HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Tra-Uva

 

Trachelanthus

Trachelium

Trachelospermum

Trachomitum

Trachycarpus

Trachymene

Trachyspermum

Trachystemon

Tradescantia

Tragopogon

Tragus

Trapa

Trautvetteria

Trema

Trevoa

Triadenum

Trianthema

Tribolium

Tribulus

Trichachne

Trichilia

Trichocentrum

Trichodesma

Tricholaena

Tricholepis

Trichophorum

Trichopilia

Trichosanthes

Trichostigma

Tricomaria

Tricuspis

Tricyrtis

Tridax

Tridens

Trientalis

Trifolium

Triglochin

Trigonella

Trinia

Triplaris

Tripleurospermum

Triplochlamys

Tripodion

Tripogon

Tripolium

Tripsacum

Tripteris

Trisetaria

Trisetum

Tristania

Tristemma

Tristerix

Triteleia

Triticum

Tritonia

Triumfetta

Trochodendron

Trollius

Trommsdorffia

Tropaeolum

Tsuga

Tulipa

Tupidanthus

Turbina

Turgenia

Turibana

Turnera

Turpinia

Turritis

Tussilago

Tweedia

Tylophora

Typha

Typhonium

Typhonodorum

 

Uapaca

Ulex

Ulmaria

ULMUS

Umbellularia

Umbilicus

Uncaria

Uncinia

Uniola

Urechtites

Urena

Urera

Urginea

Urochloa

Urospermum

Ursinia

Urtica

Utricularia

Uvaria

 

 

Trachelanthus                                             Boraginaceae

        Trachelanthus korolkowii             Brachycaudus bicolor

 

Trachelium                                                  Campanulaceae

      Trachelium caeruleum                 Dysaphis henrystroyani

 

Trachelospermum                                       Apocynaceae

        Trachelospermum asiaticum        Aphis gossypii; Eutrichosiphum parvulum                         

        T. jasminoides                               Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Eutrichosiphum parvulum;

                                                               Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Trachelospermum:-

-       SIPH cigar-shaped with numerous long bristle-like hairs, like those on dorsal body and appendages. Dorsum with a dark sclerotic shield                      …..Eutrichosiphum parvulum

-       SIPH without hairs. Dorsum without a dark sclerotic shield

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Trachomitum see Apocynum                                Apocynaceae

 

Trachycarpus                                              Arecaceae

      Trachycarpus excelsus = Rhapis excelsa

          T. fortunei                                     Aphis gossypii; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                               Sinomegoura citricola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Trachymene                                                Apiaceae

      Trachymene sp.                            Aphis fabae

 

Trachyspermum                                          Apiaceae

      Trachyspermum ammi                 Hyadaphis coriandri

 

Trachystemon                                             Boraginaceae

      Trachystemon orientalis               Myzus ornatus

 

Tradescantia (including Setoreasea, Zebrina)               Commelinaceae          

        Tradescantia fluminensis              Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        T. pallida                                       Aulacorthum solani

        T. pendula = T. zebrina

        T. purpurea = T. pallida

        T. virginiana                                  Myzus persicae

        T. zebrina                                      Aphis gossypii

        Tradescantia sp.                            Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tragopogon                                                 Compositae

        Tragopogon altaicus                     Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. angustifolius                             Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. borysthenicus                            Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. brevirostris                                Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. collinus                                      Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. coloratus                                   Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. crocifolius (incl. nebrodensis)        Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. dasyrhynchus                            Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. dubianskyi                                 Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. dubius                                       Brachycaudus [prunicola], tragopogonis;

                                                               Protaphis aralensis, terricola

        T. glaber = Geropogon hybridus

        T. graminifolius                            Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis fabae;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi, [prunicola], tragopogonis

        T. hybridus = Geropogon hybridus

        T. longirostris = T. porrifolius ssp. longirostris

        T. major                                         Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. major  ssp. dubius = T. dubius    

        T. marginifolius                            Brachycaudus tragopogonis; Protaphis aralensis

        T. nebrodensis= T. crocifolius ssp. nebrodensis

        T. orientalis                                   [Aphis jacobaeae];

                                                               Brachycaudus cardui, tragopogonis, tragopogonis ssp.

                                                                   setosus;

                                                               Hyperomyzus lactucae; Uroleucon cirsicola, cirsii

        T. paradoxus                                 Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. phaenopappus                          Uroleucon sp. (Lebanon, BMNH collection)

        T. podolicus                                   Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. porrifolius                                 Aphis gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Brachycaudus [prunicola], tragopogonis;

                                                               Hyperomyzus lactucae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Prociphilus erigerononsis; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               Trama caudata

        T. porrifolius ssp. longirostris       Aphis spiraecola;

                                                               Brachycaudus tragopogonis ssp. setosus

        T. pratensis                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                               Brachycaudus [prunicola], tragopogonis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Protaphis terricola; Trama troglodytes;

                                                               Uroleucon jaceae, [ochropus]

        T. pseudomajor                             Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. songoricus                                 Aphis craccivora; Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. tauricus = T. dubius

        T. transcarpaticus = T. pratensis

        T. turkestanicus                             Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. ucrainicus                                 Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        T. volgensis = T. podolicus

        Tragopogon spp.                           [Anuraphis ferganica (nomen nudum)];

                                                               Protaphis middletonii; Uroleucon erigeronense

Key to apterae on Tragopogon:-

1      HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia                                                               …..2

-       HT of normal length. SIPH (if present) tubular                                                                …..3

2      SIPH as small low cones. Eyes with 12 or more facets                              …..Trama caudata

-       SIPH completely absent. Eyes of only 3 facets                                     …..Trama troglodytes

3      Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation, including broad dark cross-bands on thorax and ABD TERG 1-7, the more anterior ones divided in middle. Cauda helmet-shaped,  less than 0.8 Χ its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                   …..4

-       Dorsal abdomen unsclerotised, or with a different pattern of sclerotisation. Cauda rounded, helmet-shaped, bluntly conical or finger-like, 0.9-2.5 Χ its basal width                           …..5

4      ABD TERG 3 with hairs 8-15 μm long                                 …..Brachycaudus tragopogonis

-       ABD TERG 3 with hairs 16-40 μm long          ….. Brachycaudus tragopogonis ssp. setosus

5      SIPH mainly or entirely dark with a zone of  reticulation comprising numerous small polygonal cells on distal 0.16-0.35 of length                                                                    …..6

-       SIPH if present and dark then without polygonal reticulation                                       …..11

6      Dorsal hairs not arising from dark scleroites                                                                     …..7

-       Dorsal hairs arising from dark scleroites                                                                           …..8

7      SIPH with pale basal section. ANT I and II and coxae pale        …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-       SIPH entirely dark, or sometimes a little paler in middle. ANT I and II and coxae dark

.....Uroleucon sonchi

8      First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. Cauda tapering from base to apex, with 12-16 hairs

                                                                              …..Uroleucon sp. (Lebanon, BMNH collection)

-       First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Cauda long and finger-like, with 20-45 hairs             …..9

9     Cauda dark like SIPH                                                                             …..Uroleucon jaceae

-       Cauda much paler than SIPH                                                                                          …..10

10  Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH 0.25-0.34 Χ BL. Cauda with

       20-33 hairs                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon cirsii

-      No antesiphuncular sclerites. SIPH 0.32-0.42 Χ BL. Cauda with 30-45 hairs

…..Uroleucon cirsicola

11   SIPH distinctly clavate, ANT III with 4-20 rhinaria, and ANT PT/BASE 4.6-8.0. Head smooth with well-developed, broadly divergent ANT tubercles    …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                           …..12

12   ANT PT/BASE within range 0.6-1.3. SIPH 0.65-0.77 Χ cauda, which bears 16-18 hairs

…..Protaphis aralensis* (or P. terricola – see text)?

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5 or more than 1.5. SIPH (if present) more than 0.8 Χ cauda, or with less hairs                                                                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Tragus                                                         Poaceae

      Tragus sp.                                     Rhopalosiphum maidis

 

Trapa                                                           Lythraceae

        Trapa natans (incl. var. bispinosa)    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Trautvetteria                                               Ranunculaceae

        Trautvetteria caroliniensis            Amphorophora sp. (see aphidtrek.org)

     

Trema                                                                                        Cannabaceae

        Trema amboinensis = T. cannabina

        T. “aureantalia” = T. orientalis?     Aphis gossypii

        T. cannabina                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        T. micrantha                                 Aphis spiraecola

        T. orientalis (?)                              Sumatraphis celti

 

-      SIPH tubular with a dsital ring of about 4 hairs, plus 1-2 hairs on the basal half. ABD TERG 7 withy 4 finger-like processes. ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.30                      .....Sumatraphis celti

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Trevoa                                                                                       Rhamnaceae

        Trevoa quinquenervia                Aphis conflicta

        T. trinervia = Retanilla trinervia

 

 

Triadenum                                                   Hypericaceae

        Triadenum virginicum                  Hyalomyzus pocosinus

 

Trianthema                                                 Aizoceae

      Trianthema portulacastrum         Aphis gossypii

 

Tribolium (including Plagiochloa)                               Poaceae                         

        Tribolium uniolae                         Geoica lucifuga

 

Tribulus                                                       Zygophyllaceae

        Tribulus bimucronatus                 [Hyadaphis foeniculi]; Aphis craccivora

        T. cistoides                                     Aphis craccivora

        T. cristatus                                     Aphis craccivora

        T. maximus = Kallstroemia maxima  

        T. pentandrus                                Aphis gossypii

        T. pterophorus                               Aphis craccivora

        T. terrestris                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        T. zeyheri                                       Aphis craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Trichachne see Digitaria                                         Poaceae

 

Trichilia                                                      Meliaceae

        Trichilia lagoensis                         Aphis sp. (Brazil: BMNH collection)

 

Trichocentrum                                            Orchidaceae

      Trichocentrum cebolleta               Aphis spiraecola

(or use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium)

 

Trichodesma                                               Boraginaceae

        Trichodesma indicum                   [Aphis sp. (Pakistan)]; [Myzakkaia verbasci]

        T. physaloides                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        T. zeylanicum                                Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tricholaena                                                 Poaceae

        Tricholaena repens = Melinis repens

        T. rosea = Melinis repens

        T. teneriffae                                   Colopha graminis

        Tricholaena sp.                             Sipha flava

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.

 

Tricholepis                                                  Compositae

        Tricholepis furcata                        Capitophorus tricholepidis; Uroleucon kumaoni

        T. stewartei                                    Uroleucon kumaoni

Key to apterae on Tricholepis:-

-       Body and appendages pale. Dorsal body hairs long and thick, arising from tuberculate bases, with knobbed apices. SIPH long, thin and pale, without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                         …..Capitophorus tricholepidis

-       Body and appendages with dark pigmentation, incl. small scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs, which do not have distinctly knobbed apices. SIPH black, rather thick, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 39-49 rhinaria                           …..Uroleucon kumaoni

 

 

Trichopilia                                                  Orchidaceae

        Trichopilia coccinea = T. marginata

        T. fragrans                                    Sitobion luteum

        T. marginata                                 Sitobion luteum

(Or use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium)

 

Trichophorum                                                      Cyperaceae

      Trichophorum caespitosum          Hyalopterus pruni

 

Trichosanthes                                             Cucurbitaceae

        Trichosanthes anguina                 Aphis gossypii, [umbrella]

        T. cucumerina                               Aphis gossypii

        T. cucumeroides                            Aphis gossypii

        T. dioica                                         Aphis gossypii, [umbrella]

 

Trichostigma                                               Phytolaccaceae

      Trichostigma octandrum              Aphis gossypii

 

Tricomaria                                                  Malpighiaceae

      Tricomaria usillo                           Aphis craccivora

 

Tricuspis see Tridens                                                         Poaceae

      Tricuspis sesleroides = T. flavus

 

Tricyrtis                                                       Asparagaceae

      Tricyrtis formosana                       Aulacorthum solani

      T. hirta                                           Aulacorthum solani

     

Tridax                                                          Compositae

       Tridax procumbens                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus carduellinus;

                                                               [Hysteroneura setariae]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               [Rhodobium porosum]; Uroleucon ambrosiae

Key to apterae on Tridax:-

-       SIPH distinctly clavate, and almost smooth. ANT III with 11-29 rhinaria, and sec. rhinaria also often present on IV and V. Head smooth with well-developed divergent ANT tubercles

…..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Tridens                                                        Poaceae

      Tridens flavus                                Hyalopteroides humilis; Hysteroneura setariae

       (= Tricuspis seslerioides)

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.

 

 

Trientalis                                                     Primulaceae

     Trientalis europea ssp. latifolia       Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

     T. latifolia = T. europea ssp. latifolia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Trifolium                                                     Leguminosae

      Trifolium agrarium = T. aureum

        T. alexandrinum                           Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Nearctaphis bakeri;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. alpestre                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Therioaphis luteola, subalba

        T. ambiguum                                Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Therioaphis trifolii

        T. angustifolium                            Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                               Nearctaphis bakeri

        T. arvense                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Therioaphis [ononidis], trifolii

        T. aureum                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum; [Aphis loti]; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. campestre                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                               Aphis coronillae, craccivora, gossypii;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Subacyrthosiphon cryptobium;

                                                               Therioaphis [ononidis], trifolii

        T. caucasicum                               Aphis coronillae

        T. cherleri                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. cryptopodium                            Aphis craccivora

        T. dichroanthum                           Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. dubium                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis ?coronillae (as scaliai);

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. elatius see T.  incarnatum

        T. filiforme auct. = T. dubium

          T. fragiferum                                 Aphis coronillae

        T. hirtum                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. hybridum                                  Acyrthosiphon [malvae], pisum;

                                                               Aphis coronillae, craccivora, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Nearctaphis bakeri, crataegifoliae;

                                                               Prociphilus erigeronensis; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. incarnatum (incl. elatius)             Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Nearctaphis bakeri; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. lappaceum                                Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. leucanthum                               Aphis craccivora

        T. lupinaster                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. macrocephalum                        Nearctaphis bakeri

        T. medium                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis coronillae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Subacyrthosiphon cryptobium;

                                                               Therioaphis luteola, [ononidis], subalba, trifolii

        T. microphyllum                           Nearctaphis bakeri

        T. montanum                                Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Therioaphis subalba, trifolii

        T. nigrescens                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Therioaphis trifolii

        T. ochroleucon                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        T. officinale                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis riehmi

        T. pannonicum                             Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. pratense                                     Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                               Aphis coronillae, craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                   nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Geoica utricularia]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [gei];

                                                               Megoura viciae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nearctaphis bakeri, [sensoriata];

                                                               Pemphigus ?populi (Zwφlfer 1958),

                                                                  Pemphigus sp. (as lactucae);

                                                               [Sitobion akebiae];

                                                               Therioaphis brachytricha, luteola, subalba, trifolii

        T. procumbens = T. campestre         

        T. prutetianum                              Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

        T. repens (incl. var. latum)             Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                               Aphis coronillae, [coronillae ssp. arenaria], craccivora,

                                                                    fabae, gossypii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Geoica lucifuga; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Nearctaphis bakeri;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sipha glyceriae];

                                                               Subacyrthosiphon cryptobium; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. resupinatum                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Nearctaphis bakeri; Therioaphis trifolii

        T. rubens                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. scabrum                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi

        T. striatum                                     Smynthurodes betae

        T. subterraneum                           Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               [Geoica lucifuga]; [Schizaphis graminum]

        T. tomentosum                              Aphis craccivora

        Trifolium spp.                               Abstrusomyzus phloxae; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                               Nearctaphis californica, zabapsis;

                                                               [Semiaphis heraclei]

Key to apterae on Trifolium (couplets 1-2 only can also be applied to alatae) :-

1     Fore coxae greatly enlarged. SIPH in form of small truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                                                       .….2

-      Fore coxae normal. Form of SIPH (if present) various. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire                                                                                                                          …..6

2     All viviparae are alate. ABD TERG 1-7 each with 4 hairs 16-26 μm long

…..Therioaphis riehmi

-      Apterae commonly present.  ABD TERG 1-7 each usually with more than 4 hairs, the longest of which are either less than 16 μm or more than 26 μm long                                           …..3

3     All hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 very short, 7-10 μm long, much shorter than ANT BD III, arising from rugose sclerotic patches (Fig.40c)                                       …..Therioaphis brachytricha

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 more than 30 μm long and arising from conical processes

…..4

4     ABD TERG 1-5 each with only 4 long hairs (2 spinal, 2 marginal) arising from large conical processes, although often with additional much smaller hairs in pleural region (Fig.53a)

       …..Therioaphis subalba

-      ABD TERG 1-5 mostly with at least 6 long hairs of similar length all arising from large conical processes                                                                                                                …..5

5     ABD TERG 1-5 each rather regularly with 6 long hairs, arising from conical processes on evenly pigmented dusky sclerites without dark borders (Fig.53b)       …..Therioaphis luteola

-      ABD TERG 1-5 each with more than 6 hairs, arising from conical processes on sclerites that have dark borders (Fig.40f)                                                        …..Therioaphis trifolii (s. lat.)

6      Head spiculose or nodulose, but with ANT tubercles undeveloped. SIPH with close-set, strongly spiculose imbrication                                                                                           …..7

-       Head smooth or, if spiculose or nodulose then with ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH (if present) with normal imbrication                                                                                     …..11

7      Hind tibiae with numerous circular scent glands                            …..Nearctaphis sensoriata

-       Hind tibiae without scent glands                                                                                      …..8

8      Dorsal abdomen with extensive sclerotisation, variably developed but at least with complete broad dark cross-bands covering most of ABD TERG 5-8                                              …..9

-       Dorsal abdomen with at most with dark bars on ABD TERG 5-8, more anterior segments having small dark or pale brown sclerites at bases of hairs                                             …..10

9      Dorsal surface of head evenly and densely nodulose. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.7

…..Nearctaphis californica

-       Dorsal surface of head with dispersed spicules. ANT PT/BASE  1.3-1.7

…..Nearctaphis zabapsis*

10    R IV+V 0.14-0.18 mm long, and usually with 4 accessory hairs. Dorsal hairs mostly not arising from dark scleroites. SIPH dusky or dark                     …..Nearctaphis crataegifoliae

-       R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long, with 2 (-3) accessory hairs. Dorsal hairs all or mostly arising from dark scleroites. SIPH pale                                                            …..Nearctaphis bakeri

11    ANT tubercles very well developed and head not densely spiculose/nodulose             …..12

-       Either ANT tubercles are not developed or only weakly developed, or head is densely spiculose/nodulose                                                                                                           …..17

12    Head black. SIPH black and swollen in middle, similar in length to cauda, which is also black                                                                                                           …..Megoura viciae

-       Head pale or dusky. SIPH pale or dark towards apices, not swollen in middle and much longer than the cauda, which is also pale                                                                        …..13

13    ANT tubercles scabrous or nodulose ventrally (Fig.53c). Small dark ante- and post-siphuncular sclerites present, and dusky sclerotic cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8

…..Subacyrthosiphon cryptobium

-       ANT tubercles not scabrous or nodulose. No dark dorsal sclerotisation                        …..14

14    SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation, comprising 4-5 rows of large polygonal cells. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                               …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III all shorter than BD III           …..15

15    SIPH tapering from base to apex, not attenuate distally; diameter at midlength greater than middle diameter of hind tibia. ANT I with 6-10 hairs. ANT BASE VI 1.0-1.5 Χ longer than R IV+V                                                                                            …..Acyrthosiphon kondoi

-       SIPH attenuate distally, with diameter at midlength similar to or less than middle diameter of hind tibia. ANT I with 9-23 (usually 12 or more) hairs. ANT BASE VI 1.8-3.0 Χ longer than R IV+V                                                                                                                   ..…16

16    SIPH 2.2-3.3 Χ cauda and 0.33-0.45 Χ BL                                    …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda and 0.22-0.37 Χ BL                                       …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

17    Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, divided into polygons                   …..18

-       Dorsal abdomen not extensively sclerotised                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

18    ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) rather regularly bearing dome-shaped marginal tubercles (MTu), totalling 4-10 on these tergites                                                                  …..Aphis coronillae

-       ABD TERG 2-6 usually without MTu, rarely with 1-3 small ones          …..Aphis craccivora

 

Triglochin                                                   Juncaginaceae

      Triglochin maritima                      Aphis triglochinis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis palustris; Sitobion avenae

        T. palustre                                     Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis palustris

Key to apterae on Triglochin:-

1      SIPH dark with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation, 1.1-1.4 Χ the much paler cauda

…..Sitobion avenae

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation, and SIPH and cauda with similar pigmentation   …..2

2      ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8                                                                           …..Aphis triglochinis

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.6-5.2                                                                                                     …..3

3     Dorsal cuticle dusky/dark, sclerotic and very rough, with close-set irregular angular denticulation. Marginal abdominal tubercles (MTu) absent. SIPH short, tapering without a subapical constriction, 0.08-0.11 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.1         …..Schizaphis palustris

-       Dorsal cuticle pale, ornamented with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons. Small MTu present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. SIPH 0.11-0.21 Χ BL, clavate or cylindrical on distal half, with a smooth constricted region close to flange. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.8                      …..4

4     SIPH clavate, more than 2 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-4.0  …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH not clavate; not more than 2 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.6-5.2

…..Rhopalosiphum padi

 

Trigonella                                                   Leguminosae

      Trigonella anguina                       Therioaphis riehmi

        T. arabica                                      Aphis craccivora

        T. caerulea                                    Therioaphis riehmi

        T. corniculata                                Acyrthosiphon pisum

        T. foenum-graecum                      Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae; Therioaphis riehmi, trifolii

        T. geminiflora                               Aphis craccivora

        T. laciniata                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        T. orthoceras = Medicago orthoceras

        T. polycerata = Medicago polyceratia

          T. procumbens                              Aphis craccivora

        T. radiata = Medicago radiata

        T. stellata                                       Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum; Aphis craccivora

Use key to apterae on Melilotus.

 

Trinia                                                          Apiaceae

      Trinia glauca                                 Aphis spiraephaga

 

Triplaris                                                                Polygonaceae

      Triplaris americana                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      T. brasiliana = T. americana

      T. cumingiana                              Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Triplochlamys  see Pavonia                            Malvaceae

     Triplochlamys multiflora = Pavonia multiflora

 

Tripleurospermum                                      Compositae

      Tripleurospermum ambiguum     [Acyrthosiphon ilka]; Aphis craccivora

      T. disciforme                                 Aphis fabae

      T. inodorum (incl. perforatum)          [Acyrthosiphon ilka, pisum];

                                                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella,

                                                                   vandergooti;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus cardui, [cerasicola], helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                               Coloradoa inodorella;

                                                               Macrosiphoniella abrotani, millefolii, oblonga, [pulvera],

                                                                   tanacetaria, tapuskae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Metopeurum [fuscoviride], matricariae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Pemphigus bursarius, fuscicornis;

                                                               Protaphis dudichi; Trama troglodytes

        T. maritimum (incl. var.                  Aphis fabae, lindae; Aulacorthum solani;

                       phaenocephalum)                   Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

        T. perforatum = T. inodorum           

        T. tenuifolium                               Aphis fabae

Use key to apterae on both Matricaria and Tripleurospermum under Matricaria.

 

Tripodion                                                    Leguminosae

      Tripodion tetraphyllum              Aphis craccivora            

 

Tripogon                                                      Poaceae

      Tripogon jacquemontii                 Hysteroneura setariae

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Tripolium                                                    Compositae

      Tripolium pannonicum             Aphis fabae, [triglochinis], tripolii;

                         ssp. tripolium        Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella asteris; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus trehernei; [Staticobium loochooense]

Use key to apterae on Aster.

 

Tripsacum                                                   Poaceae

      Tripsacum latifolium                    Hysteroneura setariae

        T. laxum                                        Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Tripteris                                                       Compositae

      Tripteris vaillantii                          Myzus persicae

 

Trisetaria                                                     Poaceae

      Trisetaria koelerioides                   Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        T. linearis                                      Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha maydis;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sitobion fragariae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Trisetum                                                      Poaceae

      Trisetum flavescens                       Chaetosiphella stipae; Forda formicaria;

                                                               Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                               Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                               Tetraneura ulmi

        T. koelerioides = Trisetaria koelerioides

          T. lineare = Trisetaria linearis

        T. sibiricum                                   Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

        T. spicatum                                    Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion fragariae

        T. subspicatum = T. spicatum

          Trisetum sp.                                  Sipha elegans

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

 

Tristania                                                                                                            Myrtaceae

          Tristania conferta                         Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Myzus ornatus                                                                                     

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Tristemma                                                   Melastomataceae

      Tristemma mauritianum              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Tristerix                                                       Loranthaceae

      Tristerix sp.                            Aphis conflicta

 

Triteleia                                                       Asparagaceae

      Triteleia hyacinthina                     Aulacorthum solani

 

Triticum                                                      Poaceae

      Triticum aestivum                         Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, furcata, [radiciphaga],

                                                                   similiradiciphaga, vagans;

                                                               Aphis craccivora; Baizongia pistaceae;

                                                               Carolinaia rhois; Cavariella aquatica;

                                                               Diuraphis frequens, noxia, tritici;

                                                               Forda [auralenta], formicaria, hirsuta, marginata,

                                                                   [multicoma], orientalis, pawlowae, riccobonii;

                                                               Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, utricularia;

                                                               Hysteroneura setariae; Israelaphis lambersi;

                                                               Laingia psammae;

                                                               Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium,

                                                                   longicaudatum;

                                                               Myzus obtusirostris, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Paracletus bykovi, cimiciformis; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                               Pemphigus [betae], vulgaris;

                                                               [Rectinasus buxtoni]; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi, padiformis,

                                                                   rufiabdominale;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum;

                                                               Sipha [arenarii], elegans, flava, maydis, uvarovi;

                                                               Sitobion africanum, akebiae, avenae, fragariae, graminis,

                                                                   miscanthi, yakini ;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               Tetraneura africana, caerulescens, chui, fusiformis,

                                                                   radicicola, ulmi

      T. asiaticum = T. aestivum

      T. boeoticum                                   Sipha elegans

      T. caninum = Elymus caninus

      T. compactum                                 Metopolophium dirhodum

      T. dicoccoides                                  Melanaphis pyraria; Sitobion fragariae

      T. dicoccum                                    Aploneura lentisci; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae

      T. durum                                         Anoecia vagans; Aphis fabae; Aploneura lentisci;

                                                               Diuraphis noxia; Geoica harpazi, lucifuga, utricularia;

                                                               Hysteroneura setariae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Myzus persicae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, maydis;

                                                               Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               Tetraneura africana, ulmi

      T. monococcum                              Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium durhodum;

                                                               Sipha elegans

      T. polonicum                                   Metopolophium durhodum; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                               Sitobion fragariae

      T. repens =Elymus repens

      T. sativum = T. aestivum

      T. spelta                                           Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha maydis

      T. trichophorum = Elymus hispidus

      T. turanicum                                   Anoecia corni; Aphis craccivora; Aploneura lentisci; 

                                                               Diuraphis noxia; Forda formicaria, orientalis;

                                                               Geoica utricularia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                               Sipha elegans, maydis; Sitobion avenae;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae; Tetraneura ulmi  

      T. turgidum                                     Metopolophium dirhodum

      T. vulgare = T. aestivum

      Triticum sp.                                     Paracletus donisthorpei; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                               Sipha glyceriae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Tritonia (including Montbretia)                                    Iridaceae

      Tritonia crocata                             Neomyzus circumflexus

        T. fenestrata = T. crocata

      Tritonia sp.                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Sitobion fragariae]

Use key to apterae on Iris.

 

Triumfetta                                                   Tiliaceae

     Triumfetta bogotensis                     Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

     T. pentandra                                   Aphis gossypii

      T. pilosa = T. bogotensis

      T. rhomboidea                                Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Sitobion triumfettae;

                                                               Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Triumfetta:-

-       SIPH dark with polygonal reticulation on subapical 0.10-0.17 of length. Cauda pale. Dorsal abdomen pale or with faint sclerotic cross-bands. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.4 Χ BD III

…..Sitobion triumfettae

-       Without the above combination of characters                 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Trochodendron                                                                  Trochodendraceae

        Trochodendron aralioides            Elatobium trochodendri

 

Trollius                                                         Ranunculaceae

      Trollius altaicus                             Aphis nasturtii

        T. chinensis                                   Aphis fabae

        T. europaeus                                 Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                               Macrosiphum trollii

        T. pumilus                                     Aulacorthum solani

        Trollius sp. (and cult.)                   Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Trollius:-

-       SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 20-36 small rhinaria in an irregular row over 0.4-0.75 of length                                              …..Macrosiphum trollii

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Trommsdorffia                                             Compositae

     Trommsdorffia uniflora = Hypochaeris uniflora

 

Tropaeolum                                                 Tropaeolaceae

      Tropaeolum majus                        Aphis craccivora, fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, gossypii,

                                                                   nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        T. minus                                        Aphis fabae

        T. peregrinum                               Aphis fabae

        T. tricolor                                       Myzus persicae

        Tropaeolum sp.                             Aphis sp.(Chile, BMNH collection, leg. R. Carrillo)

Key to apterae on Tropaeolum:-

1     SIPH slightly swollen, but not clavate (without narrow section on basal half). ANT tubercles absent, or if developed then not projecting forward beyond middle part of head, so that front of head is convex, straight or sinuate in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                  …..2

-       Without this combination of characters; i.e. if SIPH are present then they are tapering, cylindrical or clavate (with narrow section on basal half), and either ANT tubercles are very well-developed or ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu                                                           3

2      ANT III 2.5-3.7 Χ SIPH, which are 0.8-1.0 Χ the broad-based triangular cauda. Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark markings on most tergites         …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-       ANT III 1.2-1.7 Χ SIPH, which are 1.2-1.6 Χ the tongue-shaped cauda. Dorsal abdomen  usually with cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, but without markings anterior to SIPH

…..Lipaphis erysimi

3      SIPH and cauda both equally dark. Cauda with 9-24 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III are at least 0.7 Χ BD III                                                                                                              …..4

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

4      ABD TERG 1-7 with broad dark cross-bands, partially fused between segments. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-0.9 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Cauda elongate triangular, tapering almost to a point, with 9-10 hairs                        …..Aphis sp. (Chile, BMNH colln)

-       ABD TERG 1-5 without broad dark cross-bands, at most with only scattered dark irregular sclerites. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.4 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda

        tongue-shaped, rather rounded at apex, and bearing 11-24 hairs                                     …..5

5     Length of rostrum (from base of protractor apodeme) 0.69-0.79 mm. R IV+V (0.9-)1.0-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                                        …..Aphis fabae ssp. mordvilkoi

-      Length of rostrum 0.44-0.62 mm. R IV+V 0.85-1.05 Χ HT II                 .....Aphis fabae s.str.

 

Tsuga                                     Hemlocks                           Pinaceae

        Tsuga brunoniana = T. dumosa

        T. canadensis                                Adelges tsugae; Prociphilus pini

        T. caroliniana                               Adelges tsugae

        T. chinensis (incl. ssp.  formosana)    Adelges tsugae; Cinara taiwana

        T. diversifolia                                Adelges tsugae; [Cinara ozawai]

        T. dumosa                                     Adelges tsugae; Prociphilus taxus

        T. formosana= T. chinensis

        T. forrestii                                     Adelges tsugae

        T. heterophylla                              Adelges tsugae; [Aphis fabae];

                                                              Cinara [piceae], pilicornis, tsugae;

                                                              Illinoia patriciae

        T. mertensiana                              Cinara tsugae, [wahsugae];

                                                              [Macrosiphum opportunisticum]                                        

        T. sieboldii                                     Adelges tsugae; Mindarus ?abietinus;

                                                              Tsugaphis sorini

Key to aphids on Tsuga (apterous parthenogenetic morph except where otherwise stated):-

1     Body pear-shaped, broadest anteriorly, with conspicuous wax pores on all segments.  Chitinous ovipositor present.  Antennae very short, 3-segmented               .....Adelges tsugae

-      Body not broadest anteriorly, with or without wax glands.  No chitinous ovipositor.  Antennae with 4 to 6 segments                                                                                          .....2

 

2     Body aleyrodiform; flattened, elliptical, divided about equally into cephalothorax and abdomen, with legs and 4-segmented antennae concealed beneath.  Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                               .....Tsugaphis sorini

-      Body of normal aphid form, with exposed legs and 5- or 6-segmented antennae. Cauda variable, anal plate entire                                                                                                    .....3

 

3     SIPH absent, or present as minute pores only.  Wax glands present                                  .....4

-      SIPH present as tubes or large pores on broad hairy cones.  Wax glands absent               .....6

 

4     R IV+V 0.5Χ HT II or less.  Cauda bluntly triangular.  Alata with dark transverse bars on abdomen, usually with a once-branched media and secondary rhinaria on ANT III only (sometimes 1-2 distally on IV)                                                               .....Mindarus abietinus

-      R IV+V equal to or longer than HT II.  Cauda not bluntly triangular.  Alata (sexupara) without dorsal abdominal markings, an unbranched media and secondary rhinaria on ANT III-V or II-VI                                                                                                                     .....5

 

5     R IV+V more than 0.16 mm.  Alate sexupara with BL 2.4-3.0 mm, and ABD TERG 8 extended as an anocaudal process                                                             .....Prociphilus taxus

-      R IV+V less than 0.14 mm.  Alate sexupara with BL 1.1-1.9 mm and without an anocaudal process                                                                                                         .....Prociphilus pini

 

6     SIPH long, tubular, slightly swollen on distal half with a subapical, constricted zone of polygonal reticulation.  Cauda long, finger-like, about 0.5Χ SIPH.  Hairs on body and appendages very short and blunt                                                                .....Illinoia patriciae

-      SIPH as large pores on broad hairy cones.  Cauda rounded.  Hairs on body and appendages mainly long and pointed                                                                                                     .....7

 

7     Hind tibiae pale except distally. SIPH cones pale                                     .....Cinara pilicornis

-      Hind tibiae mainly dark. SIPH cones strongly pigmented                                                 .....8

8     Hairs on antennae, legs and ABD TERG 2-7 long and fine                     .....Cinara taiwana*

-      Hairs on antennae, legs and ABD TERG 2-7 short and blunt                       .....Cinara tsugae

 

Tulipa                                                          Liliaceae

      Tulipa bakeri = T. saxatilis

        T. gesneriana                                Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Dysaphis tulipae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae;                                           

                                                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; Sitobion akebiae

        T. kaufmanniana                          Dysaphis tulipae

        T. prismatica (?)                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        T. saxatilis                                     Myzus ornatus

        T. sylvestris                                    Dysaphis tulipae; Myzus ascalonicus

        Tulipa spp.                                    Aphis spiraecola; Myzus cymbalariae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus

Key to apterae on Tulipa:-

1      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 with paired spinal tubercles                                                              …..Dysaphis tulipae

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                              …..2

2      SIPH dark, tapering, 1.4-1.9 Χ the much paler cauda, and with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.6 Χ BD III                   …..Sitobion akebiae

-       Without that combination of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Tupidanthus  see Schefflera                                           Araliaceae

 

Turbina                                                       Convolvulaceae

      Turbina oblongata                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Turibana                                                     Celastraceae

      Turibana planipes = Euonymus sachalinensis

 

Turgenia                                                      Apiaceae

      Turgenia latifolia                          Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus crassitibiae;

                                                               Hyadaphis coriandri

See key under Caucalis.

     

Turnera                                                       Passifloraceae

      Turnera angustifolia = T. ulmifolia

        T. subulata                                    Aphis gossypii

        T. ulmifolia                                    Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Turnera sp.                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; [Subovatomyzus leucosceptri]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Turpinia                                                           Staphyleaceae

      Turpinia pomifera                        Indomegoura indica

 

Turritis                                                        Brassicaceae

      Turritis glabra                               Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis turritella;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus populitransversus

Use key to apterae under Arabis.

 

Tussilago                                                     Compositae

        Tussilago farfara                           Anuraphis farfarae; Aphis fabae, [vandergooti];

                                                               Aulacorthum palustre, solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                               Capitophorus elaeagni,  similis, takahashii;

                                                               Chomaphis mira; [Dysaphis pyri];

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Pemphigus bursarius; Protrama radicis;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Trama troglodytes; Uroleucon tussilaginis                        

        T. petasites = Petasites hybridus

        Tussilago spp.                               [Aphis alienus]; Aulacorthum cirsicola

Key to apterae on Tussilago:-

1      SIPH absent. Eyes 3-faceted. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                            …..2

-       SIPH present, tubular. Eyes multifaceted. ANT PT.BASE more than 1                          …..3

2      HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs. No discrete wax glands                                                     …..Trama troglodytes

-       HT II of normal length. Body and appendages are sparsely hairy. Posterior abdomen has wax glands                                                                                         …..Pemphigus bursarius

3      Dorsal hairs long and thick with knobbed apices                                                              …..4

-       Dorsal hairs not thick, if long then with fine apices                                                          …..6

4      ANT III without capitate hairs; all ANT hairs short and inconspicuous c. 0.2 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with single pairs of spinal and pleural hairs          …..Capitophorus elaeagni

-       ANT III with at least one capitate hair more than 0.6 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 with at least the spinal hairs duplicated                                                                                         …..5

5      ANT III with 1-5 thick capitate hairs, 0.6-0.8 Χ BD III (Fig.54a)    …..Capitophorus similis

-       ANT III with c. 6 thick capitate hairs, longer than BD III        …..Capitophorus takahashii*

6      Cauda semicircular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view           …..7

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-like, longer than its basal width in dorsal view                       …..10

7      Prothorax with a pair of very large marginal tubercles (MTu), up to 2.5 Χ diameter of compound eye (Fig.54b), and ABD TERG 1-5 also with very large MTu. SIPH long and flangeless, more than 7 Χ cauda, and bearing some small pointed hairs (Fig.54c)

…..Chomaphis mira

-       Prothorax if with MTu then these are smaller than compound eyes. ABD TERG 1-5 with or without MTu. SIPH less than 4 Χ cauda, and without hairs                                             …..8

8      Paired spinal tubercles (STu) present on all segments, and marginal tubercles (MTu) on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5. SIPH with close-set rows of fine spinules (Fig.54d)

…..Anuraphis farfarae

-       STu and MTu absent, or rarely present on 1 or 2 segments. SIPH smooth or with normal imbrication                                                                                                                         …..9

9      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda ......Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

10    SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length. Head smooth with

        well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces smooth and divergent                        …..11

-       SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation, or with only 1-3 rows of polygonal cells (unless they are massively inflated). If ANT tubercles are well developed then head is at least ventrally spiculose                                                                                                           …..12

11    SIPH dark at base and apex, with middle part paler. Head, prothorax and ANT I-II black. ANT III with 6-18 rhinaria. Cauda with 12-25 hairs. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II

…..Uroleucon tussilaginis

-       SIPH mostly pale, only dusky towards apex. Head, prothorax and ANT I-II pale. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. Cauda with 8-12 hairs. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II                                      

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

12    ANT 1.6-1.7 Χ BL, which is 2.7-4.1 mm. Hind tibiae very long, 0.9-1.5 Χ BL. ANT III with 3-12 rhinaria. Ventral side of head is densely spiculose/nodulose, but dorsal surface is almost smooth                                                                                              …..Aulacorthum cirsicola

-       ANT 0.6-1.5 Χ BL, which is 1.0-3.0 mm. Hind tibia 0.4-0.8 Χ BL. ANT III without rhinaria, or with 1-3 small rhinaria. Head either without spicules, or with some spicules ventrally, or densely spiculose/nodulose on both dorsal and ventral surfaces                                    …..13

13    ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base. Head with ANT tubercles well-developed , their inner faces steep-sided, almost parallel, and slightly  to moderately scabrous. SIPH tapering/cylindrical with a well-developed flange                                                          …..14

-       ANT III without rhinaria, and other characters not in that combination

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

14    Head with spicules on ventral side only                                           …..Aulacorthum palustre

-       Head spiculose on both upper and lower surfaces                               …..Aulacorthum solani

 

Tweedia                                                       Apocynaceae

      Tweedia birostrata                        Aphis nerii

 

Tylophora                                                    Asclepiadaceae

      Tylophora asthmatica                   Aphis nerii

 

Typha                                                          Typhaceae

      Typha angustata = T. domingensis

        T. angustifolia                               Aphis typhae; Ceruraphis eriophori;

                                                               Hyalopterus amygdali, pruni; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Myzus persicae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi, [rufulum];

                                                               Schizaphis [eastopi], rosazevedoi, scirpi;

                                                               Sitobion avenae

        T. australis                                     Hyalopterus pruni; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                               Schizaphis scirpi

        T. capensis                                     Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae; Schizaphis eastopi

        T. domingensis                              Ceruraphis eriophori; Hyalopterus amygdali;

                                                               Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis [eastopi], rosazevedoi, scirpi

        T. elephantina                               Schizaphis rosazevedoi (as eastopi)

        T. latifolia                                      Aphis gossypii, typhae; Ceruraphis eriophori;

                                                               Hyalopterus pruni; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum enigmae, maidis, nymphaeae, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis [eastopi], rosazevedoi, rotundiventris, scirpi;

                                                               Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        T. laxmanni                                   Schizaphis scirpi; Rhopalosiphum padi

        T. major = T. latifolia

        T. minima                                      Ceruraphis eriophori; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis scirpi

        T. minuta = T. laxmanni

        T. orientalis                                   Hyalopterus pruni; [Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae];

                                                               Rhopalosiphum enigmae

        T. shuttleworthii                            Schizaphis scirpi

        Typha spp.                                    Aphis fabae; Mordvilkoiella skorkini;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum laconae

Key to apterae on Typha:-

1      Dorsal hairs long, thick and spine-like. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE c.1. SIPH stump-shaped. Cauda with distal part a rounded knob                              …..Sipha glyceriae

-       Dorsal hairs not long, thick and spine-like. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE more than 1.3. SIPH tubular, or as slightly raised pores, cauda not knobbed                  …..2

2      ANT 5-segmented, only 0.17-0.2 Χ BL. SIPH as slightly raised pores. Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, with apical part extended and bearing 6-8 hairs     …..Mordvilkoiella skorkini*

-       ANT (5- or) 6-segmented, at least 0.3 Χ BL. SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue or finger-shaped

…..3

3      SIPH very small, thin and flangeless, less than 0.7 Χ cauda  …..Hyalopterus pruni/amygdali

-       SIPH similar in thickness to, and at least 0.8 Χ cauda, with an apical flange                   …..4

4     Tergum almost entirely dark, and SIPH jet black, with coarse denticulate imbrication

…..Ceruraphis eriophori

-       Tergum usually pale, sometimes with dusky/dark central patch or dark markings. SIPH pale or dark                                                                                                                               …..5

5      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                      …..6

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                …..7

6      SIPH 1.7-2.25 Χ cauda, which has a rounded apex                               …..Sitobion fragariae

-       SIPH 1.1-1.4 Χ cauda, which has a more pointed apex                             …..Sitobion avenae

7      Head densely spiculose, with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces scabrous and apically convergent. SIPH pale and slightly clavate                                   …..Myzus persicae

-       Head not spiculose, with ANT tubercles either weakly developed, or only developed to a similar extent to median frontal tubercle, or if rather well-developed then with inner faces smooth and broadly divergent.  SIPH pale, dusky or dark, tapering, cylindrical or clavate

…..8

8      ANT tubercles with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base. SIPH pale, more than half as long as the distance between their bases

…..Metopolophium dirhodum

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed, or only developed to a similar extent to median frontal tubercle. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH dusky or dark, less than half as long as the distance between their bases                                                                                             …..9

9      Dorsal abdominal cuticle with a pattern of blunt spicules arranged in polygons, each polygon enclosing one or more additional spicules. SIPH usually appearing slightly to distinctly swollen in middle or on distal part, narrowing just before flange                                   …..10

-       Dorsal abdominal cuticle sometimes with polygonal reticulation but this is not spiculose, and neither do the polygons enclose spicules. SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange, or swollen on basal half                                                                                                       …..14

10    SIPH slightly but distinctly clavate (with narrower section on basal half)

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH without narrower section on basal half                                                                 …..11

11    Body rather elongate oval. SIPH only 0.07-0.08 Χ BL, without a subapical constriction and with a small flange. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                   …..Rhopalosphum maidis

-       Body more broadly oval. SIPH 0.12-0.17 Χ BL, with a subapical constriction and large flange. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-6.3                                                                                       …..12

12    SIPH less than 2 Χ cauda. Small marginal tubercles (MTu) present only on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                          …..Rhopalosiphum padi

-       SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda. MTu usually present on some or all of ABD TERG 2-6 as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                             …..13

13    ABD TERG 2-6 as well as 1 and 7 all with well-developed conical MTu, those on 7 being 35-50 μm in basal diameter. Longest hairs on ANT III are 0.5-0.7 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE

        4.0-5.0                                                                                           …..Rhopalosiphum laconae

-       ABD TERG 2-6 irregularly with small MTu. MTu on ABD TERG 7 20-30 μm in basal diameter. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.0 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.6-6.3

…..Rhopalosiphum enigmae

14    Cauda black with 11-24 hairs                                                                                          …..15

-       Cauda pale, dusky or dark, with 4-10 hairs                                                                    …..16

15    ABD TERG 2-4(-6) with well-developed MTu                                             …..Aphis typhae

-       ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with small MTu                                         …..Aphis fabae

16    Hind tibial hairs short, not or only distally exceeding width of tibia at midlength        …..17

-       Hind tibial hairs mostly much longer than width of tibia at midlength                          …..19

17    Cauda long, pale finger-like, with 4 hairs. Hind femora dark over at least distal half. SIPH calf-shaped (slightly swollen on basal half)                                     …..Hysteroneura setariae

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, pale, dusky or dark, with 4-8 hairs. Hind femora pale, or darker only towards apex. SIPH tapering, not swollen on basal half                                                …..18

18    ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.0. SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda which bears  4-8 hairs        …..Aphis gossypii

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.6. SIPH 2.2-3.0 Χ cauda which bears 4-5 hairs

…..Schizaphis rotundiventris

19    Coxae and trochanters dark. Hairs on ANT III 53-108 μm long             …..Schizaphis scirpi

-       Coxae and trochanters pale. Hairs on ANT III 18-38 μm long                                      …..20

20    Posterior dorsal cephalic hairs are 25-35 μm long, and hairs on ABD TERG 6 are 35-53 μm long                                                                                                         …..Schizaphis eastopi

-       Posterior dorsal cephalic hairs are 37-79 μm long, and hairs on ABD TERG 6 are 56-98 μm long                                                                                                 …..Schizaphis rosazevedoi

 

 

Typhonium                                                  Araceae

      Typhonium trilobatum                  Aphis gossypii

 

Typhonodorum                                                    Araceae

      Typhonodorum lindeyanum         Pentalonia nigronervosa

 

 

U

 

Uapaca                                                                    Uapacaceae

      Uapaca guineensis                       Aphis gossypii

 

 

Ulex                                                             Leguminosae

      Ulex cantabricus                           Aphis ulicis

      U. europaeus                                Aphis fabae, ulicis

        U. parviflorus                                Aphis ulicis

      Ulex sp.                                         Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Ulex:-

-       Dorsum with extensive black sclerotisation. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda with 8-15 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.64-1.05 Χ BD III                                                 …..Aphis ulicis

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Ulmaria see Filipendula                                                    Rosaceae

 

Ulmus                                         Elms                                  Ulmaceae

In all, about 75 aphid species are recorded from elms, which are primary hosts for most of the Eriosomatinae (44 species).  For gall formers, Eriosomatinae show remarkably little evidence of host specificity, the recorded host range reflecting geographical distribution rather than host affinities, with the more widely-distributed species such as Eriosome ulmi recorded from Ulmus species native to different parts of the world.   Elm-feeding aphids are therefore all included in a single key as far as possible.  However, at the present time it is not possible to key together all species of the large genus Eriosoma and its close relatives in tribe Eriosomatini (Georgiaphis, Schizoneurella), so these are taken out of the main key and included in separate keys under particular host species, within the host list that follows the main key.

Main key to elm aphids:-

1     Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed.  SIPH as short truncate cones without hairs             .....2

 -     Cauda if present broadly rounded, tongue-like or finger-like.  Anal plate if present entire or with a median cleft but not distinctly bilobed.  SIPH if present not in form of truncate hairless cones                                                                                                                     ....15

2     Colonies include apterous viviparae, with dark markings and long dorsal hairs, at least some of which have furcate apices                                                                                              .....3

-      All adult viviparae alate                                                                                                      .....4

3     Aptera with hairs on ANT III shorter than basal diameter of segment, and with spinopleural sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6 mutually free and well separated from marginal sclerites

.....Indiochaitophorus furcatus

-      Aptera with hairs on ANT III longer than basal diameter of segment, and sclerites of ABD TERG 1-6 more-or-less fused between segments                            .....Sinochaitophorus maoi

4     ANT PT/BASE about 0.5 or less. Secondary rhinaria transversely oval                           …..5

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.6 or more.  Secondary rhinaria very narrow, slit-like. (Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1 and 2 on prominent finger-like or conical processes)                                          …..7

5     Forewing membrane extensively mottled with dark pigment (fig. 51A, as Tinocallis coreanus). Head and prothorax very dark dorsally with a contrasting pale spinal stripe and large pale areas around the hair bases. Tibiae mainly pale with mostly short hairs

…..Pseudochromaphis coreana

-      Forewing membrane unpigmented except for bordering of veins. Head and prothorax without distinctive markings. Tibiae wholly dark and rather thick with long hairs          …..6

6     Hairs on ANT III maximally 19-38 μm, as long as or longer than basal diameter of segment. R IV+V 0.114-0.125 mm long, 0.66-0.84 Χ HT II, and bearing 5-7 accessory hairs

…..Chromocallis nirecola

-      Hairs on ANT III maximally 11-13 μm, shorter than basal diameter of segment. R IV+V about 0.098 mm long, about 0.63 Χ HT II, and bearing 4 accessory hairs

…..Chromocallis similinirecola

 7    Media of forewing once-branched, with a patch of fuscous distally between the branches, and another at the distal end of Cu1b (fig. 116C)              ....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) ulmicola

 -     Forewing with media twice-branched, and with or without a different pattern of markings

.....8

 8    Head with 3 pairs of dorsal processes, bearing apical hairs; the most posterior

       pair longest, 1.5-2.0 Χ as long as wide (fig. 116A)                      .....Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae

 -     Head without paired dorsal processes or with only one very small pair                             .....9

 9    Forewing with media and Cu1b thickly and rather evenly bordered with fuscous basally as well as distally, and Cu1a also often partially bordered.  Abdomen robust, with more-or-less extensive dark dorsal markings.  SIPH dark, with a dark basal sclerite

.....Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani

 -     Forewing with veins mostly not bordered or with fuscous restricted to branches of media distally, or to spots or patches at distal ends of veins                                                      .....10

10   Pronotum with 1 (posterior) or 2 pairs of finger-like spinal processes (e.g. fig. 116B)    .....11

-      Pronotum without spinal processes                                                                                   .....14

11   Head and pronotum wholly black (dark brown in mounted specimens), and dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                                                      .....12

-      Head and pronotum, or at least pronotum, pale or dusky or with restricted dark markings. ABD TERG 3-5 (or 3-7) with dark sclerites at bases of spinal hairs                                .....13

12   Forewings with distal branches of media bordered with fuscous and with more-or-less extensive fuscous patches at distal ends of Cu1a and Cu1b (fig. 51B). ANT III with 14-24 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs                .....Tinocallis takachihoensis

 -     Forewings without fuscous markings (or, at least, none discernible in the mounted specimens available). ANT III with 10-12 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs

.....Tinocallis sapporoensis

13   Distal branches of media of forewing bordered with fuscous, and a patch of fuscous also on the hind margin at the end of Cu1b (fig. 116D).  R IV+V 0.76-0.90 Χ HT II.  ANT III with 6-17 secondary rhinaria                                                       .....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans

 -     Forewing veins not bordered with fuscous, and hind margin without a patch of fuscous at end of Cu1b.  R IV+V 0.90-1.03 Χ HT II.  ANT III with 11-28 secondary rhinaria

.....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nevskyi

14   Head with a single narrow dark dorsal mesial stripe.  ANT III with 14-22 secondary rhinaria.  Spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 1 and 2 shorter than their basal widths

.....Tinocallis zelkowae

 -     Head with variable pigmentation; sometimes with paired longitudinal stripes but never with a single narrow mesial stripe.  ANT III with 5-12 secondary rhinaria.  Spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 1 and 2 large and prominent, usually longer than their basal widths, sometimes united at bases                                                                                                    .....Tinocallis ulmifolii

15   Body of aptera broadly pear-shaped, broadest anteriorly, without distinct head and prothorax.  Oviparous. (Alata undescribed)                                              .....Olegia ulmifoliae

 -     Body of aptera not broadest anteriorly, head and prothorax distinct                              .....16

16   Rostrum much longer than body. SIPH as large pores on broad pigmented hairy cones.  Abdomen with a mesial row of 6 dark patches ventrally                      .....Stomaphis ulmicola

 -     Rostrum much shorter than body. SIPH variable                                                             .....17

17   SIPH tubular, much longer than basal width. ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Wax glands are absent                                                                                                                                .....18

-      SIPH absent, ring- or pore-like.  ANT PT/BASE less than 0.6.  Wax glands often present

.....19

18   ABD TERG 1-5 and 7 all with very well-developed conical marginal tubercles

…..Aphis sogdiana

-      Marginal tubercles absent, very small or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7

                                                              ….. go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

19   Aptera in brown microrrhizal cysts on roots, with distal hairs on tibiae thick and spine-like or dagger-like, tarsi 1-segmented.  SIPH absent                                       .....Mimeuria ulmiphila

 -     Aptera in galls or leaf-nests, except for 1 species (Eriosoma rileyi) forming free-living colonies on bark. Tibial hairs normal, tarsi 1- or 2-segmented.  SIPH present as pores, sometimes raised on small shallow cones with surrounding hairs, or absent                    .....20

20   (All remaining couplets refer only to alatae produced in or emerging from galls of leaf nests.)  BL more than 4 mm.  Hind wing with 2 oblique veins arising very close together

.....Prociphilus oriens

 -     BL less than 4 mm.  Hind wing if with 2 oblique veins then their bases are well separated

.....21

21   Hind wing with 2 oblique veins                                                                                        .....22

 -     Hind wing with 1 oblique vein                                                                                         .....29

22   SIPH present as fairly large, often raised pores on ABD TERG 5, with partially sclerotized rims and surrounding hairs.  R IV+V with 4 or more accessory hairs. ANT III elongate (fig. 118), usually more than 0.8 Χ head width across (and including) eyes (except in Eriosoma mimicum)                                                 .....go to keys to species of Eriosomatini (Eriosoma,

                                                             Georgiaphis, Schizoneurella) under  individual Ulmus spp.

 -     SIPH absent or present as small or large pores on ABD TERG 6, with wholly sclerotized rims and no clearly associated hairs.  R IV+V with 2-3 accessory hairs.  ANT III less than 0.8Χ head width across eyes (e.g. figs 117A-F)                                                               .....23

23   Dorsal abdomen with dark intersegmental transverse bands, broadest in midline.  ANT BASE VI much shorter than R IV+V.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-18, IV 2-5, V 2-4, VI 0-3 (fig. 117A)                                                                                  .....Aphidounguis mali

 -     Dorsal abdomen without transverse bands.  ANT BASE VI much longer than R IV+V.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-29, IV 2-10, V 4-13, VI 4-17                        .....24

24   Embryos without mouthparts (sexupara)                                      .....Kaltenbachiella japonica

 -     Embryos with mouthparts                                                                                                 .....25

25   SIPH absent.  Secondary rhinaria distributed III 17-25, IV 4-7, V 5-8, VI 7-10 (fig. 117B)

.....Kaltenbachiella pallida

 -     SIPH usually present, but if sometimes absent then secondary rhinaria are fewer or differently distributed                                                                                                      .....26

26   BL 2.2-2.6 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 20-29, IV 7-10, V 10-13 and VI

       15-17 (?)                                                                                 …..Kaltenbachiella carpinicola*

-      BL 1.0-1.7 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-25, IV 2-9, V 4-12 and VI 4-10

…..27

27   Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 17-25, IV 5-9, V 7-9, VI 6-10

.....Kaltenbachiella ulmifusa

 -     Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-17, IV 2-6, V 4-12, VI 4-10                          .....28

28   Media of forewing usually unbranched. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-17, IV

       4-6, V 8-12, VI 6-10 (fig. 117C)                                                    .....Kaltenbachiella spinosa

 -     Media of forewing usually once-branched. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-12, IV 2-4, V 4-6, VI 4-6                                                                          .....Kaltenbachiella nirecola

29   ANT IV similar in length to ANT V (in 6-segmented antennae, fig. 117D; if antenna are 5-segmented then "ANT III" more than 3 Χ "ANT IV").  Media of forewing is once-branched or unbranched                                                                                                                       .....30

 -     ANT IV much shorter than V (e.g. figs 117E-F; if antenna 5-segmented then "ANT III" less than 2 Χ "ANT IV").  Media of forewing always unbranched                                         .....32

30   R IV+V 0.10-0.11 mm long, 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Media of forewing once-branched

.....Colopha compressa

 -     R IV+V 0.05-0.07 mm, 0.6-0.75 Χ HT II.  Media of forewing once-branched or unbranched

.....31

31   Media of forewing once-branched                                                           .....Colopha ulmicola

-      Media of forewing unbranched                                                               .....Colopha graminis

32   Embryos with hind tarsal claws less than 0.05 mm long                                                  .....33

-      Embryos with enlarged hind tarsal claws at least one of which is more than 0.06 mm long

.....38

33   ANT II with 9-19 hairs.  R IV+V with 10-14 accessory hairs. SIPH absent

.....Tetraneura radicicola/persicina

 -     ANT II with 2-7 hairs.  R IV+V with 4-10 accessory hairs.  SIPH present or absent     .....34

34   SIPH always present, with dark rims (fig. 117G).  Frontal hairs long and fine, maximally

       60-80 ΅m long                                                                                     .....Tetraneura yezoensis

 -     SIPH absent or if present then with pale rims.  Frontal hairs 10-35 ΅m long                   .....35

35   ANT V 1.0-1.4 Χ ANT VI (including PT)                                     .....Tetraneura caerulescens

 -     ANT V 1.5-2.7 Χ ANT VI (including PT)                                                                        .....36

36   R IV+V 0.56-0.84 mm long, 0.46-0.70 Χ HT II, with 4 accessory hairs. SIPH absent

.....Tetraneura pumilae*

-      R IV+V (0.09-) 0.10-0.15 mm long, 0.66-0.90 Χ HT II, with 6-10 accessory hairs.  SIPH present or absent (if present then there are usually also ring-like wax glands)                …..37

37   Primary rhinarium on ANT VI enlarged and of irregular shape (e.g. fig. 117E). ANT PT/BASE 0.2-0.3                                                                                       …..Tetraneura ulmi

-      Primary rhinarium on ANT VI oval, not enlarged. ANT PT/BASE about 0.36

…..Tetraneura ulmicema*

38   Cauda with 4 hairs. Embryos with only one hind tarsal claw markedly enlarged, the shorter one less than 0.05 mm long (fig. 117H)                                                .....Tetraneura javensis

 -     Cauda with 2, or rarely, 3 hairs. Embryos with both hind tarsal claws enlarged, sometimes unequally, but both more than 0.06 mm long                                                                   .....39

39   R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long, with 6-18 accessory hairs. (Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-32, IV 2-10, V 8-15)                                                                                              .....40

-      R IV+V 0.08-0.105 mm long, with 2-6 accessory hairs.  (Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-19, IV 2-6, V 5-12)                                                                                                  .....41

40   R IV+V with 14-18 accessory hairs.  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 20-32, IV 3-10, V 8-15                                                                                               .....Tetraneura polychaeta

 -     R IV+V with 6-8 accessory hairs.  Secondary rhinaria are distributed ANT III 10-14, IV 2-3, V 9-10                                                                                            .....Tetraneura asymmachia

41   Tarsi of embryos without spicules. ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with 6-12 spinopleural hairs between the stout marginal hairs                                                                              .....42

 -     Tarsi of embryos minutely spiculose. ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with 4-6 spinopleural hairs between the stout marginal hairs                                                                              .....43

42   R IV+V bearing 6 accessory hairs. ANT V about 2.9 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT). ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with 10-12 fine, pointed spinopleural hairs between the stout marginal hairs

       .....Tetraneura chinensis

 -     R IV+V with 2-4 accessory hairs. ANT V 1.7-2.8 Χ ANT VI (fig.  117F). ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with 6-10 spinopleural hairs between the marginals

.....Tetraneura nigriabdominalis

43   R IV+V 0.08-0.09 mm long with 4 accessory hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-10, IV 2-5, V 6-9. ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with 4 spinopleural hairs + 2 stout marginal hairs. Hind tarsi of embryos distinctly spinulose                       .....Tetraneura sorini

 -     R IV+V 0.09-0.105 mm long with 5-6 accessory hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-18, IV 3-6, V 6-12.  ABD TERG 1-6 of embryos each with usually 6 fine spinopleural hairs + 2 stout marginal hairs. Hind tarsi of embryos only very slightly spinulose

.....Tetraneura fusiformis

Host Plant List (including keys to Eriosomatini):-

        Ulmus alata                                  Eriosoma lanigerum group; Georgiaphis ulmi;

                                                              Tinocallis ulmifolii

Key to Eriosomatini on U. alata (alatae from galls):-

-      ANT III with secondary rhinaria rather widely and irregularly spaced , and not usually extending half way around the segment (as in fig.118A). Embryos without mouthparts

.....Georgiaphis ulmi

-      ANT III with secondary rhinaria closely and regularly spaced and often extending more than half way around segment. Embryos with mouthparts               .....Eriosoma lanigerum group

 

        Ulmus americana                                                 American White Elm

                                                              Colopha compressa, graminis, ulmicola;

                                                              Eriosoma americanum, ?crataegi, grossulariae,

                                                                   lanigerum group, mimicum, pyricola, rileyi, ulmi;

                                                              Georgiaphis ?gillettei, [maxsoni];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Tinocallis ulmifolii;

                                                              Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani

Key to Eriosoma and Georgiaphis on Ulmus americana:-

1     Aphids with apterae in free-living colonies on bark                                     .....Eriosoma rileyi

-      Aphids forming galls (remaining couplets refer only to alatae produced in galls)             .....2

2     Antenna with secondary rhinaria rather widely and irregularly spaced and not extending more than half way around segment (fig. 118A).  Embryos without mouthparts (no coiled stylets visible in maternal abdomen)                                                     .....Georgiaphis gillettei

-      Antenna with secondary rhinaria closely or at least regularly spaced and often extending more than half way around segment (e.g. fig. 118C).  Embryos with mouthparts (coiled stylets visible)                                                                                                                     .....3

3     ANT III less than 0.8 Χ head width across (and including) eyes.  R IV+V only 0.07-0.10 mm long                                                                                                        .....Eriosoma mimicum

-      ANT III more than 0.8 Χ head width across eyes.  R IV+V 0.13-0.26 mm long              .....4

4     ANT V with secondary rhinaria                                                                                         .....5

-      ANT V without secondary rhinaria                                                                                    .....8

5     ANT III a little shorter than ANT IV+V+VI  (fig. 118C)              .....Eriosoma americanum

-      ANT III as long as or longer than ANT IV+V+VI                                                            .....6

6     ANT III 0.50-0.61 mm, ANT V 0.16-0.20 mm and ANT VI (incl. PT) 0.14-0.15 mm.  Secondary rhinaria distributed III 27-34, IV 5-8, V 7-11, VI 1-3          .....Eriosoma crataegi

-      ANT III 0.35-0.52 mm, ANT V 0.09-0.16 mm and ANT VI (incl. PT) 0.07-0.10 mm.  Secondary rhinaria distributed III 20-30, IV 4-7, V 4-7, VI 0                                          .....7

7     Cauda with 2 hairs.  ANT V slightly longer than ANT IV.  First tarsal segments of hind legs with 3 hairs (incl. sense peg)                                                      .....Eriosoma lanigerum group

-      Cauda with 3-10 hairs.  ANT V not longer than or slightly shorter than IV.  First tarsal segments of hind legs with 2 hairs (no sense peg)                                  .....Eriosoma pyricola

8     ANT PT long and thin; PT/BASE 0.46-0.67 (fig. 118D).  Many hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 standing on small scleroites.  HT II with 22-25 hairs                       .....Eriosoma grossulariae

-      ANT PT shorter and thicker (fig. 118E); PT/BASE 0.29-0.49.  Few of the hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 have basal scleroites.  HT II with 15-22 hairs                              .....Eriosoma ulmi

 

       Ulmus androssowii                        Tetraneura ulmi; Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans              

        U. campestris = U. procera

        U. campestris var. glabra = U. minor

        Ulmus canescens                          Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Eriosoma lanuginosum;

                                                              Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, ulmi;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) takachihoensis

        U. carpinifolia = U. minor                                       

        U. celtidea see U. laevis                            

        U. chinensis = U. parvifolia

        Ulmus davidiana                          Aphidounguis mali; Chromocallis nirecola;

                   (incl. var. mandshurica)           Eriosoma moriokense; Pseudochromaphis coreana;

                                                              Tetraneura nigriabdominalis;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) ulmicola                                       

        U. davidiana var. japonica see U. japonica

        U. densa = U. minor                                    

        U. effusa = U. laevis                                                

        U. Χelegantissima                         Eriosoma ulmi; Kaltenbachiella pallida

        U. foliacea = U. minor

        U. fulva = U. rubra

        Ulmus glabra                                                        Wych Elm

                                                              Aphis fabae, Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Colopha compressa;

                                                              Eriosoma flavum, grossulariae, lanuginosum,

                                                                  patchiae, phaenax, ulmi, ?ulmosedens;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella japonica, pallida;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, nigriabdominalis, ulmi,

                                                                   ulmicema;

                                                              [Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae];

                                                              Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nevskyi, saltans,

                                                                   takachihoensis, ulmicola                                                

(For separation of Eriosoma spp. use key under Ulmus procera.)

        U. Χhollandica                              Tinocallis takachihoensis

        Ulmus japonica                                                     Harunire, Japanese Elm

        (= U. davidiana var japonica)              Aphidounguis mali; Chromocallis nirecola;

                                                              Eriosoma alabastrum, auratum, [eligulatum],

                                                                    harunire, japonicum, longicornutum,

                                                                    [mediocornutum], moriokense, ulmi,

                                                                    yangi ssp. parasiticum;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella japonica, nirecola, spinosa;

                                                              Olegia ulmifoliae; [Paracolopha morrisoni];

                                                              Prociphilus kuwanai, oriens;

                                                              Sinochaitophorus maoi; Stomaphis ulmicola;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis, nigriabdominalis, radicicola,

                                                                   sorini, [triangula], ulmi, yezoensis, [Tetraneura sp. “O”

                                                                   of Akimoto 1995 – see also Akimoto 1998b, “globular

                                                                   gall-former”];

                                                              Tinocallis takachihoensis, [zelkowae];

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans, ulmicola

                                                                          

Key to alatae of Eriosoma spp. recorded from galls on Ulmus japonica:-

 

1     ANT V with 5-7, and ANT VI with 1-2, secondary rhinaria                           .....alabastrum*

-      ANT V with 0-3, and ANT VI without secondary rhinaria                                               .....2

2     ANT III shorter than IV+V+VI added together, and bearing 10-20 secondary rhinaria  .....3

-      ANT III longer than IV+V+VI added together (e.g. figs 118F, G), and bearing 22-46 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                               .....4

3     Total antennal length less than 0.6 mm, with ANT III 0.19-0.23 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-13, IV 1-2, V 0, VI 0                                                                      .....yangi

-      Total antennal length greater than 0.7 mm, with ANT III 0.27-0.34 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 13-20, IV 1-5, V 0-1, VI 0                                                           .....japonicum

4     ANT V and VI both very short, each less than 0.5 Χ ANT IV (fig. 118F). (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 33-41, IV 5-9, V 0, VI 0)                                              .....moriokense

-      ANT V and VI both similar in length to ANT IV, or only VI somewhat shorter              .....5

5     Total antennal length 1.4-1.8 mm. ANT PT 0.06-0.08 mm, with ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 36-46, IV 6-8, V 0, VI 0)               .....longicornutum

-      Total antennal length 0.70-1.32 mm. ANT PT 0.02-0.06 mm, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                                                                                                                       .....6

6     ANT V with 0-3 secondary rhinaria (usually at least one on one side). Secondary rhinaria all very narrow and thin, so that antenna not serrate in profile (fig. 118G); distributed III 24-30, IV 3-5, V 0-3, VI 0                                                                                                 .....harunire

-      ANT V never with secondary rhinaria. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III-IV broad and thick, giving profile of antenna a serrate appearance                                                                    .....7

7     ANT PT 0.02-0.03 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-30, IV 3-6, V 0     .....auratum

-      ANT PT 0.04-0.06 mm (fig. 118E). Secondary rhinaria distributed III 28-41, IV 6-9, V 0

.....ulmi

 

        Ulmus laciniata                            Eriosoma laciniatae, longicornutum;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella japonica;

                                                              Tetraneura sorini, yezoensis;

                                                              Tinocallis sapporoensis, takachihoensis, [ulmiparvifoliae]

Key to Eriosoma spp. on Ulmus laciniata:-

-      Primary rhinarium on ANT V without a ciliated rim. Secondary rhinaria distributed III

       24-29, IV 4-6, V 0, VI 0. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4                                       .....laciniatae

-      Primary rhinarium on ANT V ciliated. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 36-46, IV 6-8, V 0, VI 0. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.4                                                             .....longicornutum

 

       U. laevigata = U. villosa                                                                                                               

       Ulmus laevis (incl. var. celtidea)                            European White Elm, Russian Elm

                                                              Aphis fabae; Colopha compressa;

                                                              Eriosoma lanuginosum, patchiae, ulmi;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella pallida;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, nigriabdominalis, ulmi;

                                                              Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nevskyi, saltans, takachihoensis

(For separation of Eriosoma spp. use key under Ulmus procera.)

 

        Ulmus macrocarpa                       Eriosoma moriokense; Kaltenbachiella japonica;

                                                              Tetraneura [nigriabdominalis];

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) takachihoensis

        U. mandshurica see U. davidiana                                                                                               

        Ulmus minor                                                   Field Elm, Smooth-Leaved Elm

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, sogdiana, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chromocallis nirecola;

                                                              Colopha compressa;

                                                              Eriosoma anncharlotteae, flavum, grossulariae,

                                                                   lanuginosum, patchiae, phaenax, pyricola, ulmi;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella [japonica], pallida;

                                                              Tetraneura africana, caerulescens,

                                                                   nigriabdominalis, ulmi, yezoensis;

                                                              Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nevskyi, saltans,

                                                                   takachihoensis, ulmicola, ulmiparvifoliae

(For separation of Eriosoma spp. use key under Ulmus procera.)                                                  

 

        U. montana = U. glabra                           

        Ulmus parvifolia                                                   Akinire, Chinese Elm

                                                              Aphidounguis mali; Eriosoma [japonicum], yangi;

                                                              Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, sorini, yezoensis;

                                                              Tinocallis [ulmifolii], saltans, takachihoensis,

                                                                   ulmiparvifoliae, [zelkowae]

 

       Ulmus procera                                                      English Elm

                                                              Chromocallis nirecola; Colopha compressa;

                                                              Eriosoma anncharlotteae, flavum, grossulariae,

                                                                    japonicum, lanuginosum, patchiae,

                                                                    phaenax, pyricola, ulmi, ulmosedens;

                                                              [Indiochaitophorus furcata];

                                                              Kaltenbachiella japonica, pallida;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Mimeuria ulmiphila;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, nigriabdominalis, ulmi;

                                                              [Tinocallis ulmifolii]; Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nevskyi, saltans,

                                                                     [takachihoensis], [ulmicola]

Key to alatae of Eriosoma spp. recorded from galls on Ulmus procera (including also species on U. minor and U. glabra):-

1     Each antenna with only 14-28 secondary rhinaria in total (distributed III 12-20, IV 2-5, V 0-4, VI 0)                                                                                                                            .....2

-      Each antenna with at least 29 secondary rhinaria in total                                                   .....3

2     ANT III shorter than ANT IV+V+VI.  Secondary rhinaria on III mostly not extending more than half way around segment                                                                             .....japonicum

-      ANT III longer than ANT IV+V+VI.  Secondary rhinaria on III mostly extending

       more than half way around segment                                                                          .....flavum

3     ANT V without secondary rhinaria.  (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 26-46, IV 3-8, V 0, VI 0)                                                                                                                                   .....4

-      ANT V with secondary rhinaria                                                                                         .....6

4     Total antennal length less than 1 mm, with ANT III less than 0.6 mm.  HT II 0.15-0.18 mm

.....anncharlotteae

-      Total antennal length more than 1 mm, with ANT III more than 0.6 mm.  HT II 0.17-0.21 mm

 .....5

 

5     ANT PT long and thin; PT/BASE 0.46-0.67 (fig. 118D).  Many hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 standing on small scleroites.  HT II with 22-25 hairs                                       .....grossulariae

-      ANT PT shorter and thicker; PT/BASE 0.29-0.49 (fig. 118E).  Few hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 with basal scleroites.  HT II with 15-22 hairs                                                                .....ulmi

6     ANT V longer than IV. R IV+V 1.20-1.35 Χ HT II, and bearing 19-23 accessory hairs. Apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments strongly spiculose. (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 18-35, IV 2-7, V 1-7, VI 0)                                                                                                           .....7

-      ANT V shorter than or as short as IV.  R IV+V 0.8-1.2Χ HT II and bearing 8-14 accessory hairs.  Apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments with only a few minute spinules             .....8

7     Alatae are sexuparae, having embryos without mouthparts                               .....ulmosedens

-      Alatae have embryos with mouthparts (coiled stylets visible through maternal cuticle)

.....patchiae

8     Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 40-45, IV 10-14, V 10-12, VI 2-4          .....phaenax

-      Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 21-35, IV 7-11, V 5-16, VI 0-1                          .....9

9     BL 2.1-3.1 mm.  R IV+V 0.19-0.23 mm.  Cauda with only 2 or rarely 3 hairs

.....lanuginosum

-      BL 1.3-2.4 mm.  R IV+V 0.10-0.19 mm.  Cauda with 3-10 hairs                           .....pyricola

 

       U. propinqua = U. japonica

 

        Ulmus pumila                                                       Asiatic Dwarf Elm

                                                              Chromocallis nirecola, similinirecola,

                                                              Eriosoma auratum,.[cerum], dilanuginosum, eligulatum,

                                                                   [fukangense], lanuginosum, mediocornutum,

                                                                   moriokense, patchiae, [persicina], [spirifolium],

                                                                   [togrogum], [triangula], ulmi, ulmipumilae,

                                                                   [ulmipumilicola], [usuense];

                                                              [Myzus dycei – see Lee et al., 2002];

                                                              Kaltenbachiella pallida; Pseudochromaphis coreana;

                                                              Sinochaitophorus maoi;

                                                              Tetraneura asymmachia, caerulescens, chinensis,

                                                                   nigriabdominalis, pumilae, ulmi;

                                                              Tinocallis (Eotinocallis) platani;

                                                              Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans, takachihoensis

Key to alatae of Eriosoma spp. from galls on U. pumila:-

Five new species were described from U. pumila by Zhang and Qiao (1997), in addition to one new species described by Zhang & Zhang (1993), but apparently the alate emigrants of only three of these were collected, and even for these the descriptions are based only on single specimens, so are inadequate for inclusion in the key. (Consult index to locate where in the text all these species are discussed.)

1     ANT V, or ANT V and VI, with secondary rhinaria                                                         .....2

-      ANT V and VI both without secondary rhinaria                                                               .....5

2     ANT V not longer than (0.7-1.0 Χ) ANT IV. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 24-35, IV 5-11, V 5-16, VI 0-1                                                                                           …..lanuginosum

-      ANT V longer than (1.05-1.35 Χ) ANT IV. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-35, IV 2-7, V 1-7, VI 0-2                                                                                                                     …..3

3     R IV+V more than 0.2 mm long and bearing 19-23 accessory hairs (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 18-35, IV 2-7, V 1-7, VI 0)                                                             .....patchiae

-      R IV+V less than 0.18 mm long and bearing 10-12 accessory hairs                                  .....4

 

4     Secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-24, IV c.5, V 5-7, VI 1-2                .....dilanuginosum*

-      Secondary rhinaria distributed III c.12, IV 2-3, V c.2, VI 0                          .....ulmipumilae*

5     ANT V and VI both very short, each less than 0.5 Χ ANT IV (fig. 118F). (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 33-41, IV 5-9)                                                                             .....moriokense

-      ANT V and VI both similar in length to ANT IV, or only a little shorter                         .....6

6     ANT PT about 0.03 mm.  Secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-26, IV 3-5     .....eligulatum*

-      ANT PT 0.04 mm or more.  Secondary rhinaria distributed III 28-36, IV 6-8

.....mediocornutum*

(or try key to Eriosoma spp. on U. japonica)

 

        U. racemosa = U. thomasii

        Ulmus rubra                                                          Slippery Elm

                                                              Colopha graminis, ulmicola;

                                                              Eriosoma ?crataegi, mimicum, rileyi;

                                                              Georgiaphis gillettei;