and species in Germany.

Müller (1975c)                                      Keys and photomicrographs of alatae commonly trapped in Germany.

Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante (1998)     Aphids of Iberia (illustrated taxonomic accounts and keys): Mindarinae, Phloeomyzinae, Hormaphidinae, Anoeciinae, Thelaxinae, Phyllaphidinae, Calaphidinae, Saltusaphidinae, Israelaphidinae, Drepanosiphinae, Chaitophorinae.

Nieto Nafría et al. (1984)                      List of Spanish aphids and their host-plants.

Nieto Nafría et al. (1999a)                    Aphids of Belgium; list, notes and bibliography.

Nieto Nafría et al. (2002a)                    Aphids of Iberia (illustrated taxonomic accounts and keys):  Subfamilies Lachninae, Eriosomatinae and Pterocommatini.

Nieto Nafría et al. (2005a)                    Aphids of Iberia (illustrated taxonomic accounts and keys):  Tribe Aphidini (including CD with photomicrographs)

Osiadacz & Halaj (2010)                       Review of Polish aphids with host plant index.

Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008)       Aphid fauna of the Ojców National Park, southern Poland.

Pasek (1954)                                         Aphids of coniferous trees in former Czechoslovakia.

Peréz & Aromí (2004)                           List of aphids of Canary Islands.

Petrović (1998a)                                    List of Serbian aphids, host-plants and bibliography.

Remaudière & Seco Fernandez (1990)  Keys to alatae of Mediterranean aphids, with illustrations.

Ripka (2008)                                         Checklist of Hungarian Aphidoidea and Phylloxeroidea.

Rupais (1961,1969)                              Accounts of tree-living aphids of Baltic countries.

Rupais (1989a)                                      Aphidoidea of Latvia.

Shaposhnikov (1951)                            Aphids on fruit trees of southern Crimea.

Shaposhnikov (1955)                            Forest aphid fauna of Russia (including Siberia).

Shaposhnikov (1964a)                          Keys to Aphidoidea on European former USSR.

Stekolshchikov (2005)                          Aphid fauna of Astrakhan.

Stekolshchikov et al. (2007b)               Aphid fauna of Nizhny Novgorod Province, Chuvashia and Mari El.

Stekolshchikov et al. (2008b, 2010)     Additions to aphid fauna of Belarus.

Stroyan (1977)                                      Handbook of British Chaetophorinae and Calaphidinae (includes also Phyllaphidinae and Drepanosiphinae)..

Stroyan (1984)                                      Handbook of British Aphidinae, tribes Pterocommatini and  Aphidini.

Szelegiewicz, H. (1977)                        Keys and illustrations for Lachninae, Chaitophorinae , Calaphidinae, etc. in Hungary.

Szelegiewicz, H. (1978)                        Keys and illustrations for Lachninae in Poland.

Tsitsipis et al. (2007)                             List of aphids of Greece.

Wojciechowski et al. (2016)                 Account of aphids of Slovakia, including keys and host lists.

           

MIDDLE EAST

Aldryhim & Khalil (1996)                     Account of aphids of Saudi Arabia.

Bodenheimer & Swirski (1957)             Keys and extensive review of literature on Middle Eastern Aphidoidea.

Canakçioğlu (1967)                               Forest aphids of Turkey.

Canakçioğlu (1975)                               Lists, host records of Turkish aphids.

Eastop & Raccah (1988)                       Aphids of Arava Valley, Israel, and their host-plants.

Görür (2012)                                         Updated checklist of Turkish aphids.

Habib & El-Kady (1961)                       Keys to Egyptian genera and species.

Halperin et al. (1989)                            Aphids of trees and shrubs in Israel.

van Harten et al. (1994)                        Guide to aphids of Yemen.

Hodjat (1993)                                        Annotated lists of Iranian aphids and their host-plants.

Mustafa (1985, 1986, 1988)                 Lists and host records of aphids of Jordan.

Remaudière & Talhouk (2000)             Annotated list of species in Syria and Lebanon.

Rezwani (1994), Rezwani et al.(1994)  Aphids of Iran: host-plant lists and keys.

Swirski & Amitai (1999)                       Annotated list of species in Israel.

Toros et al. (2002)                                Catalogue of Aphidoidea of East Mediterranean region.

Tuatay & Remaudière (1965)                First catalogue of Turkish aphids.

 

EASTERN PALAEARCTIC AND ORIENTAL

Website:                https://picasaweb.google.com/105809522225337038098/AphidsOfKarnatakaJun52007#

                             (Digital photo album of the aphids of Karnataka, India by Poorani Janakiraman.)

Agarwala & Ghosh (1984)                    Checklist of Indian aphids.

Agarwala & Ghosh (1985)                    Key to genera, checklist of Oriental aphids.

Bänziger (1977)                                    Keys to alate aphids of economic importance in Thailand.

Behura (1963, 1966)                             Checklist and bibliography of Indian aphids.

Calilung (1967, 1968, 1970)                 Accounts of Philippine aphids, and list of host-plants.

Das & Raychaudhuri (1983)                 Account of aphids of Nepal.

Gabrid (1989)                                       Aphids of trees and shrubs in Kirgizia.

Ghosh, A.K. (1975a)                             Keys, illustrations of economically important Indian aphids.

Ghosh, A.K. (1980, 1982b)                  Keys to groups, and revision of Indian Chaitophorinae and Lachninae.

Ghosh, A.K. (1984)                              Revision of Indian Eriosomatinae.

Ghosh, A.K. (1988)                              Revision of Indian Phloeomyzinae, Anoeciinae and Hormaphidinae.

Ghosh, A.K. & Agarwala (1993)           Revision of Indian Greenideinae.

Ghosh, A.K. & Ghosh, L.K. (2006)      Revision of Indian Aphidinae, tribe Aphidini.

Ghosh, A.K. & Quednau (1990)           Revision of Indian Drepanosiphinae, Calaphidinae, etc.

Ghosh, L.K. (1986)                               Keys to aphids of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Huang et al. (2004)                               Comparison of faunas of Taiwan and mainland China

Huang et al. (2006)                               Diversity of aphid fauna of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas

Higuchi (1972)                                      Revision of Japanese Calaphidinae, etc.

Higuchi & Miyazaki (1969)                  Catalogue of Japanese aphids and their host plants.

Holman & Szelegiewicz (1972, 1974a) Mongolian aphids.

Ivanoskaya (1977)                                Keys, diagnoses for aphids of western Siberia (2 volumes).

Kadyrbekov (2002d, 2002e, 2003c,     Aphid fauna of various regions of Kazakhstan.

                       2004b, 2005c, etc.)

Kadyrbekov (2014d)                             Aphid fauna of mountainous regions of Kazakhstan (book)

Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova (2005)      Aphid fauna of tugai forests of south-east Kazakhstan.

Kadyrbekov et al. (2002)                      Aphid fauna of Xinjiang-Uygur region of China.

Lee et al. (2002c)                                  Illustrated  review of Korean aphids, Part I (Aphidinae).

Martin & Lau (2011)                             Annotated list of aphids of Hong Kong.

Miyazaki (1971)                                    Revision of Japanese Macrosiphini.

Moritsu (1983)                                      Japanese aphids including many colour photographs.

Narzikulov (1963)                                 Revision of Phloeomyzinae, Lachninae, Anoeciinae, Eriosomatinae, Calaphidinae, Chaitophorinae and Pterocommatini of Tajikistan and adjacent countries.

Narzikulov & Daniyarova (1990)         Revision of Aphidini of Tajikistan and adjacent countries.

Narzikulov & Umarov (1969)               Revision of Macrosiphini of Tajikistan and adjacent countries.

Naumann-Etienne & Remaudière (1995)                                 Annotated checklist of aphids of Pakistan.     

Nevsky (1928a ,b, 1929a,b)                  Revision of aphids of Central Asia (esp. Uzbekistan).

Noordam (1991)                                   Account of Hormaphidinae of Java.

Noordam (1994)                                   Account of Greenideinae of Java.

Noordam (2004)                                   Aphids of Java, Parts V (Aphidini) and VI (Macrosiphini, Lachninae, Neophyllaphidinae, Pemphiginae)

Novgorodova & Stekolshchikov (2013)                                  Review of aphids of Kurgan Province (Russia)

Paik (1965, 1972)                                 Revision of aphids of Korea (1972 work is in Korean).

Pashchenko (1988)                               Keys to aphids of eastern Siberia.

Raychaudhuri (ed.) (1980)                    Revision of aphids of north-eastern India.

Raychaudhuri (1984)                            Host plant list for Indian aphids.

Robinson (1972)                                   Annotated list of aphids collected in Thailand.

Shaposhnikov (1955)                            Forest aphid fauna of Russia (including east Siberia).

Szelegiewicz (1974)                              Annotated list of aphids from North Korea (Adelgidae to Chaitophoridae).

Takahashi (1923-1931)                         Revision of aphids of Taiwan (in 6 parts).

Tanaka (1976)                                       Well-illustrated account of aphids on vegetables in Japan.

Tao (1962-1970)                                   Keys to Chinese aphids (5 papers).

Tao (1991)                                            Revision of aphids of Taiwan.

Tao (1999)                                            List of Aphidoidea of China.

Yoshitomi et al. (2014)                         Records of aphids from Vietnam and Laos, with host plants and attendant ants.

Zhang & Zhong (1981b)                       Aphidoidea of Tibet.

Zhang & Zhong (1983b)                       Keys to Chinese aphids of economic importance.     

 

AFROTROPICAL

Eastop (1958)                                        Account of East African aphids.

Eastop (1961a)                                      Account of West African aphids.

van Harten (1972a)                               Preliminary list of aphids of Angola and their host-plants.

van Harten & Ilharco (1976)                 More on aphids of Angola.

Millar (1990)                                         Keys to South African aphids.

Millar (1994)                                         Catalogue of aphids of Africa south of the Sahara and their host- plants.

Orian (1973)                                         Keys to aphids of Mauritius.

Remaudière & Autrique (1985)             Keys, host-plant lists, distribution of African aphids, especially Burundi.

Remaudière & Etienne (1988)               Keys, host-plant lists for aphids of Indian Ocean islands.

Remaudière & Le Rü (1994)                 Aphids of Congo; list of species, host-plants, flight activity

 

AUSTRALIAN

Eastop (1966)                                        Account of Australian aphids.

 

POLYNESIAN

Carver et al. (1993)                               List of aphids of Tonga and other South Pacific islands.       

Cottier (1953)                                        Revision of New Zealand aphids.

Messing et al. (2012)                            Invasive aphids of Hawaii.

Mondor et al. (2007)                             Aphid colonisation of Hawaiian Islands.

Teulon & Stufkens (2002)                    Alien aphids introduced to New Zealand.

Teulon et al. (2013)                               Account of native New Zealand aphids.

 

NEARCTIC

Websites:       AphID (identification guide for cosmopolitan and polyphagous aphids in USA): http://aphid.aphidnet.org/index.php

                      Andy Jensen’s digital galleries of mainly western North American aphids: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sandnine/ and http://aphidtrek.org/

                      Photos of aphids of Quebec: http://entomofaune.qc.ca/entomofaune/Pucerons/Index_Pucerons.html

Bachmann et al. (2014)                         Lists of aphids of Pennsylvania

Favret et al. (2008)                                Catalogue of aphid genera described from the New World.

Favret et al. (2010)                                Checklist of aphids of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Foottit & Maw (1997)                           Aphids of the Yukon.

Foottit & Richards (1993)                     Genera of aphids of Canada; keys, diagnoses, line drawings.

Foottit et al. (2006)                               Annotated list of aphids introduced to North America.

Forbes & Chan (1989)                          List of aphids of Bitish Columbia and their host plants.

Gillette & Palmer (1931, 1932b, 1934) Revision of aphids of Colorado.

Hottes & Frison (1931)                         Revision of aphids of Illinois.

Maw et al. (2000)                                  Checklist of aphids of Canada and Alaska.

Medler & Ghosh (1969)                        Keys to alate aphids from central USA.

Palmer, M. (1952)                                 Revision of aphids of Rocky Mountain region.

Pike et al. (2003)                                   Illustrated guide to alate aphids of western N America.

Robinson (1979a)                                 Annotated list of aphids from northern Manitoba.

Robinson (1979b)                                 Annotated list of aphids from north-west Canada, Yukon and Alaska.

C.F. Smith (1974a)                                Revisionary notes on North American Eriosomatinae.

C.F. Smith (1985)                                  Further revisonary notes on North American Eriosomatinae.

C.F. Smith & Parron (1978)                  List of North American aphids annotated with synonyms, host plants, geographical distribution, plus host-plant catalogue.

Stoetzel & Hilburn (1990)                     Aphids of Bermuda

 

NEOTROPICAL

Blanchard (1939)                                  First account of Argentinian aphids.

Bustillo & Sanchez (1981)                    Account of Columbian aphids.

Carrillo (1974, 1977, 1980)                  Annotated lists of aphids of Chile.

Cermeli (1970a,b, 1973)                       Key and illustrations of economically important aphids in Venezuela.

Costa et al. (1993a)                               Revision of Brazilian Aphidoidea: keys to families, Phylloxeridae.

Costa et al. (1993b)                               Revision of Brazilian Aphidoidea: Lachninae, Chaitophorinae, Greenideinae, Anoeciinae and Hormaphidinae.

Eastop et al. (1993)                               Revision of Brazilian Aphidoidea: Calaphidinae, etc.           

Étienne (2005)                                      Aphids of Guadeloupe, and Greater and Lesser Antilles.

Evans & Halbert (2007)                        Aphids of Honduras, including list of host plants.

Fuentes-Contreras et al. (1997)             Aphids of Chile, including online updated list.

Holman (1974b)                                    Key and account of aphids of Cuba.

Holman et al. (1991)                             Key to alatae of aphids in Mexico (El Bajio).

Nieto Nafría et al. (1994)                      Aphids of Argentina.

Nieto Nafría et al. (2016b)                    Catalogue of aphids of Chile, with host plants and distribution.

Ortego (1998a)                                      Aphids of Argentinian Patagonia.

Ortego et al. (2004)                               Annotated list of aphids in Argentina.

Quirós et al. (2009)                               Aphids of Panama (Aphidoidea and Phylloxeroidea).

Remaudière et al. (1992a)                     Aphids of Bolivia.

C.F. Smith & Cermeli (1979)                List of Caribbean and Central and South American aphids, annotated with synonyms, host- plants and geographical distribution.

C.F. Smith et al. (1963)                         Keys to aphids of Puerto Rico.          

C.F. Smith et al. (1971)                         Keys to aphids of Puerto Rico, illustrations and host-plant catalogue.

Sousa-Silva & Ilharco (1995)                List of Brazilian aphids and their host-plants.

Villalobos Muller et al. (2010)              Aphids of Costa Rica.

Voegtlin et al. (2003)                            Guide to alate aphids in Costa Rica.

Zamora Mejías et al. (2012)                  Additional information on Costa Rican aphid fauna