(in alphabetical order)
































































































Virectaria                                                    Rubiaceae

      Virectaria major                            Myzus ornatus


Virgilia                                                        Fabaceae

      Virgilia oroboides                          Aphis craccivora


Viscaria                                                       Caryophyllaceae

      Viscaria atropurpurea = Silene  atropurpurea

        V. vulgaris = Silene viscaria


Viscum                                                         Viscaceae

     Viscum album                                 Tuberaphis coreana, viscisucta

      V. articulatum                                 Mesothoracaphis rappardi

      V. coloratum                                   Tuberaphis coreana

      V. rotundifolium                             Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)

Key to apterae on Viscum:-

1      SIPH tubular, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Anal plate entire. Eyes are multifaceted                                                                                                      …..Sitobion sp.

-       SIPH as slightly raised pores. Anal plate bilobed. Eyes reduced to a few (usually 3) facets


2      Head, thorax and abdominal segment I fused to form sclerotic, pill box-like prosoma (Fig.60a). ANT greatly reduced, 3-segmented, 0.07-0.09 Χ BL

…..Mesothoracaphis rappardi

-       Cuticle membranous, pale, head fused to prothorax only. ANT 5-segmented, 0.20-0.27 Χ BL


3      Front of head with 4 rounded spine-bearing tubercles, the medial pair conjoined at bases (Fig.60b). Thorax and abdomen with a continuous fringing row of wax glands

…..Tuberaphis coreana

-       Front of head without tubercles. Wax glands not evident             …..Tuberaphis viscisucta*


Visnea                                                          Theaceae

      Visnea mocanera                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Vitex                                                            Lamiaceae

      Vitex agnus-castus                        Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, viticis;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. doniana                                     Aphis gossypii

        V. japonica (?)                               Aphis gossypii, ?nasturtii

        V. lucens                                        Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. negundo (incl. var. cannabifolia)   Aphis gossypii, [punicae], [vitexicola]

        V. rehmannii                                 Aphis gossypii

        V. strickeri                                     Aphis gossypii

        V. trifolia                                       Aphis gossypii

        Vitex spp.                                      Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Megoura lespedezae]

Key to apterae on Vitex:-

-       R IV+V tapering almost to a point, 1.05-1.30 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH tapering, pale or dark, or darker towards apices, 0.8-1.7 Χ cauda which is pale with 6-13 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.75 Χ BD III. Hind tibial hairs all shorter than width of tibia at midlength                                                      …..Aphis viticis

-       R IV+V with blunt or rounded apex, and if ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu then other characters are not in that combination                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 


Vitis                                                             Vitaceae

      Vitis aestivalis (incl. var.                   Daktulosphaira vitifoliae


        V. amurensis                                 Aphis spiraecola

        V. berlandieri                                Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. bicolor                                       Aphis illinoisensis

        V. bourquiniana see V. aestivalis

        V. californica                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        V. candicans                                  Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. cantoniensis = Ampelopsis cantoniensis

        V. Χchampini                                Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. cinerea                                      Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. cordifolia                                   Aphis illinoisensis; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. labrusca                                    Aphis illinoisensis; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. riparia = V. vulpina

        V. rotundifolia                               Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. rupestris                                    Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        V. semicordata = Parthenocissus semicordata

        V. tiliaefolia                                   Aphis illinoisensis

        V. trifoliata = Cissus erosa

        V. vinifera                                      Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [hederae],

                                                                   illinoisensis, spiraecola, [vitis Scopoli 1763];

                                                               Aploneura ampelina; Aulacorthum solani;                        

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Daktulosphaira vitifoliae;

                                                               Geoica lucifuga; [Hyalopterus amygdali];

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Pemphigus ?saliciradicis, Pemphigus sp. (Australia);

                                                               Prociphilus oleae

        V. vulpina                                      Aphis fabae, illinoisensis, [ripariae];

                                                               Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

        Vitis spp.                                        Myzus ornatus; Erisoma ulmi (?); Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Vitis:-

1      Body pyriform, broadest anteriorly. ANT 3-segmented              …..Daktulosphaira vitifoliae

-       Body not broadest anteriorly. ANT 5- or 6-segmented                                                    …..2

2      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent, or present as pores                                       …..3

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular                                                         …..9

3      SIPH present as pores surrounded by hairs. Dorsal wax glands present, each consisting of a ring of facets around an undivided central area (most easily seen on head and margins of abdomen)                                                                                                …..Eriosoma ulmi (?)

-       SIPH absent. Dorsal wax glands absent or of different form                                           …..4

4      Body spindle-shaped with very short ANT and legs (e.g. hind tibia only 0.07-0.15 Χ BL), and sparse, short hairs. R IV with 2 hairs (often inconspicuous)       …..Aploneura ampelina

-       Body oval or globular with longer ANT and legs (e.g. hind tibia 0.12-0.23 Χ BL). Hairs usually more numerous and/or longer, if short and sparse then R IV without hairs         …..5

5      Hairs on body and appendages short and sparse. R IV with 0-1(-2) accessory hairs


-       Body and appendages with longer and/or more numerous hairs. R IV with 4 or more hairs


6      R IV+V 0.53-0.65 Χ HT II. Rostrum 0.17-0.21 Χ BL                …..Pemphigus ?saliciradicis

-       R IV+V 0.73-0.99 Χ HT II. Rostrum 0.21-0.28 Χ BL              …..Pemphigus sp. (Australia)

7      Anus and anal plate displaced dorsally. Some dorsal body hairs spatulate, and longest marginal hairs 130-150 μm long                                                                               …..Geoica lucifuga

-       Anus and anal plate normally positioned. Dorsal hairs all pointed. Longest marginal hairs less than 50 μm long                                                                                                                …..8

8      Body densely clothed in fine hairs. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT II elongate, similar in length to ANT III                                                                                …..Smynthurodes betae

-       Body more sparsely hairy. ANT 6-segmented, with II much shorter than III

…..Prociphilus oleae

9      SIPH with numerous very long hairs                                                     …..Greenidea viticola

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                          …..10

10    Hind tibiae entirely black                                                                        …..Aphis illinoisensis

-       Hind tibiae pale, or at least with extensive pale middle sections                                     .....11

11    Head densely spiculose, ANT tubercles well-developed with inner faces almost parallel. SIPH long and tapering/cylindrical, with a well-developed flange. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base                                                                                                     .....12

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

12    Cauda with 5 hairs (2 lateral pairs plus one subapical hair). Distal halves of femora black

.....Aulacorthum kuwanai*

-       Cauda with (6-) 7 hairs (3 lateral pairs). Femora entirely pale or only dusky towards apices

......Aulacorthum solani



Voandzeia see Vigna                                                          Fabaceae

      Voandzeia subterranea = Vigna subterranea


Volutaria                                                     Asteraceae

      Volutaria lipii                           Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       V. muricata                              Uroleucon jaceae (oviparae, UK; BMNH collection.)

See key to apterae under Amberboa.


Vriesea                                                         Bromeliaceae

     Vriesea ringens                               Sitobion luteum

      Vriesea sp.                                       Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Vriesea:-

-       Dorsal abdomen with a large black oval patch. SIPH black with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                  …..Sitobion luteum

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Vulpia (including Zerna)                                              Poaceae

      Vulpia alopecuros                         Rhopalosiphum padi

      V. bromoides                                 Israelaphis alistana; Sitobion avenae

        V. geniculata                                 Forda marginata;

                                                               Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium;

                                                               Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        V. membranacea                           Metopolophium sabihae

        V. myuros                                      Israelaphis alistana;

                                                               Metopolophium festucae ssp. cerealium;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;

                                                               Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        Vulpia sp.                                      Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.





Wahlenbergia                                              Campanulaceae

      Wahlenbergia abyssinica            Uroleucon compositae

      W. angustifolia                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      W. perrottetii                                Aphis gossypii

        W. serpyllifolia = Edraianthus serpyllifolius

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Waldsteinia                                                 Rosaceae

      Waldsteinia fragarioides             Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae


Waltheria                                                     Sterculiaceae

      Waltheria americana                  Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        W. indica                                     Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Warszewiczia                                                                      Rubiaceae

       Warszewiczia  coccinea                 Aphis spiraecola


Wasabia  see Eutrema                                                        Brassicaceae



Washingtonia                                                                     Arecaceae

       Washingtonia filifera                    Cerataphis brasiliensis

       W. robusta                                     Cerataphis brasiliensis


(For a key to aphids on palms see under Calamus.)



Watsonia                                                      Iridaceae

        Watsonia borbonica                      Neomyzus circumflexus

        W. rosea = W. borbonica

        Watsonia spp.                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; Sitobion africanum

Key to apterae on Watsonia:-

-      SIPH black, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.6 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark cross-bands

…..Sitobion africanum

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Webbia                                                         Clusiaceae

     Webbia canariensis                        Aphis aurantii, gossypii, [hyperici], spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Wedelia                                                        Asteraceae

      Wedelia calycina                           Aphis gossypii

        W. glauca = Pascalia glauca

        W. paludosa = Sphagneticola trilobata

        W. rugosa                                      Aphis spiraecola

        W. trilobata = Sphagneticola trilobata

        Wedelia sp.                                    Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum

Key to apterae on Wedelia and Sphagneticola:-

1      SIPH entirely dark and with an extensive distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Dusky/dark scleroites present at bases of at least some of dorsal hairs                                                  …..2

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without or with very little polygonal reticulation. Dorsal hairs not arising from scleroites                                                                                                   …..3

2      Cauda pale, contrasting with dark SIPH        …..Uroleucon ambrosiae (incl. ssp. lizerianum)

-       Cauda dusky, not much paler than SIPH                                 …..Uroleucon sp. near macolai

3      ANT tubercles well developed with smooth divergent inner faces. ANT dark except at base, with ANT PT/BASE 5.9-7.5. SIPH dark except for basal 0.2-0.3 of length, with subapical polygonal reticulation restricted to much less than 0.1 of length

..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                               .....4

4      Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1-3 spicules in the centre of each polygon. (SIPH clavate)                                               …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Weigela                                                        Caprifoliaceae

     Weigela coraeensis                         Aphis spiraecola; [Macromyzus woodwardiae];

                                                              Micromyzus diervillae; Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

      W. floribunda                                 Myzus ornatus, persicae

     W. florida                                        Aphis fabae; Micromyzus diervillae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera weigeliae

      W. hortensis                                    Aulacorthum solani; Micromyzus diervillae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera weigeliae; Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

      W. japonica                                     Micromyzus diervillae

      W. praecox                                      Micromyzus diervillae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera abeliae (?), yasumatsui

      W. subsessilis                                  Micromyzus diervillae; Neotoxoptera weigeliae

      Weigela spp.                                   Aphis gossypii, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1964b: 101)];

Key to apterae (excepted where otherwise indicated) on Weigela:-

(This key can be applied to fundatrices and alatae in spring populations, when these are the only available morphs.)

1      Head without spicules, ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

-      Head spiculose (or if smooth in alata then SIPH dark and clavate). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                                                                       …..2

2      SIPH not clavate, almost cylindrical on distal half (except sometimes for a subapical constriction)                                                                                                                         …..3

-       SIPH slightly to markedly clavate (i.e. with narrower section on basal half)                     …..5

3      Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. SIPH rather thick, less than 10 Χ longer than their width at midlength, with a slight S-curve                  …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. SIPH more than 10 Χ longer than their width at midlength, and rather straight                                                                               …..4

4      ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. SIPH 2.1-2.5 Χ cauda, with a large flange. ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria near base                                                                                    …..Aulacorthum solani

-      (Fundatrix) ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH 2.5-3.2 Χ cauda, with a small flange (Fig.61a). ANT III without rhinaria                                                                   …..Micromyzus diervillae

5      SIPH very markedly inflated, with diameter of balloon-like swollen part 2.0-4.5 Χ minimum diameter of basal part                                                           .....Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or moderately swollen with diameter of swollen part less than 2 Χ minimum diameter of basal part                                                                                          …..6

6      (Fundatrix) Cauda with 10-12 hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.6 Χ HT II. (Al with smooth head, thick, dark SIPH – Fig.61b, and primary rhinarium on ANT V elongate, its long axis 1.2-1.4 Χ diameter of segment - Fig.61c)                                               …..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

-      Cauda with 5-8 hairs. R IV+V either 0.9-1.4 or 1.7-2.1 Χ HT II. (Al. with spiculose head, thinner, pale/dusky SIPH, and primary rhinaria on ANT V almost circular, its diameter less than that of segment)                                                                                                          …..7

7      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. (Al. with forewing-veins not dark-bordered)        …..Myzus persicae

-      (Fundatrix) ANT PT/BASE much less (c.0.7 in two species, unknown in third). (Al.with forewing-veins thickly bordered with fuscous)                                                                 …..8

8      Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 29-37, IV 11-23, V 6-11, and media of forewing fused to radial sector (Fig.61d)                                                                 …..Neotoxoptera weigeliae

-      Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 6-15, IV 0-6, V 0-5, and media of forewing well separated from radial sector                                                                                                …..9

9      Al. with R IV+V 1.6-2.1 Χ HT II, and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 10-15, IV 4-6, V 2-5 (possibly unreliable, as based on al. from secondary host)           …..Neotoxoptera yasumatsui

-      Al. with R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II, and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 6-13, IV 0,V 0

…..Neotoxoptera abeliae


Weingartneria see Corynephorus                         Poaceae


Weinmannia                                                Cunoniaceae

      Weinmannia sp.                            Neomyzus circumflexus


Wendlandia                                                 Rubiaceae

      Wendlandia densiflora                  Myzus debregeasiae

        W. glabrata                                    Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        W. paniculata                                Aphis odinae

        Wendlandia spp.                           Myzus ornatus; Sinomegoura citricola, [rhododendri]

Key to apterae on Wendlandia:-

-      Head spiculose. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. ANT 1.1-1.2 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 3.9-4.2. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II. SIPH pale, 2.1-2.4 Χ cauda

…..Myzus debregeasiae*

-      Without that combination of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Westoniella                                                  Asteraceae

      Westoniella eriocephala                Brachycaudus helichrysi


Whipplea                                                     Hydrangeaceae

      Whipplea modesta                        Aphis sp. (California, USA; BMNH collection)


Whiteochloa                                                Poaceae

      Whiteochloa sp.                            Hysteroneura setariae


Wickstroemia see Wikstroemia                              Thymelaeaceae           


Widdringtonia                                                      Cupressaceae               

      Widdringtonia cedarbergensis = W. wallichii

      W. dracomontana                         [Aphis gossypii]; Cinara cupressi;

                      (= W. nodiflora?)                 Illinoia morrisoni; [Neomyzus circumflexus]

      W.  juniperoides                            Cinara tujafilina; Illinoia morrisoni;

                      (= W. nodiflora?)                 Siphonatrophia cupressi

      W. nodiflora                                  Cinara cupressi, tujafilina

      W. schwarzii                                  Cinara cupressi; Illinoia morrisoni;

                                                              Siphonatrophia cupressi

      W. wallichii                            Cinara tujafilina

      W. whytei                                       Cinara tujafilina

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.



Wigandia                                                     Hydrophyllaceae

      Wigandia caracasana                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Myzus persicae

      W. urens                                        Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Wikstroemia                                                Thymelaeaceae

      Wikstroemia indica                       Aphis craccivora; Sitobion wikstroemiae

      W. viridiflora = W. indica

Key to apterae on Wikstroemia:-

-      SIPH dark, with subapical polygonal reticulation. R IV+V short, blunt, convex-sided, 0.65-0.75 Χ HT II. ANT III with longest hairs only 0.2-0.3 Χ BD III, and 1-3 rhinaria near base

…..Sitobion wikstroemiae

-      Without that combination of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Wissadula                                                    Malvaceae

        Wissadula periplocifolia                Aphis gossypii


Wisteria                                                       Fabaceae

        Wisteria chinensis = W. sinensis      

      W. floribunda (incl. var.                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                    macrobotrys)                Myzus persicae

      W. sinensis                                     Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacophoroides hoffmanni; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        Wisteria sp.                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Wisteria:-

-      ANT, SIPH and distal 0.7 of femora blackish, cauda pale. Head minutely spiculose with well-developed divergent ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 2-7 with broad dusky sclerotic bands or paired patches                                                                            …..Aulacophoroides hoffmanni

-      Without that combination of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Withania                                                      Solanaceae

        Withania somnifera                       Aphis fabae, gossypii, [umbrella]; [Lipaphis erysimi];

                                                               Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Wolffia                                                        Araceae

      Wolffia brasiliensis                          Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Wollastonia see Melanthera                             Asteraceae

      Wollastonia biflora = Melanthera biflora


Woodfordia                                                 Lythraceae

      Woodfordia floribunda = W. fruticosa

      W. fruticosa                                   Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola, [umbrella]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Woodsia                                                       Woodsiaceae

        Woodsia ilvensis                            Macrosiphum woodsiae

        W. mollis                                        Macrosiphum longirostratum

        W. oregana                                    Macrosiphum woodsiae

        W. scopulina                                  Macrosiphum woodsiae

Key to apterae on Woodsia:-

(Both spp. have R IV+V with 13-35 accessory hairs, ANT III with a row of 6-21 rhinaria, and SIPH with rather indistinct subapical reticulation; otherwise go to key to fern-feeding aphids)

-       R IV+V 0.18-0.21 mm long, 1.54-1.95 Χ HT II                  …..Macrosiphum longirostratum

-      R IV+V 0.12-0.15 mm long, 1.38-1.61 Χ HT II                           …..Macrosiphum woodsiae


Woodwardia                                                Blechnaceae

      Woodwardia orientalis                  Macromyzus woodwardiae

      W. radicans                                    Macromyzus woodwardiae

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)


Wulfenia (including Wulfeniopsis)                                Plantaginaceae

      Wulfenia amherstiana                   Myzus ornatus


Wulffia                                                        Asteraceae

      Wulffia baccata = Tilesia baccata

        W. stenoglossa = Tilesia baccata


Wyethia                                                       Asteraceae

      Wyethia sp.                                    Aphis asclepiadis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Xanthium                                                    Asteraceae

      Xanthium canadense = X. orientale                                         

        X. chinense = X. strumarium            

        X. commune                                  Prociphilus erigeronensis

        X. echinatum                                 Capitophorus xanthii

        X. italicum                                     Capitophorus xanthii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        X. orientale                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae; Capitophorus xanthii;

                                                               Protaphis middletonii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        X. spinosum                                   Aphis asclepiadis; Brachycaudus cardui; Myzus persicae

        X. strumarium                               [Acyrthosiphon gossypii];

                                                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Capitophorus xanthii;

                                                               Protaphis anuraphoides, [elatior],  elongata;

                                                               Rectinasus buxtoni; Trama troglodytes;

                                                               Uroleucon ambrosiae, compositae, [formosanum]

        Xanthium spp.                              Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Xanthium:-

1      SIPH absent. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of 3 facets                                          …..2

-       SIPH present, tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifacetted                        …..4

2      HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia                                    …..Trama troglodytes

-       HT II of normal length                                                                                                      …..3

3      ANT 5-segmented, with ANT V BASE very long, more than 15 Χ longer than the short, peg-like PT. R IV+V extremely long, similar in length to hind femur         …..Rectinasus buxtoni

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented, base of last segment and R IV+V relatively much shorter

                                                                   …..use couplets 2 and 3 of key to polyphagous aphids

4      Cauda short, helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with a slight basal constriction, and bearing 4-8 hairs. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                         …..5

-      Cauda tongue-shaped,  finger shaped, or bluntly triangular without a basal constriction (in which case it has 10+ hairs). Spiracular apertures reniform                                              …..6

5      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. SIPH 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes                                     …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotisation. SIPH 1.1-1.4 Χ cauda. Mesosternum without dark processes                                                                              …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

6      Dorsal body hairs mushroom-shaped, arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen on apical third, 3.2-4.5 Χ cauda                                                                        …..Capitophorus xanthii

-      Dorsal body hairs not mushroom-shaped, nor arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH less than 2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                                        …..7

7      ANT PT/BASE 0.85-1.3 (-1.4). ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH stump-shaped                                                                                              …..8

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu. SIPH tubular

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

8      SIPH 0.77-0.82 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.2 Χ BD III …..Protaphis elongata

-      SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 Χ BD III                                        

…..Protaphis anuraphoides



Xanthoceras                                                Sapindaceae

      Xanthoceras sorbifolium               [Periphyllus lyropictus]


Xanthophyllum                                                    Polygalaceae

      Xanthophyllum stipitatum            Anomalosiphum murphyi



Xanthoselinum see Peucedanum                          Apiaceae


Xanthosoma                                                Araceae

      Xanthosoma atrovirens = X. sagittifolium

        X. mexicanum                               Aphis nasturtii; [Pentalonia nigronervosa]                        

        X. nigrum = X. sagittifolium

        X. roseum = X. sagittifolium

        X. sagittifolium                              Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Pentalonia caladii

        X. violaceum = X. sagittifolium

Key to apterae on Xanthosoma:-

-      SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-8.1. SIPH pale basally and dark distally. (Alata with dark-bordered wing veins, with radius and costa fused for part of lengths to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma)

…..Pentalonia caladii

-      SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-6.2. SIPH pale or uniformly dark. (Alata with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)  

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Xeranthemum                                             Asteraceae

     Xeranthemum annuum                 Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Protaphis anuraphoides, elatior;

      X. cylindraceum                              [Aphis intybi]; Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi

      X. inapertum                                   Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi;

                                                               Protaphis anuraphoides

      X. longepapposum                          Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi; [Uroleucon helenae]

      Xeranthemum sp.                           Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Xeranthemum:-

1      ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda all almost entirely dark. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal c.0.3 of length                                                             …..Macrosiphoniella xeranthemi

-       ANT and tibiae mainly pale, only dark at apices. SIPH without polygonal reticulation  …..2

2      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped (or if very short then with only 4-7 hairs)                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. Cauda bluntly triangular with 16-20 hairs                                 …..3

3      R IV+V 1.45-1.65 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 Χ BD III

…..Protaphis anuraphoides

-      R IV+V 1.25-1.35 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.4 Χ BD III

…..Protaphis elatior


Xerophyllum                                               Melanthiaceae

      Xerophyllum tenax                        Aphis asclepiadis


Ximenia                                                       Olacaceae

      Ximenia americana                       Aphis gossypii

        X. caffra                                         Sitobion africanum, [Sitobion sp. (Remaudiθre &

                                                                    Autrique 1985)]

Key to apterae on Ximenia:-

-      SIPH black, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.6 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark cross-bands

…..Sitobion africanum

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids



Xolisma see Lyonia                                                             Ericaceae


Xylopia                                                        Apiaceae

     Xylopia aromatica                         Aphis spiraecola


Xylosma                                                       Salicaceae

      Xylosma congesta                          [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:104)];

                                                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus

      X. japonica = Xylosma congesta

        X. longifolia                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        X. racemosa ssp. kwangtungensis = X. longifolia

        X. venosa                                       [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:104)]

        Xylosma sp.                                   [Ceratovacuna lanigerum];

                                                               [Tuberculatus paranaracola, yokoyamai]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Xylosteum see Lonicera                                                    Caprifoliaceae


Xysmalobium                                              Asclepiadaceae

      Xysmalobium undulatum             Aphis gossypii



Yoania  see Danhatchia                                          Orchidaceae

      Yoania australis = Danhatchia australis


Youngia                                                       Asteraceae

      Youngia japonica                         Aphis nerii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Cryptomyzus taoi];

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus lactucicola, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;  [Sitobion miscanthi];

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense, gobonis, formosanum,

                                                                  formosanum ssp. crepidis, pseudambrosiae

        Y. sonchifolia                               Macrosiphoniella ixeridis; Uroleucon formosanum

        Y. tenuifolia  = Crepis tenuifolia

Key to apterae on Youngia:-

1      SIPH mainly or entirely dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with

        5-135 rhinaria                                                                                                                     .....2

-      SIPH pale or dark, if mainly or entirely dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without or with fewer rhinaria                                                                                         …..7

2      ANT II with 5-7 rhinaria on basal third. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs

                                                                                                            …..Macrosiphoniella ixeridis

-      ANT III with 8-135 rhinaria usually extending beyond basal third. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                                                                …..3

3      SIPH with pale basal section. Cauda tapering to a very thin apex, with subapical hairs usually shorter and often blunter than lateral hairs                                   …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH entirely dark, or only slightly paler at base. Cauda tapering or finger-like, not very thin at apex, with any subapical hairs similar to lateral hairs                                                    …..4

4      Cauda dark like SIPH                                               …..Uroleucon gobonis (or compositae?)

-       Cauda pale, much paler than SIPH                                                                                   …..5

5      ANT III 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 54-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria                                       …..Uroleucon formosanum (incl. ssp. crepidis)

-       ANT III much shorter than IV + V together, and bearing 8-46 rhinaria                          …..6

6      HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more Χ longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-       HT II less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 Χ R IV+V

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

7      Dorsum with extensive uniformly dusky/dark sclerotisation. Head spiculose with well-developed scabrous ANT tubercles. SIPH slightly clavate. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II

…..Myzus lactucicola

-       Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Yucca                                                           Asparagaceae

      Yucca angustifolia = Y. glauca

        Y. filamentosa                                Aphis asclepiadis,  fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        Y. glauca                                        Aphis carduella, fabae

        Y. guatemalensis                           Aphis asclepiadis

        Y. mohavensis = Y. schidigera

        Y. schidigera                                  Aphis asclepiadis

        Yucca spp.                                     Aphis gossypii, [yuccae Lichtenstein (nomen nudum)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Yushania                                                                Poaceae

       Yushania alpina                            Hyalopterus pruni; Pseudoregma panicola;  

                                                              Sitobion papillatum ssp. subnudum

       Y. anceps                                       Takecallis affinis, taiwana

       Y. niitakayamensis                        Chaitoregma tattakana; Cranaphis formosanus;

                                                              Melanaphis arundinariae; Takecallis arundinariae

                                                              [Takecallis affinis ssp. niitakayamensis?]

Use key to aphids on Arundinaria.




Zalacca see Salacca                                                            Arecaceae


Zaluzania                                                               Asteraceae

     Zaluzania augusta                        Uroleucon astronomus, mexicanum

Key to apterae on Zaluzania:-

(Both species have dark SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation.)

-    Coxae pale like trochanters. Tibiae dark basally and apically with middle parts contrastingly pale                                                                                                    .....Uroleucon astronomus

-    Coxae dusky and at least partly darker than trochanters. Tibiae uniformaly pigmented

.....Uroleucon mexicanum*


Zantedeschia (= Richardia Kunth, nec. L.)           Araceae

      Zantedeschia aethiopica                Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Dysaphis tulipae; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

        Z. africana = Z. aethiopica              

Key to apterae on Zantedeschia:-

-     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                         …..Dysaphis tulipae

-     Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. STu absent from head, and rarely on ABD TERG 8                                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Zanthoxylum (including Fagara)                               Rutaceae

      Zanthoxylum ailanthoides            Aphis citricidus, odinae;

                                                               [Myzus xanthomelii Shinji (nomen dubium)]

        Z. alatum = Z. armatum

        Z. alba = Z. martinicense

        Z. americanum                              Aphis fabae, nasturtii

        Z. armatum                                   Aphis gossypii; [Sinomegoura photiniae]

        Z. avicennae                                  Aphis citricidus

        Z. bungeanum                               Aphis citricidis, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Myzus persicae; [Sorbaphis chaetosiphon]

        Z. bungei = Z. bungeanum                 Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii; Myzus persicae

        Z. clava-herculis                            Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

        Z. coco                                           Aphis citricidus

        Z. cubense = Z. rhodoxylum

        Z. flavum                                       Aphis aurantii

        Z. gilletii                                         Aphis aurantii

        Z. macrophyllum = Z. clava-herculis                                        

        Z. mantshuricum = Z. schinifolium

        Z. martinicense                              Aphiscitricidus

        Z. microphyllum = Z. tragodes

        Z. nitidum                                      Aphis odinae; Hyperomyzus gansuensis

        Z. ornatum (?)                               Aphis aurantii, citricidus, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;   Sinomegoura citricola

        Z. piperitum                                   Aphis citricidus, gossypii, odinae;

                                                               Myzus persicae, [xanthomelii Shinji (nomen nudum)];

                                                               Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        Z. planispinum = Z. armatum

        Z. rhodoxylum                               Aphis aurantii

        Z. rhoifolium                                 Aphis citricidus

        Z. scandens                                    Aphis  victoriae

        Z. schinifolium                              Aphis citricidus, odinae, spiraecola, victoriae

        Z. simulans                                    Aphis citricidus, gossypii

        Z. tragodes                                     Aphis odinae

        Zanthoxylum sp.                           Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Zanthoxylum:-

1      SIPH pale and markedly swollen, c.1.7 Χ cauda. ANT III-IV with many small round rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE c.6                                                        .....Hyperomyzus gansuensis

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                             .....2

2      ANT VI BASE with 5-7 hairs. ANT III, IV and most of V completely lacking in pigment, paler than rest of cuticle. SIPH 0.8-1.08 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 5-8 hairs. (Stridulatory apparatus present)                                                                    …..Aphis (Toxoptera) victoriae

-       ANT VI BASE usually with 2 hairs, and other characters not in above combination. (Stridulatory apparatus present or absent)                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Zea (including Euchlaena)                                             Poaceae

      Zea mays                                       Anoecia corni, vagans;

                                                               Aphis fabae, craccivora, gossypii, solanella;

                                                               [Brachycaudus helichrysi]; Colopha graminis, ulmicola;

                                                               Diuraphis noxia;

                                                               Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;

                                                               Geoica lucifuga, setariae, utricularia;

                                                               Hysteroneura setariae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Melanaphis sorghi;

                                                               Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium;

                                                               Myzus obtusirostris, persicae; Pemphigus brevicornis;

                                                               Paracletus bykovi, bykovi ssp.uzbekistanicus;

                                                               Protaphis [knowltoni],middletonii;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus indicus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi,

                                                                   rufiabdominale, [Rhopalosiphum “sp. x” of Valenzuela

                                                                   et al. 2009 (in Australia and New Zealand)] ;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha flava, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                               Sitobion africanum, akebiae, avenae, fragariae,

                                                                  leelamaniae, miscanthi;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               Tetraneura caerulescens, fusiformis, nigriabdominalis,

                                                                  radicicola, ulmi

        Z. mexicana                                  Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Zebrina see Tradescantia                                        Commelinaceae        


Zehneria                                                      Cucurbitaceae

     Zehneria indica                               Aphis nerii

     Z. scabra                                         Aphis gossypii

      Z. umbellata                                    Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Zelkova                                                                                    Ulmaceae

       The small but probably ancient aphid fauna of Zelkova is poorly studied.  The gall makers span 4 genera of Eriosomatini, all distinct from those on Ulmus, and are probably relicts of a much larger fauna in the past.  Tinocallis on Zelkova include some that also feed on Ulmus (nirecola, ulmiparvifoliae), plus several others that are included in the key rather tentatively as they have not been seen by the authors.  There are certainly other Tinocallis still to be described from Zelkova.


        Zelkova acuminata (= Z. serrata?)   Aphis craccivora; [Eriosoma ulmi];

                                                              Tinocallis zelkowae

        Z. carpinifolia                               Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Byrsocryptoides zelkovae, zelkovaecola;

                                                              Zelkovaphis caucasica;

                                                              Tinocallis nevskyi, saltans, zelkovae

        Z. crenata = Z. carpinifolia             

        Z. davidii = Hemiptelea davidii

        Z. formosana (= Z. serrata?)            Myzus persicae;

                                                              Tinocallis mushensis, ulmiparvifoliae, viridis,


        Z. schneideriana                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                              Tinocallis sophorae, suzhouensis, [ulmicola],

                                                                    viridis, zelkowae;

        Z. serrata (incl. var. japonica)                               Keyaki

                                                              Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Colophina arma, clematicola, clematis, [monstrifica],


                                                              Hemipodaphis persimilis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Paracolopha morrisoni; Stomaphis yanonis;

                                                              Tinocallis saltans, takachihoensis, ulmiparvifoliae,


        Z. serrata var. latifolia                    Tinocallis latifoliae

        Z. sicula                                        Zelkovaphis trinacriae

Key to aphids on Zelkova:-

1     Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed.  SIPH as short truncate cones without hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 2 with paired spinal hair-bearing processes (Adult viviparae all alate)                     .....2

 -     Cauda rounded, anal plate entire.  SIPH absent or if present then not in form of short truncate cones without hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 2 without spinal processes.

       (Adult viviparae apterous and alate)                                                                                 .....12


2     Forewing with at least distal branches of media thickly bordered with fuscous, and Cu1a with a distal fuscous patch                                                                                                            .....3

-      Forewing veins not thickly bordered with fuscous; sometimes with small spots at distal ends


3     ANT PT/BASE about 0.25. Dorsal abdomen with extensive paired dark markings (fig. 119B). Head and pronotum pale with dark markings. Forewing with a bridge of fuscous between media and distal part of Cu1b                             .....Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) zelkovae

 -     ANT PT/BASE at least 0.9. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Head and pronotum almost wholly dark. Forewing without a bridge of fuscous between media and Cu1b     …..4


4     Pronotum with one pair of finger-like spinal processes. Spinal processes of ABD TERG 3-8 pale, low, undeveloped on some tergites. SIPH pale

.....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) takachihoensis

-      Pronotum with two pairs of finger-like spinal processes. ABD TERG 3-8 with dark spots, developed into cone-shaped processes on some tergites, and with dark marginal sclerites on 4-6. SIPH dark                                                                    .....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans


5     Head and often also pronotum with a well-defined black median longitudinal line, which may be lacking in spring generations, but in that case thorax is without spinal processes. Mesonotal lobes not dark                                                                                                   …..6

-      Head and pronotum without any pigmentation in the median area, or if with a dark medial line then mesonotal lobes are dark. Pro- and mesonota with paired spinal processes       …..9


6     Pro- and mesonota with hairs borne on paired short spinal processes about as long as their basal widths. Femora with dark subapical spots                                …..Tinocallis sophorae*

-      Pro- and mesonota without spinal processes. Femora without dark subapical spots         …..7

7     ANT III mainly dusky/dark, longer than IV+V together, and bearing 24-43 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.2-1.6 Χ HT II, with 6-10 accessory hairs           …..Tinocallis mushensis*

 -     ANT III pale with dark apex, not usually longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 10-26 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 0.8-1.0(-1.2) Χ HT II, with 4-5 accessory hairs                     .....8

8     ANT (I-VI) 0.86-1.13 Χ BL                                                                …..Tinocallis latifoliae*

-      ANT (I-VI) 0.53-0.79 Χ BL                                                                 …..Tinocallis zelkowae

9     ANT III with secondary rhinaria distributed over more than half of length                   …..10 

-      ANT III with secondary rhinaria concentrated on thickened basal half                         …..11

10   Hind femora pale with contrasting dark subapical bands, Head with inner pair of posterior hairs on processes that are shorter than or as short as their basal widths

…..Tinocallis(Sappocallis) nevskyi

-      Hind femora dusky or pale with diffuse inconspicuous subapical spots. Head with inner pair of posterior hairs on processes that are 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than their basal widths

…..Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae 

11   Forewing veins ending in conspicuous dark triangles. Dorsal body hairs fine, mostly longer than basal diameter of ANT III. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1 and 2 usually dark-tipped, and those on ABD TERG 2 often united at base. Marginal processes often as long as or longer than ANT I                                                                                                …..Tinocallis viridis

-      Forewing veins not ending in conspicuous dark triangles. Dorsal body hairs stiff, as short as or shorter than basal diameter of ANT III. Spinal processes pale, those on ABD TERG 2 not united at bases. Marginal processes shorter than ANT I                 .....Tinocallis suzhouensis*


12   BL more than 4 mm. Rostrum much longer than body. Abdomen with a medial

       ventral row of 5 dark patches                                                                 .....Stomaphis yanonis

 -     BL less than 3 mm. Rostrum much shorter than body. Abdomen without ventral dark markings except posteriorly                                                                                              .....13


13   SIPH tubular                                  …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

-      SIPH poriform or absent                                                                                                  …..14

14   (Remaining couplets refer to alatae emerging from leaf-roll or pouch galls.)  Media of forewing once- or twice branched. Hind wing with 1 or 2 oblique veins.  SIPH pores present


 -     Media of forewing unbranched.  Hind wing always with 1 oblique vein.  SIPH pores present of absent                                                                                                                           .....21


15   Total length of antennal flagellum (III-VI) 0.9-1.4 mm. ANT III bearing 28-44 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                                              .....16

 -     Total length of antennal flagellum (III-V or III-VI) 0.3-0.8 mm. ANT III bearing 9-22 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                             .....18


16   BL 1.5-1.9 mm                                                                                      .....Colophina zelkovae

-      BL more than 2 mm                                                                                                          .....17

17   Total length of antennal flagellum (III-VI) 1.2-1.4 mm.  ANT PT 0.01-0.02 mm long, with quadrate apex (fig. 120A).  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 31-43, IV 9-14, V 10-16, VI 8-11                                                                                                   .....Colophina clematis

 -     Total length of antennal flagellum 0.9-1.1 mm.  ANT PT very short and indistinct, less than 0.01 mm long, with rounded apex.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 28-37, IV 8-13, V 9-13, VI 5-8                                                                                            .....Colophina arma


18   Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT V nearly as long as III; secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-12, IV 3-6, V 5-9                                                           …..Colophina clematicola

-      Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                                    …..19

19   R IV+V 0.15-0.19 mm long, densely spinulose and 1.38-1.59Χ HT II.  (Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-22, IV 2-4, V 2-4, VI 0-1)                      .....Hemipodaphis persimilis

-      R IV+V 0.07-0.17 mm long, smooth or spinulose and 0.53-1.02Χ HT II                        .....20

20   R IV+V 0.15-0.17 mm, spinulose, 0.83-1.02Χ HT II.  Secondary rhinaria distributed

       ANT III 14-20, IV 3-5, V 4-6, VI 0-2                                              .....Zelkovaphis trinacriae 

 -     R IV+V 0.07-0.10 mm long, nearly smooth, 0.53-0.72Χ HT II.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-16, IV 2-4, V 2-4, VI 0                              .....Zelkovaphis caucasica


21   ANT VI BASE (or V in 5-segmented antennae) with 3-7 secondary rhinaria.  ANT PT very short and broad, about 0.01 mm or less, with rounded apex (fig. 120B).  SIPH pores absent.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-16, IV 4-6, V 3-8, VI 3-7

.....Paracolopha morrisoni

 -     ANT VI BASE with 0-1 secondary rhinaria.  ANT PT about 0.02 mm or more, with rounded or pointed apex.  SIPH pores present.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-11, IV 2-3, V 0-4, VI 0-1                                                                                                                        .....22


22   ANT V about equal in length to (i.e. less than 1.2Χ) ANT IV (fig. 120C).  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-11, IV 2-3, V 0-3, VI 0-1                  .....Byrsocryptoides zelkovaecola

-      ANT V 1.4-1.8Χ longer than ANT IV (fig. 120D).  Secondary rhinaria distributed

       ANT III 7-11, IV 2-3, V 1-4, VI 0-1                                           .....Byrsocryptoides zelkovae



Zerna  see Vulpia                                                                  Poaceae


Zeugites                                                       Poaceae

      Zeugites americana                       Hysteroneura setariae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum padi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Zigadenus                                                              Melianthaceae

     Zigadenus elegans = Anticlea elegans

     Z. nuttallii = Toxicoscordion nuttalliii

      Z. venenosus = Toxicoscordion venenosum

      Zigadenus sp. (?)                           [Acyrthosiphon purshiae]; Aphis asclepiadis;

                                                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae, valerianae;

                                                            [Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (in Japan)]

Key to apterae on Zigadenus:-

1      Body oval, ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation                  …..Aphis asclepiadis

-       Body spindle-shaped. SIPH pale or dark with a subapical zone of reticulation               …..2

2      SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base                                      …..Macrosiphum valerianae

-      SIPH pale or only gradually darkening distally                         …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Zilla                                                             Brassicaceae

     Zilla spinosa                                  Myzus persicae


Zingiber                                                       Zingiberaceae

      Zingiber kawagoii                         Pentalonia caladii

        Z. mioga                                        Myzus ornatus, persicae; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        Z. officinale                                   Aphis gossypii; Astegopteryx [nipae], styracophila;

                                                               Pentalonia caladii; Pseudoregma sundanica

        Z. spectabile                                   Pentalonia caladii

        Zingiber spp.                                 Pentalonia kalimpongensis; Pseudoregma sundanica

Use key to apterae on Hedychium.


Zinnia                                                          Asteraceae

      Zinnia angustifolia                        Aphis fabae

        Z. elegans                                      Aphis [euonymi], fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella,


                                                               Aulcorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Metopolophium dirhodum];

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        Z. multiflora = Z. peruviana

        Z. peruviana                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        Zinnia spp.                                    Uroleucon compositae, [kashmiricum]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Zizania                                                        Poaceae

      Zizania aquatica                            Rhopalosiphum nigrum

        Z. caduciflora = Z. latifolia

        Z. latifolia                                      Melanaphis sacchari; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                               [Schizaphis scirpi]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Zizia                                                             Apiaceae

      Zizia aptera                                    Aphis fabae; [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

        Z. aurea                                         Aphis asclepiadis, saniculae, spiraecola, thaspii;

                                                               Cavariella aegopodii, [archangelicae], [pastinacae]

        Zizia sp.                                         [Anuromyzus cotoneasteris]

Use key to apterae on Cicuta.


Ziziphora                                                     Lamiaceae

        Ziziphora bungeana = Z. clinopodioides ssp. bungeana

        Z. clinopodioides                           Aphis craccivora, frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii;

                                                               Brachycaudus cerasicola; [Ovatus insitus]

        Z. tenuior                                       Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,


        Ziziphora sp.                                 Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Brachyunguis nurikamalae

Key to apterae on Ziziphora:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0                                                          …..Brachyunguis nurikamalae*

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0                                                                                          …..2 

2      Cauda semicircular, much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield                                                     …..Brachycaudus cerasicola

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Ziziphus                                                                                  Rhamnaceae

        Ziziphus jujuba                                       Aphis craccivora, frangulae

        Z. lotus                                                    Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Myzus persicae

        Z. nummularia                                       Aphis nasturtii

        Ziziphus sp.                                             Cervaphis schouteniae

Key to species on Ziziphus:-

-      Body with very long branched hair-bearing processes (as in fig. 92A). SIPH about

       1.0-1.5 Χ hind tibia and bearing a subapical ring of hairs                 .....Cervaphis schouteniae

-      Body without long hair-bearing processes. SIPH shorter and without hairs

.....use key to aphids on Rhamnus


Zornia                                                          Fabaceae

      Zornia pratensis                            Aphis craccivora


Zosima                                                         Apiaceae

      Zosima absinthifolia                     Aphis craccivora

      Z. tordyloides = Semenovia rubtzovii


Zoysia                                                          Poaceae

      Zoysia japonica                             Geoica lucifuga;

                                                               Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Zuelania                                                      Salicaceae

      Zuelania guidonia                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Zygadenus see Zigadenus                                                Liliaceae


Zygocactus                                                  Cactaceae

     Zygocactus bridgesii                       Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

      Z. truncatus                                     Myzus persicae                                                     

     Zygocactus sp.                                Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Zygophyllum                                               Zygophyllaceae

      Zygophyllum fabago                     Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [pisum];

                                                               Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                               Brachyunguis [harmalae], zygophylli;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        Z. simplex                                      Aphis craccivora

        Z. turcomanicum (?)                     Brachyunguis zygophylli

Key to apterae on Zygophyllum:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.8. SIPH stumpy, 0.25-0.75 Χ cauda         …..Brachyunguis zygophylli

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH longer than cauda                                                  …..2

2      SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midpoints, 0.33-0.45 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                                              …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids