HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Sor-Syz

 

Sorbaria

Sorbaronia

Sorbus

Sorghastrum

Sorghum

Sparaxis

Sparganium

Sparmannia

Spartina

Spartium

Spathodea

Spatularia

Specklinia

Specularia

Spergula

Spergularia

Spermacoce

Spermadictyon

Sphaeralcea

Sphaeranthus

Sphaerophysa

Sphagneticola

Sphagnum

Sphallerocarpus

Sphenogyne

Sphenomeris

Sphenopholis

Spilanthes

Spinacia

Spiraea

Spiranthes

Spirodela

Spodiopogon

Spondias

Sporobolus

Spuriopimpinella

Stachyopsis

Stachys

Stachytarpheta

Stachyurus

Stanhopea

Staphylea

Statice

Stauntonia

Steganotaenia

Steirodiscus

Steironema

Stelechocarpus

Stelis

Stellaria

Stellera

Stemmacantha

Stenactis

Stenosiphonium

Stenostomum

Stenotaphrum

Stephanandra

Stephanomeria

Stephanotis

Sterculia

Steris

Stevia

Stewartia

Stichorkis

Stigmaphyllon

Stilbe

Stipa

Stipularia

Stizolobium

Stizolophus

Stocksia

Stoebe

Stomatanthes

Stranvaesia

Stratiotes

Straussia

Streblus

Strelitzia

Streptocarpus

Streptopus

Streptosolen

Striga

Strobilanthes

Strongylodon

Strophanthus

Struchium

Stuartia

Stylochaeton

Stylosanthes

Styphnolobium

Styrax

Suaeda

Succisa

Succisella

Sutherlandia

Swainsonia

Swertia

Swietenia

Swinglea

Syagrus

Symphoria

Symphoricarpos

Symphyotrichum

Symphytum

Symphyzicarpus

Symplocos

Syncarpia

Synedrella

Syneilesis

Syngonium

Synnema

Synosma

Syntherisma

Synurus

Syrenia

Syringa

Syrmatium

Syzygium

 

 

Sorbaria                                                       Rosaceae

      Sorbaria sorbifolia                        [Aphis gossypii]; Chusiphuncula sorbarisucta;

                     (incl. var. stellipila)               Macrosiphum sorbi; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae];

                                                              [Myzus ornatus]

        S. tomentosa                                 Myzus [formosanus], sorbi

Key to apterae on Sorbaria:-

(All three species keyed have SIPH more than 2.7 ื cauda, which has 5-8 hairs.)

1      SIPH clavate. Head smooth                                                  ….. Chusiphuncula sorbarisucta

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. Head with spicules at least on ventral surface                        …..2

2      SIPH dark, 0.25-0.35 ื BL, with moderate imbrication and a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                            …..Macrosiphum sorbi

-       SIPH pale, 0.21-0.23 ื BL, with coarse imbrication and no subapical reticulation

…..Myzus sorbi

 

Sorbaronia                                                   Rosaceae

        Sorbaronia hybrida                      Aphis pomi

 

Sorbus                 Rowans, Whitebeams           Rosaceae

        Sorbus alnifolia                            Nippolachnus piri; [Muscaphis japonica];

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale];

                                                              Sappaphis piri

        S. americana                                                    American Mountain Ash

             (= Aucuparia americana)               Aphis pomi; [Dysaphis sorbi]; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              Ericaphis gentneri; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                              Muscaphis escherichi

        S. amurensis = S. pohuashanensis

        S. aria                                                                    Whitebeam

                                                              Aphis [fabae], pomi, lantanae ( as Doralis setacea);

                                                              Dysaphis ariae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

 

        S. aucuparia                                        European Mountain Ash or Rowan

                                                              Aphis pomi, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Dysaphis [aucupariae], [devecta], [pyri], sorbi;

                                                              Eriosoma [pyricola], sorbiradicis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pyrifoliae;

                                                              Muscaphis escherichi (incl. ssp. irae);

                                                              Myzus [ascalonicus], ornatus; Nearctaphis californica;

                                                              Ovatus insitus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum [nymphaeae], oxyacanthae;

                                                              Sorbaphis chaetosiphon;

                                                              [Staegeriella sp. (Bozhko, 1976 – a Muscaphis?)]

        S. caucasigena = S. aucuparia

        S. commixta                                                          Japanese Rowan

                                                              Aphis [gossypii], pomi;

                                                              [Myzaphis komatsubarae Shinji 1922c – possibly

                                                                  a Dysaphis];

                                                              Nippolachnus piri; Prociphilus oriens;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae; Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

        S. corymbifera                              Nippolachnus bengalensis

        S. cuspidata                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; Dysaphis indica;

                   (= Pyrus vestita)                     Eumyzus eastopi

        S. domestica                                                          Service Tree

                  (= Cormus domestica)               Dysaphis [aucupariae], [pyri], [reaumuri], sorbi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. foliolosa                                    Aspidophorodon (Eoessigia) sorbi

        S.  graeca                                      Dysaphis pavlovskyana

        S. hybrida                                      Aphis pomi; Dysaphis sorbi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. intermedia                                 Aphis pomi; Dysaphis sorbi;

                                                              [Metopolophium dirhodum];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. japonica (error for Sorbaria?)        [Macrosiphum (Unisitobion) sorbi]

        S. khasiana                                   Dysaphis pyri; Nippolachnus piri

        S. lanata                                        Dysaphis pavlovskyana

        S. persica                                       Dysaphis pavlovskyana

        S. pohuashanensis                        Brachycaudus helichrysi;  Muscaphis escherichi;

                                                              [Schizaphis piricola]

        S. polycarpa                                  Eriosoma lanigerum

        S. quercifolia                                 Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. randaiensis                               [Rhopalosiphum padi]

        S. sambucifolia                             Muscaphis escherichi

        S. scopulina                                  Nearctaphis yohoensis

        S. serotina = S. commixta                

        S. sibirica                                      Aphis pomi; Dysaphis pavlovskyana, sorbi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. sitchensis                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum opportunisticum, pyrifoliae;

                                                              Muscaphis escherichi

        S. subsimilis                                  Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. tianshanica                               Dysaphis pavlovskyana, sorbi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae                                             

        S. torminalis                                              Wild Service Tree

                                                              Aphis pomi; Dysaphis aucupariae, sorbi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

        S. turkestanica                              Aphis pomi; Dysaphis pavlovskyana

        Sorbus spp.                                   [Dysaphis plantaginis]; Prociphilus corrugatans

                                                                       

Key to species on Sorbus (apterous viviparae except where otherwise stated):-

 1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5.  Cauda broadly rounded                                                     .....2

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5.  Cauda semicircular, helmet-shaped, tongue- or finger-shaped

.....7

 2    Wax glands absent.  Eyes multifaceted, without an ocular tubercle.  Body pale, elongate, more than 2 ื longer than wide. (Alata with a quadrate black dorsal abdominal patch) …..3 

 -     Wax glands present.  Eyes 3-faceted.  Body broad, less than 2 ื longer than wide. (Alata without dorsal abdominal pigment)                                                                                    .....4

 3     ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.35, without any long fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V 0.14-0.18 mm long, 0.62-0.75 ื HT II, and bearing 9-16 accessory hairs                               

.....Nippolachnus bengalensis

 -      ANT PT/BASE 0.45-0.75, with some long fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V 0.17-0.22 mm long, 0.7-1.0 ื HT II, and bearing more than 20 accessory hairs                     

.....Nippolachnus piri

 

 4    SIPH present as pores with surrounding hairs.  Wax pore plates each comprising a ring or group of facets around one or more clear central areas                                                      .....5

 -     SIPH absent or inconspicuous.  Wax pore plates honeycomb-like, without clear central areas

       .....6

 5    BL more than 1.5 mm.  Total antennal length 0.29-0.46 mm.  Wax pore plates with central areas of irregular shape, often subdivided (fig. 60C)                          .....Eriosoma lanigerum

 -     BL less than 1.4 mm, with total antennal length only 0.12-0.18 mm.  Wax pore plates with always undivided, approximately circular, central areas (fig. 109A)

.....Eriosoma sorbiradicis

 6    R IV+V (of fundatrix) more than 0.2 mm long and bearing 7 or more accessory hairs.  BL of spring migrant alata more than 4 mm                                                      .....Prociphilus oriens

 -     R IV+V (of fundatrix) less than 0.2 mm long with 2-4 accessory hairs.  BL of spring migrant alata less than 3 mm                                                                      .....Prociphilus corrugatans

 7    Cauda short; helmet-shaped, triangular or semicircular, shorter than or about as long as its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                  .....8

 -     Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width in dorsal view        .....18

 8    Dorsal cuticle of aptera (fundatrix) very rough with numerous small denticulate projections, and with fine, long hairs (fig. 109B).  Alata with transverse bars of dorsal abdominal pigment, often broken, never fused between tergites                         .....Muscaphis escherichi

 -     Dorsal cuticle of aptera (fundatrix or subsequent generation) smooth or weakly reticulate, with long or short hairs.  Alata with a solid black dorsal abdominal patch, or with extensive bars fused between some tergites                                                                                       .....9

 9    SIPH more than 4 ื cauda and bearing a number of long hairs (in both fundatrix and spring migrant alata)                                                                                  .....Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

 -     SIPH less than 4 ื cauda and without hairs                                                                     .....10

 10  SIPH with closely-spaced rows of imbrications bearing small nodules or spinules

       (e.g. fig. 42M)                                                                                                                   .....11

 -     SIPH smooth or normally imbricated, the imbrications sometimes spinulose but not in regular closely-spaced rows                                                                                                          .....12

11   ABD TERG 2-4 each with incomplete double rows of 6-10 spinopleural hairs 50-70 ตm long with fine apices. Tergum rough, with numerous spinules arranged on a distinct reticulation (fig. 109C), and with an extensive solid black abdominal patch

.....Nearctaphis yohoensis

 -     ABD TERG 2-4 each with a single row of 4 spinopleural hairs that are blunt or acuminate.  Tergum with faint reticulation and few spinules, and broad transverse sclerotic bars that are not or only partially fused between tergites                                    .....Nearctaphis californica

12   SIPH smooth, less than 2 ื width at base.  Spiracular apertures rounded

.....Brachycaudus helichrysi

 -     SIPH imbricated, more than 2 ื width at base.  Spiracular apertures small and reniform

.....13

13   SIPH pale and swollen on distal half, with narrower region proximal to swelling (fig. 109D)

.....14

-      SIPH pale or dark, cylindrical or tapering, or with hardly perceptible  swelling              .....15

14   R IV+V 0.13-0.195 mm. SIPH less than 2.5 ื longer than cauda. Head with granulate spinulosity                                                                                       …..Dysaphis pavlovskyana

-      R IV+V 0.20-0.22 mm. SIPH more than 2.5 ื longer than cauda. Head cuticle without granulate spinulosity                                                                                   …..Dysaphis indica

15   SIPH pale.  Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-7 (sometimes absent from 6).  Cauda with 6-12 hairs                                                                                   .....Dysaphis sorbi

 -     SIPH dark, at least on distal part.  Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-4 or 1-5, absent from 6 and 7.  Cauda with 5, or rarely 6, hairs                                                      .....16

16   Hairs on ANT III pointed, maximally 0.9-1.5ื basal diameter of segment

.....Dysaphis aucupariae

 -     Hairs on ANT III blunt, maximally 0.3-0.8 ื basal diameter of segment                        .....17

17   Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 consistently short and blunt, maximally 15-20 ตm

.....Dysaphis ariae

 -     Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 of variable length, often short and blunt but usually with at least some pointed hairs 20-60 ตm long, especially marginally                  .....Dysaphis plantaginea

18   ANT PT/BASE 0.55-0.66.  Body with finger-like dorsal processes (head with 2 pairs, thoracic segments and ABD TERG 1-4 each with one spinal and one marginal pair, and ABD TERG 5-8 each with a single medial process       .....Aspidophorodon (Eoessigia) sorbi

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.  Body without finger-like dorsal processes                       .....19

19    Dorsal cuticle sclerotic and strongly corrugated. R IV+V 1.68-1.90 ื HT II and with 2
accessory hairs                                                                                           .....Eumyzus eastopi

 -     Dorsal cuticle not strongly corrugated. R IV+V either less than 1.6 ื HT II or with more than 2 accessory hairs                                                                                                      .....20

20   Antennal tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not exceeding height of central part of frons in dorsal view.  Cauda and anal plate dusky to dark                                          .....21

 -     Antennal tubercles moderately to well developed, clearly exceeding height of central part of frons in dorsal view.  Cauda and anal plate pale or only slightly dusky                          .....24

21   SIPH slightly swollen or cylindrical over most of length, constricted subapically and with a large flange (as in fig. 60H).  Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posterio-dorsad of spiracle and with basal diameter usually smaller than spiracular aperture

.....Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

 -     SIPH tapering from base to flange, which is only moderately developed.  Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posterioventrad of spiracle, and usually larger than spiracular aperture                                                                                                                             .....22

22   Longest hairs on ANT III more than 2 ื basal diameter of segment.  ANT PT/BASE more than 3.  Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 19-28, IV 1-11, V 0-3.  Cauda tapering, less than 2 ื its basal width                      .....Aphis lantanae (or setacea? – see text)

 -     Longest hairs on ANT III less than 1.8 ื basal diameter of segment.  ANT PT/BASE less than 3.  Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 6-11, IV 0-4, V 0.  Cauda

       finger-like, more than 2 ื its basal width                                                                         .....23

23   Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 2-4.  Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13).  R IV+V more than 0.13 mm                                                                               .....Aphis pomi

 -     Marginal tubercles absent from ABD TERG 2-4.  Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12).  R IV+V less than 0.125                                                                     .....Aphis spiraecola

24   Inner faces of antennal tubercles scabrous and convergent in dorsal view (e.g. fig. 42I)

.....25

 -     Inner faces of antennal tubercles smooth or nearly so, and divergent in dorsal view

       (e.g. fig. 42K)                                                                                                                   .....27

25   Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental spots and flecks (fig. 121J).  ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5                                                                                  .....Myzus ornatus

 -     Dorsal abdomen without clear intersegmental dark markings. ANT PT/BASE more than 3

.....26

26   SIPH slightly swollen on distal half (fig. 121H).  ANT PT/BASE less than 5.  (Alata with secondary rhinaria only on ANT III)                                                            .....Myzus persicae

 -     SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half.  ANT PT/BASE more than 5.  (Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 60-83, IV 36-52, V 13-22)              .....Ovatus insitus

27   Body oval.  SIPH without any polygonal reticulation (fig. 42Q).  ANT III with one small rhinarium near base, and with minute hairs less than half basal diameter of segment

       .....Ericaphis gentneri

-      Body spindle-shaped.  SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (fig. 121C).  ANT III usually with several secondary rhinaria near base, and with longest hairs more than half basal diameter of segment                                                                                         .....28

28   Cauda with 6-9 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.20-0.27 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 10-24 μm, 0.4-0.7 ื BD III. (Al. with paired pleural dark patches and large marginal and postsiphuncular sclerites)                                                                              …..Macrosiphum opportunisticum

-      Cauda with 8-13 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.14-0.20 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 25-40 μm, 0.6-1.0 ื BD III. (Al. without dark dorsal abdominal sclerites)

…..Macrosiphum pyrifoliae/euphorbiae

 

Sorghastrum                                                Poaceae

      Sorghastrum nutans                     Hysteroneura setariae

        Sorghastrum sp.                           Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

 

Sorghum                                                      Poaceae

      Sorghum arundinaceum              Melanaphis sacchari, sorghi; Rhopalosiphum maidis        

        S. bicolor (incl. vars                         Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, krizusi;

           drummondii, saccharatum)               Aphis fabae, gossypii; Diuraphis noxia;

                                                              [Chaitophorus populialbae (as Myzocallis saccharinus)?];

                                                              Forda hirsuta, orientalis;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Melanaphis sacchari, sorghi; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis grmainum; Sipha flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, avenae, leelamaniae, miscanthi,

                                                                  [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura capitata, chui,  fusiformis,  javensis,

                                                                  nigriabdominalis, nigriabdominalis ssp. shanxiensis,

                                                                  triangula, ulmi

        S. caffrorum = S. bicolor

        S. caudatum = S. bicolor

      S. cernuum = S. bicolor

      S. dochna = S. bicolor

      S. dora = S. bicolor

        S. durra = S. bicolor                       

      S. fulvum = S. nitidum                    

        S. guineense = S. bicolor

      S. halepense                                  Anoecia corni, mirae, vagans; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Forda marginata; Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; 

                                                              Melanaphis pyraria,sacchari,  sorghi;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus, cimiciformis;

                                                              [Prociphilus bumeliae]; Pseudaphis sijui;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis agrostis, graminum; Sipha flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae; [Slavum lentiscoides];

                                                              Tetraneura africana, caerulescens, fusiformis, ulmi

      S. “kavirondo” see S. arundinacearum

      S. nervosum = S. bicolor

          S. nigricans = S. bicolor

        S. nitidum                                     Rhopalosiphum maidis

      S. roxburghii                                 Melanaphis sorghi; Rhopalosiphum maidis

        S. saccharatum = S. bicolor

        S. sudanense                                 Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha elegans

        S. verticilliflorum = S. arundinacearum

      S. virgatum                                   Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sitobion avenae

      S. vulgare = S. bicolor                    

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Sparaxis                                                       Iridaceae

        Sparaxis tricolor                           Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Spiraxis spp. (and hybrids)           Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sparganium                                                 Typhaceae

      Sparganium emersum                  Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      S. erectum (incl. ssp. neglectum)        Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae; Schizaphis scirpi

        S. neglectum = S. erectum ssp. neglectum

        S. ramosum = S. erectum

        S. simplex = S. emersum

        Sparganium sp.                            Rhopalosiphum enigmae

Key to apterae on Sparganium:-

1      ANT and dorsal body with very long, fine hairs, up to 3 ื ANT BD III. Dorsal cuticle without spiculose ornamentation                                                              …..Schizaphis scirpi

-       ANT and dorsal body with shorter hairs. Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spicules arranged in polygons, each polygon enclosing one or more additional spicules                                  …..2

2      SIPH clavate. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.8 ื BD III

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH not clavate. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.0 ื BD III   …..Rhopalosiphum enigmae

     

Sparmannia                                                 Malvaceae                  

     Sparmannia africana                     Uroleucon compositae

     Sparmannia sp.                              Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Spartina                                                       Poaceae

      Spartina cynosuroides                  Anoecia corni

        S. juncea = S. patens

        S. maritima                                   Sipha littoralis

        S. patens                                        Prociphilus erigeronensis

        S. stricta = S. maritima

        S. ื townsendii                             Sipha littoralis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

     

Spartium                                                      Leguminosae

        Spartium junceum                        Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, cytisorum, fabae, genistae,

                                                                  [pseudocytisorum]

                                                              [Eriosoma sparthani (Boisduval; nomen dubium)]

        S. scoparium = Cytisus scoparius

          S. supranubium = Cytisus supranubius

Key to apterae on Spartium:- 

1      Body spindle-shaped, pale. ANT longer than BL. SIPH pale, thin and cylindrical on distal half.  Cauda elongate finger-shaped, pale                                                                         …..2

-       Body oval, often with dark dorsal markings. ANT shorter than BL. SIPH dark, tapering from base to apex. Cauda tongue-shaped, pale or dark                                                    …..3

2      SIPH 0.42-0.50 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda                                    …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH 0.23-0.38 ื BL and 1.2-1.9 ื cauda                                       …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

3      Cauda with 11-25 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with a few small dark spots on tergites anterior to SIPH                                                                                               …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda with 4-13 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with extensive dark sclerotisation        …..4

4      SIPH 0.5-0.8 ื cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.3 ื BD III                         …..Aphis genistae

-       SIPH 1.1-2.2 ื cauda. Hairs on ANT III 0.05-0.75 ื BD III                                          …..5

5     R IV+V 0.88-1.16 ื HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 ื). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs

…..Aphis craccivora

-      R IV+V  0.97-1.3 ื HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 ื). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)                                                                                    …..Aphis cytisorum

 

 

Spathodea                                                                            Bignoniaceae

        Spathodea campanulata               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. diepenhorstii                             Aphis odinae

        S. nilotica                                      Aphis gossypii

 

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Spatularia                                                    Saxifragaceae

      Spatularia michauxii                    Nasonovia carolinensis

Or use key to apterae on Saxifraga.

 

Specklinia                                                    Orchidaceae

      Specklinia corniculata                  Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Specularia see Legousia                                        Campanulaceae

 

Spergula                                                      Caryophyllaceae

      Spergula arvensis                         Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, sambuci; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Sitobion avenae

See key under Spergularia.

 

Spergularia                                                  Caryophyllaceae

      Spergularia diandra                     Myzus persicae

        S. marina                                      Aphidura urmiensis; Aphis nasturtii;

                                                              [Myzus sp. (Leonard 1968:357)]

        S. media                                        Myzus persicae

        S. rubra                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus certus, persicae

        S. rupicola                                     Myzus persicae

        Spergularia spp.                           Aphis sambuci; Sitobion avenae

Key to aphids on Spergula and Spergularia:-

1      Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of rounded mammariform processes

…..Aphidura urmiensis

-       Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                               …..2

2      Head without spicules                                                                                                       …..3

-       Head densely spiculose                                                                                                     …..7

3      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                 …..4

-       SIPH without subapical reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                             …..5

4      SIPH dark, 1.1-1.4 ื cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.19-0.35 of length. ANT hairs maximally 0.3-0.5 ื BD III                                                                       …..Sitobion avenae

-       SIPH pale, 1.7-2.2 ื cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.13-0.2 of length. ANT hairs maximally 0.6-1.0 ื BD III                                                       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

5      SIPH black, 2.1-3.5 ื cauda which is short and bears 10-20 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 consistently with well-developed flat MTu                                                 …..Aphis sambuci

-       SIPH pale or dark, 0.9-2.2 ื cauda which is much longer than its basal width and bears 4-11 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with small MTu                                                …..6

6     SIPH uniformly dark. Hairs on hind femur all shorter than diameter of femur at its base

.....Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH usually rather pale, darker at apex. Hairs on hind femur mainly longer, some of them about as long as, or longer than, diameter of femur at its base                      .....Aphis nasturtii

7     Dorsal abdomen with a large roughly horseshoe-shaped patch, and dark cross bars on thorax. SIPH not clavate                                                                             …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsum without any distinctive dark markings. SIPH at least slightly clavate                 …..8

8     R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

…..Myzus persicae

-      R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                  …..Myzus certus

 

Spermacoce (including Borreria)                                                    Rubiaceae

      Spermacoce spp.                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Uroleucon compositae

[One or more of the above polyphagous aphid species have been recorded from each of the following Spermacoce spp.: chaetocephala, densiflora, eupatorioides, hispida, laevis, octodon, ocymifolia, ocymoides, princeae, pusilla, ruelliae, scabra, senensis, stachydea, verticillata.]

Use the key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Spermadictyon                                            Rubiaceae

      Spermadictyon suaeveolens          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sphaeralcea                                                Malvaceae

      Sphaeralcea coccinea                  Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. fendleri                                     Aphis gossypii

        S. miniata                                     Aphis craccivora

      Sphaeralcea sp.                            Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sphaeranthus                                              Compositae

      Sphaeranthus flexuosus               Aphis gossypii

        S. suaeveolens                               Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sphaerophysa                                              Leguminosae

     Sphaerophysa salsula                     Aphis craccivora (? – as laburni)

 

Sphagneticola                                             Compositae

      Sphagneticola trilobata                Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key under Wedelia.

 

Sphagnum                                                   Sphagnaceae

      Sphagnum capillifolium            [Pachypappa sacculi]

      S. magellanicum                           Pseudacaudella rubida

      S. recurvum                                   Pseudacaudella rubida

        S. rubellum                                    Myzodium modestum; [Pachypappa sacculi]

        S. russowii                                     [Pachypappa rosettei]

      Sphagnum sp.                               Melaphis rhois; [Prociphilus xylostei]

Use key to aphids on mosses under Polytrichum.

 

Sphallerocarpus                                          Apiaceae

     Sphallerocarpus gracilis                 [Dysaphis sibirica (?)]

 

Sphenogyne  see Ursinia                                                 Compositae

 

Sphenomeris                                                    Dennstaedtiaceae

     Sphenomeris chinensis                   Micromyzella filicis

(or use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

 

Sphenopholis                                              Poaceae

     Sphenopholis nitida                         Carolinaia rhois          

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Spilanthes                                                   Compositae

      Spilanthes acmella                        Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Uroleucon compositae

        S. acuminata (?)                            Myzus persicae

        S. iabadicensis = Acmella uliginosa

        S. urens                                         Aphis coreopsidis, gossypii

Key to apterae on Spilanthes:-

-       ANT III-VI dark, contrasting with pale ANT I-II and head, which has ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH long, thin and black, 0.24-0.4 ื BL, contrasting with pale cauda, and without polygonal reticulation                                                                …..Aphis coreopsidis

-       Without the above combination of characters                 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Spinacia                                                      Amaranthaceae

      Spinacia oleracea                          Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                               [Lipaphis erysimi]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Pemphigus sp(p); [Sitobion miscanthi]

Use key to apterae on Beta.

 

Spiraea (including Opulaster)                                       Rosaceae

      Spiraea alba                                  Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae

        S. alba var. latifolia                       Acyrthosiphon ignotum, pseudodirhodum;

                                                               Aphis spiraecola, spiraephila; Illinoia spiraecola

        S. aquilegifolia                              Aphis spiraephaga

        S. ืarguta                                      Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis fabae, spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Illinoia spiraeae

        S. aruncus = Aruncus sylvester

        S. baldshuanica                             Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. bella                                           Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis fabae, spiraecola;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. betulifolia                                  Aphis spiraecola, spiraephaga, spiraephila

        S. betulifolia var. corymbosa        Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Schoutedenia ralumensis]; Sitobion rosaeiformis;

                                                               Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. billardii                                      Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis spiraephaga;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae 

        S. blumei                                       Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        S. bullata = S. japonica var. bullata

        S. ืbumalda                                  Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis fabae, spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Illinoia spiraeae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. callosa = S. japonica

        S. canescens                                  Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis spiraephaga;

                                                               [Cavariella himachali]

        S. cantoniensis                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, [odinae], pomi, spiraecola,

                                                                    spiraephaga;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Parachaitophorus spiraeae

        S. chamaedryfolia                         Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis fabae, grandis, pomi, spiraecola, spiraephaga,

                                                                   ucrainensis;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Pseudomegoura magnolia;

                                                               Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. chartacea                                   Aphis spiraecola

        S. ืcinerea                                    Acyrthosiphon ignotum

        S. corymbosa = S. betulifolia var. corymbosa

        S. crenata                                      Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis pomi, spiraecola, spiraephaga, ucrainensis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. densiflora var. splendens          Aphis spiraecola

        S. douglasii                                    Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis fabae, pomi, spiraephila;

                                                               Aspidophorodon longicauda; Brachycaudus spiraeae;

                                                               Illinoia spiraeae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae, willamettense;

                                                               [aphid gall – Wahlgren 1956, 51]

        S. douglasii ssp. menziesii             Aspidophorodon longicauda; Brachycaudus spiraeae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      S. elegans                                      Aphis spiraephila

        S. filipendula see Filipendula vulgaris

        S. flexuosa                                     Aphis spiraephaga; Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. florepleno = S. prunifolia var. florepleno

          S. fritschiana                                 Aphis spiraecola

        S. gemmata = S. mongolica

        S. hypericifolia                              Acyrthosiphon ignotum, soldatovi

                                                               Aphis grandis, spiraecola, spiraephaga, ucrainensis;

                                                               [Avicennina sogdiana]; Brachycaudus spiraeae;

                                                               Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. japonica (incl. vars acuminata,       Aphis fabae, gossypii, pomi, spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                alpina, bullata)                                  Brachycaudus spiraeae; Illinoia spiraeae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Macrosiphum sp. (Canada,

                                                                    BMNH collection);

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Parachaitophorus spiraeae

        S. koreana = S. fritschiana

        S. lanceolata                                  Aphis neospiraeae

        S. lasiocarpa                                  Aphis spiraephaga, ucrainensis

        S. latifolia = S. alba var. latifolia      

        S. lindleyana                                  Myzus sp. (primary host form of M. ornatus? – see text)

        S. longigemmis                              Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        S. media                                         Acyrthosiphon ignotum, soldatovi;

                                                               Aphis grandis, grata, mutini, pomi, spiraecola,

                                                                    spiraephaga, ucrainensis;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Tricaudatus polygoni

        S. menziesii = S. douglasii var. menziesii

        S. microgyna                                 Aphis spiraecola

        S. mongolica                                 Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        S. nipponica (incl. var. tosaensis)       Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. obovata                                      Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis fabae

        S. opulifolia  = Opulaster opulifolius

        S. pilosa                                         Aphis spiraecola

        S. plena = S. prunifolia

        S. prunifolia (incl. vars florepleno,     Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                       simpliciflora)     Brachycaudus spiraeae

        S. ืpseudosalicifolia                     Brachycaudus spiraeae

      S. salicifolia                                   Acyrthosiphon ignotum, [leleji], soldatovi;

                                                               Aphis fabae, neospiraeae, pomi, spiraecola, spiraephaga,

                                                                  ucrainensis, ulmariae;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Illinoia spiraecola;

                                                               Macrosiphum cholodkovskyi, rosae;

                                                               Parachaitophorus spiraeae

        S. sargentiana                               Aphis pomi

        S. ืsemiflorens                              Acyrthosiphon ignotum

        S. sericea                                       Acyrthosiphon ignotum

        S. sorbifolia = Sorbaria sorbifolia

        S. splendens = S. densiflora var. splendens

        S. stevenii                                       Aphis grata, kamtchatica

        S. thalictroides = S. aquilegifolia

        S. thunbergii                                  Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis [kogomecola], spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                                               Illinoia spiraecola; [aphid gall – Wahlgren 1956, 51];

                                                               Parachaitophorus spiraeae

        S. tomentosa                                  Aphis spiraecola

        S. tosaensis = S. nipponica var. tosaensis

        S. trichocarpa                                Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis spiraecola, spiraephaga;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. trilobata                                     Aphis [craccivora], spiraephaga, ucrainensis

        S. ulmaria = Filipendula ulmaria

        S. ulmifolia                                    Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus spiraeae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. ussuriensis = S. chamaedryfolia

        S. vaccinifolia                                Aphis fabae

        S. ืvanhouttei                               Acyrthosiphon ignotum;

                                                               Aphis gossypii, pomi, spiraecola, spiraephaga,

                                                                   ucrainensis;

                                                               Brachycaudus spiraeae; Illinoia spiraeae

        S. vestita = Filipendula vestita

        S. wilsonii                                      Aphis spiraephaga

        Spiraea spp.                                  Acyrthosiphon rubi; [Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus];

                                                               [Clethrobius dryobius]; Illinoia macgillivrayae;

                                                               Macrosiphum [opportunisticum], pachysiphon;

                                                               [Metopolophium sonchifoliae]; Myzus cymbalariae;

                                                               [Myzakkaia verbasci]; [Neobetulaphis immaculata];

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;   [Schoutedenia emblica];

                                                               [Semiaphis heraclei]; [Tuberaphis indica]

Key to apterae on Spiraea:-

1      Dorsal body hairs very long and thick, arising from tuberculate bases on dark scleroites. Eyes reduced, often to 3 facets. SIPH as dark, very broad-based cones. Cauda with just 2 long hairs                                                                                          …..Parachaitophorus spiraeae

-       Dorsal body hairs shorter or fine if long, not arising from tuberculate bases on dark scleroites. Eyes large, multifacetted. SIPH tubular, pale or dark. Cauda with 4 or more hairs

…..2

2      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                        …..3

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                                 …..15

3      SIPH short, only 0.4-0.5 ื cauda, which bears 13-16 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.5

…..Aphis spiraephila

-       SIPH 0.6-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.9, but if less than 1.7 then cauda bears less than 13 hairs                                                                                                                              …..4

4      Abdomen with either a dark dorsal shield or at least some scattered dark markings on ABD TERG 1-6, following the polygonal pattern of reticulation of the cuticle, and usually with dark transverse sclerites on ABD TERG 7 and 8                                                             …..5

-       Abdomen without any dark markings on ABD TERG 1-6, and without or with only lightly-pigmented sclerites on 8, or 7 and 8                                                                                …..12

5      ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu)       …...6

-       MTu only consistently present on (prothorax and) ABD TERG 1 and 7                         …..7

6      ABD TERG 1-6 with an extensive dark shield. SIPH 0.7-1.15 ื cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.0 ื BD III                                                                     …..Aphis ucrainensis*

-       ABD TERG 1-6 with scattered dark markings. SIPH at least 1.5 ื cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 1.5 ื BD III                                                         …..Aphis kamtchatica*

7      ANT III with 1-6 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.5. Tergum with extensive dark sclerotisation                                                                                                  …..Aphis mutini*

-       ANT III usually without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). ANT PT/BASE 1.4-3.5. Tergum with or without extensive dark sclerotisation                                                      …..8

8      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.9 ื BD III. R IV+V 0.65-0.92 ื HT II

…..Aphis spiraephaga

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.4 ื BD III, but if shorter than BD III then R IV+V is more than 0.92 ื HT II                                                                                                              …..9

9      ABD TERG 1-6 as well as 7 and 8 with broad dark cross-bands. BL 2.7-3.1 mm

…..Aphis grandis*

-       ABD TERG 1-6 without broad dark cross bands. BL 1.3-3.6 mm                                …..10

10    ABD TERG 7 and 8 (or 6-8) with dark dorsal cross-bands, but ABD TERG 1-5 with only small, scattered sclerites. SIPH 0.8-1.6 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II     …..Aphis fabae

-       ABD TERG 7 and 8 with or without narrow cross-bands, but ABD TERG 1-5 with more extensive sclerotisation, usually comprising an irregular perforated and often incomplete spinal stripe or central patch.  SIPH 0.6-1.0 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.7-1.0 ื HT II             …..11

11    Longest hairs on ANT III 1.6-2.2 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.45. R IV+V 0.85-1.2

        ื HT II. Cauda with 9-23 hairs                                                             …..Aphis neospiraeae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.6 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. R IV+V 0.7-0.9

        ื HT II. Cauda with 3-11 hairs                                                                        …..Aphis grata

12    Femoral hairs all shorter than trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.8 ื BD III. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                                       …..Aphis gossypii

-       Femora with at least some long, fine-pointed hairs, longer than trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-1.7 ื BD III. Cauda with 6-19 hairs                                …..13

13    Cauda pale or dusky, without any constriction at midlength, less than 2 ื longer than its midlength width. SIPH pale, dusky or dark, if dark then often less so in middle region. ABD TERG 2-4 often with MTu                                                               …..Aphis ulmariae

-       Cauda dark, with a midlength constriction, and more than 2 ื longer than its width at the narrowest midlength point. SIPH dark. ABD TERG 2-4 with or without MTu            …..14

14    Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13) R IV+V more than 0.13 mm                                                               …..Aphis pomi

-       MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V less than 0.125 mm                                                                                   …..Aphis spiraecola

15    SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed polygonal cells)              …..16

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation (sometimes with a few transverse interconnected striae)                                                                                                      …..25

16   SIPH dark for at least distal half of length                                                                      …..17

-      SIPH pale, or dark only towards apices                                                                           …..19

17    SIPH thick, tapering, c. 6-7 ื longer than their diameter at midlength, with a very small flange                                                                                        …..Macrosiphum pachysiphon

-       SIPH almost cylindrical for most of length, 9-19 ื longer than their diameter at midlength, with a rather well-developed flange                                                                                …..18

18    Front of head black. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 ื BD III. SIPH 1.9-2.4 ื cauda                                                                          …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       Front of head pale/dusky. ANT III with 3-5 rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.55 ื BD III. SIPH 1.5-2.0 ื cauda                                                           …..Sitobion rosaeiformis

19    SIPH swollen on distal third to 1.2-1.5 ื their minimum diameter basad. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.45 ื BD III                                                                                             …..20

-       SIPH cylindrical on distal half (except that subapical reticulated section may be somewhat constricted). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.2 ื BD III                                               …..22

20    First tarsal joints with 3 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.30-0.45 ื BD III. ANT V 1.8-2.4 ื cauda. Swollen part of SIPH very lightly imbricated                         …..Illinoia spiraecola

-       First tarsal joints with 4-5 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.20-0.25 ื BD III. ANT V

        1.2-1.8 ื cauda. Swollen part of SIPH moderately imbricated                                       .....21

21    SIPH 1.65-2.3 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.125-0.141 mm long, 0.85-1.15 ื HT II

…..Illinoia spiraeae

-       SIPH 2.35-2.6 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.150-0.177 mm long, 1.05-1.25 ื HT II

.....Illinoia macgillivrayae

22    SIPH dark distally. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 ื HT II. Cauda with 9-19 hairs                            …..23

-       SIPH pale or only slightly dusky towards apices. R IV+V 0.7-1.0 ื HT II. Cauda with 6-12 hairs                                                                                                                                 …..24

23    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.2 ื BD III. Cauda with 11-19 hairs

…..Macrosiphum cholodkovskyi

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 ื BD III. Cauda with 9-10 hairs

…..Macrosiphum sp. (B.C., Canada, on S. japonica, BMNH collection, leg. C.-k. Chan)

24    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.52-0.55 ื BD III. Cauda 1.3-1.8 ื ANT VI BASE, with 6-9 (usually 7)  hairs. ANT VI BASE 2.0-2.6 ื R IV+V             …..Macrosiphum willamettense

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 ื BD III. Cauda 2.1-3.5 ื ANT VI BASE, with 8-12

        hairs. ANT VI BASE 0.9-1.5 ื R IV+V                                   …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

25    Cauda short, helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                  …..26

-       Cauda finger-shaped, much longer than its basal width in dorsal view                          …..28

26    SIPH clavate. Spiracular apertures small and reniform                   …..Avicennina sogdiana*

-       SIPH conical, with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded

…..27

27    R IV+V 1.2-1.3 ื HT II. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). Dorsal abdomen pale

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). Dorsal abdomen often with dark sclerotisation                                                                                  …..Brachycaudus spiraeae

28    ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, with conical or finger-like hair-bearing spinal processes. SIPH smooth                                                                                                                             …..29

-       ABD TERG 7 and 8 without any projections. SIPH smooth or imbricated                   …..30

29    SIPH dusky/dark, longer than cauda, markedly inflated distally over c.0.75 of length, with maximum width of swollen part c.2.5 ื minimum width of stem, and with a distinct flange. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with bluntly conical spinal tubercles               …..Tricaudatus polygoni

-       SIPH pale, not longer than cauda, cylindrical or only slightly clavate, and completely flangeless. ABD TERG 8 with a finger-like projection above cauda

…..Aspidophorodon longicauda

30    Head densely spiculose, at least on ventral side                                                             …..31

-       Head not spiculose                                                                                                          …..32

31    ABD TERG (1-) 2-3 (-5) with conspicuous papillate marginal tubercles (MTu). Head, prothorax (sometimes) and ABD TERG 7 and 8 (often) with paired spinal tubercles (STu). ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.4. Dorsum pale. SIPH tapering/cylindrical and coarsely imbricated

.....Myzus sp. on S. lindleyana (possible primary host forms of M. ornatus?)

-       ABD TERG without or with only sporadic flat inconspicuous MTu, and STu absent from head and prothorax and sporadic on ABD TERG 7-8. If ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5 then dorsum has pattern of intersegmental markings

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

32    ANT PT more than 2.2 ื SIPH, which are only 0.8-1.2 ื cauda. ANT III with 5-30 rhinaria

…..Acyrthosiphon pseudodirhodum

-       ANT PT 0.8-1.4 ื SIPH, which are 1.7-2.5 ื cauda. ANT III with 1-8 rhinaria           …..33

33    SIPH 1.7-2.0 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.55-0.85 ื HT II                       …..Acyrthosiphon ignotum

-       SIPH 2.1-2.9 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II                                                            …..34

34    Dorsal cuticle papillated or markedly wrinkled. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื ANT BASE VI, and bearing 7-10 accessory hairs                                                                 …..Acyrthosiphon rubi

-       Dorsal cuticle rather smooth. R IV+V c.0.7 ื ANT BASE VI, with 6 accessory hairs

…..Acyrthosiphon soldatovi

 

Spiranthes                                                   Orchidaceae

      Spiranthes grayi = S. tuberosa

          S. tuberosa                                     Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Spirodela                                                     Araceae

      Spirodela polyrrhiza                      Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

     

Spodiopogon (including Eccoilopus)                           Poaceae

      Spodiopogon cotulifer                   Sitobion yasumatsui

        S. rhizophorus                               Hysteroneura setariae

        S. sibiricus                                     Sitobion avenae               

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Spondias                                                                                  Anacardiaceae

        Spondias cirouella = S. purpurea

        S. mombin                                    Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

        S. purpurea                                   Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        Spondias sp.                                  Aphis odinae

 

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Sporobolus                                                  Poaceae

      Sporobolus africanus                    Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion graminis

        S. berteroanus = S. indicus

          S. diander = S. diandrus

      S. diandrus                                    Hysteroneura setariae

      S. festivus                                       Hysteroneura setariae

        S. indicus                                       Hysteroneura setariae; [Pterasthenia shiraensis];

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha flava;

                                                               Sitobion africanum, graminis; Tetraneura fusiformis

        S. junceus                                      Hysteroneura setariae

        S. mildbraedii                                Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus; Sitobion graminis

        S. mysorensis (?)                           Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        S. neglectus                                   Schizaphis graminum

        S. poiretii = S. junceus

        S. pyramidalis                                Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Sitobion graminis

        S. virginicus                                   Rhopalosiphum maidis

        Sporobolus sp.                               Geoica lucifuga

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.       

 

Spuriopimpinella see Pimpinella                               Apiaceae                      

 

Stachyopsis                                                  Lamiaceae

        Stachyopsis lamiiflora                   [Brachycaudus cerasicola];

                                                               Cryptomyzus malkovskii, transiliensis

        S. marrubioides                             Cryptomyzus malkovskii

        S. oblongata                                  Cryptomyzus malkovskii

        S. ovata                                          [Brachycaudus cerasicola]; Cryptomyzus transiliensis

Key to apterae on Stachyopsis:-

(Both the keyed species have long capitate dorsal hairs arising from tuberculate bases.)

-       Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. ANT III with numerous (18-53) rhinaria, and also 3-15 on ANT IV. SIPH tapering to apex         …..Cryptomyzus malkovskii

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. ANT III with 1-4 rhinaria near base, IV with 0. SIPH swollen on distal half                             …..Cryptomyzus transiliensis

 

Stachys                                                        Lamiaceae

        Stachys ajugoides                         Aulacorthum solani

        S. alpina                                        Cryptomyzus ribis; Ovatomyzus ribis, stachyos

        S. annua                                       Aphis frangulae, stachydis; Cryptomyzus korschelti, ribis;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella pallida; [Pemphigus sp.];

                                                              Roepkea marchali

        S. arvensis                                     Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii, stachydis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Cryptomyzus ribis

        S. betonica see S. officinalis

        S. betoniciflora (?)                        Brachycaudus cerasicola

               (as Betonica foliosa)

        S. bullata                                       Amphorophora stachyophila; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. byzantina                                  Cryptomyzus korschelti; Ovatomyzus stachyos

        S. californica = S. bullata

        S. ciliata = S. Mexicana

        S. cooleyae                                    Cryptomyzus ribis

        S. cretica                                       Aphis stachydis (? – see text); Roepkea marchali

        S. germanica                                 Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti;

                                                              Ovatomyzus stachyos

        S. glutinosa                                   Aphis stachydis

      S. heraclea                                    Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

        S. japonica = S. riederi

        S. lanata = S. byzantina

        S. mexicana                                  Cryptomyzus ribis

        S. officinalis (incl. betonica)             Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus heinzei, korschelti, ribis

        S. olympica = S. byzantina

      S. palustris                                    Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, stachydis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, ribis, stachydis;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Uroleucon stachydis

        S. pilosa                                         Aphis stachydis, [Aphis (Cerosipha) sp. (Weiss 1955)];

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis, stachydis;

                                                              Uroleucon stachydis

        S. recta                                          Aphis [eupatorii], [origani], stachydis; Cryptomyzus ribis

        S. riederi (incl. vars. hispidula,          Aphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus ribis

                                               japonica)

        S. rigida (incl. ssp. quercetorum)         Amphorophora stachyophila

        S. scopulorum = S. pilosa              

        S. sericea                                       Aphis stachydis; Myzus ornatus

        S. sideritoides = S. sericea

        S. sylvatica                                    Aphis stachydis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis, stachydis;

                                                              Uroleucon stachydis

        Stachys sp.                                    Aphis tashevi

Key to apterae on Stachys:-

1      ANT 4- (occasionally 5-) segmented, less than 0.15 ื BL, with PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent. All segments with wax glands, each consisting of a ring of roundish facets around a central field                                                                                    …..Kaltenbachiella pallida

-       ANT usually 6-segmented, more than 0.2 ื BL, with PT/BASE more than 1.5. No evident dorsal wax glands                                                                                                              …..2

2      Cauda semicircular to helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum often with an extensive black sclerotic shield                                                                   …..3

-       Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width. Dorsum without an extensive black sclerotic shield                                                                                                                   …..4

3      SIPH shorter than R IV+V, lightly imbricated, without spicules. Dorsal cuticle not spiculose

                                                                                                            ….. Brachycaudus cerasicola

-       SIPH longer than R IV+V, with transverse rows of spicules. Dorsal cuticle spiculose

                                                                                                                       …..Roepkea marchali

4      Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases (e.g. Fig.50a)      …..5

-       Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases                                                              …..8

5      SIPH 1.1-2.1 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II, and bearing 2-5 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.3 ื BD III                                              …..Cryptomyzus galeopsidis

-       SIPH 2.4-4.0 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.8 ื HT II, and bearing 6-17 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.9 ื BD III                                                                                    …..6

6      SIPH 2.3-3.1 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.3-1.4 ื HT II, and bearing 6-8 accessory hairs

…..Cryptomyzus ribis

-       SIPH 3.1-3.9 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 ื HT II, and bearing 8-17 accessory hairs         …..7

7      R IV+V with 11-17 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT I much longer and thicker than any hairs on ANT III. Longest dorsal hairs more than 100 μm long

…..Cryptomyzus korschelti

-       R IV+V with 7-9 accessory hairs. Longest hair on ANT I similar in size to longest hair on ANT III. Longest dorsal hairs less than 80 μm long                          …..Cryptomyzus heinzei

8      Head densely spinulose, with ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces scabrous and parallel of apically convergent       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-       Head without spicules, ANT tubercles undeveloped, weakly developed, or if well developed then with inner faces smooth and divergent                                                                     …..9

9      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..10

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu     …..14

10    ANT III with 44-72 rhinaria. SIPH dusky to dark, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda dusky to dark with c.20-22 hairs                         …..Uroleucon stachydis

-       ANT III with 0-25 rhinaria. SIPH pale, without polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale with 5-13

        hairs                                                                                                                                 …..11

11    BL 2.5-3.5 mm. ANT III with 2-25 rhinaria. SIPH smooth, distinctly clavate              …..12

-       BL 0.9-1.6 mm. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH imbricated, cylindrical or only slightly swollen subapically                                                                                                          …..13

12    SIPH 2.9-4.1 ื cauda and markedly swollen over distal 0.7, with maximum width of swollen part 1.7-2.0 ื minimum width basad (Fig.50b). ANT PT/BASE 8.4-9.8. R IV+V with 5-8 accessory hairs                                                                  …..Cryptomyzus stachydis

-       SIPH 1.7-2.4 ื cauda, swollen on distal 0.5 to a maximum of c.1.6 ื minimum width basad (Fig.50c). ANT PT/BASE 6.2-8.1. R IV+V with 26-30 accessory hairs

…..Amphorophora stachyophila

13    SIPH 15-23 ื longer than their midlength diameter (Fig.50d). Longest hair on ANT tubercles 0.9-1.3 ื BD III                                                                 …..Ovatomyzus stachyos

-       SIPH 9-14 ื longer than their midlength diameter (Fig.50e). Longest hair on ANT tubercles 0.5-0.8 ื BD III                                                                          …..Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

14    ANT III with 0-10 sec. rhinaria on distal part, IV with 3-9 and V with 0-4. Rostrum very short, length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than 0.4 mm                …..Aphis tashevi

-       ANT without sec. rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). Rostrum longer, length of sclerotised part of stylet groove more than 0.4 mm)       …..Aphis stachydis (or A. gossypii?)

 

Stachytarpheta                                            Verbenaceae

      Stachytarpheta angustifolia          Aphis gossypii

        S. jamaicensis                                Aphis gossypii

        Stachytarpheta sp.                         [Hysteroneura setariae]

 

Stachyurus                                                  Stachyuraceae

      Stachyurus praecox                      Xenosiphonaphis conandri, japonica

Key to alate fundatrigeniae:-

(Populations on Stachyurus consist of fundatrices and alatae only, and the fundatrix of X. conandri is undescribed.)

-       BL 1.6-2.1 mm. Dorsal abdomen with very broad dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 1-7, partially fused across ABD TERG 3-6 with only small gaps between them. Sec. rhin. III

        17-20, IV 7-8, V 0-1                                                                 …..Xenosiphonaphis conandri

-       BL 2.4-3.0 mm. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands partly fused marginally, but with wide gaps between them in spinal region. Sec. rhin. III 22-26, IV 4-9, V 0-1

…..Xenosiphonaphis japonica

 

Stanhopea                                                    Orchidaceae

      Stanhopea graveolens                   Sitobion luteum

 

Staphylea                                                     Staphyleaceae

        Staphylea bumalda                        Aphis gossypii; Indomegoura indica, nigrotibiae

        S. colchica                                      Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        S. pinnata                                       Aphis fabae; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        S. trifolia                                        Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Staphylea:-

1     SIPH dark and tapering from base to flange

                                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, staring at couplet 14

-      SIPH pale or dark, swollen over part of length                                                                 …..2

2     Legs mainly pale.  Head spiculose, with inner faces of antennal tubercles approximately parallel.  SIPH pale except distally, swollen on distal 0.7, without subapical reticulation;  maximum diameter of swollen part more than 1.5 ื minimum width of proximal "neck" region (fig. 110C)                                                                 .....Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-      Legs dark.  Dorsal cuticle of head smooth or slightly wrinkled, inner faces of antennal tubercles broadly divergent.  SIPH uniformly dark, more-or-less barrel-shaped, thickest in middle, with subapical reticulation (figs 110A, B)                                                             .....3

 

3     BL more than 3 mm.  Cauda elongate, much longer than wide, more than 0.5 ื SIPH.  R IV+V 0.7-0.9 ื HT II.  SIPH almost cylindrical on proximal 0.7 of length, narrowing only subapically (fig. 110A)                                                                         .....Indomegoura indica

-      BL less than 3 mm.  Cauda triangular, about as long as its basal width, less than 0.5 ื SIPH.  R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II.  SIPH narrowing proximad as well as distad of swelling (fig. 110B)

.....Indomegoura nigrotibiae

 

 

Statice  see Limonium                                                         Plumbaginaceae

 

Stauntonia                                                   Lardizabulaceae

      Stauntonia hebandra = S. obovata

        S. hexaphylla                                 Sitobon akebiae

        S. obovata                                      Amphicercidus laniger

Couplet to separate these two species:-

(Both species have dark SIPH, non-spiculose head and low, broadly divergent ANT tubercles.)

-       Cauda short, conical with rounded apex, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT with finely pointed hairs, many of them longer than BD III                                                                                     …..Amphicercidus laniger

-       Cauda much longer than its basal width. SIPH with distal polygonal reticulation. ANT with short blunt hairs, less than 0.5 ื BD III                                                   …..Sitobion akebiae

 

Steganotaenia                                             Apiaceae

      Steganotaenia araliacea                Aphis fabae; Hyadaphis coriandri

Use key to apterae on Coriandrum.

 

Steirodiscus see Euryops                                Compositae

     Steirodiscus chrysanthemoides = Euryops chyrysanthemoides     

 

Steironema   see Lysimachia                                          Primulaceae

 

Stelechocarpus                                            Annonaceae

      Stelechocarpus burahol                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Stelis                                                            Orchidaceae

      Stelis aprica                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Sitobion luteum

      S. cubensis = S. aprica

        S. ekmanii                                     Sitobion luteum

        S. ophioglossoides                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Sitobion luteum

        S. velaticaulis                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Sitobion luteum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Stellaria                                                       Caryophyllaceae

      Stellaria alsine = S. uliginosa

      S. aquatica = Myosoton aquaticum   

        S. crispata = S. monosperma

        S. dichotoma                                 Stellariopsis songini

        S. graminea                                   Aulacorthum solani; Brachycolus stellariae;

                                                               Macrosiphum stellariae; Myzus ascalonicus

        S. holostea                                     Aphis fabae; Brachycolus stellariae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [hartigi], stellariae, [ gei];

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, [dianthicola], persicae, titschaki

        S. jamesiana = Pseudostelleria jamesiana

        S. longipes                                     Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brachycolus brachysiphon

        S. media                                         Acyrthosiphon auctum

                                                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                   [rhamnicola], sambuci;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, certus, cymbalariae, icelandicus,

                                                                   ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Neotoxoptera oliveri, [sunkangensis];

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; [Sipha maydis]

        S. monosperma                             Abstrusomyzus phloxae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae

        S. neglecta                                     Myzus ascalonicus

        S. nemorum                                  Aphis nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               [Brachycaudus lychnidis]; Brachycolus stellariae;

                                                               [Jacksonia papillata]; Macrosiphum stellariae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus

        S. peduncularis = S. longipes

        S. uliginosa                                    Aphis nasturtii; Macrosiphum stellariae; [Myzus cerasi]

        Stellaria sp.                                    [Macrosiphum incertum Mordvilko (= stellariae?)]

Key to apterae on Stellaria:-

1     SIPH pale with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). ANT III with 1-13 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.6-1.2 ื BD III                                              …..2

-      SIPH pale or dark, without polygonal reticulation (unless strongly swollen). ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria, if with any then longest hairs less than 0.5 ื BD III                                           …..3

2     Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices (Fig.51a). ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin                                          .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-      Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3     Head not spiculose, with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or if well developed then having smooth, broadly divergent inner faces                                         …..4

-      Head spiculose, with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces scabrous and parallel or apically convergent                                                                                                      …..12

4      ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 ื BD III

…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-      ANT usually 6-segmented, with much shorter hairs                                                          …..5

5     SIPH very small, flangeless, conical or barrel-shaped (e.g Fig. 51b), less than 0.3 ื cauda

…..6

-      SIPH more than 0.6 ื cauda                                                                                              …..7

6     ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.6. Cauda triangular, much shorter than PT …..Brachycolus stellariae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.2 –1.5. Cauda elongate, longer than PT     …..Brachycolus brachysiphon*

7     ABD TERG 1-5 each with 10-12 hairs (2 marginal, 1 pleural and 2-3 spinal pairs), which have capitate or spatulate apices and arise from rough wart-like tubercles (Fig.51c)

…..Stellariopsis songini

-      ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with 6 hairs with blunt or pointed apices, not arising from tubercles                                                                                                                            …..8

8     ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale                                 …..9

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH pale or dark                                                        …..11

9     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH conical, with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ANT III without rhinaria

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width, with 7-13 hairs. SIPH tubular, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform. ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria                                                                                                                             …..10

10   SIPH 0.15-0.20 ื BL and 0.8-1.4 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.0

.....Acyrthosiphon auctum

 -     SIPH 0.23-0.33 ื BL and 1.5-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.4     .....Acyrthosiphon ilka

11   ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 with large flat MTu. SIPH black, 2.1-3.5 ื cauda

…..Aphis sambuci

 -     ABD TERG 2-4 without MTu, or occasionally with small papilliform MTu. SIPH pale or dark, 0.7-2.5 ื cauda

                     …..polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

12   SIPH gradually tapering from base to apex                                                                     …..13

 -     SIPH with slight, moderate or marked swelling of distal part                                        …..15

13   ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental spots                                                                                      …..Myzus ornatus

 -     ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. ANT III usually with 1-3 smll rhinaria near base. Dorsal abdomen pale or with more extensive dark markings                                                                      …..14

14   Dorsum with extensive dark markings, including an approximately U-shaped abdominal patch                                                                                                .....Neomyzus circumflexus

 -     Dorsum without dark markings                                                            …..Aulacorthum solani

15   SIPH black and very strongly swollen on distal half, with polygonal reticulation distal to swelling. Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerite               …..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

 -     SIPH pale or dusky and only slightly to moderately swollen, without any distal polygonal reticulation. Dorsum without dark sclerotisation                                                             …..16

16   SIPH 0.82-1.34 ื ANT III                                                                                              …..17

 -     SIPH 0.54-0.81 ื ANT III                                                                                              …..19

17   ANT tubercles themselves rather low, but with scabrous processes extending forward from ANT bases. SIPH weakly swollen subapically (over about distal 0.25). Dorsum with an evident reticulate pattern                                                                …..Abstrusomyzus phloxae

 -     ANT tubercles broadly rounded, without forwardly-directed processes. SIPH slightly to moderately swollen over about distal 0.5. Dorsum without a reticulate pattern             …..18 

18   R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

…..Myzus persicae

 -     R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                   …..Myzus certus

19   SIPH with a narrow basal stem, its narrowest part thinner than, or as thin as, hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V 1.4-1.6 ื HT II, with 7-15 accessory hairs            …..Myzus ascalonicus

 -     SIPH thicker on basal half, its narrowest part thicker than hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V 0.9-1.6 ื HT II, with 2-8 accessory hairs                                                                        …..20

20   R IV+V 0.9-1.05 ื HT II. SIPH c.1.8 ื the tongue-shaped cauda            …..Myzus titscheki

 -     R IV+V 1.2-1.6 ื HT II. SIPH more than 2 ื the triangular (tapering) cauda              …..21

21   ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.3. SIPH very coarsely imbricated on swollen part. Dorsal cuticle very rugose                                                                                                    …..Myzus cymbalariae

 -     ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.8 SIPH smooth or normally imbricated on swollen part. Dorsal cuticle not rugose                                                                                                                        …..22

22   ANT PT/BASE 4.3-4.8. (Al. with wing-veins not dark-bordered, with a solid black patch on ABD TERG 3-4, fused across tergites and constricted in midline, and with secondary rhinaria distributed III 39-52, IV 29-31, V 6-11)                                      …..Myzus stellariae

 -     ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.3. (Al. with wing-veins black-bordered, with broad dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 2-5 only partially fused between tergites, and with secondary rhinaria distributed III 12-47, IV 0-13, V 0-2)              …..Noetoxoptera oliveri (or sungkangensis*?)

 

Stellera                                                                   Thymelaeaceae

      Stellera chamaejasme                   Aphis brachychaeta

 

Stemmacantha                                            Compositae

      Stemmacantha carthamoides      Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon gobonis

        S. uniflora                                    Uroleucon mongolicum

See under Rhaponticum for combined key to apterae on Rhaponticum and Stemmacantha.

 

Stenactis  see Erigeron                                                      Compositae

 

Stenosiphonium                                          Acanthaceae

        Stenosiphonium parviflorum        Aphis gossypii; [Hysteroneura setariae]

        S. russelianum                              Aphis gossypii

 

Stenostomum                                               Rubiaceae

      Stenostomum lucidum                  Aphis gossypii

 

Stenotaphrum                                              Poaceae                         

        Stenotaphrum dimidiatum            Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                               Sitobion africanum

        S. secundatum                               Hysteroneura setariae; Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.       

 

Stephanandra                                              Rosaceae

        Stephanandra incisa                     Aphis odinae

        S. tanakae                                      Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Stephania                                                    Menispermaceae

        Stephania abyssinica                     Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

        S. forsteri = S. japonica var. timoriensis                                      

        S. japonica (incl. var. timoriensis)        Aphis gossypii, odinae

Use key to polyphagus aphids.

 

Stephanomeria (including Ptilora)                            Compositae

        Stephanomeria pauciflora            Uroleucon bonitum

        S. tenuifolia                                   Uroleucon bonitum         

        Stephanomeria sp.                        [Uroleucon erigeronense]

 

Stephanotis                                                  Apocynaceae

      Stephanotis floribunda                  Aphis nerii; Myzus persicae

 

 

Sterculia                                                                 Sterculiaceae

      Sterculia foetida                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      Sterculia sp.                                  Aphis odinae; [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Steris see Lychnis                                                                  Caryophyllaceae

 

Stevia                                                           Compositae

      Stevia glandulosa                          Hyperomyzus niger

      S. salicifolia                                   Uroleucon mexicanum

      S. serrata                                       Uroleucon paucosensoriatum

        S. subpubescens                            Aphis solitaria; Hyperomyzus niger

      Stevia sp.                                       Ucrimyzus villalobosi; Uroleucon atsronomus

Key to apterae on Stevia:-

1     SIPH dark with distal reticulation consisting of numerous small polygonal cells             .....2

-       SIPH pale or dark, without a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                   .....4

2      SIPH reticulated over distal 0.41-0.60 of length. Cauda with 7-14 hairs (usually less than 10). (R IV+V with 7-15 accessory hairs)                                         .....Uroleucon mexicanum

-       SIPH reticulated on less than 0.4 of length. Cauda with more than 11 hairs                    .....3

3      R IV+V with 17-24 accessory hairs. ANT III with 10-30 rhinaria. Tibiae basally and distally dark contrasting with pale middle section. SIPH reticulated on more than 0.32 of length

        .....Uroleucon astronomus

-       R IV+V with 5-8 accessory hairs. ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria. Tibiae entirely pigmented, usually darkening progressively from base to apex. SIPH reticulated on less than 0.33 of length                                                                                     .....Uroleucon paucosensoriatum

4      SIPH tapering, pale with darker apices, cauda dark. Tergum mostly pale and membranous. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                   …..Aphis solitaria

-       SIPH clavate, pale or dark, cauda pale. Tergum either pale or with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                       …..5

5      Tergum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. ANT III with 19-30 sec. rhinaria, IV with 0-18, V 0-5                                                                                              …..Hyperomyzus niger

-       Tergum mostly pale and membranous. ANT III with 1-20 rhinaria, IV and V with 0

…..Ucrimyzus villalobosi

 

Stewartia see Stuartia                                                         Theaceae

 

 

Stichorkis                                                     Orchidaceae

      Stichorkis nugentiae                     Sitobion luteum

 

Stigmaphyllon                                             Malpighiaceae

        Stigmaphyllon affine                     Aphis gossypii

        S. sagraeanum                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola

        S. tomentosum                              Aphis craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Stilbe                                                           Stilbaceae

        Stilbe spp.                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Stipa (including Achnatherum, Lasiagrostis)                      Poaceae

        Stipa bromoides                             Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        S. calamagrostis                            Chaetosiphella stipae, stipae ssp. setosa; Sipha elegans

        S. capensis                                     Forda formicaria; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                               Paracletus cimiciformis; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae 

        S. capillata                                     Anoecia stipae, [Anoecia sp. (Bozhko 1976a)];

                                                               Atheroides serrulatus;

                                                               Chaetosiphella massagetica, stipae, tschernavini;

                                                               Forda marginata, pawlowae;

                                                               [Holmania chaetosiphon (al. vagrant)]; Sitobion avenae

        S. comata                                       Diuraphis tritici

        S. confusa                                      Chaetosiphella stipae; Sitobion avenae

        S. dasyphylla                                 Chaetosiphella stipae

        S. elegantissima                             Rhopalosiphum padi

        S. gigantea                                     Chaetosiphella stipae      

        S. joannis                                       Chaetosiphella stipae

        S. kirghisorum                              Chaetosiphella massegetica, stipae; Forda marginata

        S. lagascae                                     Metopolophium dirhodum

        S. lessingiana                                Geoica utricularia; [Slavum lentiscoides];

                                                               Chaetosiphella stipae

        S. leucotricha                                Schizaphis graminum

        S. orientalis                                    Chaetosiphella stipae

        S. parviflora                                   Forda formicaria

        S. pennata (incl. ssp. eriocaulis)         Chaetosiphella stipae; Sitobion avenae;

                                                               [Slavum lentiscoides]

        S. retorta = S. capensis

        S. sareptana                                   Chaetosiphella stipae; Forda marginata;

                                                               [Slavum lentiscoides]                                                         

        S. sibirica                                       Chaetosiphella stipae; Forda marginata

        S. speciosa                                     Hysteroneura setariae

        S. splendens                                   Atheroides karakumi; Chaetosiphella stipae;

                                                               Sipha elegans

        S. viridula                                      Schizaphis graminum

        Stipa spp.                                       Carolinaia rhois; [Dysaphis ubsanurensis]; Sipha maydis

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.

 

Stipularia                                                                               Rubiaceae

     Stipularia africana                         Aphis gossypii

 

Stizolophus                                                                           Compositae

     Stizolophus balsamita                     Uroleucon jaceae

 

Stizolobium  see Mucuna                                                Leguminosae               

    

Stocksia                                                                                   Sapindaceae

      Stocksia brahuica                          Brachyunguis kaussarii

 

Stoebe                                                                                       Compositae

      Stoebe sp.                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Stomatanthes                                                                      Compositae

      Stomatanthes africanus                Aphis spiraecola             

 

Stranvaesia  see Photinia                                                 Rosaceae

 

 

Stratiotes                                                                                Hydrocharitaceae

      Stratiotes sp.                                  Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Straussia  see Psychotria                                                  Rubiaceae

 

Streblus                                                                                   Moraceae

      Streblus elongatus                                  Tempinis Tree                                                      

                                                              Greenidea ficicola

      Streblus sp. (shrub)                        [Greenideoida hannae]

 

 

Strelitzia                                                      Strelitziaceae

      Strelitzia alba                                 Cerataphis lataniae, brasiliensis

        S. augusta = S. alba

        S. nicolai                                        Aphis fabae; Cerataphis brasiliensis;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum padi

        S. reginae                                      Dysaphis tulipae; Rhopalosiphum musae;

                                                               Schizaphis rosazevedoi

        Strelitzia sp.                                   Pentalonia nigronervosa

Key to apterae on Strelitzia:-

1      Body dorso-ventrally flattened, almost circular, wholly sclerotic with a continuous crenulate margin of wax glands. Head with a pair of forwardly-directed horns. SIPH present as pores

…..2

-       Body not dorso-ventrally flattened, without marginal wax glands or frontal horns. SIPH tubular                                                                                                                               …..3

2      Underside of  head with at least one pair of thick, dagger-like hairs situated lateroventral to bases of frontal horns. Cauda with 5-7 mainly long hairs               .....Cerataphis brasiliensis

-       Underside of head with only fine hairs. Cauda with 10-16 hairs of various sizes

.....Cerataphis lataniae

3      SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-8.1. (Alata with dark-bordered wing veins, with radius and costa fused for part of lengths

        to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma)                              …..Pentalonia nigronervosa

-       SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-5.8. (Alata with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)                                           …..4

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                                         …..Dysaphis tulipae

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width in dorsal view. STu absent                …..5

5      SIPH short and thick (0.08-0.11 ื BL, 2.9-3.3 ื longer than their midlength diameter, and 1.2-1.5 ื R IV+V), and strongly constricted subapically before the well-developed flange

                                                                                                                 .....Rhopalosiphum musae

-       SIPH 0.12-0.17 ื BL, 3.5-6.0 ื their midlength diameter and (1.3-) 1.5-2.9 ื R IV+V, with or without a subapical constriction                                                                                     .....6

6      Hairs on hind tibiae mostly shorter than diameter of hind tibia at midlength. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, with a smooth, constricted subapical region

…..Rhopalosiphum padi

-       Many of hairs on hind tibia much longer than its midlength diameter. SIPH gradually tapering from base to flange, with no smooth subapical constriction                               …..7

7      Cauda pale, contrasting with black SIPH, and bearing 4-8 hairs. SIPH 1.7-2.5 ื cauda

…..Schizaphis rosazevedoi

-       Cauda dark like SIPH, and bearing 11-24 hairs. SIPH 0.8-1.6 ื cauda          …..Aphis fabae

 

Streptocarpus                                              Gesneriaceae

        Streptocarpus rexii                        Aulacorthum solani

        S. saxorum                                    Myzus persicae

        Streptocarpus spp. (and hybrids)  [Idiopterus nephrelepidis]; [Micromyzodium filicium];

                                                               Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Streptopus                                                   Asparagaceae

      Streptopus amplexifolius               [Ericaphis sp., coll. A.Jensen, Idaho; aphidtrek.org];

                                                               Macrosiphum insularis

 

Streptosolen                                                Solanaceae

      Streptosolen jamesonii                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Striga                                                           Orobanchaceae

      Striga hermonthica                       Aphis gossypii

 

Strobilanthes (including Goldfussia, Perilepta)              Acanthaceae

      Strobilanthes angustifrons            Aphis gossypii

      S. atropurpureus                           Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Nasonovia rostrata; Neomyzus strobilantheae;

                                                               [Tricaudatus polygoni]

        S. dalhousieanus                           Aphis gossypii; Micromyzodium strobilanthi;

                                                               Nasonovia rostrata

        S. dyerianus                                   Aphis gossypii

        S. glutinosus                                  Aphis gossypii

        S. helicta                                        Aphis gossypii

        S. isophyllus                                  Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. lactata                                        Myzus ornatus

        S. penstemonoides                         Aphis gossypii; Nasonovia rostrata;

                                                               [Tricaudatus polygoni]

        Strobilanthes sp.                            Melanaphis strobilanthi; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Strobilanthes:-

1     Spiracular pores on thorax very large and rounded, more than 4 ื larger than those on abdomen. R IV+V 0.21-0.33 mm long, about 2 ื HT II, and bearing 22-30 accessory hairs. Dorsal body hairs long with blunt or slightly expanded apices            …..Nasonovia rostrata

-      Spiracular pores on thorax not distinctly larger than those on abdomen. R IV+V shorter, with fewer accessory hairs. Dorsal body hairs if long then pointed                                          …..2

2     Head not spiculose. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                  …..3

-      Head spiculose. ANT tubercles variably developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu …..4

3     ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.75. R IV+V c.1 6 ื HT II. SIPH 0.8-1.0 ื cauda, which bears 10-11 hairs                                                                                              .....Melanaphis strobilanthi*

-      Without that combination of characters

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

4     SIPH slightly to moderately clavate                                                                                  …..5

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                  …..6

5      ANT III with 1-4 rhinaria near base. SIPH 3.0-3.5 ื cauda, which bears 5 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed brownish sclerotisation       …..Neomyzus strobilantheae*

-       ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH 1.9-2.5 ื cauda, which bears 5-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen unsclerotised                                                                                               …..Myzus persicae

6      ANT PT/BASE 5.5-6.8. Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 longer than ANT BD III. ANT tubercles with broadly divergent, spiculose inner faces                                                                                       …..Micromyzodium strobilanthi

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental spots. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 minute, much shorter than ANT BD III. ANT tubercles with steep-sided, scabrous inner faces                                                                                      …..Myzus ornatus

 

Strongylodon                                               Leguminosae

      Strongylodon macrobotrys            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii