HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Tab-Tox

 

Tabebuia

Tabernaemontana

Taeniatherum

Tagetes

Talguenea

Talinum

Tamarindus

Tamarix

Tanacetum

Tapinanthus

Taraxacum

Taxillus

Taxodium

Taxus

Teclea

Tecoma

Tectaria

Tectona

Teesdalia

Telekia

Teline

Tellima

Telosma

Tephroseris

Tephrosia

Terminalia

Ternstroemia

Tessaria

Tetracera

Tetraclinis

Tetradenia

Tetradymia

Tetragonocalamus

Tetragonolobus

Tetramolopium

Tetrapanax

Teucrium

Thalia

Thalictrum

Thamnocalamus

Thamnoseris

Thapsia

Thaspium

Thaumatococcus

Thea

Thelepogon

Thelesperma

Thelymitra

Thelypteris

Themeda

Theobroma

Thereianthus

Thermopsis

Thesium

Thespesia

Thevetia

Thinopyrum

Thlaspi

Thrincia

Thuidium

Thuja

Thujopsis

Thunbergia

Thunia

Thymbra

Thymus

Thyrsostachys

Thysanolaena

Tiarella

Tibouchina

Tidestromia

Tigridia

Tilesia

Tilia

Timonius

Tinnea

Tinospora

Tipuana

Tithonia

Tocoyena

Toddalia

Tolmiea

Tolpis

Tomentypnum

Toona

Tordylium

Torenia

Torilis

Tormentilla

Torralbasia

Torreya

Torreyochloa

Torrubia

Tortella

Tortula

Tournefortia

Townsendia

Toxicodendron

Toxicoscordion

 

       

Tabebuia                                                                Bignoniaceae

      Tabebuia angustata                      Aphis gossypii

      T. avellanedae = Handroanthus impetiginosus

      T. chrysotricha = Handroanthus chrysotrichus

      T. heterophylla                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii

      T. leptoneura                                 Aphis gossypii

      T. pallida                                       Aphis gossypii

      T. rosea                                         Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Tabernaemontana (including Conopharyngia,            Apocynaceae

                                      Ervatamia, Sarcopharyngia)          

      Tabernaemontana africana         Sitobion krahi

      T. alba                                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      T. amblyocarpa = T. alba                                                

      T. chippii = T. africana                    

      T. coronaria = T. divaricata             Aphis gossypii;

        T. divaricata                                  Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Rauvolfia.

 

Taeniatherum                                              Poaceae

     Taeniatherum caput-medusae       Rhopalosiphum padi

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)                                                      

 

Tagetes                                                        Compositae

      Tagetes erecta                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        T. lunulata                                    Geopemphigus torsus

      T. minuta                                      Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Uroleucon compositae

        T. patula                                        Aphis fabae, gossypii,nasturtii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        T. tenuifolia                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

        Tagetes spp.                                  Neotoxoptera oliveri; Geopemphigus blackmani(?)

 

Key to apterae on Tagetes:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. (These characters must also apply: body sparsely hairy, head with dorsal wax plates, and R IV+V with 2-10 accessory hairs)                   …..2

-      Either ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5 and SIPH present, or bracketed characters not in that combination                                                                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      Abdomen with a dark posterior extension of cauda and anal plate, which is strongly convex. R IV+V 0.95-1.2 Χ HT II and bearing 4-10 accessory hairs. (Al. sexupara without dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands)                                               .….Prociphilus erigeronensis

-      Cauda and anal plate not on a dark posterior extension of the abdomen. (Cauda very small, and anal plate divided into dorsal and posterioventral parts by a marked concavity.)  R IV+V 0.74-0.96 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs. (Al. sexupara with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 3-8)                                                                               …..Geopemphigus sp.(p)

 

Talguenea = Trevoa                                       Rhamnaceae

        Talguenea quinquenervia = Trevoa quinquenervia                   

 

Talinum                                                       Talinaceae

      Talinum caffrum                          Aphis craccivora, gossypii

        T. triangulare                                Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tamarindus                                                           Leguminosae

      Tamarindus indica                       Aphis aurantii, craccivora

 

 

Tamarix                                                                  Tamaricaceae

      Tamarix africana                          Brachyunguis tamaricis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      T. aphylla                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                   Brachyunguis tamaricis, tamaricophilus;

                                                    Myzus persicae

      T. arborea                                     Brachyunguis tamaricis

      T. arceuthoides                             Brachyunguis brevisiphon, tamaricis, tamaricophilus;

                                                              Brevicorynella quadrimaculata

      T. articulata                                   Brachyunguis tamaricophilus

      T. canariensis                                Brachyunguis tamaricis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      T. chinensis see T. ramosissima        

      T. elongata                                    Brevicorynella quadrimaculata

      T. gallica                                        Aphis craccivora, fabae; Brachyunguis tamaricis;

                                                              Brevicorynella quadrimaculata

      T. gracilis                                      Brachyunguis tamaricophila

      T. hispida                                      Brevicorynella quadrimaculata

      T. karakalensis                              Brachyunguis tamaricis, tamaricophilus

      T. kotschyi                                     Brachyunguis tamaricis

      T. laxa                                           Aphis craccivora;

                                                    Brachyunguis brevisiphon, tamaricis;

                                                    Brevicorynella quadrimaculata

      T. leptostachya                              Brachyunguis tamaricis

      T. meyeri                                       Brachyunguis tamaricis, tamaricophilus

      T. pallasii = T. laxa                         

      T. pentandra see T. ramosissima

      T. pseudopallasii                           Aphis craccivora

      T. ramosissima                              Aphis fabae;

              (incl. chinensis, pentandra)         Brachyunguis brevisiphon, tamaricis,

                                                                  [tamaricivorum], tamaricophilus;

                                                              Brevicorynella quadrimaculata, sexmaculata;

                                                    Eotrama tamaricis

      T. tetragyna                                   Aphis craccivora

      T. tetrandra                                   Aphis craccivora, solanella;

                                                              Brachyunguis tamaricis, [tamaricivorum], tamaricophilus

      Tamarix sp.                                   Aphis viridissima

 

Key to aphids on Tamarix (apterous viviparae):- 

 

1      ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                                              .....2

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                                                                 .....4

2      SIPH and cauda black                  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 14

-       SIPH and cauda pale or dusky                                                                                           .....3

3      Antennal tubercles undeveloped. SIPH tapering, about 1.5 Χ cauda       .....Aphis viridissima

-       Antennal tubercles well developed, their inner faces convergent in dorsal view. SIPH slightly swollen distally, about 2 Χ cauda                                                    .....Myzus persicae

4     BL more than 3.5 mm. HT II much elongated. SIPH pore-like, on very flat pigmented cones

.....Eotrama tamaricis

-      BL less than 2 mm. HT II normal. SIPH not pore-like                                                       .....5

5     Eye without an ocular tubercle.  SIPH slightly swollen in middle.  Dorsum with 2-3  pairs of black spots                                                                                                                          .....6

-      Eye with normal 3-facetted ocular tubercle. SIPH tapering or cylindrical. Dorsum without dark markings                                                                                                                     .....7

6     Dorsal abdomen with 3 pairs of large spino-pleural dark patches. SIPH 0.9-1.1 Χ cauda, which bears 48-60 hairs                                                         …..Brevicorynella sexmaculata*

-      Dorsal abdomen with 2 pairs of large spino-pleural dark patches. SIPH 0.75-0.9 Χ cauda, which bears 30-40 hairs                                                    …..Brevicorynella quadrimaculata*

7     SIPH very short, only 0.038-0.05 Χ BL                                   …..Brachyunguis brevisiphon*

-      SIPH 0.06-0.11 Χ BL                                                                                                        …..8

8     Antenna 6-segmented, with ANT III much longer than ANT VI (incl. PT). Cauda triangular, 1.7-2.3 Χ SIPH, which are 1.0-1.3 Χ their basal width (fig. 113A).   R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II

.....Brachyunguis tamaricophilus

-      Antenna 5- or 6-segmented, when 6-segmented ANT III is about as long as ANT VI or shorter.  Cauda digitiform, 1.0-1.6 Χ SIPH, which are 1.3-2.2 Χ their basal width (fig. 113B).  R IV+V 0.6-0.75 Χ HT II                                                               .....Brachyunguis tamaricis

 

Tanacetum                                                  Compositae

      Tanacetum annuum                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

        T. argenteum                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        T. armenum                                  Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

      T. artemisioides                             Macrosiphoniella artemisiae

        T. aureum                                     Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              [Uroleucon achilleae]

        T. balsamita                                  Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, oblonga, tanacetaria;

                                                              Macrosiphumj euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;Uroleucon tanaceti

        T. bipinnatum                               Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, tapuskae;

                                                              [Pleotrichophorus sp. aff. glandulosus]

        T. boreale                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Coloradoa tanacetina; 

                                                              Macrosiphoniella  abrotani ssp. chosoni,  confusa, atra

                                                                   ssp. latysiphon, borealis, sanborni, tanacetaria,

                                                                   [tanacetaria ssp. divia];

                                                              Metopeurum borystenicum, fuscoviride;

                                                              Uroleucon formosanum, tanaceti

        T. canescens                                  [Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) sp. (Iran; Starύ et al.

                                                                  2000)]

        T. cinerariifolium                          Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon gobonis

        T. coccineum                                Coloradoa rufomaculata; Metopeurum fuscoviride

        T. corymbosum                             Aphis fabae, vandergooti; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella miestingeri, tanacetaria,

                                                                  tanacetaria ssp. italica;

                                                              Metopeurum fuscoviride; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon minor, tanaceti

        T. leptophyllum                             Aphis craccivora

        T. longifolium = Athanasia linifolia

        T. macrophyllum                          Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Ovatomyzus boraginacearum];

                                                              Uroleucon pyrethri

        T. millefolium                               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella millefolii, persequens, tanacetaria,

                                                                   tapuskae;

                                                              Microsiphum pyrethri

        T. multifidum = T. vulgare

        T, newesskyanum                         Nasonovia ribismigri

        T. parthenifolium = Pyrethrum parthenifolium

        T. parthenium                               Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, oblonga, millefolii, 

                                                                   sanborni, [subterranea], tanacetaria;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Metopeurum fuscoviride;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              [Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi]; Uroleucon tanaceti

        T. polycephalum                           Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

        T. praeteritum (incl.                        Macrosiphoniella absinthii

                          massicyticum)

        T. pseudachillea                            Macrosiphoniella abrotani, aktashica ssp. hirsuta,

                                                                    [kirgisica], tapuskae, [Macrosiphoniella sp.

                                                                    (Kadyrbekov  2003c)

        T. tanacetoides                              [Metopeurum matricariae]

       T. vulgare                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola, [tanacenti (nomen

                                                                   dubium)], vandergooti;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              [Capitophorus elaeagni]; Coloradoa tanacetina;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani, aktashica, millefolii,

                                                                   persequens, [pulvera], tanacetaria, tapuskae

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Metopeurum borystenicum, buryaticum, enslini,

                                                                  fuscoviride;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus glandulosus; Trama troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon bereticum, tanaceti

       Tanacetum spp.                            [Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae]

Key to apterae on Tanacetum and Pyrethrum:-

1      SIPH as very short truncate cones, only 0.4-0.5 Χ cauda, which is broadly triangular in dorsal view. ANT III with c.16-17 rhinaria, and IV usually with 1-2 rhinaria

…..Microsiphum pyrethri*

-       SIPH conical, cylindrical, tapering or clavate, at least 0.6 Χ cauda, which is helmet-,

        tongue- or finger-shaped, or triangular. ANT III and IV with or without rhinaria          …..2

2      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation, occupying 0.08-0.81 of length          …..3

-       SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                       …..30

3      SIPH with at least basal part pale or dusky, although often darker distally                     …..4

-      SIPH not paler at base; either wholly dark, or dark at base as well as apex with paler middle section                                                                                                                             …..10

4      SIPH 0.7-1.5 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.45-0.67 of length            …..5

-       SIPH 1.5-2.9 Χ cauda, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.06-0.42 of length            …..7

5     SIPH thicker than cauda. ANT BASE VI 0-7-1.1 Χ R IV+V …..Macrosiphoniella borealis*

-      SIPH thinner than cauda. ANT BASE VI 1.4-2.3 Χ R IV+V                                          …..6

6     Body oval. SIPH less than 7 Χ longer than their mininum width, c.0.10-0.12 Χ BL and 0.7-1.0 Χ cauda. ANT BASE VI 1.4-1.5 Χ R IV+V

                                                                           …..Macrosiphoniella abrotani (incl. ssp. chosoni)

-      Body spindle-shaped. SIPH more than 10 Χ longer than their minimum width, 0.13-0.16 Χ BL and 1.0-1.3 Χ cauda. ANT BASE VI 1.9-2.3 Χ R IV+V    …..Macrosiphoniella oblonga

7     SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation ending in some transversely elongate cells and a small but distinct flange. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 less than 40 μm long

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH flared at apex and completely lacking any flange, the zone of polygonal reticulation ending abruptly at apex (e.g. Fig.5i). Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually more than 50 μm long                                                                                                                              …..8

8     SIPH reticulated on distal 0.32-0.42 of length. Cauda with 15-30 hairs. R IV+V 0.5-0.6 Χ ANT BASE VI and 0.70-0.85 Χ HT II                                 …..Macrosiphoniella persequens

-      SIPH reticulated on distal 0.06-0.25 of length. Cauda with 7-16 hairs. R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ ANT BASE VI and 0.95-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                               …..9

9     SIPH 2.0-2.9 Χ cauda, slightly expanded at apices, with reticulation on subapical   0.06-0.13

…..Macrosiphoniella aktashica (incl. ssp. hirsutum)

-      SIPH 1.8-2.3 Χ cauda, flared at apices, with reticulation on subapical 0.12-0.25

......Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

10    Cauda tapering, triangular, less than 1.7 Χ longer than its basal width; if more than 1.5 Χ longer than basal width then dark (Fig.52a,b). ANT tubercles weakly developed, so that front of head is shallowly concave in dorsal view                                                           .....11

-       Cauda finger-like, parallel-sided or tapering and elongate triangular, if less than 1.7 Χ its basal width then pale. ANT tubercles usually well developed, so that there is a frontal sinus

        .....14

11    SIPH only c.0.5 Χ cauda                                                                     …..Metopeurum enslini

-       SIPH 1.3-2.3 Χ cauda                                                                                                     …..12

12    SIPH dusky, c. 2.2-2.3 Χ cauda, which is pale, triangular with blunt apex, and bears 4-6 hairs (Fig.52b)                                                                                   …..Metopeurum borystenicum

-      SIPH dark, 1.3-2.0 (-2.2) Χ cauda, which is dusky/dark, elongate triangular with a rather narrow apex, and bears 9-20 hairs (e.g. Fig.52a)                                                             …..13

13    Dorsal body hairs very short and blunt, those on ABD TERG III maximally c.10 μm

…..Metopeurum fuscoviride

-      Dorsal body hairs pointed, those on ABD TERG III c.59-60 μm

…..Metopeurum buryaticum*

14    SIPH reticulated on distal 0.11-0.32 of length. First tarsal segments with 5:5:5 hairs

        …..15

-       SIPH reticulated on distal 0.28-0.81 of length. First tarsal segments with 3:3:3 (or 3:3:2) hairs                                                                                                                                 …..21

15    Cauda dark like the uniformly dark SIPH                                                                      …..16

-       Cauda pale or dusky, SIPH either uniformly dark or with pale middle section             …..18

16    ANT III with 15-21 rhinaria on basal 0.6 of length. SIPH 1.6-1.7 Χ cauda, which bears 13-24 hairs                                                                                                          …..Uroleucon minor

-       ANT III with 38-86 rhinaria distributed over 0.65-0.95 of length. SIPH either 1.3-1.6 or

        1.7-2.3 Χ cauda, which bears 11-18 hairs                                                                        …..17

17    SIPH 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 7-9 accessory hairs

                                                                                          …..Uroleucon gobonis (or compositae?)

-       SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 10-12 accessory hairs                   …..Uroleucon simile

18    ANT III 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 96-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria                                                                      …..Uroleucon formosanum

-       ANT III less than 1.2 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together, with 6-32 rhinaria               …..19

19    Dorsal hairs arising from small dark scleroites. SIPH dark at both ends but usually with paler middle section; 1.7-3.2 Χ cauda                                                                                      …..20

-      Dorsal hairs not on dark scleroites. SIPH uniformly pigmented, 1.2-1.5 Χ cauda

…..Uroleucon bereticum

20    Conspicuous black crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. Cauda with 16-20 hairs

…..Uroleucon pyrethri*

-       Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. Cauda with 5-10 hairs                    ….. Uroleucon tanaceti

21    Dorsal hairs arising from black sclerites or scleroites. Conspicuous black crescent-shaped ante-siphuncular sclerites present                                                                                    …..22

-       Dorsal hairs not arising from sclerites or scleroites. Ante-siphuncular sclerites absent or faintly pigmented                                                                                                            …..27

22    SIPH c.1.5-1.6 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.3-0.35 of length

…..Macrosiphoniella miestingeri

-       SIPH 0.6-1.1 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.40-0.81 of length                           …..23

23    ANT III with (14-)29-55 rhinaria. Dorsal sclerites in spinal region partially fused, forming short cross-bands                                                                      …..Macrosiphoniella absinthii

-       ANT III with 5-28 rhinaria. Dorsal hairs usually all or mostly on separate scleroites    …..24

24    Cauda with 24-30 hairs                                                           …..Macrosiphoniella millefolii

-       Cauda with 8-20 hairs                                                                                                     …..25

25    Tibiae with comtrastingly pale middle section. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.63-0.81. ANT III with 8-28 rhinaria    …..Macrosiphoniella sanborni

-      Tibiae wholly dark. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.40-0.63. ANT III with 5-14 rhinaria                                                                                             …..26

26    SIPH 0.13-0.17 Χ BL. HT I with 3 hairs              …..Macrosiphoniella atra (ssp. latysiphon)

-       SIPH 0.08-0.10 Χ BL. HT I with 2 hairs                                …..Macrosiphoniella caucasica

27    SIPH 0.90 –1.45 Χ cauda and flask-shaped; constricted at base, strongly swollen on basal half, narrowing on reticulated distal section to less than half the maximum width of the swollen part, and flared at apex (Fig.13h)                              …..Macrosiphoniella antennata

-       SIPH tapering from base to apex, 0.6-1.3 Χ cauda                                                         …..28

28    SIPH longer than (1.12-1.31 Χ) cauda, and reticulated on distal 0.28-0.40 of length. Tibiae with pale middle sections. Dorsal hairs stout, capitate, with papillate bases

…..Macrosiphoniella confusa

-      SIPH shorter than (0.6-0.9 Χ) cauda, reticulated on distal 0.41-0.69 of length. Tibiae entirely dark. Dorsal hairs not arising from papillate bases                                                          …..29

29    ANT III usually entirely black, with 12-32 rhinaria. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.41-0.52 of length. R IV+V 0.7-0.85 Χ HT II and 0.55-0.75 Χ ANT BASE VI

.....Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-       ANT III paler at base, and bearing 3-14 rhinaria. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.45-0.69 of length. R IV+V 0.85-1.05 Χ HT II and 0.67-1.0 Χ ANT BASE VI

…..Macrosiphoniella artemisiae

30    Triommatidium merged with compound eye, so that there is no distinct ocular tubercle. Dorsal hairs small, fan- or club-shaped, or at least with somewhat expanded apices. Front of head weakly convex in dorsal view, ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically (e.g. Fig.52e). R IV+V with slightly concave sides. Cauda less than 1.5 Χ its basal width, with 4-5 hairs                              …..31

-      Triommatidum forming a distinct ocular tubercle at posterior margin of eye. Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, or if with expanded apices then long, with rod-shaped stems. Other characters not in above combination                                                                               …..32

31    Dorsal hairs fan-shaped (Fig.52c). RIV+V more than 1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.17-0.2 Χ BL, with basal part almost smooth (Fig.12o)                                              …..Coloradoa rufomaculata

-      Dorsal hairs very small and weakly club-shaped, or with only slightly expanded apices (Fig.52d). R IV+V less than 1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.13-0.18 Χ BL, with basal part coarsely imbricated like distal part (Fig.52e)                                                  …..Coloradoa tanacetina

32    Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 numerous, long,  and all or mostly with distinct, more-or-less cylindrical rod-like stems, broadening distally into fan-shaped or capitate apices. R IV+V stiletto-shaped with a pair of very long accessory hairs near base

..…Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 without fan-shaped or distinctly capitate apices. R IV+V not stiletto-shaped and without any very long accessory hairs                                             …..33

33   ANT PT/BASE 8-11. ANT III with 7-28 rhinaria extending over 0.4-0.7 of length. Spiracular apertures on pro-and metathorax much larger than those on abdomen

…..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-6.0. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria near base. Thoracic spiracular apertures reniform, similar in size and form to abdominal ones                                                      …..34

34    Large transparent domed marginal tubercles (MTu) present at least on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 (Fig.5j). ANT PT/BASE 4.1-6.0                                                             .....Aphis vandergooti

-      MTu absent, or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7; if the latter then ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.7                                                                                                            …..35

35    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH with a distinct subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                …..36

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, much longer than its basal width. SIPH without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

36    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda ......Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

 

Tapinanthus                                                Loranthaceae

      Tapinanthus cordifolius               Tuberaphis loranthi

      Tapinanthus sp.                            Sitobion ?asirum

Use key to apterae on Loranthus.

 

Taraxacum                                                  Compositae

[Note: two Aphis species, described by Bφrner (1940) and Nevsky (1951), are confused under the name A. taraxacicola; we have not attempted to allocate specific hosts to either species.]

      Taraxacum albidum                     Aphis taraxacicola

        T. altaicum                                    Aphis taraxacicola

      T. arctogenum = T. ceratophorum   

        T. ceratophorum                           Aphis madderae; Metopolophium arctogenicolens

        T. dens-leonis                                Aphis gossypii, [intybi]; Uroleucon taraxaci

        T. ecornutum                                [Pemphigus vesicarius]; Smynthurodes betae

        T. erythrospermum                       Aphis taraxacicola ; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus; [Uroleucon sp. (Leonard 1968: 358)]

      T. hibernicum                               Aphis taraxacicola

        T. kok-saghyz                                Aphis taraxacicola; Protaphis scorzonerae;

                                                              Uroleucon taraxaci

        T. lacerum = T. ceratophorum

        T. laevigatum = T. erythrospermum  

        T. majus                                        Hyperomyzus pallidus

        T. mongolicum                             Aphis taraxacicola; Uroleucon gobonis

        T. monochlamydeum                   Aphis taraxacicola; [Pemphigus vesicarius];

                                                              Protaphis betpakdalensis, scorzonerae

        T. montanum                                [Pemphigus immunis]

        T. officinale                                   [Anuraphis farfarae];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, eugenyi, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola,

                                                                   taraxacicola, [vandergooti];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              [Cavariella salicicola];

                                                              Dysaphis microsiphon, [radicola], taraxaci;

                                                              [Geoica lucifuga]; Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [valerianae];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              [Nasonovia (Kakimia) sp. (Leonard 1968)];

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                              Protaphis knowltoni, middletonii, scorzonerae, [terricola];

                                                              Protrama taraxaci;

                                                              Trama caudata, rara, taraxaci, troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, cichorii, compositae, grossum, 

                                                                  [macolai], [nigrotuberculata], pseudambrosiae, sonchi,

                                                                  taraxaci

        T. platycarpum                              Aphis gossypii, taraxacicola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Hyperomyzus carduellinus; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Trama taraxaci; Uroleucon formosanum

        T. serotinum                                 Aphis gossypii, taraxacicola; Protaphis scorzonerae;

                                                              Trama rara

        T. syriacum                                   Aphis taraxacicola; Protrama radicis; Trama caudata

        T. tadshicorum                             Aphis taraxacicola; Rectinasus buxtoni; Trama troglodytes

        T. tianschanicum                          Aphis taraxacicola

        T. vulgare                                      Uroleucon taraxaci

        Taraxacum spp.                           [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; [Anoecia corni];

                                                              Aulacorthum palustre, [rufum];

                                                              [Dysaphis ranunculi]; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon [erigeronense], hypochoeridis, [tussilaginis]

Key to apterae on Taraxacum:-

1      HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia                                                         …..2

-       HT II of normal length                                                                                                      …..6

2      SIPH absent                                                                                                                      …..3

-       SIPH present as raised pores                                                                                             …..4

3      HT II 0.84-0.92 Χ length of hind tibia. Eyes with many facets                       …..Trama rara

-       HT II 0.60-0.82 Χ length of hind tibia. Eyes with only 3 facets           …..Trama troglodytes

4      ANT III with c.15 rhinaria. HT II less than 0.7 Χ hind tibia               …..Protrama taraxaci*

-       ANT III with 0-1 rhinaria. HT II more than 0.7 Χ hind tibia                                           …..5

5      All apterae alatiform, with dark dorsal sclerites and pigmented SIPH cones ANT VI longer than V, with ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5                                            …..Protrama radicis

-      Apterae without dark dorsal sclerotisation. ANT VI shorter than V, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4                                            …..Trama caudata (or Trama taraxaci*? – see text)

6      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of 3 facets. SIPH absent                                          …..7

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. Eyes mulifacetted. SIPH present, tubular or conical      …..8

7      ANT 5-segmented, with ANT V BASE very long, more than 15 Χ longer than the short

        peg-like PT. R IV+V extremely long, similar in length to hind femur

        …..Rectinasus buxtoni

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented, base of last segment and R IV+V relatively much shorter

                                                                   …..use couplets 2 and 3 of key to polyphagous aphids

8      SIPH dark with an extensive distal zone of  reticulation comprising numerous small polygonal cells                                                                                                                   …..9

-       SIPH if dark then without polygonal reticulation                                                          …..16

9      ANT III 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together, and bearing 96-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria                                                                      …..Uroleucon formosanum

-       ANT III less than 1.2 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together, with 6-86 rhinaria               …..10

10    Dorsal abdominal hairs not placed on dusky or dark scleroites              …..Uroleucon sonchi

-       Dorsal abdominal hairs all or mostly placed on small dusky or dark scleroites              …..11

11    Crescent-shaped ante-siphuncular sclerites present                                                        …..12

-       Ante-siphuncular sclerites absent or vestigeal                                                                 …..13

12    R IV+V 0.84-1.08 Χ HT II (rarely more than 1). Cauda with 14-24 hairs (usually about 17)

…..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

-      R IV+V 1.04-1.35 Χ HT II. Cauda with 18-33 hairs

…..Uroleucon cichorii group (incl. grossum)

13    Post-siphuncular sclerites absent or small, not much larger than scleroites at other hair bases, which are large, black and numerous, and sometimes merged together. ANT and tibiae entirely black. Cauda as black as SIPH and rather short and thick, with 8-12 hairs

…..Uroleucon taraxaci

-       Large dark post-siphuncular sclerites present. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs smaller and less numerous, never merged, usually paler than SIPH. ANT III usually pale at base, and tibiae with paler middle sections. Cauda pale or dark, if dark then long and bearing

        13-20 hairs                                                                                                                       …..14

14    Coxae and cauda dusky/dark. ANT III with 33-86 rhinaria on 0.7-0.95 of length

…..Uroleucon compositae (or gobonis?)

-       Coxae and cauda pale. ANT III with 8-39 rhinaria on 0.4-0.7 of length                       …..15

15    HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more Χ longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 Χ R IV+V

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

16    Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4, as well as on several other segments                                                                                                …..17

-      MTu only sporadically present, and then small, on ABD TERG 2-4, although they may be well developed on other segments                                                                                  …..19

17    Cauda finger-like or elongate triangular, with 5-14 hairs. Head without Stu

                                    …..Aphis taraxacicola (2 spp. under this name, or A. eugenyi*? – see text)

-       Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-5(-6) hairs. Head with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu)                                                                     …..18

18    SIPH very short, only 0.03-0.08 mm long, 0.4-0.8 (-1.2) Χ cauda  …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-       SIPH c. 0.11 mm long, c.2 Χ cauda                                                     …..Dysaphis taraxaci*

19    Spiracular apertures large and rounded. Cauda short, rounded, helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width, with a slight basal constriction                                                       …..20

-      Spiracular apertures reniform. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or if short then bluntly triangular and without any basal constriction                                                                 …..22

20    Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH smooth, 0.05-0.10 Χ BL

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with a dark shield or extensive dark markings. SIPH imbricated, 0.09-0.15 Χ BL

…..21

21   Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25 mm                                          …..Brachycaudus lateralis

-       Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25 mm long                         …..Brachycaudus cardui

22    R IV+V as long as or longer than cauda, which is dark and bluntly triangular              …..23

-       R IV+V shorter than cauda, which is tongue- or finger-shaped                                     …..26

23    ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4                                                                                                   …..24

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.3                                                                                                   …..25

24    Hairs on ANT III all shorter than BD III. SIPH usually longer than cauda

…..Protaphis middletonii

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 Χ BD III. SIPH usually shorter than cauda

…..Protaphis knowltoni

25    ANT III usually with 1-5 rhinaria on distal part. Hairs on front of head 1.7-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. ABD TERG 6 (as well as 1 and 7) consistently with MTu …..Protaphis betpakdalensis*

-      ANT III without rhinaria. Hairs on front of head c.0.6 Χ ANT BD III. ABD TERG 6 without MTu                                                                                   ….. Protaphis scorzonerae

26    ANT tubercles well developed and head smooth, or with spicules on ventral surface only

…..27

-      Either ANT tubercles undeveloped/ weakly developed and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu, or head densely spiculose both dorsally and ventrally                                                   …..33

27    SIPH clavate                                                                                                                   …..28

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half                                                                     …..30

28    Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 8-19 μm long, and on ANT tubercles 6-11 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-29, IV (0)-1-16, V 0 (-9). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.6. ANT PT 1.6-2.3 Χ cauda                                                                         …..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-50 μm long, and on ANT tubercles 18-30 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 4-40, IV 0-2, V 0. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-7.9. ANT PT 2.0-3.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                                               …..29

29    SIPH 3-5 Χ longer than maximum width of swollen part, which is 1.6-2.4 Χ minimum width on basal part. R IV+V 0.9-1.12 Χ HT II (mostly 0.95-1.1 Χ). (Al. with a compact black solid trapezoid dorsal abdominal patch, with hardly any  perforations)

…..Hyperomyzus pallidus

-      SIPH 4-7 Χ longer than maximum width of swollen part, which is 1.3-2.0 Χ minimum width on basal part. R IV+V 0.8-1.07 Χ HT II (mostly 0.9-1.0). (Al. with a very irregular and variably shaped dorsal abdominal patch, interrupted by extensive perforations)

…..Hyperomyzus lactucae

30    Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, mostly more than 8.0. ANT III with 7-28 rhinaria extending over 0.4-0.7 of length. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                             …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE less than 7. ANT III with 1-8 (-10) rhinaria on basal part. Dorsum without any dark markings                     …..31

31    SIPH with at least 4 rows of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                                                                                               …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation, or with only 1-3 indistinct rows of transversely elongate cells. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.5 Χ BD III                                            …..32

32    (Based on ovip.) ANT III with at least 3-8 rhinaria. R IV+V c.0.7 Χ HT II. Head with median frontal tubercle well developed, and without spicules

…..Metopolophium arctogenicolens*

-      ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. Head with median frontal tubercle weakly developed, and with some small spicules ventrally              …..Aulacorthum palustre

33    ANT tubercles undeveloped, ANT PT/BASE c.1.7-1.8, SIPH cylindrical, only c. 2 Χ longer than wide, about as long as cauda which bears only 4 hairs                    .....Aphis madderae*

-      Without that combination of characters

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

 

Taxillus                                                       Loranthaceae

      Taxillus sutchuenensis                 Tuberaphis loranthicola (= takenouchii?)

Use key to apterae on Loranthus.

 

Taxodium                                                               Taxodiaceae

      Taxodium distichum                    Illinoia morrisoni

 

 

Taxus                              Yews                               Taxaceae

      Taxus baccata                               Prociphilus taxus

      T. cuspidata                                   Elatobium momii

 

-       SIPH absent. R IV+V 7.0-8.0 Χ ANT PT                                                .....Prociphilus taxus

-       SIPH tubular. R IV+V 0.2-0.4 Χ ANT PT                                               .....Elatobium momii

 

Teclea                                                                                       Rutaceae

        Teclea sp.                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

 

Tecoma                                                                                    Bignoniaceae

        Tecoma australis = Pandorea pandorana

      T. capensis                                    Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        T. castanifolia                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        T. grandiflora = Campsis grandiflora

          T. nyassae                                     Myzus persicae

        T. radicans = Campsis radicans

        T. shirensis = T. nyassae

        T. smithii                                       Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii

        T. stans                                          Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Tectaria                                                       Dryopteridaceae

      Tectaria sp.                                   Macrosiphum miho

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

 

Tectona                                                                                    Verbenaceae

        Tectona grandis                            Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Teesdalia                                                     Brassicaceae

     Teesdalia nudicaulis                       Myzus persicae

 

Telekia                                                         Compositae

     Telekia speciosa                              Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus pakansus; Uroleucon telekiae

      Telekia sp.                                      Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Telekia:-

1      ANT III with 2-5 long capitate hairs. Dorsal body hairs numerous long and capitate, arising from large tubercles, the longest hairs being 3-4 Χ ANT BD III (Fig.34b). R IV+V 2.2-2.5 Χ HT II                                                                                              …..Capitophorus pakansus

-      ANT and dorsal body hairs not long and capitate, without tuberculate bases. R IV+V less than 2 Χ HT II                                                                                                                    .....2

2      SIPH long, cylindrical, black, with polygonal retciulation on distal 0.17-0.25 of length, 2.0-2.4 Χ cauda which is long and finger-like and bears 20-26 hairs. (Additional diagnostic characters for this species: dorsal hairs all arising from dark scleroites; R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II; first tarsal segments with 3 hairs)                                                                 …..Uroleucon telekiae

-       SIPH short, conical pale, without polygonal reticulation, 0-8-2.0 Χ cauda which is

        helmet-shaped and bears 4-6 hairs                                               …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

(or otherwise go to key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Teline  see Genista                                                               Leguminosae

        Teline linifolia = Genista linifolia

 

Tellima                                                        Saxifragaceae

     Tellima grandiflora                        Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum tolmiea;

                                                              Nasonovia stroyani; Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Tellima:-

1           ANT III with 18-33 rhinaria along most of length, and IV with 0-8. Abdominal spiracular apertures almost completely covered by cowl-like opercula. R IV+V 1.6-2.2 Χ HT II

…..Nasonovia stroyani

-      ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria on basal part, IV with 0. Abdominal spiracular apertures not or only partly covered by opercula. R IV+V less than 1.6X HT II                                       …..2

2      SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II, with 12-16 accessory hairs. ANT III usually without rhinaria                                            …..Macrosiphum tolmiea

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Telosma                                                       Asclepiadaceae

      Telosma cordatum                        Myzus persicae

 

Tephroseris                                                  Compositae

      Tephroseris cladobotrys                Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui

        T. crispa                                        Brachycaudus cardui; Myzus ornatus

        T. integrifolia = Senecio integrifolius

        T. praticola                                    Aphis fabae, jacobaeae; Uroleucon bicolor

Use key to apterae under Senecio.

 

Tephrosia                                                    Leguminosae

            Tephrosia barbigera = T. nana

        T. bracteolata                              Aphis gossypii

        T. candida                                   Aphis craccivora, gossypii

        T. cinerea                                    Aphis craccivora

        T. florida                                     Microparsus tephrosiae

        T. glomeruliflora                         Aphis craccivora

        T. hookeriana                             Aphis craccivora

        T. nana                                        Aphis craccivora

        T. purpurea                                 Aphis craccivora; Megoura dooarsis

        T. reptans                                    Aphis craccivora

        T. senna                                      Aphis craccivora

        T. spicata                                    Microparsus tephrosiae

        T. totta = Cracca totta

        T. virginiana                               Microparsus tephrosiae

        T. vogelii                                      Aphis craccivora, glycines, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        Tephrosia spp.                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Longicaudus himalayensis];

                                                            Sitobion africanum

Key to apterae on Tephrosia:-

1      SIPH black, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Dorsum with variably developed segmental dark bars or paired patches                                 …..Sitobion africanum

-      SIPH pale or dark, without polygonal reticulation. Dorsum either unsclerotised or with a solid dark sclerotic shield                                                                                                  …..2

2      ANT tubercles very well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. ANT longer than BL, with PT/BASE more than 5. SIPH swollen in middle                                               …..3

-      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ANT shorter than BL, with PT/BASE less than 4. SIPH conical, tapering or cylindrical                                                              …..4

3      SIPH 1.0-1.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II                           …..Microparsus tephrosiae

-       SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.70-0.85 Χ HT II                               …..Megoura dooarsis

4      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. Cauda black       ..…Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Cauda pale/dusky, paler than SIPH                ..…5

5      Cauda 0.08-0.135 Χ BL (only more than 0.12 Χ BL in very small specimens with BL less than 1 mm), and 0.8-1.25 Χ ANT V; pale to dusky, without a constriction, less than 3 Χ longer than its width at midlength, and bearing 4-7 (usually 5-6) hairs       …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda 0.12-0.175 Χ BL, and 1.05-1.7 Χ ANT V; very pale, usually with a slight mid-way constriction, more than 3 Χ longer than its narrowest width at midlength, and bearing 5-10 (usually 7-9) hairs                                                                                         ..…Aphis glycines

 

 

Terminalia                                                                            Combretaceae

        Terminalia arjuna                        Aphis gossypii; Paoliella nirmalae

        T. australis                                    Lizerius brasiliensis

        T. brachystemma                          Aphis gossypii; Paoliella harteni, terminaliae

        T. chebula                                     "gall of unknown aphid" - Mani 1973:143

        T. mantaly                                     Aphis gossypii

        T. sericea                                       Paoliella harteni, terminaliae

 

Key to aphids on Terminalia:-

1     Cauda not knobbed                                                                                       .....Aphis gossypii

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)

-      Cauda knobbed                                                                                                                  .....2

2     Knob of cauda very elongate, much longer than its maximal width, tapering to apex (fig. 114A)                                                                                                    .....Lizerius brasiliensis

-      Knob of cauda about as long as its maximal width, with rounded apex                           .....3

3     Adult viviparae apterous as well as alate.  Alata with long and tapering or finger-like spinal processes (fig. 114B), like those of aptera, as well as wart-like processes. Pronotum with 1 pair of anterio-lateral hairs                                                                    .....Paoliella nirmalae

-      Adult viviparae all alate.  Spinal processes if present all short and wart-like.  Pronotum with 2 pairs of anterio-lateral hairs                                                                                                .....4

4     Alata with paired, short, spinal hair-bearing processes on ABD TERG 1-8 (fig. 114B), and similar marginal processes on ABD TERG 1-4.  R IV+V less than 0.75Χ HT II

.....Paoliella harteni

-      Alata without abdominal processes.  R IV+V more than 0.8Χ HT II .....Paoliella terminaliae

 

 

Ternstroemia                                               Pentaphylacaceae

      Ternstroemia gymnanthera          Neoaulacorthum magnoliae

      T. peduncularis = T. tepezapote

          T. tepezapote                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tessaria                                                       Compositae

      Tessaria absinthoides see Pluchea absinthoides                         

 

Tetracera                                                     Dilleniaceae

      Tetracera indica                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        T. volubilis                                    Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tetraclinis                                                             Cupressaceae

      Tetraclinis articulata                     Cinara cupressi

 

Tetradenia (including Iboza)                                      Lamiaceae

      Tetradenia multiflora                    [Sitobion sp.]

        T. riparia                                       Eucarazzia elegans; Sitobion colei

        Tetradenia sp.                               [Metanipponaphis cuspidatae]

Key to apterae on Tetradenia:-

1     SIPH strongly swollen, with maximum diameter of swollen part more than 2 Χ minimum diameter of stem, smooth except for a little subapical polygonal reticulation (Fig.48a). SIPH 5.4-8.2 Χ cauda                                                                                     …..Eucarazzia elegans

-      SIPH not swollen or much less swollen, and less than 3.5 Χ cauda                                  …..2

2      SIPH dark with subapical polygonal reticulation. Dorsum with an extensive solid dark shield across ABD TERG 1-5, fused with marginal and antesiphuncular sclerites. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                     …..Sitobion colei

-      SIPH if dark then without polygonal reticulation, and other characters not in that combination                                                                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Tetradymia                                                  Compositae

      Tetradymia canescens                  Pleotrichophorus tetradymiae;

                                                              Protaphis tetradymia; Uroleucon erigeronense

      Tetradymia sp.                              [Aphis craccivora]

Key to apterae on Tetradymia:-

1      SIPH dark distally, with pale basal section, and polygonal reticulation on 0.21-0.45 of length. ANT III with 5-37 rhinaria. Cauda tapering to a very thin apex, with subapical hairs usually shorter and often blunter than lateral hairs                       …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH wholly dark, without distal polygonal reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria. Cauda finger-like or triangular, without shorter blunter subapical hairs                                       …..2

2      Dorsal hairs numerous, with knobbed apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. R IV+V stiletto-shaped, with concave sides. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.4. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent. Cauda pale, finger-like, with 5 hairs                        …..Pleotrichophorus tetradymiae

-      Dorsal hairs pointed, without tuberculate bases. R IV+V not concave-sided. ANT PT/BASE 1.1-2.0. Very large MTu present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. Cauda dark, triangular, not longer than its basal width, with 8-14 hairs                                                  …..Protaphis tetradymia

     

Tetragonocalamus see Chimonobambusa          Poaceae

    

Tetragonolobus  see Lotus                                   Leguminosae

      Tetragonolobus maritimus = Lotus maritimus

        T. requienii = Lotus conjugatus ssp. requienii

 

Tetramolopium                                                    Compositae

     Tetramolopium tenerrimum           Macrosiphoniella asteris

 

Tetrapanax                                                            Araliaceae

      Tetrapanax papyrifer                    [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:104)];

                                                               Cavariella araliae, nigrocaudata

Couplet for separating these two species:-

(Note: both spp. have ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed process above the cauda)

-       Supracaudal process much longer than cauda. SIPH, cauda and genital plate unpigmented

…..Cavariella araliae

-      Supracaudal process about as long as cauda. Distal part of SIPH, cauda and genital plate blackish                                                                                         …..Cavariella nigrocaudata

 

Teucrium                                                               Lamiaceae

      Teucrium botrys                            Aphis teucrii

      T. canadense                                 Aphis teucrii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        T. capitatum                                  Aphis teucrii, [Aphis sp. (Spain: Seco Fernαndez et al.

 1999)]

      T. chamaedrys (incl. ssp.                  Aphis alienus, teucriii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                 pinnatifidum)           Myzus ornatus; Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

        T. divaricatum                               Aphis teucrii; Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

        T. flavum                                       Aphis [origani], teucrii, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)]

        T. fruticans                                    Aphis teucrii

          T. inflatum = T, vesicarium

      T. laciniatum                                 Protaphis middletonii

        T. marum                                      Aphis teucrii

        T. montanum                                Aphis alienus, teucrii

        T. orientale                                    Aphis gossypii

        T. polium                                       Aphis polii, [salviae], teucrii

        T. pseudochamaepitys                   Aphis frangulae

        T. scorodonia                                 Aphis alienus, scorodoniae del Guercio” (see text under

                                                                  alienus], teucrii, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)];

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

          T. vesicarium                                            Aphis gossypii

        Teucrium spp.                               Aphis fabae, [teucrii Lichtenstein (nomen nudum)]

Key to apterae on Teucrium:-

1      Head smooth with ANT tubercles developed, their inner faces steep-sided. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH pale, without polygonal reticulation, slightly swollen distally. Cauda pale, constricted at base, and bearing 5(-7) hairs                                 …..Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      ANT tubercles weakly developed.. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..3

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3      Cauda black with more than 10 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark cross-bands, and usually there are also dark dorsal markings anterior to SIPH                                           …..4

-      Cauda pale, dusky or dark, with 4-10 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually without cross-bands, or with a narrow band on 8 only, and no dark markings anterior to SIPH           …..5

4      Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.8 (mostly 2.4-3.6)                                                                   ......Aphis fabae

-      Cauda short, bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width. ANT III often with a few rhinaria on distal part. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.1                                 …..Protaphis middletonii

5      R IV+V 0.85-1.22 Χ ANT BASE VI, 1.10-1.45 Χ HT II and 0.61-1.0 Χ cauda, which is distinctly paler than SIPH                                                     …..Aphis gossypii (or frangulae)

-      R IV+V 1.14-2.25 Χ ANT BASE VI, 1.18-2.12 Χ HT II and 0.69-1.40 Χ cauda, which is not distinctly paler than SIPH                                                                                                 …..6

6      R IV+V 1.49-2.25 Χ HT II (97% of specimens >1.6), and 1.28-2.35 Χ ANT BASE VI

        …..Aphis polii

-       R IV+V 1.18-1.63 Χ HT II (97% of specimens <1.6), and 1.14-1.79 Χ ANT BASE VI …..7

7      At least some of ABD TERG 2-5  with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH more than 5.5 Χ longer than their minimal distal width just proximal to flange                      …..Aphis alienus

-       MTu rarely present on any of ABD TERG 2-5. SIPH less than 5.4 Χ longer than their minimal distal width just proximal to flange                                                  …..Aphis teucrii

 

Thalia                                                                     Marantaceae

      Thalia geniculata                          Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                               Sitobion miscanthi, [Sitobion sp. (Remaudiθre &

                                                                  Autrique 1985)]

Key to apterae on Thalia:-

(Note: all species have uniformly dark SIPH and a pale or dusky cauda)

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                 …..Sitobion sp(p).

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                …..2

2      Cauda long and pale, with 4 hairs, contrasting with black calf-shaped SIPH (slightly swollen on basal part), and dark coxae and femora                                      …..Hysteroneura setariae

-       Cauda pale or dusky with 4-8 hairs, SIPH dark and tapering, coxae and femora pale

…..Aphis gossypii

 

Thalictrum                                                  Ranunculaceae

      Thalictrum adianthifolium see Th. minus                         

        Th. amurense                                Longicaudus trirhodus    

        Th. angustifolium see Th. lucidum

        Th. aquilegiifolium (incl. vars         Aphis neothalictri, thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                cornuti, sibiricum)       Thalictrophorus thalictrophilus

        Th. buschianum                            Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. chelidonii                                Longicaudus dunlopi

        Th. collinum                                  Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                               Nasonovia saurotarbagataica

        Th. contortum = Th. aquifolium var. sibiricum

        Th. coriaceum                               Nasonovia purpurascens

        Th. cornuti = Th. aquifolium var. cornuti

        Th. delavayi                                   Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. dioicum                                   Acyrthosiphon ranunculum; Nasonovia purpurascens

        Th. dipterocarpum = Th. delavayi

          Th. elatum = Th. minus

        Th. fendleri                                    Illinoia thalictri

        Th. flavum                                     Aphis thalictri; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Longicaudus dunlopi, trirhodus

        Th. foetidum                                  Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. glaucum = Th. speciosissimum

        Th. hypoleucum = Th. minus var. hypoleucum                            

        Th. isopyroides                              Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. kemense = Th. minus ssp. kemense

        Th. lucidum                                   Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. majus (= Th. minus?)                  Longicaudus trirhodus ssp. iranicus

        Th. minus (incl. vars                        Aphis gossypii, neothalictri, spiraecola, thalictri; 

           adianthifolium, hypoleucum)            [Chaetosiphon alpestre]; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Nasonovia altaensis

        Th. minus ssp. kemense                Aphis neothalictri, thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodu

        Th. minus ssp. pseudominus         Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. pauciflorum = Th. dioicum

        Th. petaloideum                            Aphis thalictri

        Th. polygamum = Th. pubescens

        Th. pseudominus = Th. minus ssp. pseudominus

        Th. pubescens                               Nasonovia purpurascens

        Th. purpurascens                          Nasonovia purpurascens

        Th. rariflorum                               Nasonovia altaensis

        Th. revolutum                               Aphis fabae; Nasonovia purpurascens

        Th. rochebrunnianum                  Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. rhynchocarpum                      Aulacorthum solani; Sitobion thalictri

      Th. simplex                                    Aphis hasanica, neothalictri, thalictri;

                                                               Longicaudus trirhodus; Nasonovia saurotarbagataica

        Th. simplex ssp. boreale = Th. rariflorum

        Th. sparsiflorum                           Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. speciosissimum                       Aphis thalictri; Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. squarrosum                            Longicaudus trirhodus

        Th. thunbergii = Th. minus var. hypoleucum

        Thalictrum spp.                            [Aphis thalictri ssp. orangii];

                                                               Longicaudus cornutus, himalayensis, kumauni;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus matsumurai

Key to apterae on Thalictrum:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                   .....Pemphigus matsumurai

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present                                                                    .....2

2      SIPH shorter than cauda                                                                                                   …..3

-       SIPH longer than cauda                                                                                                  …..12

3      SIPH very short, less than 0.5 Χ cauda                                                                             …..4

-       SIPH 0.6-0.9 Χ cauda                                                                                                       …..7

4      ANT III much shorter than ANT IV+V together. First tarsal segments with (2-) 3 hairs. Cauda broadly triangular, not or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view, with 9-12 hairs                                                                                                          …..Aphis thalictri (s. str.)

-       ANT III much longer than IV+V together. First tarsal segments with 5 or 6 hairs. Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width, with 8-19 hairs                                          …..5

5      ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.5. Dorsal cuticle corrugated and papillate. Cauda with 8-12 hairs

.....Longicaudus cornutus*

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.91-2.08. Dorsal cuticle smooth. Cauda with 13-19 hairs                      .....6

6      ANT PT/BASE 0.91-1.46                                                               …..Longicaudus trirhodus

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.56-2.08                                                                 …..Longicaudus dunlopi

7      ANT III much longer than IV+V together. First tarsal segments with 5-6 hairs              .....8

-       ANT III much shorter than ANT IV+V together. First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs    .....9

8      ANT PT/BASE less than 2. First tarsal segments with 6 hairs

.....Longicaudus himalayanesis*

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.2. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs            .....Longicaudus kumauni*

9      ANT III with 3-12 rhinaria on basal half. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent from ABD TERG 1 and 7. R IV+V with (3-) 4 accessory hairs                                      …..Nasonovia altaensis

-       ANT III without rhinaria. MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. R IV+V with 2 (-3) accessory hairs                                                                                                                 …..10

10    Hind femora with long fine hairs, many of them longer than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 11-24 hairs                                                                           .....Aphis fabae (part)

-       Hind femora with hairs all shorter than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 9-13 hairs

.....11

11    MTu usually present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.5. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II                                                                                         …..Aphis hasanica*

-       MTu only sporadically on ABD TERG 2-4. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.1. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 Χ HT II

…..Aphis neothalictri*

12    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)                                                                                                                                …..13

-       SIPH without any distinct polygonal reticulation (sometimes with 1-3 subapical rows of interconnecting transverse striae)                                                                                    …..15

13    SIPH black, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.3-0.4 of length. ANT black, except at base of III. Cauda dark                                                                            …..Sitobion thalictri

-       SIPH, ANT and cauda mainly pale. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.08-0.2 of length       …..14

14    SIPH distinctly swollen proximal to reticulated part. Hairs on ANT III not exceeding 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                                         …..Illinoia thalictri

-       SIPH cylindrical on distal part (sometimes with reticulated part somewhat constricted). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

15    Head densely spiculose, dorsally as well as ventrally. ANT tubercles well developed with inner faces scabrous and steep-sided                                                                              …..16

-       Head not spiculose. ANT tubercles if well developed then with smooth, divergent inner faces                                                                                                                                …..17

16    SIPH slightly clavate. ANT III without rhinaria                                        …..Myzus persicae

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ANT III amost always with 1-2 (-3) small rhinaria on basal part

…..Aulacorthum solani

17    ANT III with 5-19 rhinaria                                                                                              .....18

-       ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria                                                                                               …..19

18    SIPH wholly pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 are 0.7-0.8 Χ ANT BD III                                                                                          .....Nasonovia saurotarbagataica

-       SIPH dark or dusky towards apices. R IV+V 0.6-0.9 Χ HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 are 0.2-0.4 Χ ANT BD III                                                                  .....Nasonovia purpurascens

19    ANT tubercles well developed, ANT 0.9-1.4 Χ BL, PT/BASE c.3.8-3.9. SIPH 2.4-3.0 Χ cauda                                                                                      …..Acyrthosiphon ranunculum*

-       ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ANT 0.5-0.8 Χ BL, PT/BASE 2.0-3.5. SIPH 1.0-2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                               …..20

20    SIPH not dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). First tarsal segments with 4 hairs                                                                      …..Thalictrophorus thalictrophilus*

-       SIPH dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs

        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

Thamnocalamus                                         Poaceae

      Thamnocalamus spathaceus = Fargesia spathacea

        Thamnocalamus sp.                     Melanaphis meghalayensis

See key to bamboo-feeding aphids under Bambusa.

     

Thamnoseris                                                Compositae

      Thamnoseris lacerata                   Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

Thapsia                                                        Apiaceae

      Thapsia garganica                        Anuraphis pyrilaseri; Aphis fabae;

                                                               Dyaphis apiifolia,  crataegi ssp. kunzei

        Th. villosa                                      Aphis craccivora, fabae; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Semiaphis dauci

Key to apterae on Thapsia:-

1     SIPH very short, only about 0.5 Χ cauda, and flangeless                          …..Semiaphis dauci

-     SIPH more than 0.8 Χ cauda, with a distinct flange                                                          …..2

2    ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda. SIPH clavate. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3                                                                                …..Cavariella aegopodii

-    No supracaudal process. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, or slightly clavate. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                                                                                                …..3

3.   Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. Well-developed spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) present                                                                                         .....4

-     Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. STu absent, MTu sporadic or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7

      .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

4.   Head densely spiculose. SIPH shorter than R IV+V, with close-set annular rows of blunt spinules. Cauda with 10-12 hairs. STu on ABD TERG 1-5                …..Anuraphis pyrilaseri

-     Head not spiculose. SIPH longer than R IV+V, normally imbricated. Cauda with 5 hairs. STu on head and ABD TERG 8                                                                                                …..5

5.    Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm long. ABD TERG 7 frequently with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                       …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-      Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 55-80 μm long . ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu

…..Dysaphis crataegi ssp. kunzei

     

Thaspium                                                    Apiaceae

      Thaspium aureum = Th. trifoliatum var. aureum

      Th. barbinode                                 Aphis thaspii

      Th. trifoliatum                                 Aphis thaspii

      Th. trifoliatum var. aureum           Aphis thaspii; Cavariella pastinacae

Key to apterae on Thaspium:-

-      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-projecting process above cauda. Head and SIPH pale, SIPH swollen distally. (ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0)                             …..Cavariella pastinacae

-      No supracaudal process. Head and SIPH dusky/dark. SIPH tapering           …..Aphis thaspii

 

Thaumatococcus                                         Marantaceae

      Thaumatococcus daniellii             Pentalonia nigronervosa

 

Thea see Camellia                                                                 Theaceae

    

Thelepogon                                                 Poaceae

      Thelepogon elegans                      Aphis gossypii

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Thelesperma                                                Compositae

      Thelesperma megapotamicum     Aphis coreopsidis; Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to apterae on Bidens.

 

Thelymitra                                                   Orchidaceae

      Thelymitra longifolia                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

 

Thelypteris (including Lastrea)                                            Thelypteridaceae

        Thelypteris confluens                    Macrosiphum dryopteridis, lambi

        Th. dentata = Christella dentata

        Th. dryopteris = Gymnocarpium dryopteris                                 

        Th. ligocarpa (?)                            Idiopteris nephrelepidis

        Th. palustris = Th. confluens

        Th. phegopteris = Phegopteris connectilis                                 

        Th. quelpaertensis                         Amphorophora ampullata, scabripes

        Thelypteris spp.                             Micromyzella filicis; Micromyzodium filicium

Use key to apterae of fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Themeda ( including Anthistiria)                                           Poaceae

        Themeda arguens                         Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                               Sitobion graminis, javanicum, lambersi

        Th. ciliata = Th. quadrivalvis

        Th. coromandeliana (?)                Melanaphis sacchari

        Th. quadrivalvis                            Sitobion rosaeiformis

        Th. triandra                                   Baizongia pistaciae; Sipha maydis;

                                                               Sitobion avenae, graminis, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

        Th. villosa                                      Ceratovacuna lanigera   

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Theobroma                                                  Sterculiaceae

      Theobroma cacao                           Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Cervaphis rappardi, schouteniae;

                                                               Macrosiphum martorelli

Key to apterae on Theobroma:-

1    Body with very long, branched, hair-bearing marginal processes                                      …..2

-     Body without such processes                                                                                             …..3

2    Dorsal abdominal hairs all more-or-less acute, lanceolate, or sometimes slightly bifurcate. Marginal processes on abdomen either with one type of hair (usually bifurcate) at ends of  lateral branches or with, near the base, one or two dorsal branches with a thin, acute hair

.....Cervaphis schouteniae

-     Dorsal abdominal hairs very blunt, often club-shaped with nearly globular apices, and extremely numerous. Marginal processes on abdomen with pointed or bifurcate hairs at ends of lateral branches, but dorsal branches bearing very blunt or club-shaped hairs like those on on mid-dorsal processes                                                                          .....Cervaphis rappardi

3.    Body elongate spindle-shaped, with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces smooth and divergent. SIPH long and dark except at bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation on about distal 0.2 of length                                      …..Macrosiphum martorelli

-     Without that combination of characters                           ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Thereianthus                                               Iridaceae

     Thereianthus spicatus                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

(or use key to apterae on Iris)

 

Thermopsis                                                  Leguminosae

     Thermopsis divaricarpa                  Macrosiphum zionense

     Th. gracilis                                      Macrosiphum albifrons

     Th. montana                                   Macrosiphum albifrons, zionense

      Th. montana var. venosa = Th. gracilis

      Th. pinetorum = Th. divaricarpa

      Thermopsis sp.                                Aphis asclepiadis

Key to apterae on Thermopsis:-

1      SIPH dark with a subapical zone of  polygonal reticulation. ANT and tibiae black

…..Macrosiphum zionense

-       SIPH if dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT and tibiae pale, or with paler basal sections                                                                                                                              …..2

2      SIPH pale or dusky with subapical polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 17-40 rhinaria

…..Macrosiphum albifrons

-       Without that conbination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Thesium                                                       Santalaceae

      Thesium aggregatum                     Sitobion africanum

      Th. chinense                                   Aphis neothesii

      Th. divaricatum                              Macrosiphum albertinae

      Th. dollineri                                    Aphis thesii

      Th. intermedium                             Macrosiphum albertinae

      Th. linophyllon                               Aphis thesii

      Th. linophyllum                              Macrosiphum albertinae

      Th. ramosum                                  Aphis thesii

Key to apterae on Thesium:-

1      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation.  Cauda dark. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with hemispherical marginal tubercles (MTu). Dorsum usually with dark sclerotisation completely of partly fused between ABD TERG 2-4(-6) to form a solid or perforated shield

…..2

-       SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Dorsum if with dark markings then these are not fused between tergites                                                                                                                …..3

2      R IV+V 1.05-1.25 Χ HT II. Posterior hair on hind trochanter maximally c. 0.25 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Dorsal shield usually perforated between tergites

…..Aphis thesii

-       R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.4-0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Dorsal shield not usually perforated between tergites       …..Aphis neothesii

3      Dorsal abdomen with variably developed segmental dark markings, sometimes absent. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.2-0.4 Χ BD III. SIPH entirely black

…..Sitobion africanum

-       Dorsal abdomen membranous. ANT III with 10-15 rhinaria, and longest hairs 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III. SIPH mostly black but paler at base                                      …..Macrosiphum albertinae

 

Thespesia                                                    Malvaceae

        Thespesia acutiloba                       Aphis gossypii

        Th. danis                                       [Aphis sp. (Millar 1994)]

        Th. populnea                                 Aphis gossypii

 

Thevetia                                                      Apocynaceae

      Thevetia peruviana = Cascabela thevetia

 

Thinopyrum                                                Poaceae

      Thinopyrum intermedium = Elymus hispidus

 

Thlaspi                                                        Brassicaceae

        Thlaspi alpestre                             Brevicoryne brassicae

        Th. alpinum = Th. alpestre

        Th. arvense                                    Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi, [lepidii], pseudobrassicae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sitobion avenae];

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        Th. aureum (?)                              Aphis fabae

        Th. fendleri = Noccaea fendleri

        Th. goesingense                            Brevicoryne brassicae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.

 

Thrincia see Leontodon                                                    Compositae

 

Thuidium                                                     Thuidiaceae

      Thuidium tamariscifolium = Th. tamariscinum

        Th. tamariscinum                           Jacksonia papillata; Pseudacaudella rubida

Use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Thuja                                                            Cupressaceae

          Thuja dolabrata = Thujopsis dolabrata

          Th. occidentalis                             Cinara cupressi, [juniperi], louisianensis, tujafilina

          Th. orientalis = Platycladus orientalis

          Th. plicata                                     Cinara cupressi, tujafilina; Illinoia morrisoni;

                                                              [Myzus persicae]

          Th. standishii                                Cinara tujafilina

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.

 

 

Thujopsis                                                      Cupressaceae

          Thujopsis dolabrata                      Cinara tujafilina

 

 

Thunbergia                                                 Acanthaceae

        Thunbergia alata                          Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        Th. coccinea                                  Aphis spiraecola; Myzus ornatus                                       

        Th. erecta                                      Aphis gossypii

        Th. fragrans                                  Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

        Th. grandiflora = Th. alata             

        Th. lancifolia                                 Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Thunia                                                         Orchidaceae

      Thunia alba                                  Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Thymbra                                                      Lamiaceae

      Thymbra capitata                          Aphis gossypii, serpylli, Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)

Use key to apterae on Thymus.

 

Thymus                                                        Lamiaceae

        Thymus alternans = Th. roegneri

          Th. arcticus = Th. praecox ssp. ligusticus

        Th. austriacus = Th. odoratissimus

        Th. chamaedrys = Th. pulegioides ssp. chamaedrys

          Th. calcareus                                 Aphis serpylli

        Th. cretaceus = Th. calcareus

        Th. Χdimorphus                            Aphis serpylli

        Th. drucei = Th. praecox ssp. ligusticus                                      

        Th. glabrescens = Th. odoratissimus

        Th. kerneri = Th. praecox ssp. polytrichus

        Th. longicaulis                              Aphis serpylli

        Th. marschallianus = Th. pulegioides ssp. pannonicus

        Th. mastichina                              Aphis mastichinae, serpylli

        Th. odoratisssimus                        Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        Th. pannonicus = Th. pulegioides ssp. pannonicus

        Th. praecox (incl. sspp.                    Aphis serpylli; Myzus ornatus

                        ligusticus, polytrichus)

        Th. pseudolanuginosus = Th. praecox ssp. ligusticus

        Th. pulegioides (incl. sspp.                    Aphis serpylli

                            chamaedrys, pannonicus)

        Th. roegneri                                  Aphis serpylli

        Th. serpyllum                                Aphis serpylli; Eucarazzia elegans;

                                                               Kaltenbachiella pallida; [Ovatus crataegarius]

        Th. striatus                                    Aphis [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)]

        Th. vulgaris                                   Aphis [craccivora], serpylli, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al.

                                                                    2014)];

                                                               Myzus ornatus

        Th. zygis                                        Aphis serpylli

        Thymus sp.                                    Myzus ascalonicus

Key to apterae on Thymus:-

1      ANT usually 4-segmented, 0.12-0.15 Χ BL, with PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes 3-facetted. SIPH absent. Legs very short, with fore- and mid-tarsi usually 1-segmented. Dorsal wax glands present on head, thorax and ABD TERG 1-8, comprising facets surrounding an elongate central area                                                                       …..Kaltenbachiella pallida

-       ANT 5- or 6-segmented, more than 0.5 Χ BL, with PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifacetted, SIPH present, tarsi 2-segmented and wax glands not evident                  …..2

2      SIPH strongly swollen, with maximum diameter of swollen part more than 2Χ minimum diameter of stem, smooth except for a little subapical polygonal reticulation (Fig.48a). SIPH 5.4-8.2 Χ cauda                                                                                     …..Eucarazzia elegans

-       SIPH not swollen or much less swollen, and less than 3.5 Χ cauda                                  …..3

3      SIPH 0.54-1.33 Χ cauda, both black. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Head without spicules, and with ANT tubercles weakly developed                                …..4

-       Without that combination of characters

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

4      ABD TERG 2-6 usually without MTu. Caudal hairs long                           ….. Aphis serpylli

-       ABD TERG 2-6 with large flat MTu. Caudal hairs short                     ….. Aphis mastichinae

 

 

Thyrsostachys                                                                     Poaceae

        Thyrsostachys siamensis              Ceratovacuna doipuensis

 

    

Thysanolaena                                              Poaceae

      Thysanolaena agrostis = Th. latifolia

          Th. latifolia                                    Pseudoregma panicola; Sitobion miscanthi

        Th. maxima                                   [Glyphinaphis bambusae]; Melanaphis sacchari;

                                                               Pseudoregma panicola

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

 

Tiarella                                                        Saxifragaceae

      Tiarella cordifolia                          Aulacorthum solani; Nasonovia tiarellae

      Tiarella sp.                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

(Apterae of Nasonovia tiarellae are undescribed, but will be distinguishable from those of A. solani and other polyphagous aphids by the large thoracic spiracles, R IV+V about 1.8-2.4 Χ HT II, and ANT PT/BASE at least 6.)

 

 

Tibouchina                                                  Melastomataceae

      Tibouchina granulosa                  Aphis spiraecola; Paoliella flava

        T. holosericea                                Myzus ornatus

        T. moricandiana                           Myzus ornatus

        T. sellowiana                                 Myzus ornatus

        T. semidecandra                            Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum centranthi;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae

        T. urvilleana                                  Myzus ornatus

        T. viminea                                     Myzus ornatus

        T. weddellii                                    Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Tibouchina:-

1      Dorsum with long thin finger-like spinal and marginal processes. ANT 4-segmented, with PT/BASE less than 1                                                                                    …..Paoliella flava

-       Dorsum without processes. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with PT/BASE more than 1.5       …..2

2      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Apices of femora and SIPH dark. ANT 1.2-1.6 Χ BL. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 33-50 mm long. Cauda with 11-19 hairs                                                                                              …..Macrosiphum centranthi

-       SIPH are without polygonal reticulation and/or other characters are not in that combination

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Tidestromia                                                 Amaranthaceae

      Tidestromia lanata (?lanuginosa) Aphis craccivora

     

Tigridia                                                       Iridaceae

      Tigridia sp.                                    Dysaphis tulipae

 

Tilesia                                                          Compositae

      Tilesia baccata                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tilia             Basswood, Lime, Linden              Tiliaceae

      Tilia americana                                             American Lime

                    (incl. var. heterophylla)           Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Eucallipterus tiliae; Longistigma caryae;

                                                              Macrosiphum tiliae; Tiliphagus lycoposugus

 

      T. amurensis (incl. var. taquetii)                          Korean Lime

                                                              Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri ssp. orientalis;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae;

                                                              Tiliaphis coreana, shinae, shinjii

      T. begoniifolia = T. dasystyla ssp. caucasica  

      T. cordata                                                      Small-leafed Lime

                                                              Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri; Tiliaphis shinae

      T. dasystyla (incl. ssp. caucasica)       Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri

      T. Χeuchlora                                 Eucallipterus tiliae

      T. Χeuropaea                                               Common Lime, Linden

                                                              Aphis fabae; Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri

      T. grandifolia = T. platyphyllos       

      T. insularis                                    Tiliaphis shinae, shinjii

      T. japonica                                    Eucallipterus tiliae, [tilicola (Shinji 1933)]

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae; Tiliaphis shinae, shinjii

      T. komarovii = T. amurensis

      T. mandshurica                            Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae; Tiliaphis coreana, shinae

      T. maximowicziana                      Prociphilus oriens; Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae;

                                                              Tiliaphis shinae

      T. miqueliana                               [Eucallipterus tilicola (Shinji 1933)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae; Tiliaphis shinae

      T. mongolica                                 [Eucallipterus tilicola Shinji 1933]

      T. miyabei                                     Tiliaphis shinae

      T. mongolica                                 Eucallipterus tiliae

      T. orientalis (?)                              Tiliaphis coreana

      T. pekingensis = T. mandshurica

      T. petiolaris = T. tomentosa

      T. platyphyllos                                   Large-leafed Lime, Red-twigged Lime

                          (incl. var. rubra)                   Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri;

                                                              Tiliaphis shinae

      T. rubra = T. platyphyllos var. rubra 

      T. “shina” = T. japonica                

      T. sibirica                                      Eucallipterus tiliae

      T. taquetii = T. amurensis var. taquetii

      T. tomentosa                                 Aphis gossypii, [aurantii];

                                                              Eucallipterus tiliae; Patchiella reaumuri;

      T. tuan                                          Shivaphis tilisucta; Tiliaphis coreana, shinae

      T. vulgaris = T. Χeuropaea

      Tilia sp.                                         Tiliaphis pseudoshinae

 

Key to aphids on Tilia:-

 1    SIPH absent or present only as inconspicuous pores (forming leaf-nest galls)                   .....2

 -     SIPH present either as short truncate cones, large pores on broad hairy cones, or long   tubes

       .....4

 2    Alata from gall with numerous elongate secondary rhinaria on ANT III-V, not in a single row, protruding as sharp transverse ridges so that the outline is serrate (fig. 115A)

.....Tiliphagus lycoposugus

 -     Alata from gall with secondary rhinaria on ANT III-V arranged in a row and not protruding as sharp ridges                                                                                                                         .....3

 3    BL of alata from gall more than 4 mm.  Media of forewing unbranched. Antenna with sparse hairs and at least 4 secondary rhinaria on ANT V                                   .....Prociphilus oriens

 -     BL of alata from gall less than 3 mm.  Media of forewing once-branched. Antenna with numerous hairs and 0-3 secondary rhinaria on ANT V (fig. 115B)      .....Patchiella reaumuri

 4    BL more than 5 mm.  Body and appendages covered in long hairs. SIPH as large pores on broad hairy cones. (Alata with pterostigma extending to tip of wing) .....Longistigma caryae

 -     BL less than 4 mm                                                                                                              .....5

 5    SIPH tubular, much longer than their basal width. Cauda finger-like or triangular, anal plate entire                                                                                                                                   .....6

 -     SIPH as truncate cones, hardly longer than their basal width. Cauda knobbed, anal plate  bilobed (all viviparae alate)                                                                                                 .....8

 

 6    SIPH black, markedly swollen over distal 0.7 of length               .....Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae

 -     SIPH pale or dark, not at all swollen                                                                                  .....7

7     Aptera with SIPH mainly dark, about 3 Χ cauda, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation; cuticle of head smooth; ANT III with 3-10 secondary rhinaria in a row

.....Macrosiphum tiliae

 -     without that combination of characters                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

8     Secondary rhinaria on ANT III round to oval, with ciliated rims. Forewing with RS absent or indistinct and costal margin not heavily pigmented                                 .....Shivaphis tilisucta

-      Secondary rhinaria on ANT III transversely elongate, with rims not ciliated. Costal margin

       of forewing heavily pigmented and RS present                                                                  .....9

9     Forewing with separate fuscous patches at ends of veins.  Hind femur black except at base.  ABD TERG 1-7 with black marginal as well as pleural pairs of sclerites, and dark SIPH

.....Eucallipterus tiliae

 -     Forewing with a zig-zag black band joining distal ends of media, Cu1a and Cu1b.  Hind femur mainly pale.  ABD TERG 1-7 with or without dark markings.  SIPH pale                     .....10

10   Mesothoracic dorsal lobes each with a longitudinal dark stripe.  Base of forewing infuscated

       .....11

 -     Mesothoracic dorsal lobes without longitudinal stripes.  Base of forewing clear            .....12

11   R IV+V and SIPH both shorter than HT II.  ANT III with 19-33 secondary rhinaria

.....Tiliaphis coreana

 -     R IV+V and SIPH both longer than HT II.  ANT III with 8-16 secondary rhinaria

.....Tiliaphis shinjii

12   R IV+V less than 0.8Χ HT II.  Embryos with very short spinal hairs (about 4 ΅m long) on ABD TERG 1-6                                                                               .....Tiliaphis pseudoshinae

 -     R IV+V 1.0-1.2Χ HT II.  Embryos with all spinal hairs long (35-40 ΅m)   .....Tiliaphis shinae

 

Timonius                                                     Rubiaceae

      Timonius amboinicus                   Aphis spiraecola

        T. compressicaulis = T. finlaysonianus

        T. finlaysonianus                          Aphis spiraecola

 

Tinnea                                                         Lamiaceae

      Tinnea aethiopica                         Aphis gossypii

 

Tinospora                                                    Menispermaceae

      Tinospora cordifolia                      Aphis craccivora

        Tinospora sp.                                Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Tipuana                                                       Leguminosae

      Tipuana tipu                                  Aphis craccivora

 

Tithonia                                                       Compositae

      Tithonia diversifolia                      Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Uroleucon ambrosiae

        T. grandiflora (?)                           Aphi