(in alphabetical order)



















































Vaccaria                                                      Caryophyllaceae

      Vaccaria hispanica                       Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus lychnidis


Vaccinium (including Cyanococcus, Oxycoccus)             Ericaceae

        Vaccinium alaskaense                  Ericaphis wakibae; Macrosiphum parvifolii

        V. angustifolium = V. stenophyllum

        V. ashei                                         Ericaphis scammelli

        V. caudatifolium                           Ericaphis scammelli

        V. corymbosum                             Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Ericaphis fimbriata, scammelli; Illinoia azaleae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. delavayi                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. griffithianum                            Aphis aurantii, nasturtii;

                                                              Sitobion sp. (India: Raychaudhuri 1984)

        V. japonicum                                Aulacorthum vaccinii

        V. koreanum                                 [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]

        V. leonis                                        Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. leschenaultii                             [gall of unknown aphid – Mani 1973]

        V. macrocarpon                            Ericaphis scammelli; Illinoia azaleae, borealis, pepperi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        V. maderense                                Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola

        V. membranaceum                       [Aulacorthum sp. (Washington, USA;];

                                                              [Ericaphis sp. (Washington, USA;];

                                                              [Illinoia sp. (Washington, Montana;];

                                                              Macrosiphum opportunisticum

        V. myrtillus                                    Acyrthosiphon brachysiphon, knechteli; Aphis vaccinii;

                                                              Aulacorthum flavum, rufum, vaccinii; Ericaphis latifrons;

                                                              Macrosiphum nasonovi; [Metopolophium tenerum];

                                                              Pachpappa myrtilli; Sitobion paludum;

                                                              Wahlgreniella vaccinia

        V. ovalifolium                               [Illinoia spiraeae, A. Jensen, Oregon;]

        V. oxycoccus                                 Aphis vaccinii; Ericaphis sammelli; Macrosiphum nasonovi

        V. parvifolium                               Aulacorthum pterinigrum;

                                                              [Ericaphis sp., A. Jensen, Oregon;];                                                                   Macrosiphum parvifolii, opportunisticum, Macrosiphum

                                                                 sp. nr parvifolii (B.C.; BMNH collection, leg. C.-k. Chan)

        V. pennsylvanicum                       Illinoia pepperi

        V. scoparium                                [Ericaphis sp., A. Jensen, Oregon;];

                                                              [Illinoia sp. (Idaho, Oregon;];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, opportunisticum

        V. stamineum = Polycodium stamineum

        V. stenophyllum                            Ericaphis scammelli

        V. uliginosum                               Acyrthosiphon brachysiphon, knechteli, [sp. aff. knechteli];

                                                              Aphis vaccinii; Aulacorthum flavum, rufum, vaccinii;

                                                              [Cavariella aegopodii]; Ericaphis latifrons;

                                                              Illinoia azaleae; Macrosiphum [chukotense], nasonovi;

                                                              Sitobion paludum; Wahlgreniella vaccinii

        V. vacillans                                    Aphis vaccinii; Illinoia azaleae

        V. varingiaefolium                        Aphis aurantii, gossypii

        V. vitis-idaea                                  Acyrthosiphon knechteli; Aphis vaccinii;

                                                              Aulacorthum rufum; Ericaphis latifrons, scammelli;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, nasonovi; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Wahlgreniella vaccinii

        Vaccinium sp.                               Illinoia finni

Key to apterae on Vaccinium:-

(For an illustrated key to common aphids on blueberries see Blackman & Eastop 2000.)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent                                            …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Eyes multi-faceted. SIPH present, tubular                     …..3

2      Body and appendages densely hairy. ANT II elongate, similar in length to III. Anal plate displaced dorsally. No discrete wax-pore plates. BL 1.7-2.5 mm       .....Smynthurodes betae

-      Body and appendages sparsely hairy. ANT II much shorter than III. Anal plate in normal posterio-ventral position. Wax pore-plates present. BL 1.2-1.4 mm    .....Pachypappa myrtilli

3      SIPH slightly to moderately clavate (swollen on distal half, with narrower section on basal half)                                                                                                                                   …..4

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering (without a narrower section on basal half)                        …..10

4      SIPH with a zone of polygonal reticulation distal to the swollen part (e.g. Fig.56b,d). ANT III with 1 or more rhinaria on basal half                                                                           …..5

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation (e.g. Fig.56e). ANT III without rhinaria                …..9

5      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.0 Χ BD III. Cauda thick, parallel-sided for most of  length, broadly rounded at apex, and bearing 9-13 hairs (Fig.56a)           …..Macrosiphum parvifolii

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.7 Χ BD III. Cauda tapering from base to near apex, sometimes slightly constricted near midlength, with 7-10 hairs (e.g. Fig.56c)                 …..6

6      R IV+V 0.67-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..7

--     R IV+V (1.1-) 1.2-1.8 Χ HT II                                                                                          …..8

7      SIPH dark, sometimes paler at extreme base, less than 10 Χ longer than maximum width of swollen part                                                                                                 …..Illinoia pepperi

-      SIPH pale and more than 10 Χ longer than width of swollen part                  …..Illinoia finni

8      First tarsal segments with 3 (rarely 4) hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda

…..Illinoia borealis

-       First tarsal segments with 5 (rarely 4) hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.2-2.5 Χ cauda

…..Illinoia azaleae

9      Head densely spiculose dorsally as well as ventrally, with inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. ANT III-V pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 (-1.1) Χ HT II, with 2-7 accessory hairs                                                                              …..Myzus persicae

-      Head sparsely spiculose, especially dorsally, with inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-6.8. ANT III-V each with dark apices. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II, with 7-11 accessory hairs                                                                                 …..Wahlgreniella vaccinii

10    ANT tubercles scabrous at least on ventral side. Head with numerous spicules, at least on ventral surface                                                                                                                 …..11

-      ANT tubercles if developed then almost smooth. Head with or without spicules         …..19

11    ANT 1.1-1.5 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 3.7-5.2                                                           …..12

-      ANT 0.6-1.05 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.7                                                         …..14

12    Dorsal abdomen with a dark central U-shaped patch, and thorax with dark cross bands, but marginal areas of body unpigmented. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs

…..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsal abdomen with or without dark sclerotisation, but not in form of U-shaped central patch leaving marginal areas unpigmented. R IV+V with 5-13 accessory hairs             …..13

13    R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II, with 9-13 accessory hairs. Dorsal cuticle very wrinkled, variably pigmented but often mostly dark, with large marginal and post-siphuncular sclerites forming a broad dark stripe on each side of body                                    …..Aulacorthum pterinigrum

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II, with 6-8 accessory hairs. Dorsal cuticle sclerotic but smooth, pale or mottled with dark, but without dark marginal stripes                     …..Aulacorthum rufum

14    Median frontal tubercle prominent, and ANT tubercles tending to be rather low, so that front of head has w-shaped outline in dorsal view (e.g. Fig.56f). ANT III without rhinaria


-      Median frontal tubercle weakly developed, much lower than the well-developed ANT tubercles. ANT III with or without rhinaria                                                                    …..16

15    ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.4. SIPH with a small flange (Fig.56g)

…..Ericaphis scammelli (or fimbriata? – see text)

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.2. SIPH with a prominent flange (Fig.56h)        …..Ericaphis latifrons

16    Dorsal cuticle pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II                                     …..Aulacorthum flavum

-      Dorsal cuticle with dusky or dark sclerotisation, or dark markings. R IV+V 1.0-1.7 Χ HT II


17    Dorsal cuticle wrinkled, with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs                                                                                              …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal cuticle smooth with a variably-pigmented but extensive dusky to dark sclerotic shield. R IV+V with 4-11 accessory hairs                                                                                      …..18

18    R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II, with 4-7 accessory hairs. ANT III usually with 1 or more rhinaria on basal half                                                                                      …..Aulacorthum vaccinii

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.7 Χ HT II, with 8-11 accessory hairs. ANT III rarely with rhinaria, except in alatiform specimens                                                                               …..Ericaphis wakibae

19    SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)


-       SIPH without subapical reticulation, or with only 1-2 rows of polygonal cells             …..23

20    SIPH entirely black, 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda.                                                     …..Sitobion paludum

-       SIPH pale, dusky or dark-tipped, 1.7-2.4 Χ cauda                                                         …..21

21    Femora distinctly darker towards apices                                       …..Macrosiphum nasonovi

-       Femora not distinctly darker towards apices                                                                  …..22

22   Cauda with 6-9 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.20-0.27 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 10-24 μm, 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III. (Al. with paired pleural dark patches and large marginal and postsiphuncular sclerites)                                                    …..Macrosiphum opportunisticum

-      Cauda with 8-13 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.14-0.20 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 25-40 μm, 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III. (Al. without dark dorsal abdominal sclerites)

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae


23    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH short, conical, smooth, with a subapical annular incision

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, much longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH imbricated, tapering, without a subapical annular incision                    …..24

24    ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. SIPH pale. ANT III with (0-) 1-9 rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)


-      ANT tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped.  SIPH pale or dark. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                        …..26

25    SIPH 0.14-0.17 Χ BL, 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda and 3.0-3.7 Χ R IV+V

…..Acyrthosiphon brachysiphon

-       SIPH 0.28-0.48 Χ BL, 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda and 5.5-7.3 Χ R IV+V    …..Acyrthosiphon knechteli

26    Dorsal abdomen with a variably developed pattern of dark sclerotic markings, sometimes tending to form dark transverse bars on ABD TERG 1-6 as well as 7 and 8. SIPH and cauda both black, SIPH 0.75-1.20 Χ cauda, which bears 8-16 hairs                       …..Aphis vaccinii

-      Without that combination of characters

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24


Vahlia                                                          Vahliaceae

      Vahlia dichotoma                         Aphis gossypii


Vaillantia see Valantia                                           Rubiaceae


Valantia (including Vaillantia)                                      Rubiaceae

      Valantia muralis                           Aphis gossypii


Valeriana                                                     Valerianaceae

      Valeriana alliariifolia                   Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum centranthi, cholodkovskyi

        V. capitata                                     Aphis spiraephaga; Macrosiphum chukotense

        V. ceratophylla                              Aphis valerianae; Macrosiphum valerianae

        V. collina                                       Aphis spiraephaga

        V. coreana = V. fauriei

        V. dubia = V. officinalis

      V. edulis                                        Aphis fabae, valerianae; Macrosiphum valerianae

      V. fauriei                                       Aphis fabae, patriniae, patvaliphaga, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        V. ficariifolia                                 Aphis spiraephaga

        V. grisebachiana = V. urbanii

          V. jatamansi                                  Aphis spiraecola; Myzus [dycei], ornatus;

                                                              Sitobion aulacorthoides

        V. montana                                   Aphis fabae, spiraephaga; Macrosiphum gei, rosae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

        V. officinalis                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii, patriniae, spiraecola, spiraephaga,


                                                              Dysaphis brancoi, brancoi ssp. rogersoni, leefmansi,

                                                                  leefmansi ssp. krumbholzi, leefmansi ssp. valentinae;

                                                              Macrosiphum centranthi, euphorbiae, rosae, stellariae,


                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Sitobion avenae] 

        V. olitoria  = Valerianella locusta     

        V. phu                                           Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum rosae

        V. prionophylla                             Myzus ornatus

        V. pyrenaica                                  Myzus persicae

        V. salina = V. sambucifolia

        V. sambucifolia                             Aphis fabae; Dysaphis brancoi; Macrosiphum rosae

        V. samolifolia                                [Aphis sambuci]

        V. sitchensis                                  Aphis fabae

        V. tiliaefolia                                   Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum rosae

      V. trachycarpa = V. edulis

        V. tripteris                                     Aphis fabae, valerianae; Macrosiphum centranthi, rosae

        V. tuberosa                                    Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. turkestanica                              Aphis spiraephaga

        V. urbanii                                      Aphis fabae

        V. valerianifolia (?)                       Aphis gossypii; [Uroleucon gobonis]

        V. wallichii = V. jatamansi

        Valeriana spp.                              Aphis pseudovalerianae, solanella; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Dysaphis brancoi ssp. malina; [Nearctaphis bakeri]

Key to apterae on Valeriana:-

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                      …..2

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                …..9

2      Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.25-1.45 Χ HT II

…..Sitobion aulacorthoides

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.4 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.7-1.2 Χ HT II                            …..3

3      SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base                                                                           …..4

-       SIPH pale or only gradually darkening distally                                                                …..5

4      ANT III with 10-36 rhinaria, not in a row                                          …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       ANT III with 4-9 rhinaria in a row                                             …..Macrosiphum valerianae

5      Femora entirely pale. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 always less than 38 μm long. Cauda with 8-12 (-14) hairs                                                                                                          …..6

-      Femora usually darker at apices. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually more than 39 μm. Cauda with 8-21 hairs                                                                                                       …..7

6      Small marginal tubercles (MTu) only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5 and spinal tubercles (Stu) only occasionally present on ABD TERG 7-8. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs                                                                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       MTu almost always present on ABD TERG 2-5, and STu also consistently present on ABD TERG 7 and 8. R IV+V with 7-13 accessory hairs                    …..Macrosiphum chukotense

7      R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually more than 50 μm (43-68 μm) long                                                                                                                            …..8

-      R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually less than 50 μm (26-56 μm) long                                                                                                                            …..9

8      Longest hair on outer side of hind tibia is 82-126 μm. Anterior part (disc) of subgenital plate with (2-) 5-12 hairs                                                                                  …..Macrosiphum gei

-      Longest hair on outer side of hind tibia is 50-96 μm. Disc of subgenital plate with 2-5(-7) hairs                                                                                        …..Macrosiphum cholodkovskyi

9      ANT 1.3-1.7 Χ BL. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 usually less than 60 μm (48-66 μm) long

…..Macrosiphum centranthi

-       ANT 0.95-1.4 Χ BL. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 usually more than 60 μm (37-86 μm) long                                                                                                …..Macrosiphum stellariae

10    ABD TERG 1-5 or 1-7 with large dome-shaped or bluntly conical marginal tubercles (MTu)


-       Large MTu only ever regularly present on (prothorax and) ABD TERG 1 and 7          …..17

11    ANT 5-segmented. Cauda longer than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent

…..Aphis patriniae

-       ANT 6-segmented. Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head, and often on ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                    …..12

12    Longest hair on ANT III 42-67 μm long. ABD TERG 6 and 7 mostly without MTu. SIPH 0.21-0.27 mm long, 3.3-3.8 Χ width at midlength. Cauda with 5-7 hairs

…..Dysaphis brancoi ssp. malina*

-       Longest hair on ANT III 11-34 μm long. ABD TERG 6 and 7 usually with MTu. SIPH

        0.26-0.44 mm long, 3.5-9.7 Χ width at midlength. Cauda with 6-16 hairs                     …..13

13    Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 73-93 μm. SIPH uniformly dark

…..Dysaphis brancoi ssp. rogersoni

-       Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 14-70 μm. SIPH pale or dark                                    …..14

14    Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 only 14-22 μm long. SIPH mainly pale

…..Dysaphis leefmansi sensu stricto

-       Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 in range 28-70 μm. SIPH pale or dark                          …..15

15    SIPH dark, sometimes paler at base, but at least with distal part as dark as anal plate. ANT PT 0.22-0.35 mm long, 0.5-1.0 Χ ANT III. Cauda with 6-12 hairs

…..Dysaphis brancoi sensu stricto

-      SIPH mostly pale, sometimes darker distally but not as dark as anal plate. ANT PT 0.25-0.53 mm long, usually longer than (0.7-1.6 Χ) ANT III. Cauda with 7-16 hairs                    …..16

16    ABD TERG 7 without STu, and often only a single one is present on ABD TERG 8 (range 0-2, mean 1.3)                                                           …..Dysaphis leefmansi ssp. krumbholzi*

-      ABD TERG 7 often with STu, and usually a pair present on ABD TERG 8 (range on 7 + 8 is 1-4, mean 2.9)                                                             …..Dysaphis leefmansi ssp. valentinae*

17    Cuticle of head spiculose. ANT tubercles well developed with steep-sided inner faces. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      Cuticle of head not spiculose. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu                                                                                                             …..18

18    R IV+V 0.6-0.85 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ant III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III                           …..19

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II. Longest hairs on ant III 0.4-2.2 Χ BD III                             …..20

19    SIPH 0.7-1.05 Χ cauda, which bears 7-17 hairs. R IV+V 0.65-0.92 Χ HT II

…..Aphis spiraephaga

-      SIPH 0.9-1.8 Χ cauda, which bears 3-6 hairs. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II

…..Aphis patvaliphaga*

20    SIPH with 1-4 hairs. R IV+V with 4-5 accessory hairs                …..Aphis pseudovalerianae

-       SIPH without hairs. R IV+V with 2 (-3) accessory hairs                                               …..21

21    Cauda pale or dusky, distinctly paler than SIPH and bearing 4-8 hairs. Femora with all hairs much shorter than width of  trochantro-femoral suture                               …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda and SIPH both dark, cauda with 7-24 hairs. Many of femoral hairs exceeding width of trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                           …..22

22    Abdomen without dark dorsal markings                                                  …..Aphis spiraecola

-      Abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often with dark markings anterior to SIPH                                                                                                              …..23

23    ANT I-VI and femora rather uniformly pigmented. ANT PT.BASE 1.7-1.9

…..Aphis valerianae

-       ANT III-IV mainly pale, contrasting with dark ANT I-II, and femora with basal part much paler than distal part. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-4.0              …..Aphis fabae group (incl. solanella)



Valerianella                                                 Valerianaceae

      Valerianella locusta                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

      V. olitoria = V. locusta

        Valerianella sp.                             Aphis fabae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Valerianoides  see Stachytarpheta                               Verbenaceae


Vallisneria                                                   Hydrocharitaceae

      Vallisneria spiralis                        Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae; [Therioaphis trifolii]


Vancouveria                                                Berberidaceae

      Vancouveria hexandra                 Macrosiphum vancouveriae


Vanda                                                          Orchidaceae

     Vanda coerulea                              Sitobion indicum, luteum

      V. suavis = V. tricolor

      V. tricolor                                        Cerataphis orchidearum

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.


Vangueria                                                    Rubiaceae

      Vangueria agrestis                        Aphis gossypii

      V. madagascariensis                     Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Vanilla                                                         Orchidaceae

      Vanilla bicolor                              Cerataphis orchidearum

      V. fragrans =V. planifolia

      V. planifolia                                  Cerataphis orchidearum

        V. wrightii = V. bicolor

      Vanilla sp.                                     Aphis spiraecola

(or use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium)


Vasconcellea                                                         Caricaceae

      Vasconcellea pubescens             Myzus persicae


Veitchia (= Adonidia)                                              Arecaceae

       Veitchia merrillii                       [Aphis craccivora]

                    (= Adonidia merrillii)


Veltheimia                                                   Asparagaceae

        Veltheimia viridifolia                    Myzus persicae


Venidium see Arctotis                                     Asteraceae

      Venidium decurrens = Arctotis arctotoides

        V. fastuosum = Arctotis fastuosa


Ventilago                                                     Rhamnaceae

        Ventilago diffusa                           Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

        Ventilago leiocarpa = V. diffusa


Vepris                                                          Rutaceae

        Vepris sp.                                       Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus


Veratrum                                                     Melanthiaceae

      Veratrum album                               Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, veratri;

                                                                [Brachycaudus cardui]

     V. californicum                                 Aphis cercocarpi, fabae

     V. dahuricum                                   Aphis cercocarpi, fabae, takagii, [veratri]

      V. lobelianum                                   Aphis fabae, veratri

      V. maackii var. japonicum               Aulacorthum solani

      V. nigrum                                         Aphis fabae, takagii, veratri

      V. oxysepalum                                  Aphis cercocarpi, takagii, [veratri]

      V. ussuriense  = V. nigrum

      V. viride                                             Aphis cercocarpi, fabae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1968)];

                                                                Aulacorthum solani

      Veratrum sp.                                     Aphis sp. (western USA; Jensen 2021);

                                                                [Hyadaphis veratri Shinji 1942];

                                                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Veratrum:-

1      ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                   …..2

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                        …..3

2      SIPH without subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head densely spiculose with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles. ANT III with longest hairs less than 0.5 Χ BD III

..... Aulacorthum solani (or try key to polyphagous aphids)

-       SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head not densely spiculose, and ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent. ANT III with longest hairs more than 0.5 Χ BD III

        …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3      R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                   …..Aphis fabae

-       R IV+V 1.2-1.7 Χ HT II                                                                                                   …..4

4      ABD TERG 2-4 usually without MTu, rarely with just 1 or 2. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.2

        …..Aphis cercocarpi

-       ABD TERG 2-4 consistently with MTu. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-5.1                                   …..5

5      Hind tibiae typically entirely brown to black. R IV+V usually with 3 or 4 accessory hairs

.....Aphis sp. (western USA; Jensen 2021)

-      Hind tibiae typically pale in middle. R IV+V usually with 2 accessory hairs                  …..6 

6      ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.4. ANT III with 8-12 hairs. SIPH 0.8-2.1 Χ cauda     …..Aphis veratri

-      ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.1. ANT III with 17-20 hairs. SIPH 2.1-2.8 Χ cauda   …..Aphis takagii


Verbascum                                                   Scrophulariaceae

        Verbascum abietinum                   Myzus persicae

        V. austriacum                                Aphis verbasci, wellensteini

        V. blattaria                                     Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. brevipedicellatum                      Uroleucon compositae

        V. chinense                                    Aphis verbasci

        V. densiflorum                               Aphis verbasci

        V. lychnitis                                     Aphis verbasci

        V. nigrum                                      Aphis verbasci, wellensteini

        V. orientale                                    Aphis fabae

        V. ovalifolium                                Aphis verbasci

      V. phlomoides                                Aphis verbasci, wellensteini

        V. phoeniceum                              Aphis verbasci

        V. pulverulentum                          Aphis verbasci

        V. sinuatum                                   Aphis nerii, verbasci

        V. songaricum                               Aphis verbasci

        V. speciosum                                 Aphis verbasci, wellensteini

        V. thapsiforme = V. densiflorum       

        V. thapsus                                      Aphis fabae, verbasci; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Myzakkaia verbasci]

        V. tripolitanum                              Aphis verbasci

        Verbascum spp.                            Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis craccivora

Key to apterae on Verbascum:-

1    R IV+V long and narrow, 1.6-1.9 Χ HT II, 1.3-1.9 Χ cauda and 0.7-1.5 Χ ANT PT         .....2

-     R IV+V relatively much shorter                                       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2    Well-developed, flattish marginal tubercles (MTu) present on 2-4, 2-5  or 2-6 as well as 1 and 7.  Posterior hair on hind trochanter less than 0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture

                                                                                                                         .....Aphis wellensteini

-     MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 only, very rarely on 2-4. Posterior hair on hind trochanter

      0.5-1.2 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                           …..Aphis verbasci


Verbena                                                                  Verbenaceae

(Some New World species previously placed in Verbena are now placed in Glandularia.)

      V. aubletia = Glandularia canadensis

        V. bipinnatifida = Glandularia bipinnatifida

        V. bracteata                                   Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

      V. bracteosa = V. bracteata

      V. canadensis = Glandularia canadensis

        V. chamaedryfolia = Glandularia peruviana

        V. glauca                                       Aphis matilei

        V. hastata                                       [Aphis verbenahastata Rafinesque (invalid name)]

        V. hortensis = V. hybrida

        V. hybrida                                      Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

      V. litoralis                                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus

        V. officinalis                                  Aphis fabae, [capsellae], [frangulae], gossypii,

                                                                  mamonthovae, solanella;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Macrosiphum verbenae];

                                                               Myzus antirrhinii, persicae

        V. peruviana = Glandularia peruviana

        V. prostrata = V. bracteata               

        V. rigida                                         Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        V. stricta                                         [Macrosiphum verbenae]

        Verbena spp.                                 [Aphis malvae Walker of Buckton (1879)];

                                                               [Myzus siegesbeckicola];

                                                               [Ovatus crataegarius]; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to apterae on Verbena:-

1      Either ANT tubercles well developed or cauda dark with 10 or more hairs

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed and cauda pale or dusky with 4-8 hairs      …..2

2      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. SIPH smooth, pale, conical, with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ABD TERG 1 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                             …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH imbricated, pale or dark, tapering, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 (at least) with MTu                                                                                                                           …..3

3      ABD TERG 7 without MTu. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.8                                   …..Aphis matilei

-       ABD TERG 7 with MTu. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-4.2                                                           …..4

4      SIPH mainly pale, dark only at apices                                                         …..Aphis nasturtii

-       SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                            …..5

5      ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.0. Femora pale                                                           …..Aphis gossypii

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.3. Femora rather dusky                                   …..Aphis mamonthovae



Verbesina (including Actinomeris)                                Asteraceae

      Verbesina alata                              Uroleucon ambrosiae

      V. alternifolia                                 Uroleucon ambrosiae, [eupatoricolens], rurale

      V. encelioides                                 Aphis fabae, gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

      V. gigantea                                    Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. myriocephala                            Uroleucon verbesinae

        V. occidentalis                               [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                               Uroleucon [parvotuberculatum], rurale, verbesinae

      V. squarrosa (?)                             [Uroleucon squarrosum (Sanborn 1904, nomen dubium)]

        V. virgata                                       Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. virginica                                    Uroleucon rurale, verbesinae

Key to apterae on Verbesina:-

1      SIPH dark with reticulation on distal 0.23-0.35 of length, comprising numerous small polygonal cells                                                                                                                   …..2

-       SIPH if dark then without polygonal reticulation          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      SIPH less than 1.5 Χ cauda, which is pale. Dorsal hairs mostly arising from small dark scleroites. Ante-siphuncular sclerites and marginal tubercles (MTu) absent

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-      SIPH more than 1.5 Χ cauda, which is dark. Dorsal hairs without dark basal scleroites. Dusky ante-siphuncular sclerites present, with associated MTu                                       …..3

3      R IV+V 1.2-1.56 Χ HT II, less than 4 Χ longer than its basal width      …..Uroleucon rurale

-      R IV+V very long and thin, 1.6-1.9 Χ HT II, and more than 4 Χ longer than its basal width

…..Uroleucon verbesinae


Vernicia see Aleurites                                                         Euphorbiaceae


Vernonanthura see Vernonia                               Asteraceae


Vernonia                                                      Asteraceae

        Vernonia acunae                           Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. adoensis                                    Uroleucon compositae, [Uroleucon sp.(Millar 1994)]

        V. albicaulis                                   Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. ambigua                                    Aphis gossypii

        V. amygdalina                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Sitobion congolense;

                                                               Uroleucon compositae

        V. angusticeps                               Aphis gossypii

        V. arborea                                      Uroleucon compositae

        V. arborescens                               Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. aspera                                        Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon compositae, sonchi

        V. baldwinii                                   Aphis vernoniae

        V. brazzavillensis                           Uroleucon compositae

        V. calvoana ssp. leucocalyx           Uroleucon compositae

        V. chapmanii                                 Aphis gossypii

        V. chinensis = V. patula                  

      V. cinerea                                      Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

               (= Cyanthillium cinereum)            [Macrosiphoniella sanborni]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Protaphis carthami; [Rhopalosiphum padi];

                                                               Uroleucon ambrosiae, compositae, minutum, vernoniae,


        V. divaricata = V. arborescens           Uroleucon ambrosiae

        V. fallax = Lepidaploa sagraeana      

        V. fasciculata                                 Protaphis middletonii, vernoniae; [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

      V. glabra                                        Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                               Protaphis evansi, pseudocardui;

                                                               Uroleucon compositae, compositae ssp. evansi,

                                                                  [Uroleucon sp. (Millar 1994)]

        V. guianensis = V. salzmanii

      V. hieracioides                               Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

        V. lasiopus                                     Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Protaphis pseudocardui;

                                                               Sitobion congolense, mucatha; Uroleucon compositae

        V. leopoldi                                      Uroleucon compositae

        V. leucocalyx = V. calvoana ssp. leucocalyx

        V. lindheimeri                                [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

        V. menthaefolia                             Aphis spiraecola

        V. nigritiana                                  Aphis gossypii

        V. noveboracensis                         Aphis vernoniae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard, 1968)];

                                                               [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

        V. patula                                        Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Uroleucon compositae, vernoniae

        V. pauciflora                                  Aphis fabae;

                                                               Uroleucon compositae, compositae ssp. evansi

        V. perrottetii                                   Aphis gossypii

        V. poskeana                                   Aphis gossypii

        V. punctata = V. albicaulis

        V. roxburghii = V. aspera

        V. salzmannii                                 Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974);  Sitobion congolense

        V. scorpioides                                Aphis coreopsidis; Uroleucon compositae

        V. segregata = Lepidaploa segregata

        V. sutherlandii                               Uroleucon compositae

        V. wrightii                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        Vernonia spp.                                Capitophorus elaeagni; [Macrosiphoniella sanborni];

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Sitobion nigeriense;

                                                               [Subovatomyzus leucosceptri]

Key to apterae on Vernonia:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. R IV+V longer than ANT PT. SIPH short, dark, stump-shaped, 0.65-1.0 Χ cauda, which is short, triangular, and bears more than 10 hairs                      …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.4, R IV+V shorter than ANT PT, and other characters not in that combination                                                                                                                …..4

2      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4 (measure several specimens). ANT III usually without rhinaria

         (rarely with 1-3)                                                                            …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0. ANT III often with 1-10 rhinaria                                              …..3

3      R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda with a rather pointed apex (Fig.57a)    …..Protaphis evansi

-       R IV+V 1.4-1.6 Χ HT II. Cauda with a rounded apex                        …..Protaphis carthami

4      SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 2-3 rows of closed polygonal cells)                …..5

-       SIPH without any distinct subapical polygonal reticulation                                           …..15

5      SIPH dark with reticulation comprising numerous (100+) closed polygonal cells over distal 0.16-0.35 of length. First tarsal segments with 3 or 5 hairs                                              …..6

-      SIPH pale or dark with fewer polygonal cells over distal 0.07-0.20 of length. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                                                      …..12

6      Cauda dark                                                                                                                        …..7

-       Cauda pale compared with SIPH                                                                                   …..10

7      ANT III mainly pale with 1-3 rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs

…..Uroleucon minutum

-       ANT III dark with 41-78 rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                               …..8

8      R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II. ANT III with 23-57 rhinaria                    …..Uroleucon vernoniae

-       R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT III with 46-82 rhinaria                                                    …..9

9      SIPH 1.8-2.3 Χ cauda (mean 2.0-2.1)                                    …..Uroleucon compositae s. str.

-       SIPH 1.6-2.0 Χ cauda (mean 1.8)                                 …..Uroleucon compositae ssp. evansi

10    Coxae dark. SIPH dark at base and apex but often paler in middle, with reticulation on distal 0.16-0.27 of length. Dorsal hairs without dark basal scleroites              …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Coxae pale. SIPH entirely dark, with reticulation on distal 0.25-0.35 of length. Dorsal hairs mostly arising from small dark scleroites                                                                        …..11

11    R IV+V 1.05-1.43 Χ HT II. ANT III with 8-31 rhinaria. Tibiae often paler in middle

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-      R IV+V 1.45-1.65 Χ HT II. ANT III with 3-20 rhinaria. Tibiae entirely dark

…..Uroleucon vernonicola

12    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Hairs on ANT III very short and blunt, 0.2-0.4 Χ BD III                                              …..13

13    R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH very slightly swollen on subapical reticulated part, and with a very small flange (Fig.57b)                                                               …..Sitobion congolense

-      R IV+V 0.85-1.2 Χ HT II. SIPH without subapical swelling, cylindrical or slightly flared near apex, and with a well-developed flange (e.g. Fig.57c)                                           …..14

14    R IV+V 0.85-1.0 Χ HT II                                                                     …..Sitobion nigeriense

-       R IV+V 1.05-1.2 Χ HT II                                                                       …..Sitobion mucatha

15   Hairs on front of head and dorsal body thick and capitate, mostly long and thick, and arising from tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-9.2                             …..Capitophorus elaeagni

-      Dorsal hairs not thick and distinctly capitate, without tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE less than 6                                                                                                                               …..16

16    ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.9. SIPH pale, 6.5-11.2 Χ their width at midlength, constricted at base and cylindrical or slightly flared on distal half, and almost flangeless (Fig.57d)

…..Aphis vernoniae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-4.5. SIPH pale or dark, not constricted at base, and of different form


17     SIPH 0.24-0.40 Χ BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda.  Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT              ..….Aphis coreopsidis

-       SIPH only up to 0.2 Χ BL. Cauda pale or dark. Head and antennal segments differently pigmented                                                                       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids




Veronica (incl. Pseudolysimachion, Veronicastrum)          Plantaginaceae

      Veronica abyssinica                      Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

        V. agrestris                                    Aphis [clematidis ssp. simalensis], gossypii, [longituba];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Brevicoryne brassicae]; Cryptomyzus galeopsidis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri

        V. anagallis                                   Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae;

                                                               Myzus [amygdalinus], cerasi

        V. anagallis-aquatica                    Aphis [costalis (see], fabae, frangulae,

                                                                   gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Dysaphis gallica;

                                                               Macrosphum euphorbiae; Myzodium mimulicola;

                                                               Myzus cerasi, lythri, ornatus

        V. anagalloides                              Aulacorthum solani

        V. Χandersonii = Hebe Χandersonii

        V. arvensis                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri

        V. austriaca                                   Aphis korshunovi; [Macrosiphum gei]

        V. beccabunga                              Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, nasturtii, triglochinis;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Cryptomyzus galeopsidis;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri

        V. campylopoda                            Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii

        V. catarractae = Hebe catarractae

        V. chamaedrys                              Aphis berlinskii,  fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,

                                                                   korshunovi, [veronicae Walker of Bozhko 1976a];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; [Baizongia pistaciae]

                                                               Myzus cerasi, cerasi ssp. veronicae, ornatus;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri; Zinia veronicae

      V. cymbalaria                                Myzus persicae

        V. dahurica (daurica?)                  Aphis frangulae, frangulae  ssp. beccabungae, gossypii

        V. derwentia                                  Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. didyma = V. polita

          V. didyma ssp. lilacina = V. polita

        V. dillenii                                       Nasonovia ribisnigri

        V. elatior see V. longifolia                

        V. gentianoides                              Myzus ascalonicus

        V. grandis                                      Myzus ascalonicus; Nasonovia ribisnigri                           

        V. hederifolia                                 Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri; [Nearctaphis bakeri]

        V. incana                                       Aphis berlinksii, fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,

            (= Pseudolysimachion incanum)           korshunovi;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri; Zinia veronicae

        V. komarovii = V. rotunda var. subintegra

        V. laeta                                          Aphis korshunovi

        V. longifolia (incl. elatior)                Aphis berlinksii, fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,

                                                                   khrulevae, korshunovi;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Cryptomyzus ribis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi, persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri, [sp. aff. vannesii]; Zinia veronicae

        V. michauxii                                  Aphis korshunovi

        V. montana                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. nakaiana                                   Aphis [rhamnicola], [veroniciphaga (= triglochinis?)]

        V. officinalis                                  Aphis berlinskii, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi;

                                                               Nasonovia [compositellae ssp. nigra], ribisnigri

        V. orsiniana                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; Nasonovia ribisnigri

        V. peduncularis                             Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi

        V. peregrina                                  Aphis gossypii

        V. perfoliata                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. persica                                       Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Cryptomyzys galeopsidis;

                                                               Dysaphis pulverina; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri; [Nearctaphis bakeri]

        V. polita                                         Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Myzus cerasi, persicae

        V. prostrata                                    Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

        V. rotunda var. subintegra            Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani

        V. scutellata                                   Myzus cerasi

        V. serpyllifolia                               Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. sibirica                                      Aphis frangulae, gossypii, veronicicola;

             (= Veronicastrum sibiricum)            Aulacorthum solani

      V. spicata                                       Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis korshunovi;

             (= Pseudolysimachion spicatum)      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus

        V. spuria                                        Aphis craccivora, frangulae ssp. beccabungae,

             (= Pseudolysimachion spurium)           korshunovi;

                                                               Zinia veronicae

        V. teucrium                                   Aphis fabae, frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii,

                                                                   korshunovi, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum knautiae, solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Myzus cerasi

        V. tournefortii = V. persica

        V. urticifolia                                  Aphis frangulae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri

        Veronica spp.                                [Aphis beccabungae ssp. turanica (nomen dubium)];

                                                               Dysaphis microsiphon; [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae];

                                                               [Jacksonia papillata]; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to apterae on Veronica:-

1      Cauda short, helmet-shaped or triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view


-       Cauda elongate triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, at least 1.1 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                                        …..7

2      SIPH 0.4-2.0 Χ cauda. Head smooth                                                                                …..3

-       SIPH 2.5-5.1 Χ cauda. Ventral and/or dorsal side of head with numerous small nodules or spicules or with fine spinulose imbrication                                                                        …..5

3      ANT and dorsal body hairs short, usually shorter than BD III. Head without spinal tubercles (STu), and marginal tubercles (MTu) often absent. Dorsum without dark sclerotisation

…..Brachycaudus helicrysi

-       Longest ANT and dorsal body hairs longer than BD III. Head with or without STu, and ABD TERG 1-5 with well-developed MTu. Dorsum with variably developed dark markings


4      SIPH only 0.03-0.08 mm long, 0.4-0.8 (-1.2) Χ cauda                    …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-       SIPH 0.11-0.18 mm long, 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda                                           …..Dysaphis pulverina

5      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation. Large, convex spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) present. SIPH 3.8-5.1 Χ cauda which bears 14-23 hairs

…..Zinia veronicae

-       Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark sclerotisation. STu and MTu absent or irregularly present, small. SIPH 2.5-3.4 Χ cauda which bears 4-6 hairs                                             …..6

6      ANT PT/BASE 2.4-2.8.  Head with medial tubercle developed to same extent as ANT tubercles, so that front of head has sinuous outline in dorsal view                                          

…..Myzodium mimulicola

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.4-3.8. Head with medial tubercle undeveloped          …..Dysaphis gallica

7      Head densely spiculose or nodulose, at least on ventral surface, and with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces steep-sided, parallel or apically convergent                   …..8

-       Head without spicules, or with only a few minute ones on ventral side. ANT tubercles weakly developed, of if well developed then with smooth, divergent inner faces        …..12

8      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark dorsal shield. SIPH and cauda dark

…..Myzus cerasi group (including M. veronicae)

-       Dorsal abdomen pale or with restricted dark markings. SIPH and cauda pale or dusky  …..9

9      Head with anterio-dorsal part devoid of spicules. SIPH 0.25-0.30 Χ BL, slightly swollen on distal part , and with at least 2-3 rows of closed polygonal cells subapically

…..Aulacorthum knautiae

-       Head densely spiculose or nodulose both dorsally and ventrally. SIPH 0.14-0.29 Χ BL, cylindrical/tapering or slightly to moderately swollen, without any distinct rows of closed polygonal cells                                                                                                                 …..10

10   SIPH coarsely imbricated and with distal half approximately cylindrical, with no point where it is thicker than in a more basal part, and often with a slight outward curve. ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 1.7-3.0                                                                                              .....11

-       SIPH not coarsely imbricated, and the distal half with at least with some degree of swelling, or if tapering or cylindrical then ANT 1.1-1.5 Χ BL, and ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5

..... go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

11    Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental spots                      …..Myzus ornatus

-       Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings                                  …..Myzus lythri

12    ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces smooth and divergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                   …..13

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed, not extending forward beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 usually with MTu (except 1 species)                        …..17

13    SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.20 of length                                              

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..14

14    Dorsal body hairs long, thick and capitate, arising from tuberculate bases                    …..15

-       Dorsal body hairs not long, thick and capitate, without tuberculate bases                     …..16

15    SIPH 1.1-2.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II, with 2-5 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.3 Χ BD III                                                            …..Cryptomyzus galeopsidis

-       SIPH 2.4-3.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II, with 6-8 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.9 Χ BD III                                                                      …..Cryptomyzus ribis

16    Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                                                                     …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE less than 7.5. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.7 Χ BD III. Dorsum without any dark markings

…..Acyrthosiphon malvae

17    ABD TERG 2 and 3 as well as 1 and 7 consistently with conical or mammariform MTu, which are usually also on ABD TERG 4, and sometimes on 5 and 6                             …..18

-       MTu absent or only present on some of ABD TERG 2-4, and never on 5 and 6           …..19

18    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.33-0.5 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.3. SIPH 1.67-2.17 Χ cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs                                                                       …..Aphis berlinskii

-       Longest hairs on ANT III more than 2 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.1. SIPH 1.1-1.43 Χ cauda, which bears 11-17 hairs                                                            …..Aphis veronicicola*

19    MTu absent from ABD TERG 7, and usually also from ABD TERG 1 …..Aphis khrulevae*

-       MTu always present on both ABD TEGR 1 and ABD TERG 7                                    …..20

20    Cauda with 11-24 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.5 Χ (but usually more than 1.3 Χ) BD III                                                                                                               …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda with 4-11 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-1.3 Χ BD III                              …..21

21    ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. SIPH 0.7-1.3 Χ cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in al. ANT III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)                                                                                           …..Aphis triglochinis

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.8-4.1. SIPH 0.9-2.5 Χ cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in al. ANT III 4-16,

        IV 0-6, V 0-2)                                                                                                                 …..22

22    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.3 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdominal hairs long and fine-pointed; those on ABD TERG 3 more than 2 Χ BD III                                        …..Aphis korshunovi

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdominal hairs short, those on ABD TERG 3 maximally 1.3 Χ BD III                                                                                    …..23

23    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black patch. SIPH and cauda both black

.....Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsal abdomen without any extensive dark markings                                                   .....24

24    SIPH pale with dark apices. Cauda pale. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II             …..Aphis nasturtii

-     SIPH entirely dark. Cauda pale, dusky or dark. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II                       …..25

25    ANT PT/BASE 2.3-4.1. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II. (Sec. rhin. in al. ANT III 5-11, IV 0-5,

        V 0-1)                                                                            …..Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.0. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. (Sec. rhin. in al. ANT III 6-12, IV 0, V 0)

…..Aphis gossypii


Veronicastrum  see Veronica                                        Plantaginaceae


Vetiveria  see Chrysopogon                                    Poaceae

      Vetiveria zizanioides = Chrysopogon zizanioides


Vexibia see Sophora                                                           Fabaceae

      Vexibia pachycarpa = Sophora  pachycarpa


Viburnum                                                    Adoxaceae

      Viburnum acerifolium                  Aphis fabae, viburni, viburniphila,

                                                                  [viburnum-acerifolium Rafinesque (invalid name)];

                                                               Ceruraphis eriophori, viburnicola

        V. arboricola = V. odoratissimum var. awabuki                           

      V. atrocyaneum                             Aphis gossypii

        V. awabuki = V. odoratissimum var. awabuki                              

        V. bitchiuense                                Ceruraphis eriophori

        V. Χ bodnantense                          Aulacorthum solani; Ceruraphis eriophori;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

        V. bracteatum                                Myzus persicae

        V. burejaeticum                             Myzus persicae

        V. Χ burkwoodii                            Aphis fabae

        V. carlesii                                       Aphis fabae, spiraecola, viburni; Ceruraphis eriophori

        V. cassinoides = V. nudum var. cassinoides

        V. coriaceum                                 Aphis odinae

        V. costaricanum                            Aphis spiraecola

        V. cotinifolium                              Ceruraphis eastopi, eriophori

        V. dentatum (incl. V. pubescens)        Aphis crassicauda, fabae, spiraecola, viburniphila;

                                                               Ceruraphis eriophori, viburnicola

        V. dilatatum                                   Aphis fabae, odinae, spiraecola, viburni; Shinjia orientalis

        V. edule                                         [Acyrthosiphon macrosiphon]; Aphis fabae;

                                                               [Prociphilus xylostei]

        V. ellipticum                                  Ceruraphis viburnicola; [Utamphorophora humboldti]

        V. erosum                                      Aphis odinae; Shinjia orientalis

        V. farreri                                        Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        V. foetidum                                    Aphis citricidus, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                               Myzus ornatus

        V. formosanum                             Aphis odinae

        V. fragrans = V. farreri

        V. furcatum                                   Aphis odinae, spiraecola

        V. glomeratum                              Aphis spiraecola, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974];

                                                               Ceruraphis eriophori; Myzus persicae

        V. japonicum                                 Aphis spiraecola, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974];

                                                               Myzus persicae; Shinjia orientalis

        V. Χ juddii                                      Ceruraphis eriophori

        V. lantana                                      Aphis fabae, lantanae, lantanae ssp. coriaria, viburni;

                                                               Ceruraphis eriophori, viburnicola; Myzus persicae

        V. laurustinus = V. tinus

        V. lentago                                      Aphis solanella, viburni; Ceruraphis viburnicola

        V. lobophyllum                              [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974)]

        V. lutescens                                   Aphis odinae

        V. macrocephalum                       Aphis fabae; Ceruraphis eriophori; Myzus persicae

        V. molle                                         Aphis viburni

        V. mongolicum                             Aphis fabae

        V. mullaha                                    [Liosomaphis himalayensis]

        V. nudum var. cassinoides           Aphis viburniphila; Ceruraphis eriophori

        V. odoratissimum                          Aphis aurantii, fabae, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                               Ceruraphis viburnicola;   Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. odoratissimum var. awabuki    Aphis gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                               Sinomegoura citricola; Wahlgreniella viburni

        V. opulus (incl. vars americana,         Aphis [craccivora], fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi,

             calvescens, roseum, sterilis)                gossypii, [grossulariae], [hederae], [ilicis], lantanae,

                                                                   odinae, solanella, spiraecola, viburni, viburniphila,

                                                                   [viburnum-acerifolium Rafinesque (invalid)],

                                                                   [viburnum-opulus Rafinesque (invalid)];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Ceruraphis eriophori, viburnicola;

                                                               [Dysaphis plantaginea]; [Hyperomyzus lactucae];

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        V. orientale (?)                               Aphis fabae

        V. photinioides (?)                         Aphis odinae, spiraecola

        V. plicatum (incl. var. tomentosum)    Aphis fabae, odinae, spiraecola, viburniphila;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae

        V. prunifolium                              Aphis illinoisensis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

      V. pubescens see V. dentatum

        V. punctatum                                Aphis odinae

        V. rafinesquianum                        Aphis crassicauda, viburniphila

        V. recognitum                               Ceruraphis viburnicola

        V. rhytidophyllum                         Aphis spiraecola

        V. rigidum                                     [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974)]; Myzus persicae

        V. rosaceum                                  Aphis viburni

        V. sargentii                                    Aphis odinae, nerii, spiraecola, viburni;

                                                               Ceruraphis viburnicola; Shinjia orientalis;

                                                               Viburnaphis viburnicola

        V. sieboldi                                      Aphis odinae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974)];

                                                               Myzus persicae; Viburnaphis viburnicola

        V. stellulatum = V. mullaha

      V. suspensum                                Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Ceruraphis viburnicola;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. tinus                                          Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, lantanae, spiraecola,


                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

      V. tomentosum see V. plicatum

      V. trilobum                                    Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi;

                                                               Ceruraphis viburnicola; Myzus persicae

      V. urceolatum                               Myzus persicae                

        V. veitchi = V. glomeratum

        V. villosum                                    Aphis spiraecola

        Viburnum spp.                              Aphis [crinosa]; Mastopoda pteridis;

                                                               [Myzakkaia verbasci]; [Phorodon viburni];

                                                               [Rhopalomyzus smilacis]; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Viburnum (couplet 1 and 3 can be applied to fundatrices and alatae):-

1      Tarsi vestigeal, without claws                                                                                           …..2

-       Tarsi normal, with a pair of claws                                                                                     …..3

2      Head spiculose. ANT 5-segmented                                                      …..Mastopoda pteridis

-       Head without spicules. ANT 6-segmented                                              …..Shinjia orientalis

3      ABD TERG 7 with a pair of marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                    …..4

-       ABD TERG 7 without MTu                                                                                           …..11

4      (Not applicable to fundatrices) ABD TERG 8 with (2-) 3-12 long hairs associated with a dark transverse sclerotic band, and often (except in small specimens) there are variably developed dark sclerotic markings on more anterior tergites                                            …..5

-       ABD TERG 8 bearing 2 hairs, with or without a dark transverse band, without dark dorsal markings more anteriorly                                                                                                 …..10

5      ABD TERG 2-4 regularly with MTu (total 6-9 on these segments), and MTu also sometimes on 5 and/or 6                                                                                                       …..Aphis viburni

-       ABD TERG 2-4 with a total of 0-6 Mtu                                                                          …..6

6      ABD TERG 1-5 each with a single pair of spinal hairs, much shorter than ventral hairs on same segments. Cauda more than 1.2 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view         …..7

-       ABD TERG 1-5 each with spinal hairs often duplicated (not in fund.), and often fine-pointed and as long as or longer than ventral hairs on same segments. Cauda 0.6-1.3 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                 …..9

7      Hairs on ANT III very long and fine, maximally (1.7-)2.45-3.5 Χ BD III                       …..8

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.4 Χ BD III                   …..Aphis fabae (incl ssp. mordvilkoi)

8      ABD TERG 8 with 2-4 hairs. Cauda with 14-18 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with MTu (0-2 in total). Dorsal abdomen with variably developed sclerotic markings, never forming a solid sclerotic shield                                                          …..Aphis lantanae s. str.

-       ABD TERG 8 with 4-12 hairs. Cauda with 17-24 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 regularly with some MTu (1-6 in total). Dorsal abdomen often with an almost solid sclerotic shield

…..Aphis lantanae ssp. coraria

9      Cauda 0.9-1.3 Χ its basal width. ANT III often with up to 15 small rhinaria, not in a row. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 20-28 not in a row, IV 5-7, V 0-2)                    …..Aphis viburniphila

-       Cauda 0.5-0.9 Χ its basal width. ANT III without rhinaria (except in obvious alatiforms). (Al. with sec. rhin. III 7-14 in a row, IV and V 0)                                …..Aphis crassicauda

10    Hind legs black except at bases of femora (not fund.). Fore- and mid-legs also mainly dark, except for fore femora which are entirely pale                                       …..Aphis illinoisensis

-       Hind tibiae pale or with paler mid sections. If fore- and mid-legs are mainly dark then fore femora are also dark distally        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 22

11    ANT tubercles undeveloped or very weakly developed, not projecting beyond convex middle part of front of head in dorsal view. SIPH entirely dark. (Spring colonies often comprise only fundatrices and emigrant alatae; couplets 11-14 can be applied to these morphs)                                                                                                                            …..12

-       ANT tubercles moderately to well developed. SIPH pale or dusky, or dark only distally


12    SIPH bearing several hairs. Cauda rounded, distinctly shorter than its basal width, with 8-15 hairs. Hind tibia with 7-15 scent glands on distal part                ….. Viburnaphis viburnicola

-       SIPH without hairs. Cauda tapering to a blunt or almost pointed apex, as long as or a little longer than its basal width, and bearing 5-7 hairs. Hind tibia with or without scent glands


13    Dorsum of fund. with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH (all morphs) more than 2 Χ cauda, black, and very coarsely imbricated                                                  …..Ceruraphis eriophori

-       Dorsum of fund. mainly pale. SIPH (all morphs) 1.1-2.0 Χ cauda, pale or dark, and either almost smooth, or with a few wavy lines of blunt spicules, or with very fine close-set spiculose imbrication                                                                                                       …..14

14    SIPH weakly and sparsely imbricated (aptera – fundatrix?), or with a few wavy lines of blunt spicules (alata, Fig.58a). ANT V and VI of al. with very large elongate primary rhinaria with naked rims (Fig.58c). Hind tibia without scent glands                         …..Ceruraphis eastopi

-       SIPH (all morphs) with very fine close-set rows of spiculose imbrication (Fig.58b). ANT V and VI of al. with primary rhinaria of normal size, rounded, with fimbriate rims. Distal part of hind tibia with scent glands (Fig.58d)                                       …..Ceruraphis viburnicola

15    SIPH strongly swollen over about distal 0.75 of length, with maximum width of swollen part c.2 Χ minimum width near base. Head without spicules. ANT tubercles only moderately developed, and median tubercle prominent                                    …..Wahlgreniella viburni*

-       Without the above combination of characters; if SIPH are strongly swollen then head is spiculose with well-developed, steep-sided or apically convergent ANT tubercles, and median tubercle not developed    …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4


Vicia                                                            Fabaceae

      Vicia alpestris                                Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        V. altissima                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccae

        V. americana                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum creelii

        V. amoena                                     Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale, pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccivora, craccivora ssp. pseudacaciae;

                                                               Megoura crassicauda

        V. amurensis                                 Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale

                                                               Aphis craccivora, craccivora ssp. pseudacaciae;

                                                               Megoura crassicauda

        V. angustifolia                               Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Megoura crassicauda, viciae

        V. angustifolia ssp. segetalis = V. sativa ssp. niga

        V. atropurpurea =  V. benghalensis

        V. benghalensis                             Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        V. calcarata = V. monantha

      V. cassubica                                  Aphis craccae, craccivora; Megoura viciae;

                                                               [Therioaphis trifolii]

        V. cinerea = V. monantha

          V. costata                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum

      V. cracca (incl. ssp. incana)               Acyrthosiphon loti, pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccae, craccivora, fabae;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Megoura crassicauda, viciae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus heikinheimoi

        V. dalmatica = V. tenuifolia ssp. dalmatica

          V. dasycarpa                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccae

      V. dumetorum                               Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccae

        V. ervilia                                        Aphis fabae

       V. faba                                           Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                              Aphis aurantii, craccae, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [loti],

                                                                   solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum creelii, euphorbiae;

                                                              Megoura crassicauda, viciae;

                                                              Myzus antirrhinii, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale];  Smynthurodes betae

       V. flava (?flavida)                            Megoura crassicauda

       V. gigantea                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum creelii

        V. grandiflora                                Acyrthosiphon pisum

        V. hirsuta                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Megoura viciae; Megourella tribulis

        V. incana = V. cracca ssp. incana

        V. japonica                                    Aphis craccivora; Megoura crassicauda

      V. ludoviciana                               Acyrthosiphon pisum

        V. lutea                                          Aphis craccae, craccivora; Megourella tribulis

        V. megalotropis                             Aphis craccivora; Megoura crassicauda

        V. monantha                                 Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum; Aphis craccae, craccivora

      V. narbonensis                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae

        V. nipponica                                  Aphis craccivora             

        V. onobrychioides                         Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae

        V. pannonica                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        V. peregrina                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae

        V. pilosa = V. sativa ssp. nigra

      V. pisiformis                                  Megoura viciae

      V. pseudo-orobus                          Aphis craccivora, craccivora ssp. pseudacaciae;

                                                               Megoura crassicauda

      V. pulchella                                   Aphis craccivora

        V. purpurea = V. alpestris

        V. sativa (incl. ssp. nigra)                  Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccae, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Megoura crassicauda,  viciae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. segetalis = V. sativa ssp. nigra

        V. sepium                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccae, craccivora, fabae;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Megoura crassicauda, viciae;

                                                               Megourella tribulis; Myzus persicae

        V. subcuspidata = V. venosa ssp. cuspidata                                

        V. subvillosa                                  Aphis craccae, craccivora

        V. sylvatica                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Megoura viciae

        V. tenuifolia (incl. sspp. dalmatica,    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccae, craccivora;

                                              variabilis)   Megoura viciae

        V. tetrasperma                               Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora                            

        V. unijuga                                     Aphis craccae, craccivora; Megoura crassicauda

        V. variabilis = V. tenuifolia ssp. variabilis

        V. venosa (incl. ssp. cuspidata)          Acyrthosiphon pisum; Megoura crassicauda, nigra

        V. villosa                                        Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccae, craccivora;

                                                               Megoura viciae

        Vicia spp.                                      Myzus cymbalariae

Key to apterae on Vicia:-

(For illustrated keys to apterae on cultivated legumes see Blackman & Eastop 2000)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent                                           …..Smynthurodes betae

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH present                                                                   …..2

2      Dorsal abdomen anterior to SIPH with an extensive solid black shield                           …..3

-       Dorsal abdomen anterior to SIPH membranous or with only small scattered dark markings


3      SIPH 0.7-1.0 Χ cauda                                                                                   …..Aphis craccae

-       SIPH 1.1-2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                        …..4

4      Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 much shorter than ANT BD III, and those on ABD TERG 8 usually blunt and about equal to BD III                                          …..Aphis craccivora s.str.

-       Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 as long as or a little longer than ANT BD III, and those on ABD TERG 8 pointed and c. 2 Χ BD III                  …..Aphis craccivora ssp. pseudacaciae

5      Head smooth with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent               …..6

-       Either head densely spiculose and ANT tubercles with steep-sided, scabrous inner faces, or ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed                                                         …..16

6      SIPH pale, dark or dark-tipped, tapering or cylindrical. Cauda pale                                …..7

-       SIPH dark, swollen in middle or on distal half. Cauda pale or dark                              …..13

7      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.2 Χ BD III                                                                                                                               …..8

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III …..9

8      ANT BASE VI 0.8-1.3 Χ R IV+V                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       ANT BASE VI 1.4-2.0 Χ R IV+V                                                     …..Macrosiphum creelii

9      ANT BASE VI 1.1-1.7 Χ R IV+V. SIPH not attenuated distally, 0.20-0.35 Χ BL, and thicker than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths                                                    …..10

-       ANT BASE VI 1.8-3.0 Χ R IV+V. SIPH attenuated distally, 0.22-0.50 Χ BL, as thin as or thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths                                                   …..11

10   SIPH 1.6-2.1 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-6.0                                 .....Acyrthosiphon kondoi

-      SIPH 1.2-1.6 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-4.2                                      .....Acyrthosiphon loti

11    SIPH 0.42-0.50 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                                    …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH 0.22-0.38 Χ BL, and 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda                                                                    …..12

12    ANT and SIPH mainly dark. ANT III with 4-10 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 2.8-3.0 Χ R IV+V                                                                            .....Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale*

-       ANT and SIPH mainly pale. ANT III with 1-5 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 1.5-2.5 Χ R IV+V                                                                                              ..... Acyrthosiphon pisum

13    SIPH 1.5-1.7 Χ cauda. All dorsal abdominal hairs arising from conspicuous dark scleroites

…..Megourella tribulis

-       SIPH 0.8-1.33 Χ cauda. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs small or absent                    …..14

14    Hind tibiae pale on basal 0.6-0.7. R IV+V 0.88-1.0 Χ HT II. ANT III with usually more than 50 (28-64) rhinaria                                                                                        .....Megoura nigra

-       Hind tibiae variably pigmented but often mainly or entirely dark. R IV+V 0.63-0.87 Χ HT II. ANT III with less than 50 rhinaria                                                                              .....15

15    ANT III with 5-26 (usually 10-18) rhinaria, not in a row, on basal 0.75 of segment (ANT IV of al. with 0-7 rhinaria)                                                                               …..Megoura viciae

-       ANT III with  (15-) 21-50 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.75-0.90 of segment. (ANT IV of al. with more than 17 rhinaria)                                                     …..Megoura crassicauda

16    Head and ANT I and II black. ANT III distally dark with a row of 2-9 rhinaria. SIPH strongly swollen over distal 0.7                                       …..Rhopalosiphoninus heikinheimoi

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Vicoa  see Pentanema                                              Asteraceae                    


Victoria                                                        Nymphaeaceae

     Victoria regia                                  Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Vigna (including Voandzeia)                                          Fabaceae

      Vigna ambacensis = V. heterophylla

        V. adenantha                                Microparsus puertoricensis

        V. angularis (incl. var.                    Aphis craccivora, [cytisorum], gossypii, nerii;

                               nipponensis)             Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Macrocaudus phaseoli Shinji 1930 (nomen dubium)];

                                                              Myzus persicae

        V. antunesii                                  Aphis craccivora

        V. catjang = V. unguiculata             

        V. cylindrica = V. unguiculata ssp. cylindrica                              

        V. difformis (?)                              Aphis gossypii

        V. frutescens                                  Aphis craccivora

        V. heterophylla                              Aphis gossypii

        V. luteola                                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Microparsus brasiliensis, vignaphilus

        V. marina                                      Aphis craccivora

        V. mungo                                      Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               [Macrocaudus phaseoli Shinji 1930 (nomen dubium)];

        V. nuda = V. antunesii

        V. radiata  (incl. var. sublobata)         Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        V. reticulata                                   Aphis gossypii

        V. sesquipedalis  = V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis

        V. sinensis = V. unguiculata             

        V. subterranea                               Aphis craccivora, gossypii

        V. trilobata                                     Aphis craccivora

        V. unguiculata (incl. sspp.               Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                   cylindrica , sesquipedalis)           Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                                     Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Microparsus brasiliensis;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               [Pterocomma vignae Matusumura 1917];

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        Vigna sp.                                       Anomalosiphum indigoferae

Use key to apterae under Phaseolus.


Viguiera                                                       Asteraceae

      Viguiera cordifolia                        Aphis wahena; Uroleucon reynoldense

        V. dentata (incl. helianthoides)          Acyrthosiphon bidenticola;

                                                               Uroleucon ambrosiae, [maximilianicola], mexicanum

        V. linearis                                      Uroleucon paucosensoriatum, reynoldense

        V. multiflora = Heliomeris multiflora

        Viguiera sp.                                   Uroleucon richardsi

Key to apterae on Viguiera:-

1      ANT tubercles weakly developed, ANT c.0.75 Χ BL, with secondary rhinaria distributed III 3-5 (on distal part), IV 6-10, V 1-4. SIPH dark, 2.2-2.6 Χ cauda which bears 4 hairs

…..Aphis wahena

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      SIPH pale basally, slender, 20-35 Χ longer than diameter at midlength, and with any polygonal reticulation extending for less than 0.1 of length     …..Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-       SIPH uniformly dark or pale at base, thicker, less than 20 Χ diameter at midlength, with a distal zone of reticulation consisting of numerous polygonal cells extending over at least distal 0.2 of length                                                                                                             .....3

3      SIPH pale at base. ANT III with 12-31 rhinaria extending over 0.80-0.98 of length, with the majority on distal half                                                                          .....Uroleucon richardsi

-       SIPH entirely dark. ANT III with the majority of rhinaria on basal half                          .....4

4      Tibiae with pale middle section                      .....Uroleucon ambrosiae (or maximilianicola?)

-       Tibiae homogeneously pigmented or progressively darker from base                               .....5

5      ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. ANT III with 8-37 rhinaria                .....Uroleucon reynoldense

-       ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs. ANT III with 3-16 rhinaria                                                   .....6

6      SIPH reticulated on 0.41-0.60 of length. Cauda with 7-14 hairs (usually less than 10). R IV+V with 7-15 accessory hairs                                                      .....Uroleucon mexicanum

-       SIPH reticulated over less than 0.33 of length. Cauda with 12-18 hairs. R IV+V with 5-8 accessory hairs                                                                       .....Uroleucon paucosensoriatum


Villarsia                                                       Menyanthaceae

      Villarsia sp.                                   Aulacorthum solani


Villebrunea see Oreocnide                                              Urticaceae


Viminaria                                                    Fabaceae

      Viminaria juncea                          Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)


Vinca                                                           Apocynaceae

      Vinca difformis                             Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. herbacea                                   Brachunguis harmalae; Myzus persicae

        V. major                                        Aphis gossypii, nerii; Aulacorthum sensoriatum, solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        V. minor                                        Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae

        V. rosea = Catharanthus roseus

        Vinca sp.                                       [Acyrthosiphon pisum]

Key  to apterae on Vinca:-

1     ANT PT/BASE 0.4-0.7. SIPH are short pale tubes, 0.3-0.6 Χ cauda

…..Brachunguis harmalae

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4 or more than 1.25. SIPH if present either dark or longer than cauda (or both)                                                                                                                   …..2

2     SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without or with only 1-2 rows of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 13-22 small secondary rhinaria distributed in an irregular row along most of segment. Tergum sclerotic                                                                           .....Aulacorthum sensoriatum

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Vincetoxicum                                              Asclepiadaceae

     Vincetoxicum hirundinaria            Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani

      V. nigrum                                        Aphis nerii

      V. officinale                                     Aphis nerii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Viola                                                            Violaceae

      V. acuminata                                 Aphis violaeradicis

        V. arcuata                                      [Delphiniobium violisuctum];

                                                               [Meguroleucon longqishanense Zhang & Qiao in Qiao &

                                                                   Zhang 1999 (vagrant Uroleucon monticola?)]

        V. arvensis                                     Aphis violae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, certus, cymbalariae, persicae

        V. canadensis                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        V. canina                                       Aphis violae; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus certus

        V. collina                                       Aphis violaeradicis

        V. cornuta                                     Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        V. cucullata                                   Aulacorthum solani

        V. eugeniae                                   Myzus ascalonicus

        V. glabella                                     Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum violae

        V. hederacea                                 Myzus cymbalariae

        V. hirta = V. odorata

        V. hondoensis                                Aphis gossypii

        V. mandshurica                            Aphis sumire; Neotoxoptera violae

        V. nutallii (= Crocion nutallii)           Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. odorata                                      Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                               Aphis gossypii, violae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neotoxoptera oliveri, violae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus

        V. palustris                                    Aphis violae

        V. persicifolia                                Aphis violae

        V. philippica                                  Aphis [?gossypii (Chu 1949, on roots with eggs, =

                                                                  violaeradicis?)], sumire

        V. prionantha                                [?Aphis gossypii (Chu 1949, on roots with eggs; =


        V. reichenbachiana                       Aphis violae; Myzus ornatus

        V. riviniana                                   Myzus ascalonicus

        V. septentrionalis                           Myzus ascalonicus

        V. tricolor  (incl. vars hortensis,         Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, [umbrella], violae;

                                          maxima)         Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Illinoia azaleae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, certus, cymbalariae, ornatus,


                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; Neotoxoptera oliveri;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae

        V. verecunda = V. arcuata

        V. Χwittrockiana                            Myzus certus, ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        V. yedoensis = V. philippica

        Viola spp.                                      Abstrusomyzus phloxae; [Acyrthosiphon pisum];

                                                               [Aphis plantaginis]; [Jacksonia papillata];

                                                               [Neotoxoptera formosana]

Key to apterae on Viola:-

1      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                                                                    …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward so that there is a mid-frontal sinus  …..7

2      SIPH smooth, pale, conical, with a subapical incision below the flange. Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                  …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       SIPH imbricated, pale or dark, tapering, without a subapical annular incision. Cauda longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu       …..3

3      ABD TERG 2-4, and often 5 and 6, with MTu                                              …..Aphis violae

-       MTu of only sporadic occurrence on ABD TERG 2-6                                                     …..4

4      SIPH usually pale, or only dark at apices. (Sec. rhin. in al. ANT III 5-16, IV 1-6, V 0-2)

…..Aphis nasturtii

-       SIPH entirely dark. (Sec. rhin. in al. ANT III 3-12 (-15), IV 0 (-2), V 0 (-1))                 …..5

5      Hairs on ANT, legs and dorsal body very short, e.g. longest hair on ANT III 0.2-0.4 Χ BD III, posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.3-0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Marginal sclerites usually apparent on ABD TERG 1-5                                …..Aphis sumire

-       Hairs longer, e.g. longest hair on ANT III 0.4-1.0 Χ BD III, posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.5-1.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Marginal sclerites usually not apparent       


6      (Al. with 3-5 sec. rhin on ANT III)                                                   …..Aphis violaeradicis*

-       (Al. with 3-12 (-15) sec. rhin on ANT III)                                                  …..