HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Seq-Sop

 

Sequoia

Sequoiadendron

Serapias

Seriphidium

Serissa

Serjania

Serratula

Sesamum

Sesbania

Seseli

Sesleria

Setaria

Setoreasea

Severinia

Shepherdia

Sherardia

Sherwoodia

Shibataea

Shiia

Shorea

Shortia

Sibbaldia

Sibbaldianthe

Sibiraea

Sicyos

Sida

Sidalcea

Sidastrum

Sideritis

Sideroxylon

Sieglingia

Sieversia

Sigesbeckia

Silaum

Silene

Silphium

Silybum

Simmondsia

Simsia

Sinapidendron

Sinapis

Sinarundinaria

Sindora

Sinningia

Sinojackia

Siphocampylus

Sison

Sisymbrium

Sisyrinchium

Sitanion

Sium

Sloanea

Smilacina

Smilax

Smithia

Smodingium

Smyrnium

Sobralia

Solandra

Solanecio

Solanum

Solena

Solenanthus

Solenostemon

Solidago

Solidaster

Soliva

Sollya

Sonchus

Sophia

Sophora

 

 

Sequoia                                                                                    Taxodiaceae

       Sequoia sempervirens                   Cinara cupressi; Illinoia morrisoni

 

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH as large dark hairy cones                   .....Cinara cupressi

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.4. SIPH tubular and swollen on distal half           .....Illinoia morrisoni

 

 

Sequoiadendron                                                   Taxodiaceae

       Sequoiadendron giganteum         Illinoia morrisoni

 

 

Serapias                                                                  Orchidaceae

       Serapias vomeracea                      Aphis fabae

 

 

Seriphidium                                                 Compositae

       Seriphidium amoenum                 Macrosiphoniella seriphidii

       S. aucheri                                      Coloradoa heinzei

       S. balchanorum = Artemisia balchanorum

       S. baldshuanicum = Artemisia baldshuanica

       S. brevifolium                                Coloradoa submissa

       S. canum = Artemisia cana              

       S. cinum                                        Cryptosiphum astrachanicae; Macrosiphoniella atra;

                                                              Protrama flavescens; Rectinasus buxtoni; Xerobion cinae

       S. ferganense =Artemisia ferganensis

       S. glanduligerum = Artemisia glanduligera

       S. gurganicum                               Xerobion cinae

       S. halophilum = Artemisia halophila

       S. heptapotamicum                       Coloradoa heinzei, mesasiatica;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii;

                                                              Obtusicauda moldavica; Xerobion cinae                           

       S. herba-album  = Artemisia herba-alba

       S. junceum                                    Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii; Protaphis miranda;

                                                              Xerobion alakuli

       S. karatavicum                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii; Protaphis miranda;

                                                              Xerobion cinae

       S. kaschgaricum                           Macrosiphoniella seriphidii

       S. lercheanum                               Coloradoa heinzei; Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, pulvera, seriphidii;

                                                              Xerobion cinae

       S. maritimum                                [Aphis commoda Walker - nomen dubium];

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa heinzei, submissa;

                                                              Cryptosiphum artemisiae, caspicae;

                                                              [Diuraphis frequens]; [Geoica utricularia];

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani, absinthii, atra ssp, latysiphon,

                                                                  austriacae, procerae, pulvera;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus glandulosus; Protaphis miranda;

                                                              Xerobion cinae

       S. nitrosum = Artemisia nitrosa        

       S. nutans = Artemisia nutans            

       S. pauciflorum = Artemisia pauciflora                                       

       S. porrectum = Artemisia porrecta    

       S. rhodanthum = Artemisia rhodantha

       S. rigidum = Artemisia rigida           

       S. santolinum                                Coloradoa heinzei, [Coloradoa sp. (Kadyrbekov 2002d)];

                                                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii, szalaymarszoi;

                                                              Xerobion alakuli, cinae

       S. santonicum = Artemisia santonica

       S. schrenkianum                           Coloradoa heinzei; Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, pulvera, seriphidii,

                                                                  szalaymarzsoi;

                                                              Obtusicauda moldavica;

                                                              Protaphis elatior, elongata, miranda; Xerobion cinae

      S. scopiforme                                Xerobion cinae

         S. sieberi                                        Macrosiphoniella kermanensis

       S. sublessingianum                       [Brachunguis sp. (Juchnevitch 1968)];

                                                              Coloradoa heinzei, mesasiatica;

                                                              Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, pulvera, seriphidii,

                                                                  sieversianae, szalaymarzsoi, terraealbae;

                                                              Obtusicauda moldavica;

                                                              Protaphis elatior, miranda; Xerobion alakuli, cinae

       S. tauricum = Artemisia taurica        

       S. tenuisectum = Artemisia tenuisecta                                        

       S. terrae-albae = Artemisia terrae-albae                                     

       S. tridentatum = Artemisia tridentata

       S. turanicum = Artemisia turanica   

       S. validum = Artemisia valida     

       S. vallesiacum = Artemisia vallesiaca

See Artemisia for a combined key to apterae on Artemisia and Seriphidium.                                 

 

Serissa                                                         Rubiaceae

      Serissa japonica                            Aphis gossypii, serissae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to apterae on Serissa:-

-       ANT 5-segmented. SIPH a lttle shorter than cauda                                  …..Aphis serissae*

-       Without that combination of characters                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

     

Serjania                                                       Sapindaceae

      Serjania diversifolia                      Aphis spiraecola

        S. polyphylla                                 Aphis spiraecola

        S. subdentata                                Aphis craccivora, gossypii

        S. triquetra                                    Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Serratula                                                      Compositae

      Serratula arvensis see Cirsium arvense                                     

        S. cardunculus                             Aphis fabae; Uroleucon minor

      S. centauroides                             Uroleucon mongolicum

        S. coronata                                    Aphis fabae, serratularadicis;

                                                              Uroleucon giganteum,  jaceae, minor

        S. gmelinii                                     Uroleucon minor

        S. nudicaulis                                 Brachycaudus cardui       

        S. quinquefolia                             Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon capsicum

        S. radiata                                       Uroleucon minor

      S. tinctoria (incl. ssp.                       Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                   monticola)             Uroleucon minor

        S. wolffii = S. coronata                    

        Serratula sp.                                 [Uroleucon sonchi]

Key to apterae on Serratula:-

1      ANT 5-segmented. Prothorax and ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7 all with well-developed hemispherical marginal tubercles. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II and bearing 2-4 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.9-1.1 Χ cauda, both shorter than R IV+V. Cauda triangular with 6-8 hairs                                                                                                …..Aphis serratularadicis*

-       ANT usually 6-segmented. MTu either absent or only consistently present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7, and other characters not in the above combination                       …..2

2      SIPH dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                   …..3

-       SIPH pale or dark, but if dark then without polygonal reticulation

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3      Cauda as dark as, or almost as dark as, SIPH                                                                  …..4

-       Cauda much paler than SIPH                                                                                           …..6

4      Cauda with c.40-60 hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.7 Χ HT II. ANT III with 22-66 rhinaria

…..Uroleucon giganteum

-       Cauda with 13-28 hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT III with 15-54 rhinaria            …..5

5      Cauda with 13-24 hairs. ANT III with 15-21 rhinaria                            …..Uroleucon minor

-       Cauda with 22-28 hairs. ANT III with 16-54 rhinaria                           …..Uroleucon jaceae

6      Cauda with 7-11 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. Hind tibia without a row of

        peg-like hairs                                                                                 …..Uroleucon mongolicum

-       Cauda with 24-41 hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Hind tibia with a row of

        peg-like hairs                                                                                      …..Uroleucon caspicum

 

Sesamum                                                     Pedaliaceae

      Sesamum indicum                        Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        S. orientale = S. indicum

        S. radiatum                                   Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sesbania (including Daubetonia)                                  Leguminosae

     S. aculeata = S. bispinosa

      S. aegyptiaca = S. sesban

      S. bispinosa                                     Aphis craccivora

      S. coerulescens                               Aphis craccivora

     S. grandiflora                                 Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum; Aphis gossypii

      S. macrantha                                  Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)

      S. punicea                                       Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

      S. sesban                                         Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

      S. tripetii = S. punicea

Key to apterae on Sesbania:-

1      ANT tubercles very well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midpoints                       …..2

-       ANT tubercles variably developed. SIPH pale or dark, and thicker than hind tibiae at their respective midpoints                                                                                                         …..3

2      SIPH 0.42-0.50 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                                    …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH 0.22-0.37 Χ BL and 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda                                       …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

3      SIPH with distal band of polygonal reticulation and hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III

                                                                                                           …..Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)

-       SIPH either without a distal band of polygonal reticulation or hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                    …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Seseli                                                           Apiaceae

      Seseli annuum                              Anuraphis pyrilaseri;

                                                              Aphis fabae, seselii, umbelliferarum;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

      S. austriacum = S. elatum ssp. austriacum                                  

        S. buchtormense = Libanotis buchtormensis

        S. campestre                                  Defractosiphon brevisiphon

        S. condensatum = Libanotis condensata

        S. coronatum                                Dysaphis foeniculus

        S. devenyense                                Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

      S. dichotomum                             Dysaphis seselii

        S. elatum                                       Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. blattnyi; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Defractosiphon brevisiphon; Macrosiphum gei;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

        S. elatum ssp. austriacum             Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. blattnyi;

                                                              Aphis fabae, franzi, solanella, [spiraephaga];

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii; Defractosiphon franzi;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

        S. elatum ssp. osseum                   Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. blattnyi; Aphis schilderi;

                                                              Defractosiphon brevisiphon;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci, dauci ssp. seselii

      S. glabratum                                 Aphis franzi; Cavariella aegopodii;  Semiaphis dauci

        S. hippomarathrum                      Acyrthosiphon nigripes; Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

      S. incanum =  Libanotis incana

        S. ledebourii                                  Aphis brohmeri, franzi, grosmannae; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri;  Semiaphis dauci

        S. ledebouriana (?)                       Cavariella aegopodii       

        S. leucospermum                          Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. blattnyi

      S. libanotis                                    Aphis franzi, podagrariae; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Dysaphis libanotidis

        S. montanum                                Aphis fabae

        S. nanum                                      Aphis fabae

        S. osseum = S. elatum ssp. osseum

      S. pallasii = S. varium                     

        S. schrenkianum = Libanotis schrenkiana                                 

        S. seseloides = Libanotis seseloides

        S. sessiliflorum                              Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis foeniculus;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci, [sphondylii]

        S. tortuosum                                 Aphis schilderi, seselii; Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

        S. transcaucasicum                      Aphis fabae, umbelliferarum

        S. unicaule                                    Dysaphis unicauli

        S. varium                                      Hyadaphis foeniculi; Semiaphis dauci ssp. seselii

        Seseli spp.                                     [Aphis seselii Lichtenstein (nomen nudum)];

                                                              Dysaphis viennoti; Semiaphis anthrisci

Key to apterae on Seseli (and Libanotis):-

1      ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces smooth and divergent                          …..2

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle part of head in dorsal view                                                                                                           …..3 

2      Head, ANT and legs almost entirely black. SIPH long, thin and black, without subapical reticulation. ANT III with 9-26 rhinaria                    …..Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. blattnyi

-       Head pale; ANT, legs and SIPH only partly dark. SIPH with subapical poygonal reticulation. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria                                                 …..Macrosiphum gei

3      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda. SIPH clavate, 0.17-0.23 Χ BL and 1.8-2.5 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.25                          .....Cavariella aegopodii

-       No supracaudal process. SIPH cylindrical or tapering, or if clavate then shorter and/or ANT PT longer                                                                                                                            .....4

4      Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, less than 1.1 Χ its basal width in dorsal view          …..5

-       Cauda elongate triangular or tongue-shaped, nore than 1.2 Χ its basal width                …..13

5      SIPH longer than cauda, which is helmet-shaped (pentagonal). ANT III-IV without rhinaria

…..6

-       SIPH 0.3-0.6 Χ cauda, which is triangular. Rhinaria present on ANT III, and sometimes on IV

        …..12

6      Head densely spiculose. SIPH shorter than R IV+V, with close-set annular rows of blunt spinules. Cauda with 10-12 hairs. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on ABD TERG 1-5

        …..Anuraphis pyrilaseri

-       Head not spiculose. SIPH longer than R IV+V, normally imbricated. Cauda with 5-8 hairs. STu absent from ABD TERG 1-5; present on head and ABD TERG 8, or absent         …..7

7      STu present on head, and often also on ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                 …..8

-       STu absent                                                                                                                      …..11

8      Longest hairs on ANT III (0.8-)1.0-3.3 Χ BD III                                                            …..9

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.8 Χ BD III                                                                   …..10

9      Longest hairs on ANT III (0.8-)1.0-1.6 Χ BD III. SIPH 0.10-0.15 mm

        ….. Dysaphis foeniculus

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 2.0-3.3 Χ BD III. SIPH 0.14-0.21 mm  ….. Dysaphis mordvilkoi*

10    Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 7 (as well as 1-5). SIPH up to 0.14 Χ BL

…..Dysaphis libanotidis*

-       MTu only present on ABD 7 in a minority (12.7%) of specimens. SIPH c. 0.11 Χ BL

…..Dysaphis seselii*

11    ANT 0.33-0.5 Χ BL. SIPH 0.07-0.08 Χ BL                                         …..Dysaphis unicauli*

-       ANT 0.69-0.85 Χ BL. SIPH 0.09-0.11 Χ BL                                         …..Dysaphis viennoti

12    Flat or hemispherical marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 1-5 and 7

        …..Aphis umbelliferarum

-       MTu absent or inconspicuous, or not consistently present on any of ABD TERG 1-7

…..Aphis seselii*

13    MTu present on prothorax and (at least) ABD TERG 1 and 7                                      …..14

-       MTu present or absent, but not on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                …..19

14    MTu consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) as well as 1 and 7                           …..15

-       MTu consistently on ABD TERG 1 and 7, but only irregularly on 2-5                         …..17

15    SIPH 0.6-0.8 Χ cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.0. R IV+V 0.8-0.95 Χ HT II                                                                                                                …..Aphis franzi

-       SIPH 1.0-1.6 Χ cauda, which bears 12-31 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.3. R IV+V 1.0-1.3 Χ HT II                                                                                                                               …..16

16    Longest hairs on ANT III 1.7-2.8 Χ BD III. Cauda with 20-31 hairs       …..Aphis brohmeri

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.6 Χ BD III. Cauda with 11-19 hairs  …..Aphis grosmannae

17    Cauda with 4-8 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.25-0.5 Χ BD III          …..Aphis schilderi

-       Cauda with 8-24 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.6 Χ BD III                              …..18

18    Longest hairs on ANT III 2.0-3.6 Χ ANT III                                       …..Aphis podagrariae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-2.2 Χ ANT III                            …..Aphis fabae (or solanella)

19    SIPH 0.6-1.4 Χ cauda, swollen for part of length, with a large terminal aperture and a

        well-developed flange                                                                                                    …..20

-       SIPH 0.12-0.9 Χ cauda, tapering or cylindrical, flangeless, with a small aperture          .....21

20    SIPH clavate, 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda and 1.6-2.8 Χ HT II                           …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-       SIPH thick on basal half and slightly swollen proximal to apex,  0.6-0.8 Χ cauda and 0.9-1.3 Χ HT II                                                                                                   .....Hyadaphis coriandri

21    SIPH 0.75-0.9 Χ cauda, tapering, with a narrow rounded apex and small subterminal aperture. ANT III with 0-6 rhinaria on distal part, and IV with 1-7 (1-11 on III + IV if fused)

.....Defractosiphon franzi

-       SIPH 0.12-0.6 Χ cauda, either very short and conical, or cylindrical with a terminal aperture. ANT III-IV  with or without rhinaria                                                                              .....22 

22    SIPH very short, 0.12-0.2 Χ cauda, mammariform or conical, shorter than basal width, with a small subapical aperture                                                       …..Defractosiphon brevisiphon

-       SIPH 0.4-0.6 Χ cauda, longer than their basal widths, with terminal aperture               …..23

23    Posterior hair on hind trochanter less than 0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture

…..Semiaphis dauci (incl. ssp. seselii)

-       Posterior hair on hind trochanter more than 0.6 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture

…..24

24    SIPH cylindrical or slightly swollen, more than 1.5 Χ their basal widths. ABD TERG 2-4 usually with small hemispherical MTu                                                 …..Semiaphis anthrisci

-       SIPH tapering, less than 1.5 Χ their basal widths. MTu absent or rare

…..Semiaphis heraclei

 

Sesleria                                                        Poaceae

     Sesleria albicans                             Sitobion avenae

     S. coerulea                                      Anoecia corni; Paracletus cimiciformis; Tetraneura ulmi

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.

 

Setaria (including Chaetochloa)                                     Poaceae

        Setaria aurea = S. sphacelata

        S. barbata                                      Geoica lucifuga; Tetraneura fusiformis

        S. chevalieri = S. megaphylla            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        S. chondrachne                            Colopha setaricola

        S. faberi                                         Rhopalosiphum maidis

        S. geniculata = S. parviflora           

        S. glauca = Pennisetum glaucum      

        S. imberbis = S. parviflora

        S. incrassata                                  Rhopalosiphum maidis

        S. intermedia                                 Tetraneura fusiformis

        S. italica                                         Anoecia corni; Melanaphis sacchari;

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, flava;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens,fusiformis,  javensis,

                                                                  nigriabdominalis, yezoensis

        S. lutescens = S. pumila

        S. macrostachya                           Pseudoregma panicola

        S. megaphylla                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Geoica lucifuga;

                                                              [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]; Tetraneura fusiformis            

        S. pallide-fusca = S. pumila            

        S. palmifolia                                  Ceratovacuna panici; Geoica lucifuga;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae         

      S. paniculifera  = S. palmifolia       

        S. parviflora                                  Aphis fabae; Carolinaia howardii, setariae;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                              Sipha flava; Sitobion avenae, pauliani;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis

      S. phleoides = S. incrassata

      S. plicata                                        Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                              Sitobion lambersi

        S. poiretiana                                  Sitobion africanum

        S. pumila                                       Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, haupti, vagans;

                                                              Aphis gossypii; [Dysaphis microsiphon];

                                                              Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, utricularia; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, avenae, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura basui, caerulescens, fusiformis, radicicola,

                                                                  ulmi

        S. sphacelata (incl. vars  aurea,         Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                      splendida)          Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, graminis, pauliani,

                                                                  [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis

        S. tenuifolia (?)                             Sitobion africanum

        S. trinervia = S. sphacelata

        S. verticillata                                  Anoecia corni, vagans; Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Geoica utricularia; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha elegans, flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, avenae;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, fusiformis, [longisetosa],

                                                                  nigriabdominalis, ulmi

        S. viridis                                         Anoecia corni, cornicola, fulviabdominalis, vagans;

                                                              Aphis gossypii; Diuraphis noxia; Forda marginata;

                                                              Geoica utricularia; Hyalopterus pruni;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; [Kaltenbachiella nirecola];

                                                              Myzus persicae; Paracletus bykovi, cimiciformis;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, avenae;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis, ulmi, yezoensis;

                                                              [Toxoptera setariae Rusanova 1942 (nomen nudum)]

        Setaria spp.                                   Anoecia setariae; Aploneura lentisci;

                                                              Ceratovacuna perglandulosa; Laingia psammae;

                                                              [Myzus maculocorpus]; Pseudaphis sijui;

                                                              [Pyrolachnus imbricatus];    Sitobion bamendae, fragariae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

 

Setoreasea see Tradescantia                                           Commelinaceae

 

Severinia see  Atalantia                                          Rutaceae

     Severinia buxifolia = Atalantia buxifolia

 

Shepherdia (including Lepargyrea)                              Elaeagnaceae

      Shepherdia argentea                      Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes, shepherdiae, similis

      Sh. canadensis                                Capitophorus elaeagni, hudsonicus

      Shepherdia sp.                                [Capitophorus essigi]

Key to apterae in spring populations on Shepherdia:-

[Note: All five species have thick hairs with expanded apices, arising from tuberculate bases. The key is not applicable to fundatrices. In western North America a sixth species (C. essigi) probably also has Shepherdia as primary host (A. Jensen, pers.comm. and see aphidtrek.org), but its spring generations have not been recorded.]

1      SIPH distinctly swollen subapically on inner side, to more than 1.2 Χ minimum width basad

…..2

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering, or only very slightly swollen subapically, to less than 1.1 Χ minimum width basad                                                                                                       …..4

2      Cauda not longer than R IV+V, and bearing 5 hairs. Dorsal cuticle variolate.

        ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.8                                                             …..Capitophorus shepherdiae

-      Cauda much longer  than R IV+V, and bearing 6-9 hairs. Dorsal cuticle almost smooth between hair-bases. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-8.9                                                                     …..3

3      ANT PT/BASE 5.5-8.9                                                              …..Capitophorus hippophaes

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.4-2.7                                                              …..Capitophorus hudsonicus

4      ABD TERG 1-4 each with 6-8 hairs (usually 1 pair each of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs per tergite). R IV+V 1.4-1.5 Χ HT II and shorter than cauda which bears 7-11 hairs

…..Capitophorus elaeagni

-       ABD TERG 1-4 each with 2 pairs of spinal and pleural hairs, and usually with 3 marginal hairs on each side. R IV+V 1.9-2.3 Χ HT II and longer than cauda, which bears 5-6 hairs

…..Capitophorus similis

 

Sherardia                                                     Rubiaceae

      Sherardia arvensis                        Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi (as veronicae), persicae

Key to apterae on Sherardia:-

-      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black sclerotic shield. SIPH black, coarsely imbricated, 2.3-2.8 Χ cauda and 1.3-1.8 Χ ANT III                                                          …..Myzus cerasi

-      Without that combination of characters                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Sherwoodia                                                  Diapensiaceae

     Sherwoodia galacifolia                   Amphorophora laingi (? – Leonard 1968)

 

Shibataea                                                     Poaceae

      Shibataea chinensis                      Glyphinaphis bambusae

      Sh.kumasaca                                Glyphinaphis bambusae; Melanaphis bambusae

(use key to aphids on Bambusa)

 

Shiia  see Castanopsis                                             Fagaceae

 

Shorea                                                         Dipterocarpaceae

      Shorea robusta                              Aphis gossypii, nasturtii

      Sh. talura                              Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Shortia see Sherwoodia                                           Diapensiaceae

 

Sibbaldia                                                     Rosaceae

      Sibbaldia tridentata                       Aphis gossypii

 

Sibbaldianthe                                              Rosaceae

      Sibbaldianthe bifurca                   Aphis comari, fabae, tianschanica;

                  (incl. ssp. orientalis)            Macropodaphis rechingeri

(use key to apterae on Potentilla)

 

Sibiraea                                                       Rosaceae

      Sibiraea altaiensis = S. laevigata  

        S. laevigata                                    Acyrthosiphon ignotum; Aphis pomi; Aulacorthum solani

Use key to apterae on Spiraea.

 

Sicyos                                                           Cucurbitaceae

      Sicyos angulata                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. edulis see Sechium edule        

 

Sida                                                              Malvaceae

     Sida abutilifolia                               Aphis gossypii

     S. acuminata = Sidastrum multiflorum

     S. acuta                                           Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

     S. alba = Sida spinosa

     S. carpinifolia = Sida acuta              

      S. cordifolia                                     Aphis fabae, gossypii

      S. garckeana = Sida acuta

      S. glomerata                                    Aphis gossypii

     S. palmata                                       Aphis gossypii

      S. procumbens = Sida abutilifolia

      S. pyramidata = Allosidastrum pyramidatum

      S. rhombifolia                                 Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

      S. schimperiana                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

      S. spinosa                                        Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

      S. urens                                           Aphis gossypii

      Sida spp.                                         Aphis citricidus, coreopsidis, nasturtii;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; [Macrosiphum salviae];

                                                               [Sumatraphis celti]

Key to apterae on Sida:-

-      SIPH 0.24-0.40 Χ BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda.  Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT              ..….Aphis coreopsidis

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Sidalcea                                                       Malvaceae

      Sidalcea sp.                                   [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Uroleucon eoessigi

 

Sidastrum                                                    Malvaceae

      Sidastrum multiflorum                 Aphis gossypii

 

Sideritis                                                       Lamiaceae

        Sideritis romana                            Aphis origani

 

Sideroxylon (including Mastichodendron, Dipholis)        Sapotaceae

      Sideroxylon foetidissimum            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      S. salicifolium                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

     

Sieversia see Geum                                                 Rosaceae

        Sieversia ciliata = Geum triflorum var. ciliatum

 

Sigesbeckia                                                 Compositae

      Sigesbeckia glabrescens                Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Myzus [siegesbeckiae], siegesbeckicola

      S. orientalis (incl. ssp. pubescens)       Aphis gossypii; Coloradoa rufomaculata;

                                                                    Myzus siegesbeckicola; Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae

      Sigesbeckia sp.                              Aphis odinae

Key to apterae on Sigesbeckia:-

1      SIPH black, markedly swollen into a spindle shape on distal two-thirds. Cauda triangular

.....Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae

-       SIPH pale or dark, not markedly swollen. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped                     .....2

2      Head with well-developed, steep-sided, scabrous ANT tubercles. SIPH pale, tapering from broad base, with very coarse imbrication, 3.5-4.0 Χ cauda. Subgenital plate strongly produced posteriorly, broadly conical                                             …..Myzus siegesbeckicola

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

3      Triommatidium merged with compound eye, so that there is no distinct ocular tubercle. Dorsal hairs fan-shaped. Front of head weakly convex in dorsal view, ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically. R IV+V with slightly concave sides                        …..Coloradoa rufomaculata

-      Triommatidum forming a distinct ocular tubercle at posterior margin of eye, dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, and other characters not in above combination

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Sieglingia see Danthonia                                       Poaceae

     Sieglingia decumbens = Danthonia decumbens

 

Silaum (including Silaus)                                             Apiaceae

      Silaum alpestre                              Aphis fabae

        S. besseri                                        Aphis silaumi

        S. pratense = S. silaus                     

        S. silaus                                          Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus

Key to apterae on Silaum:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly directed process above the cauda, bearing 2 hairs. R IV+V without accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. SIPH clavate

…..Cavariella aegopodii

-       No supracaudal process, and other characters not in that combination                            …..2

2      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda and SIPH both dark          …..3

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Cauda and SIPH pale

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

3      R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II. ANT 6-segmented                                                  …...Aphis fabae

-      R IV+V c.1.4-1.5. ANT often seeming 5-segmented due to fusion of III and IV

…..Aphis silaumi*

 

Silene (including Oberna, Otites)                                    Caryophyllaceae

      Silene acaulis                                 Aulacorthum solani; Myzus icelandicus

      S. alba = S. latifolia ssp. alba

          S. alpina                                         Volutaphis alpinae

          S. angustifolia                                Aphis sambuci                 

        S. atropurpurea                             Volutaphis centaureae

        S. baccifera                                    Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus lychnicola, lychnidis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Nasonovia ribisnigri]

        S. behen                                         Brachycaudus lychnidis, populi

        S. bellidifolia                                  Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnidis

        S. borysthenica                              Aphidura pannonica, pujoli; Brachycaudus lychnidis

        S. brahuica                                    Aphidura massagetica

        S. bupleuroides                              Aphis fabae, sambuci

        S. chalcedonica                             Myzus persicae

        S. chlorantha                                 Brachycolus cucubali

        S. coeli-rosea                                 [Macrosiphum centranthi]; Myzus persicae

        S. colorata                                      Myzus persicae

        S. commutata = S. vulgaris ssp. commutata

          S. compacta                                   [Brachycaudus sp. (Switzerland: Lampel 1976)]

        S. conica                                        Aphis craccivora; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum stellariae

      S. conoidea                                    Aphidura picta; Aphis craccivora;

                                                               Myzus certus, persicae; [Rhopalosiphum maidis];

                                                               Sitobion sp. (Dutta & Gautam 1993)

        S. coronaria                                   Aphis sambuci; Brachycaudus lychnidis

        S. crassipes                                    Myzus persicae

        S. csereii                                         Bracycaudus populi

        S. cucubalus = S. vulgaris

        S. dichotoma                                  Brachycaudus lychnidis

        S. dioica                                         Aphis fabae, sambuci; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnicola, lychnidis;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, cymablariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956]

        S. dioica ssp. lapponica = Melandrium lapponicum

        S. dubia = S. nutans ssp. dubia

        S. firma                                          Aphis silenicola

        S. flos-cuculi                                 Aphis sambuci;

                                                              Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnicola, lychnidis;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              Volutaphis centaureae,

                                                                  [Volutaphis sp. (Bφrner 1952: 116)]

        S. fruticosa                                     Aphidura picta

      S. fruticulosa                                 Aphidura nomadica

        S. gallica                                        Aphidura gallica; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi, lychnidis; Myzus persicae

        S. glauca = S. secundiflora

        S. glaucifolia                                  [Myzus sp. (Spain: Mier Durante & Nieto Nafrνa 1978)]

        S. inaperta                                     Aphidura ornata             

        S. inflata = S. vulgaris                     

        S. italica                                         Aphidura delmasi, ornata, picta; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus lychnidis; Myzus ascalonicus

        S. italica ssp. nemoralis                 Brachycaudus klugkisti

        S. jeniseensis                                  Aphis silenicola

        S. kuschakewiczii                          Aphidura ornatella

        S. latifolia (= Melandrium album)       Aphidura melandrii;

                                (incl. ssp. alba)           Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii, sambuci;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus divaricatae, klugkisti, lychnidis, populi;

                                                               Macrosiphum stellariae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae; Volutaphis schusteri

        S. latifolia Χ dioica                         Brachycaudus klugkisti; Myzus persicae

        S. lithophila                                   Aphidura massagetica, ornatella

        S. littoralis                                      Brachycaudus populi

        S. longiflora = S. bupleuroides

        S. macrostyla                                 Aphis silenicola

        S. maritima = S. uniflora

        S. moldavica                                  Aphidura pannonica       

        S. multifida                                    Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus divaricatae, lychnidis

        S. multiflora                                   Brachycaudus lychnidis; Volutaphis schusteri

        S. nemoralis = S. italica ssp. nemoralis

        S. noctiflora                                   Aphis craccivora, sambuci;

                                                               Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnidis;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus certus;

                                                               [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

      S. nutans                                        Aphidura delmasi, ornata; Aphis austriaca, sambuci;

                                                               Brachycaudus lychnidis, pallidus; Brachycolus cucubali;

                                                               Myzus certus; Volutaphis centaureae

        S. nutans ssp. dubia                       Brachycaudus lychnidis

      S. otites                                           Aphidura ornata, pannonica, picta; Aphis austriaca;

                                                               Volutaphis centaureae

        S. paradoxa                                   Aphidura gallica, picta

        S. parviflora = S. borystenica

        S. pendula                                      Volutaphis centaureae

        S. repens                                        Aphis silenephaga, silenicola; Brachycaudus lychnidis;

                                                               Volutaphis centaureae

        S. rosea see S. uniflora

        S. rubra (?)                                    Brachycaudus klugkisti

        S. salzmannii = S. tyrrhenia

          S. saxifraga                                    Aphis ornata; Aphis sambuci

        S. scabrifolia (?)                             [Uroleucon sileneobium]

        S. schafta                                       Brachycaudus populi

        S. secundiflora                               Aphidura picta

      S. sendtneri                                    Brachycaudus lychnidis

      S. suffrutescens = S. fruticulosa

      S. thymifolia                                  Aphidura picta (as mingens)

        S. tyrrhenia                                    Brachycaudus lychnidis

      S. uniflora (incl. maritima, rosea)       Acyrthosiphon auctum;

                                                               Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnidis, populi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae, penfroense, stellariae;

                                                               Myzus icelandicus, ornatus, persicae

        S. viridiflora                                   Myzus certus, persicae

        S. viscaria                                      Aphis fabae, sambuci; Brachycaudus lychnidis;

                                                               Volutaphis centaureae

        S. viscosa                                       Aphidura delmasi; Aphis austriaca, fabae, sambuci;

                                                               Brachycaudus klugkisti, lychnidis;  Myzus certus;             

                                                               Volutaphis centaureae

      S. vulgaris (incl. cucubalis,                Aphidura ornata, ornatella; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                             inflata, wallichiana)           Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus lychnidis, populi;

                                                               Brachycolus cucubali;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae, hartigi, stellariae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae; [Pemphigus inflatae]

        S. vulgaris ssp. commutata            Aphidura ornatella; Brachycaudus lychnidis, populi

        S. wallichiana = S. vulgaris             

        S. wolgensis                                   Aphidura ornata, ornatella, pannonica ssp. cretacea

        Silene spp.                                     Aphidura amphorosiphon; [Roepkea marchali];

                                                               Volutaphis karatavica

Key to apterae on Silene (including Melandrium, Oberna):-

1      Cauda semicircular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its width at base in dorsal view. Marginal tubercles (MTu) small or absent, and never on ABD TERG 7. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. Dorsum usually with an extensive dark sclerotic shield                    …..2

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, finger-shaped, or if short and rounded then there are large MTu on ABD TERG 7. Spiracular apertures reniform. Dorsum with or without an extensive dark sclerotic shield                                                                                                                   …..7

2      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 (-1.09) Χ HT II                                                        …..Brachycaudus populi

-       R IV+V (1.0-) 1.1-1.6 Χ HT II                                                                                         …..3

3      ANT III with 7-15 hairs, the longest 17-29 μm long, 0.5-1.3 Χ BD III, and 0.29-0.56 Χ the longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 3-4. Cauda with 6-12 hairs     …..Brachycaudus klugkisti

-      ANT III with 13-24 hairs, the longest 24-69 μm long, 0.9-2.8 Χ BD III, and 0.63-1.4 Χ the longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 3-4. Cauda with 11-18 hairs                                      …..4

4      R IV+V 2.95-8.3 Χ longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 3-4, which is 17-57 μm long      …..5

-      R IV+V 1.80-2.85 Χ longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 3-4, which is 54-85 μm long    …..6

5      R IV+V 0.163-0.177 mm long, with 5-10 accessory hairs. ANT III 2.72-3.13 Χ SIPH

…..Brachycaudus pallidus

-      R IV+V 0.183-0.218 mm long, with 8-14 accessory hairs. ANT III 2.05-2.42 Χ SIPH

…..Brachycaudus lychnidis

6      Hairs on ANT III with blunt or acute apices, the longest 1.0-1.8 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.0-1.42 Χ HT II                                                                                          …..Brachycaudus divaricatae

-      Hairs on ANT III with very finely pointed apices, the longest (1.8-) 2.0-3.0 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.28-1.74 Χ HT II                                                             …..Brachycaudus lychnicola

7      Marginal tubercles (MTu) always present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7, and sometimes on other segments                                                                                            …..8

-      MTu absent or of irregular occurrence, sometimes present on prothorax and some of  ABD TERG 1-5 (-6), but never on ABD TERG 7                                                                   …..14

8      ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) as well as 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu                                 …..9

-       ABD TERG 2-4 only irregularly with small MTu                                                          …..11

9      SIPH 0.55-0.95 Χ cauda, which is finger-like. MTu placed on dark marginal sclerites. R IV+V 0.95-1.15 Χ HT II                                                                            …..Aphis silenicola

-      SIPH 1.7-3.5 Χ cauda, which is short and rounded. MTu not placed on dark marginal sclerites. R IV+V 1.1-1.7 Χ HT II                                                                                   …..10

10    Cauda with 7-12 hairs. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 17-20, IV c.4, V 0)           …..Aphis austriaca

-       Cauda with 10-20 hairs. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 12-44, IV 10-27, V 3-15  …..Aphis sambuci

11    SIPH 0.4-0.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V c.0.7 Χ HT II                                     …..Aphis silenephaga*

-       SIPH 0.7-2.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II                                                            …..12

12    Tergum with an almost solid black shield, occasionally fragmented       …..Aphis craccivora

-       Tergum without extensive dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH                                     …..13

13    SIPH pale with dark apices. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings                                                                           …..Aphis nasturtii

-      SIPH black. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.4 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7-8, and usually some small dark markings anterior to SIPH

…...Aphis fabae

14    SIPH very short, barrel-shaped, 0.39-0.53 Χ cauda                          …..Brachycolus cucubali

-       SIPH at least 0.8 Χ cauda                                                                                               …..15

15    Head densely spiculose both dorsally and ventrally, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles                                                                                                                          …..16

-      Head smooth, or with a few spicules ventrally. ANT tubercles weakly developed or if well developed then with smooth, divergent inner faces                                                       …..20

16    SIPH slightly to moderately clavate                                                                               …..17

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                …..19

17    SIPH 0.54-0.81 Χ ANT III, almost smooth surfaced, with a narrow stem similar in thickness to middle part of hind tibia                                                                    …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      SIPH 0.82-1.34 Χ ANT III, normally imbricated, with narrowest part of stem distinctly thicker than middle part of hind tibia                                                                             …..18

18   R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

…..Myzus persicae

-      R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                   …..Myzus certus

19    BL 1-2 mm. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH coarsely imbricated, with a slight “S”-curve. Dorsum with a pattern of intersegmental dark spots

…..Myzus ornatus

-      BL 1.8-3 mm. ANT PT.BASE 4.0-5.5. ANT III with (0-)1-2(-4) rhinaria near base. SIPH normally imbricated, rather straight. Dorsum without dark intersegmental markings

…..Aulacorthum solani

20    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                    …..21

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..24

21    ANT III with 15-25 rhinaria extending over most of length. SIPH 1.3-1.4 Χ cauda

…..Macrosiphum hartigi

-       ANT III with 1-12 rhinaria concentrated near base or on basal half. SIPH 1.5-2.2 Χ cauda

…..22

22    ANT PT/BASE 3.1-4.8. SIPH 1.4-1.8 Χ cauda which bears 12-22 hairs

…..Macrosiphum penfroense

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.2-6.4. SIPH 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda which bears 8-16 hairs                         …..23

23   Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin                                                            .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-      Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

24    SIPH 0.85-1.4 Χ cauda                                                                                                   …..25

-       SIPH 1.5-2.8 Χ cauda                                                                                                     …..28

25    SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria near base     …..Acyrthosiphon auctum

-      SIPH swollen on apical c.0.7. ANT III with or without rhinaria, if with rhinaria then these are on distal half                                                                                                             …...26

26    ANT IV with 7-11 secondary rhinaria                                             …..Volutaphis karatavica

-      ANT IV without rhinaria                                                                                               …...27

27    ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0. SIPH 1.2-1.4 Χ cauda. R IV+V longer than HT II. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                       …..Volutaphis centaureae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.2. SIPH 0.95-1.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V shorter than HT II. First tarsal segments with 4 hairs                                                                            …..Volutaphis alpinae

28    ANT III with 6-26 rhinaria  (all or most being on distal half), and IV with 0-9. ANT PT/BASE 4.7-7.4. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. Tergum without dark sclerotisation

        …..Volutaphis schusteri

-       ANT III-IV without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-4.5. Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of mammariform processes. Tergum often with dark sclerotisation                        …..29

29    SIPH distinctly swollen on distal half (maximum width of swollen part at least 1.2 Χ minimum width basad)                                                                                                   …..30

-       SIPH cylindrical, subcylindrical, tapering from base to apex (sometimes outwardly curved), or slightly swollen (maximum width at most 1.2 times minimum width basad)            …..33

30    Tergum with an extensive almost solid black shield extending over metanotum and ABD TERG 1-6, usually incorporating marginal sclerites                                                       …..31

-       Tergum pale or with variable sclerotisation, sometimes extensive but with large windows spinally and marginally, not forming a solid black shield                                               …..32

31    Hairs on median frontal tubercle 25-32 ΅m long, 1.1-1.5 Χ ANT BD III. Mesosternal processes well-developed, steep-sided, almost as high as their basal widths

….. Aphidura ornatella

-       Hairs on median frontal tubercle 40-44 ΅m long, 1.8-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. Mesosternal processes low with gently sloping sides, much lower than their basal widths

….. Aphidura melandrii*

32    ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1.  RIV+V 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II. Cauda 1.1-1.5 times its basal width, with 6-7 hairs. Abdomen variable sclerotised and pigmented         ….. Aphidura amphorosiphon

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.5.  RIV+V 1-1.2 Χ HT II. Cauda 1.1-1.2 times its basal width, with 7-11 hairs. ABD TERG 1–6 with a dark central patch and marginal sclerites

..... Aphidura nomadica*

33    SIPH pale or dusky, slightly clavate, 1.5-1.8 Χ cauda, which is short and triangular. Tergum without sclerotisation, completely pale                                                     ….. Aphidura pujoli

-       SIPH brown to black at least in part, sometimes slightly clavate, 1.9-2.8 Χ cauda. Tergum with variable sclerotisation and pigmentation, rarely complete pale                               …..34

34    ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hairs 35-55 μm long, 1.5-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. ANT I long, 1.3-1.5 Χ its maximal width. Dorsal abdomen with a large central oval sclerite extending over ABD TERG (1-)2-5                                                                               …..Aphidura delmasi

-       ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hairs 4-25 μm long, 0.2-1.1 Χ ANT BD III. ANT I short, at most 1.1 Χ its maximal width. Dorsal abdomen with variable sclerotisation and pigmentation, but rarely with a central oval sclerite on ABD TERG 2-5                                             …..35

35    Tergum with an extensive almost solid black shield extending over metanotum and ABD TERG 1-6, usually incorporating marginal sclerites. Cauda dark, c.2 Χ its basal width and with 10-16 hairs                                                                                       …..Aphidura ornata

-       Tergum pale or with variable sclerotisation, sometimes extensive but with large windows spinally and marginally, not forming a solid black shield. Cauda variable in shape, proportions and colour                                                                                                    …..36

36    Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, 1.4-1.8 Χ its basal width                                            …..37

-       Cauda triangular, although sometimes with a slight constriction, 1.05-1.4 Χ its basal width

…..38

37    ANT PT/BASE 4.0–5.7. Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 2–3 minute, maximally 4–7 μm long, 0.15–0.3 Χ BD III. SIPH 2.2–2.8 Χ cauda                               ….. Aphidura pannonica

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5–4.0. Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 2–3 maximally 8–22μm,

        0.4–1.0 Χ BD III. SIPH 1.9–2.5 Χ cauda                                                   ….. Aphidura picta

38    RIV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II, with 8-10 accessory hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-3 are

        8-11 μm long, 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III                                                  ….. Aphidura massagetica*

-       RIV+V 1.05-1.45 Χ HT II, with 10-16 accessory hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-3 are 13-23 μm long, 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                                                                       …..Aphidura gallica

 

Silphium                                                      Compositae

      Silphium compositum                   Uroleucon ambrosiae

        S. integrifolium                              Macrosiphum pallens; Uroleucon rudbeckiae

        S. laciniatum                                 Iowana frisoni

        S. perfoliatum                                Uroleucon rudbeckiae

        S. terebinthinaceum                      Iowana frisoni

Key to apterae on Silphium:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped, front of head broad and flat in dorsal view. ANT 5-segmented, with 0-21 rhinaria on distal half of ANT III. Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5 and 7. SIPH short, tapering, flangeless, without distal reticulation. Cauda broadly rounded, shorter than its basal width            …..Iowana frisoni*

-      ANT tubercles well developed, ANT 6-segmented. MTu absent or only ever on ABD TERG 2-4. SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation, and cauda finger-shaped           …..2

2      SIPH long, thin, pale, with a few rows of large polygonal cells on less than distal 0.2 of length. ANT III with longest hairs less than 0.5 Χ BD III, and with 2-4 rhinaria

…..Macrosiphum pallens

-      SIPH thick, mainly or entirely dark, with numerous rows of small polygonal cells on distal 0.25-0.4 of length. ANT III with longest hairs as long as or longer than BD III, and with 8-31 rhinaria                                                                                                                               …..3

3      Femora pale/dusky, sometimes with darker patch on anterior side at apices. SIPH becoming gradually darker distally, paler at base than at apex. Postsiphuncular sclerites and scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs pale and inconspicuous                                   …..Uroleucon rudbeckiae

-      Femora dark distally. SIPH entirely dark.  Postsiphuncular sclerites and at least some of scleroites at base of dorsal hairs pigmented                                     …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

 

Silybum                                                       Compositae

      Silybum marianum                       Aphis fabae, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                               Capitophorus elaeagni, horni;

                                                               Dysaphis lappae ssp. cynarae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Protaphis terricola; Protrama radicis;

                                                               [Rectinasus buxtoni]; Trama troglodytes;

                                                               Uroleucon aeneum

Use key to apterae on Cynara.

 

Simmondsia                                                 Simmondsiaceae

     Simmondsia chinensis                    Aphis craccivora, fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

                                                              

Simsia                                                                                       Compositae

      Simsia amplexicaulis                      Uroleucon artemisiae

 

Sinapidendron                                             Brassicaceae

     Sinapidendron rupestre                  Brevicoryne brassicae

     

Sinapis                                                         Brassicaceae

      Sinapis alba                                   Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; Smynthurodes betae

       S. arvensis                                      Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis nasturtii, triglochinis;

                                                              Brachunguis harmalae; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus [cerasi],  persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia ribisnigri; Smynthurodes betae

        S. flexuosa                                     Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

See key to apterae on Brassica and Sinapis under Brassica

 

Sinarundinaria                                            Poaceae

        Sinarundinaria niitakayamensis = Yushania niitakayamensis    

        S. reticulata = Phyllostachys bambusoides

 

Sindora                                                                                     Leguminosae

        Sindora sp.                                    Anomalosiphum murphyi

 

 

Sinningia (including Corytholoma, Rechsteineria)            Gesneriaceae

      S. eumorpha Χ leucotrichia          Aulacorthum solani

        S. Χhybrida                                    Myzus ornatus

        S. speciosa                                     Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. verticillata                                  Aulacorthum solani

        Sinningia Χ Gloxinia                     Aulacorthum solani (Leonard 1972a)

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sinojackia                                                                              Styracaceae

        Sinojackia xylocarpa                    Aleurodaphis sinojackiae

 

Siphocampylus                                            Campanulaceae

      Siphocampylus cernuus                Aphis spiraecola

 

Sison                                                            Apiaceae

      Sison amomum                             Aphis fabae

 

Sisymbrium                                                 Brassicaceae

      Sisymbrium alliaria = Alliaria petiolata

        S. altissimum                                 Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; [Protaphis middletonii]

        S. arnottianum = Polypsecadium arnottianum

        S. aromaticum (?)                          Lipaphis erysimi

        S. austriacum                                Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

        S. bermudiana (?)                          [Dysaphis foeniculus]

        S. canescens = Descurainia pinnata

        S. capense                                      Myzus persicae

        S. incisum = Descurainia incisa

        S. irio                                             Aphis gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi, fritzmuelleri;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;  Myzus persicae;

                                                               [Sitobion rosaeiformis]

        S. loeselii                                        Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi, fritzmuelleri, sisymbrii;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae

        S. officinale                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brevicoryne brassicae; [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                               Lipaphis erysimi, lepidii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                               [Sitobion fragariae]; [Uroleucon cichorii]

        S. orientale                                     Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus persicae

        S. polymorphum                           Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, sisymbrii;

                                                               Neosappaphis paradoxa; Smynthurodes betae

        S. sofia = Descurainia sophia

          S. strictissimum                             Myzus persicae

        S. thellungii = Erucastrum austroafricanum

        Sisymbrium spp.                           Acyrthosiphon malvae

Key to apterae on Sisymbrium:-

1      ANT 4-segmented (in al. as well as apt.). ANT III with c.7-9 contiguous sec. rhinaria on distal 0.7. Rather large, flat marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-7. SIPH cylindrical, flangeless, pale with dark tips, c.3.5 Χ cauda which is helmet-shaped and bears c.20 hairs                                                                                     …..Neosappaphis paradoxa*

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented, and other characters not as above                                             …..2

2      SIPH slightly swollen on distal half, with a constriction just proximal to the flange. ANT tubercles absent, or if developed then not projecting forward beyond middle part of head, so that front of head is convex, straight or sinuate in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                  …..3

-      Without this combination of characters; i.e. if SIPH are present then they are tapering, cylindrical or clavate (with narrow section on basal half), and either ANT tubercles are very well-developed or ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu                                                          ..…8

3      SIPH 0.8-1.05 Χ cauda, and more-or-less barrel-shaped                                                   …..4

-      SIPH 1.1-c.1.7 Χ cauda                                                                                                     …..5

4      Cauda broad-based, triangular, about as long as basal width, with 7-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark markings on most tergites                         …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, with 4 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings anterior to SIPH                                                         …..Lipaphis fritzmuelleri

5      ANT tubercles undeveloped, front of head convex in dorsal view.  ANT less than 0.5 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 with a rugose medial swelling (Fig.37b)                             .….Lipaphis lepidii

-      ANT tubercles developed, projecting about as far as median tubercle, so that front of head is sinuate in outline in dorsal view. ANT more than 0.5 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 without a rugose swelling                                                                                                                             .….6

6      SIPH c.1.7 Χ cauda, which is c. 2.5 Χ R IV+V                                   …..Lipaphis sisymbrii*

-      SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda, which is 1.2-2.0 Χ R IV+V                                                          …..7

7     ANT III + PT together 1.95-2.5 Χ SIPH (90% of specimens less than 2.4 Χ)

…..Lipaphis erysimi

-      ANT III + PT together 2.1-3.2 Χ SIPH (90% of specimens more than 2.4 Χ)

…..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

8      Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0.  Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III.  Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                                                                     …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Without that combination of characters                          ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Sisyrinchium                                               Iridaceae

      Sisyrinchium graminifolium        Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum

      S. idahoense                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Sisyrinchium sp.                            Dysaphis tulipae; Sitobion avenae

Use key to apterae on Iris.

 

Sitanion                                                       Poaceae

      Sitanion hystrix                             Sitobion fragariae

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Sium                                                            Apiaceae

      Sium cicutifolium = S. suave            

      S. latifolium                                     Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, angelicae, cicutae,

                                                                   konoi, salicicola;

                                                               Dysaphis foeniculus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Pemphigus protospirae

      S. nipponicum = S. suave

      S. reflexum (?)                                Aphis asclepiadis, fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, salicicola;

                                                               Hyadaphis foeniculi; Paramyzus sii

      S. sisaroideum = S. sisarum

      S. sisarum                                       Aphis fabae, solanella; Cavariella cicutae

      S. suave (incl. nipponicum)                  Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, [sedi]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Cavariella angelicae, [hendersoni], konoi, salicicola;

                                                               Paramyzus sii

      S. tenue                                           Cavariella salicicola       

      Sium sp.                                          Cavariella salicis

Key to apterae on Sium:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                   .….Pemphigus protospirae

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. SIPH present                                                                   …..2

2      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda, bearing 2 apical hairs. Tergum variolate                                                                                                                 .....3

-       No supracaudal process. Tergum smooth or wrinkled                                                       .....7

3      SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without any swelling. ANT 5-segmented

.....Cavariella angelicae

-       SIPH clavate; swollen on distal half to at least 1.2 Χ narrowest part of basal half           .....4

4      Supracaudal process conical or finger-like, not projecting to tip of cauda                        .....5

-       Supracaudal process large, conical, extending beyond and usually covering cauda         .....6

5      ANT PT/BASE  0.6-1.3. R IV+V 0.7-0.95 Χ HT II, and without accessory hairs

        .….Cavariella aegopodii

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.35-2.0. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs

        .....Cavariella konoi

6      R IV+V 1.05-1.2 Χ HT II. SIPH short and stout, narrowing only at base

       .....Cavariella salicicola

-      R IV+V 0.85-1.04 Χ HT II. SIPH with narrower basal stem extending over about 0.3 of length                                                                                                       …..Cavariella salicis

7      SIPH pale, coarsely imbricated, markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part 1.7-2.2 Χ more than minimum width of stem, and with a constricted subapical region and a very well-developed (swollen) flange. Head densely nodulose and spiculose, with ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces slightly convergent. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria in a row near base                                                                                                                       …..Paramyzus sii

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..8

8      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 6-8 all with dark cross-bands. Head and ABD TERG 8 often with spinal tubercles (STu)   …...Dysaphis foeniculus

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-like, longer than its basal width, and other characters not as above

.....9

9      SIPH clavate and 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda                                                     …...Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical (or if clavate then more than 1.5 Χ cauda)

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Sloanea                                                                                   Elaeocarpaceae

        Sloanea dasycarpa                        Greenidea sp.

 

 

Smilacina see Maianthemum                                          Asparagaceae

 

Smilax                                                         Smilacaceae

        Smilax aspera                                Aphis gossypii

        S. australis                                     [Sitobion sp. (Australia; Hales et al. 2010)]

        S. bracteata                                    Sitobion smilacicola

        S. campestris                                 Myzus persicae

        S. china                                          Aleurosiphon smilacifoliae; Aphis gossypii, smilacisina;

                                                               Impatientinum impatiens; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               [Rhopalomyzus smilacis];

                                                               Sitobion dismilaceti, smilacicola, smilacifoliae

        S. domingensis                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        S. elegans                                       Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiensis;

                                                               Sitobion miscanthi

        S. excelsa                                       Aphis fabae

        S. ferox                                          Sitobion sikkimense, smilacifoliae

        S. glabra                                        Sitobion smilacifoliae

        S. glauca                                        [Neoprociphilus aceris]   

        S. glycophylla                                [Sitobion sp. (Australia; Hales et al. 2010)]

        S. herbacea                                    Neoprociphilus aceris

        S. hispida = S. tamnoides

        S. lasioneura                                 Neoprociphilus aceris

        S. macrophylla Roxb. = S. ovalifolia                                       

        S. nipponica                                  Aulacorthum smilacis

        S. oldhami = S. sieboldii

        S. ovalifolia                                    Impatientinum smilaceti

        S. parvifolia = S. elegans

        S. riparia                                        Impatientinum impatiens

        S. rotundifolia                               Neoprociphilus aceris

        S. sieboldii                                     Aulacorthum smilacis; Sitobion smilacifoliae

        S. stellata = Maianthemum stellatum

        S. stenopetala = S. bracteata

        S. tamnoides                                  Neoprociphilus aceris

        Smilax spp.                                    Aphis spiraecola; [Myzus cerasi], ornatus;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                               [Rhopalosiphoninus smilacifoliae];

                                                               Sinomegoura citricola, [rhododendri]

Key to apterae on Smilax:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.2. Eyes 3-faceted (triommatidia). Large dorsal wax gland plates present on thorax and abdomen. SIPH as slightly raised pores. Cauda very broadly rounded

        …..Neoprociphilus aceris

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Eyes multifaceted. No discrete wax gland plates. SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue- or finger-like                                                                                …..2

2      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                     …..3

-      ANT tubercles well developed, so that there is a frontal sinus. ABD TERG 1 rarely and ABD TERG 7 never with MTu. SIPH with or without subapical polygonal reticulation          …..8

3      ANT PT/BASE 3.8-5.0. Stridulatory apparatus present          ….. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.5. No stridulatory apparatus                                                          …..4

4      R IV+V with 4-9 accessory hairs. ANT III with long fine hairs, 2-3 Χ longer than BD III. ABD TERG 1-6 each with a pair of (long, fine) pleural hairs in addition to the spinal and marginal pairs                                                                            …..Aleurosiphon smilacifoliae

-      R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. ANT III with longest hairs 0.4-2.2 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-6 without pleural hairs                                                                                                          …..5

5      Cauda pale, dusky or dark, and bearing 4-8 hairs. Longest hair on hind femur 12-35μm

…..6

-      Cauda black and bearing 7-24 hairs. Longest hair on hind femur 24-90 μm                    …..7

6      Cauda 0.9-1.2 Χ SIPH, with 6-8 hairs                                                     …..Aphis smilacisina

-      Cauda 1.3-2.5 Χ SIPH, with 4-8 hairs                                                          …..Aphis gossypii

7      Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and usually with some small dark sclerites anterior to SIPH. Cauda without a constriction, and bearing 11-24 hairs

…..Aphis fabae

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark dorsal markings, except rarely a narrow cross-band on ABD TERG 8. Cauda usually with a constriction, and bearing 7-15 hairs        …..Aphis spiraecola

8      Head spiculose, at least on ventral side                                                                            …..9

-       Head not spiculose                                                                                                          …..13

9      Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. SIPH slightly clavate                               .....10

-      Dorsal abdomen with often extensive dusky or dark sclerotic markings. SIPH tapering/ cylindrical                                                                                                                         .....11

10    ANT III without rhinaria. Femora pale. Head pale and densely spiculose dorsally as well as ventrally, with apically convergent scabrous ANT tubercles                      …..Myzus persicae

-      ANT III with a small rhinarium near base. Femora dark distally. Head dark and spiculose only on ventral side, with inner faces of ANT tubercles almost parallel

…..Pseudomegoura magnoliae

11    Dorsal abdomen with sclerotisation confined to a pattern of dark intersegmental flecks. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                                                                         …..Myzus ornatus

-       Dorsal abdomen with more extensive sclerotisation. ANT PT/BASE more than 3        …..12

12    Dorsal abdomen with a U-shaped black sclerite centred on ABD TERG 2-4, not extending to marginal areas. Femora pale distally                                          …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsal abdomen with variably-developed dusky or dark sclerotisation, extending into marginal areas when well developed. Femora dark distally             …..Aulacorthum smilacis

13    SIPH pale on about basal 0.3, and 0.8-1.1 Χ cauda, which is black

…..Sinomegoura citricola

-      SIPH wholly dark, at least 1.2 Χ cauda, which is pale                                                    …..14

14    SIPH 0.15-0.19 Χ BL, calf-shaped, usually somewhat constricted at base, without subapical reticulation or with a few rows of strongly transverse cells on distal 0.15 or less          …..15

-      SIPH 0.20-0.40 Χ BL, tapering from a broad base, with reticulation on distal 0.2-0.3 of its length                                                                                                                               …..17

15    Dorsal abdomen with marginal areas of ABD TERG 1-6 dark, but with a pale central area. First tarsal segments with 4 hairs                                                …..Impatientinum smilaceti*

-      Dorsal abdomen with a solid black sclerotic shield covering ABD TERG 1-6. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                                                      …..16

16    Basal part of SIPH and ABD TERG 6 quite smooth. Spiracular sclerites on ABD TERG 1 and 2 small and distinctly separated                                            …..Impatientinum impatiens

-      Basal part of SIPH and ABD TERG 6 spiculose. Spiracular sclerites on ABD TERG 1 and 2 very close, almost contiguous                         …..Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiensis

17    SIPH 0.20-0.28 Χ BL                                            …..Sitobion sikkimense* (or dismilaceti*?)

-       SIPH 0.3-0.4 Χ BL                                                                                                          …..18

18    Dorsal abdomen with dusky or dark sclerotisation, varying from dusky fragmented sclerites to a complete dorsal shield. SIPH 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda, which is distally thin and tapering, nearly 3 Χ longer than its basal width, and bears 6-8 hairs. Femora and tibiae without glandular pores                                                                                                  …..Sitobion smilacifoliae

-      Dorsal abdomen without dusky/dark markings. SIPH c.2.7 Χ cauda, which is stout, about 2 Χ its basal width and bears c.16 hairs. Femora and tibiae with numerous small glandular(?) pores                                                                                                  …..Sitobion smilacicola*

 

Smithia                                                        Leguminosae

      Smithia sensitiva                            Aphis craccivora

 

Smodingium                                                          Anacardiaceae

      Smodingium argutum                  Aphis odinae

 

 

Smyrnium                                                    Apiaceae

      Smyrnium olusatrum                    Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                               Dysaphis apiifolia, crataegi, lauberti;

                                                               Hyadaphis foeniculi; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Semiaphis dauci

        S. orphanidis                                 Dysaphis apiifolia

        S. perfoliatum                                Aphis fabae

        S. rotundifolium                            [Brachycaudus helichrysi]; Dysaphis crataegi

Use key to apterae on Conium.

 

Sobralia                                                       Orchidaceae

      Sobralia leucoxantha                    Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        Sobralia sp.                                    Cerataphis orchidearum

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids on Cymbidium.

 

Solandra                                                      Solanaceae

      Solandra grandiflora                    Myzus persicae

 

Solanecio                                                     Compositae

      Solanecio biafrae                          Aphis gossypii

       S. mannii                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Uroleucon compositae

Use key to polyphagous aphids (or try key to apterae on Senecio).

 

Solanum                                                      Solanaceae

      Solanum acanthoideum                Aphis gossypii

        S. aculeatissimum = S. capsicoides

        S. aethiopicum                               Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        S. americanum                              Aphis solanella; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. anguivi                                       Aphis gossypii

        S. antillarum = S. aphyodendron

          S. aphyodendron                           Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola

        S. aurantiacum                              Myzus ornatus

        S. auriculatum = S. mauritianum

        S. aviculare                                    Myzus persicae

        S. bahamense                                Aphis gossypii

        S. betaceum                                   Aphis fabae, nerii

        S. brachyantherum                       Brachycaudus helichrysi

        S. campechiense                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. capsicastrum = S. pseudocapsicum                                        

        S. capsicoides                                 Aphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        S. caribaeum = S. americanum

        S. carolinense                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. catombelense                             Myzus persicae

        S. chacoense                                  Aphis gossypii

        S. chenopodioides                          Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        S. ciliatum = S. capsicoides              

        S. clavatum = Cyphomandra clavata 

        S. depilatum = S. americanum

        S. dilleni                                         Aphis fabae

        S. donianum                                  Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae 

        S. douglasii = S. nigrescens

        S. dulcamara                                 [Acyrthosiphon pisum];

                                                               Aphis craccivora,  fabae, gossypii, solanella,

                                                                   [solani Kittel (invalid name)];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. elaeagnifolium                          Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        S. esculentum = S. melongena

        S. flagellare                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. giganteum                                 Aphis fabae, [scabiosae of Theobald (1927) and Wilson

                                                                   (1918)];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        S. gilo = S. aethiopicum

        S. guanicense = S. campechiense

        S. guianense = Lycianthes pauciflora

          S. hendersonii                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

          S. hirsutum                                                Aphis gossypii

        S. incanum                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. indicum                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        S. integrifolium = S. aethiopicum

        S. intrusum                                    Aphis solanella

        S. jasminoides = S. laxum                

        S. khasianum = S. capsicoides

        S. laciniatum                                 Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae

        S. laxum                                        Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. luteum                                       Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii, solanella;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        S. lycopersicon = Lycopersicon esculentum

        S. lyratum                                      Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. macranthum                             Aphis gossypii

        S. marginatum                              Aphis fabae (?solanella); Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. mauritianum                             Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        S. melongena                                 Aphis citricidus, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                    nerii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus antirrhinii, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; [Pentalonia nigronervosa];

                                                               Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        S. montanum                                 Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. muricatum                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. nigrescens                                  Smynthurodes betae

        S. nigrum (incl. schultesii)                Aphis craccivora,[euonymi], fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                   [neoreticulata of  Ossiannilsson1964a (fabae group)],

                                                                   nerii, [rumicis], solanella, [solani Kittel (invalid name)],

                                                                   spiraecola, [umbrella];

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Protaphis middletonii; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

        S. nodiflorum = S. americanum

        S. panduriforme                            Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae

        S. persicum                                    Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        S. pinnatifidum (?)                        Brachycaudus helichrysi

        S. pseudocapsicum                        Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               [Metopolophium dirhodum]; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. quineense                                  Aphis fabae, solanella

        S. quitoense                                   Aphis gossypii

        S. racemiflorum                            Aphis gossypii

        S. rantonnetii = Lycianthes rantonnei

        S. rostratum                                   Aphis spiraecola; [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

        S. rudepannum see S. torvum

        S. sarrachoides                              [Brevicoryne brassicae]

        S. saeforthianum                           Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                               Myzus persicae, [Myzus sp. (imm.)]

        S. sepicula                                      Aphis gossypii

        S. sisymbriifolium                          Aphis gossypii, solanella, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        S. sodomeum = S. anguivi

        S. stramoniifolium                         Aphis gossypii

        S. sublobatum = S. chenopodioides

        S. texanum                                    Aphis gossypii, solanella

        S. torvum (= S. rudepannum)             Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum [dasi], solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Dysaphis emicis]; Myzus persicae;

                                                               [Uroleucon reynoldense]

        S. tuberosum                                 Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, frangulae ssp.

                                                                  beccabungae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               [Jacksonia papillata]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus antirrhinii, ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;   Pemphigus sp.;

                                                               Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               [Tuberocephalus misakurae]; Uroleucon compositae

        S. variabile                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        S. verbascifolium = S. donianum

        S. villosum                                     Aphis solanella, [solani Kittel (invalid name)]

        S. wendlandii                                 Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        S. xanthocarpum                           Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        Solanum spp.                                [Hyperomyzus lactucae]; Myzus cymbalariae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Solena                                                          Cucurbitaceae

      Solena amplexicaulis                    Aphis gossypii

 

Solenanthus                                                 Boraginaceae