HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Sap-Sen

 

Sapindus

Sapium

Saponaria

Saposhnikovia

Saraca

Sarcobatus

Sarcocephalus

Sarcochilus

Sarcococca

Sarcopharyngia

Sarcopoterium

Sarcosperma

Sarcostemma

Sarothamnus

Sarracenia

Saruma

Sasa

Sasamorpha

Sassafras

Satureja

Saurauia

Sauropus

Saururus

Saussurea

Savia

Savignya

Saviniona

Saxifraga

Scabiosa

Scaevola

Scaligeria

Scandix

Schanginia

Schefflera

Scheuchzeria

Schima

Schimpera

Schinus

Schisandra

Schismus

Schizachne

Schizachyrium

Schizanthus

Schizonepeta

Schizopepon

Schizophragma

Schizostachyum

Schizostylis

Schkuhria

Schlumbergera

Schoenoplectus

Schoenus

Schomburgkia

Schotia

Schoutenia

Schouwia

Schrenkia

Sciadopitys

Scilla

Scindapsus

Scirpoides

Scirpus

Sciuro-hypnum

Scleranthus

Scleria

Sclerocarya

Scleropodium

Scoliopus

Scolopia

Scolymus

Scoparia

Scorpiurus

Scorzonera

Scorzoneroides

Scrophularia

Scurrula

Scutellaria

Scutia

Searsia

Secale

Sechium

Securigera

Securinega

Sedum

Selaginella

Selenicereus

Selenipedium

Selinum

Semenovia

Semiaquilegia

Sempervivum

Senebiera

Senecio

Senecioides

Senna

 

 

 

Sapindus                                                                Sapindaceae

      Sapindus mukorossi = S. saponaria

      S. saponaria                                 Aphis gossypii; Tinocallis insularis

      Sapindus sp.                                 [Greenidea bucktonis]

 

Sapium                                                                    Euphorbiaceae

      Sapium japonicum                                    Japanese Tallow Tree

            (= Neoshirakia japonica)               Pseudomegoura magnoliae

      S. sebiferum Roxb.                                    Chinese Tallow Tree

            (= Triadica sebifera)                     Aphis odinae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Saponaria                                                    Caryophyllaceae

     Saponaria boissieriana                  Myzus cymbalariae, persicae

      S. officinalis                                   Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus lychnidis;

                                                              Brachycolus cucubali; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

      Saponaria sp.                                 Aphidura ornatella (as bahratia)

Use key to apterae on Silene.

 

Saposhnikovia                                             Apiaceae

     Saposhnikovia divaricata               Aphis gossypii; Cavariella japonica

 

Saraca                                                          Leguminosae

     Saraca declinata                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      S. indica                                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Sarcobatus                                                   Amaranthaceae

     Sarcobatus rubra (?)                      [Brachyunguis tetrapteralis]

         (error for Salicornia rubra?)

      S. vermiculatus                              Protaphis unaweepiensis;

                                                              Brachyunguis bishopi, bonnevillensis

Key to apterae on Sarcobatus:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.6. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.8-2.0 Χ cauda which is triangular, about as long as its basal width                                                  …...Protaphis unaweepiensis

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0. R IV+V 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.4-1.25 Χ cauda, which is

        tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width                                                                       …..2

2      Longest hairs on ANT III 22-47 μm, and on ABD TERG 8, 41-60 μm. SIPH 0.7-1.25 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 often with marginal tubercles (MTu)

                                                                                                                  …..Brachyunguis bishopi

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 8-14 μm, and on ABD TERG 8, 14-27 μm. SIPH 0.4-0.8 Χ cauda. MTu only on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                        …..Brachyunguis bonnevillensis

 

 

Sarcocephalus see Nauclea                                           Rubiaceae

        Sarcocephalus bartlingii  see Nauclea orientalis      

 

Sarcochilus                                                  Orchidaceae

     Sarcochilus hartmannii                 Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Sarcococca                                                  Buxaceae

     Sarcococca pruniformis                [Jacksonia sp. (Banerjee et al. 1969 – 2 males)]

      S. ruscifolia                                    Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sarcopharyngia see Tabernaemontana                    Apocynaceae

 

Sarcopoterium                                             Rosaceae

     Sarcopoterium spinosum               Aphis gossypii, sanguisorbae

Use key to apterae on Sanguisorba.

 

Sarcosperma                                                Sapotaceae

     Sarcosperma laurinum                Greenidea sp. 2 of  Q. Liu et al. (2013)

 

Sarcostemma                                               Apocynaceae

     Sarcostemma clausum                  Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nerii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sarothamnus see Cytisus                                                 Leguminosae

 

Sarracenia                                                   Sarraceniaceae

     Sarracenia purpurea                     Macrosiphum jeanae; [Myzocallis multisetis]

 

Saruma                                                        Aristolochiaceae

     Saruma henryi                               Aulacorthum rhamni

 

Sasa                                                             Poaceae

      Sasa albomarginata =S. veitchii

          S. borealis                                   Ceratovacuna cerbera, japonica; [Melanaphis koreana];

                                                            Takecallis arundicolens, arundinariae

        S. japonica = Pseudosasa japonica

        S. kurilensis                                Takecallis arundicolens, arundinariae

       S. longiligulata                            [Takecallis taiwanus]

        S. nipponica                                Takecallis arundicolens, sasae

        S. palmata                                   Takecallis arundicolens

        S. paniculata = S. senanensis

          S. pygmaea                                 Takecallis arundinariae

        S. ramosa                                     Ceratovacuna japonica; Paracolopha morrisoni;

                                                            Takecallis arundicolens

          S. senanensis                              [Ceratovacuna nekoashi]; Melanaphis bambusae;

                                                            Paracolopha morrisoni; Takecallis arundicolens, sasae

          S. veitchii                                     Ceratovacuna cerbera, [nekoashi];  Paracolopha morrisoni

Compared with the other large bamboo genera the aphid fauna of Sasa seems more limited, so a separate key is provided, but if no satisfactory answer is obtained then try the key to aphids on Arundinaria (or Bambusa).  Yezaphis sasicola Matsumura cannot be keyed as no specimens are available (but see information from original description).

Key to species on Sasa:-

 

1      Antenna of aptera more than 0.5Χ BL, or if only alatae are present, these have antennae bearing circular or oval secondary rhinaria                                                                         .....2

-       Antennae of aptera much less than 0.5Χ BL, and secondary rhinaria on the antennae of alatae are ring-like, extending more than half-way around the circumference of the antenna

                                                                                                                                                   .....5

 

2      Anal plate entire, cauda tongue-shaped, dark, similar in length to the thick short dark SIPH. ANT PT/BASE more than 2                                                             .....Melanaphis bambusae

-       (All viviparae alate.) Anal plate bilobed, cauda knobbed.  ANT PT/BASE 1.0 or less     .....3

 

3      Antennae shorter than body                                                                       .....Takecallis sasae

-       Antennae longer than body                                                                                                .....4

 

4      Thorax with longitudinal dark stripes, and abdomen with a pair of elongate dark patches on each tergite.  ANT III wholly dusky, cauda pale or dusky            .....Takecallis arundinariae

-       Thorax and abdomen without dark dorsal markings. ANT III with a black sensoriated section contrasting with pale base and apical half. Cauda black    .....Takecallis arundicolens

 

5      Antennae of aptera extremely short, hardly longer than the elongate R V+V.  Aptera without frontal horns. Tarsi 1-segmented. SIPH displaced towards the mid-line (on roots)

                                                                                                                .....Paracolopha morrisoni

-       Antennae of aptera short, but much longer than the short R IV+V.  Aptera (and immatures) with a pair of fromtal horns. Tarsi 2-segmented.  SIPH in more normal position              .....6

 

6      Head of aptera with numerous long hairs. Dorsal body without any clearly demarcated wax pore plates                                                                                        …..Ceratovacuna cerbera

-       Head of aptera sparsely hairy. Dorsal body with marginal groups of wax pore plates

                                                                                                               …..Ceratovacuna japonica

 

Sasamorpha  see Sasa                                           Poaceae

      Sasamorpha chiisanensis = Sasa borealis

          S. gracilis = Sasa borealis

      S. purpurascens var. borealis = Sasa borealis

 

Sassafras                                                                 Lauraceae

      Sassafras albidum                        [Aphis fabae]; Euthoracaphis umbellulariae

 

 

Satureja                                                       Lamiaceae

      Satureja acinos = Clinopodium acinos

        S. calamintha = Clinopodium ssp. glandulosum

        S. hortensis                                   Aphis fabae

        S. montana                                   Aphis origani, [serpylli]

        S. vulgaris = Clinopodium vulgare 

Use key to apterae under Clinopodium.

 

Saurauia                                                      Actinidiaceae

      Saurauia nepalensis                     Aphis fabae

 

Sauropus                                                      Phyllanthaceae

      Sauropus albicans = S. androgynus

        S. androgynus                              Aphis eugeniae; Schoutedenia ralumensis

Use key to apterae on Breynia.

 

Saururus                                                      Saururaceae

      Saururus cernuus                        Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. loureiri                                      Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Saururus:-

-       Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1-3 spicules in the centre of each polygon. SIPH clavate                                      …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons. SIPH not clavate       …..Aphis fabae

 

Saussurea                                                    Compositae

       Saussurea affinis = Hemistepta lyrata

       S. albescens                                   Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                              Uroleucon budhium, kumaoni

       S. alpina                                        Aulacorthum solani; [Uroleucon solidaginis]

       S. amara                                       Uroleucon gobonis

       S. americana                                 [Amphorophora sp. (see aphidtrek.org.]

       S. amurensis                                 Capitophorus elaeagni

       S. carthamoides = Hemistepta lyrata

       S. elegans                                      Macrosiphoniella victoriae

       S. grandifolia                                Aphis fabae;

                                                              Uroleucon formosanum, fuchuense, saussureae

       S. japonica                                    Uroleucon gobonis

       S. lappa                                         Acyrthosiphon rubi; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus formosartemisiae

       S. latifolia                                      Aphis [cognatella of  Ivanoskaya (1977) = euonymi?],

                                                                   fabae, [magnopilosa]

       S. lyrata see Hemisteptia lyrata

       S. neoserrata                                 Aphis [acanthoidis], fabae;

                                                              Uroleucon saussureae, skurichinae

       S. nepalensis                                 [Aphis longisetosus]

       S. nigrescens                                 Chitinosiphon abdomenigrum

       S. odontolepis                                Aphis saussurearadicis

       S. parviflora                                  Aphis fabae

       S. piptathera                                  Dysaphis indica

       S. pseudo-tilesii                             Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani

       S. pulchella                                   Aphis fabae, [sambuci], saussurearadicis;

                                                              Capitophorus elaeagni; Gredinia pilosotuba;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella lazoica

                                                              Uroleucon [cephalonopli], gobonis, skurichinae,

                                                                   ussuriense

       S. salicifolia                                   Acyrthosiphon dauricum; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella saussureae

       S. salsa                                          [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005b)]

       S. ussuriensis                                Capitophorus elaeagni

       Saussurea sp.                                Acyrthosiphon saussureae; Macrotrichaphis rarissima

Key to apterae on Saussurea:-

1      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with numerous rhinaria usually extending into distal half                                                                                                  …..2

-       SIPH without any distinct zone of polygonal reticulation (sometimes with 1-3 rows of interconnected striae). ANT III without rhinaria or with a few near base                     …...15

2      SIPH almost always with hairs (examine several specimens)                                           …..3

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                            …..5

3      Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones. Cauda with more than 30 hairs                                                                                                   …..Gredinia pilosotuba*

-       Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size to abdominal ones. Cauda with 10-28 hairs

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

4      SIPH with c.4-5 hairs, c.3 Χ longer than cauda, which bears 10-13 hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                              …..Macrotrichaphis rarissima*

-       SIPH with (0-) 5-21 hairs, 1.6-2.5 Χ longer than cauda which bears 20-28 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                …..Macrosiphoniella lazoica*

5      SIPH only 0.10-0.14 Χ BL, reticulated on distal 0.5-0.7 of length. Cauda triangular, pointed, only about as long as its basal width. ANT tubercles very low

                                                                                   …..Macrosiphoniella saussureae

-       SIPH more than 0.14 Χ BL, reticulated on less than distal 0.5. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. ANT tubercles well developed                                             …..6

6      SIPH 1.0-1.1 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.34-0.38. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II

                                                                                      …..Macrosiphoniella victoriae

-       SIPH 1.2-2.2 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.12-0.36. R IV+V 1.0-2.0 Χ HT II          

                                                                                                                     …..7

7      ANT III very long, 1.5-2.1 Χ ANT IV+V together, and bearing very numerous (96-135) strongly protruberant secondary rhinaria                                       …..Uroleucon formosanum

-       ANT III shorter than or about equal in length to ANT IV+V together, with 18-56 rhinaria

…..8

8      SIPH 2.0-2.2 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.12-0.17 of length. R IV+V very long and thin, 1.8-2.0 Χ HT II                                                                            …..Uroleucon budhium

-       SIPH 1.1-1.9 (-2.0) Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.19-0.36 of length. R IV+V

         1.0-1.85 Χ HT II                                                                                                                …..9

9      Crescent-shaped ante-siphuncular sclerites present                                                         …..10

-       Ante-siphuncular sclerites absent                                                                                    …..12

10    R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II                                                               …..Uroleucon skurichinae*

-       R IV+V 1.5-1.85 Χ HT II                                                                                               …..11

11    SIPH 0.25-0.30 Χ BL, with reticulation on distal 0.24-0.27 of length. Cauda long and

        finger-like, 2.6-3.1 Χ its basal width. R IV+V 1.7-1.85 Χ HT II    …..Uroleucon saussureae

-       SIPH c. 0.14 Χ BL, with reticulation on distal 0.28-0.36 of length. Cauda elongate triangular, pointed at apex, 1.7-2.0 Χ its basal width. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ussuriense

12    SIPH 1.1-1.3 Χ the long, pale cauda, which bears 25-35 hairs. Hind tibia with a row of short peg-like hairs                                                                                      …..Uroleucon fuchuense

-       SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ the pale, dusky or dark cauda, which bears either 12-20 hairs or more than 40. Hind tibia without peg-like hairs                                                                               …..13

13    Cauda paler than SIPH, with apical hairs distinctly shorter than more proximal ones

                                                                                                                   …..Uroleucon kumaoni*

-       Cauda as dark as SIPH, with hairs all similarly long                                                      …..14

14    Cauda with more than 40 hairs. R IV+V 1.65-1.8 Χ HT II. Tibiae black

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon giganteum

-       Cauda with 13-20 hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II. Tibiae pale in middle

                                                                          …..Uroleucon gobonis (or compositae?)

15    Dorsal body hairs long, thick and capitate, arising from tuberculate bases                    …..16

-       Dorsal body hairs short, or if long then pointed and not arising from tuberculate bases

                                                                                                                   …..17

16    ANT III with 2-4 thick, capitate hairs about as long as middle diameter of segment. Dorsal abdominal hairs duplicated or triplicated, so that there are 12-16 long thick capitate hairs per segment                                                                             …..Capitophorus formosartemisiae

-       ANT III with all hairs very short. Dorsal abdominal hairs not duplicated, so that there are 6 per segment                                                                                     …..Capitophorus elaeagni

17    ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, their inner faces divergent. ANT III with a few rhinaria on basal part                                                                                                …..18

-       ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ANT III without rhinaria                        …...21

18    Tergum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. Head dark and densely spiculose. Cauda short, less than 2 Χ its basal width, with 4 hairs             …..Chitinosiphon abdomenigrum*

-       Tergum pale. Head pale, not densely spiculose. Cauda finger-like, at least 2 Χ its basal width, with 6-10 hairs                                                                                          …..19

19    ANT longer than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 6.5-7.0. SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon rubi

-       ANT as short as or shorter than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.0-4.2                                  .....20

20    ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.2. SIPH less than 2 Χ cauda                     …..Acyrthosiphon dauricum

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.3. SIPH 2.5-2.6 Χ cauda                         …..Acyrthosiphon saussureae

21    Cauda helmet-shaped, not more than 1.1 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and bearing 4-6 hairs. ABD TERG 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs                                                                                                                 …..22

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, more than 1.2 Χ its basal width in dorsal view, and bearing 5-24 hairs. ABD TERG 7 (and 1) always with MTu. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs                …..23

22    SIPH dark, cylindrical, with slight distal swelling, 2.0-2.2 Χ cauda. MTu often present on ABD TERG 1-5. Spiracular apertures reniform                                …..Dysaphis indica

-       SIPH pale, conical, 0.8-1.3(-2.0) Χ cauda. MTu absent. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                        …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

23    R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II. MTu usually present on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7

                                                                                                              …..Aphis saussuraeradicis*

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.1 (-1.4) Χ HT II. MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4

                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

Savia                                                            Phyllanthaceae

      Savia sessiliflora                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

     

Savignya                                                      Brassicaceae              

      Savignya parviflora                      Myzus persicae

 

Saviniona                                                    Malvaceae

      Saviniona acerifolia                     Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

 

Saxifraga                                                     Saxifragaceae

      Saxifraga aizoides                        Aphis fabae, triglochinis; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Cavariella [aquatica], saxifragae

        S. aizoon = S. paniculata

        S. alpigena see S. stellaris

        S. aquatica                                    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. callosa see S. lingulata

        S. canaliculata                              Aphis fabae

        S. careyana = Micranthes caryana

        S. cespitosa see S. groenlandica

        S. cochlearis                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. cuneifolia                                 [Sitobion avenae]

        S. cymbalaria                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. decipiens (?)                             Myzus ascalonicus

        S. fusca (incl. ssp. kikubuki)              Taiwanomyzus montanus

        S. granulata                                  Aphis craccivora; Nasonovia dasyphylli

        S. groenlandica (= S. cespitosa)       Nasonovia vannesii

        S. hirsuta                                      Aphis fabae

        S. hypnoides                                 Nasonovia dasyphylli

        S. lingulata (= S. callosa)                Aphis fabae; Nasonovia dasyphylli

        S. michauxii = Spatularia michauxii

        S. nelsoniana                                [Macrosiphum chukotense]

        S. nivalis                                       Nasonovia saxifragae

        S. oppositifolia                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae (as gei); Myzus persicae;

                   (incl. var. splendens)               Nasonovia brevipes, saxifragae

        S. paniculata                                Aulacorthum solani; Nasonovia dasyphylli, saxifragae

        S. punctata                                   Myzus asamensis

        S. rosacea                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. rotundifolia                              Nasonovia dasyphylli, ribisnigri

        S. sarmentosa = S. stolonifera

        S. Χ somedana                              Nasonovia saxifragae

        S. splendens see S. oppositifolia

        S. stellaris (incl. alpigena)                Nasonovia dasyphylli       

        S. stolonifera                                Aphis spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. tricuspidata                               Nasonovia vockerothi

        S. umbrosa                                   Aphis sambuci

        Saxifraga spp.                              [Macrosiphum constrictum]; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              [Nasonovia acyrthosiphon]                                                 

Key to apterae on Saxifraga (and Spatularia):- 

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed process similar in length to and almost covering cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.0. Tergum strongly sclerotised, often dark. SIPH swollen distally                                                                                               …..Cavariella saxifragae

-       No supracaudal process, ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5 and other characters not in that combination                                                                                                                       …..2

2      Head spiculose. SIPH black, somewhat clavate, more than 2.7 Χ cauda which is also black and bears 4-5 hairs. Dorsum with extensive black sclerotisation

                                                                                                           …...Taiwanomyzus montanus

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

3      Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones . ANT III usually with more than 10 sec. rhin., and often some also on IV, or IV and V                                             …..4

-       Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with or without a few (1-10) rhinaria on basal part, none on IV or V                                                         …..11

4      Cauda usually with 7 hairs, rarely 6, 8 or 9. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4 (usually more than 8.4). SIPH without imbrication. Dorsal abdomen with paired intersegmental markings

                                                                                                                    …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Cauda almost always with 5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-8.4.  SIPH usually with some imbrication. Dorsum pale or with more extensive dark sclerotisation                               …..5

5      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, fused between tergites to form a large dark patch                                                                                                                          …..6

-       Dorsal abdomen pale or with dark cross-bars, not fused between tergites                       …..7

6      ANT PT/BASE (3.6-) 5.0-8.8. SIPH 1.4-2.5 Χ cauda. Sec. rhin. distributed ANT III

        10-42, IV 0-21, V 0-4                                                                       …..Nasonovia dasyphylli

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.7 (-5.4). SIPH 1.2-1.6 Χ cauda. Sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 4-25, IV 0-2, V 0                                                                    …..Nasonovia saxifragae (dark form)

7      ANT PT/BASE (4.8-) 5.7-8.2. Longest hairs on ANT III often longer than (0.7-1.3) Χ BD III

…..8

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.2 (-5.0). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.0 Χ BD III                    …..9

8      Abdomen usually with short dusky/dark spinal cross bars on ABD TERG 1-6, and separate sclerites at bases of pleural and marginal hairs. R IV+V 1.6-2.2 Χ HT II. SIPH with spinules on imbrications                                                                               …..Nasonovia carolinensis

-       Abdomen without dark sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6. R IV+V 1.4-1.5 Χ HT II. SIPH without spinules on imbrications                                                       …...Nasonovia vannesii*

9      R IV+V c.2 Χ HT II, with c.10 accessory hairs                                 …..Nasonovia brevipes*

-       R IV+V 1.2-1.8 Χ HT II, with 12-16 accessory hairs                                                     …..10

10    SIPH 0.11-0.12 Χ BL, 0.9-1.3 Χ cauda, and 3.5-4 Χ diameter at midlength

                                                                                                                  …..Nasonovia vockerothi

-       SIPH 0.16-0.24 Χ BL, 1.4-1.8 Χ cauda, and more than 5 Χ diameter at midlength

                                                                                               …..Nasonovia saxifragae (pale form)

11    Dorsal cuticle with bead-like spinules arranged in polygons, each polygon enclosing 1-4 separate spinules. SIPH dusky-dark, clavate                          …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons. SIPH pale or dark, clavate, cylindrical or tapering                                                                                                                       …..12

12    Marginal abdominal tubercles (MTu) present on at least ABD TERG 1-4 and 7. SIPH and Cauda dark. SIPH 1.7-3.5 Χ cauda which is short and rounded and bears 10-20 hairs

…..Aphis sambuci

-       MTu absent or only regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and other characters not in above combination                                                                                                          …..13

13    ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7. SIPH rather pale, tapering, 0.7-1.3 Χ cauda. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)

                                                                                                                          .....Aphis triglochinis

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.8-6.2, and other characters not in that combination                            .....14

14    Head densely spiculose. SIPH dark, coarsely imbricated, cylindrical or slightly swollen on distal half, distinctly constricted at apex, with a large flange. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                         …..Myzus asamensis

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Scabiosa                                                      Dipsacaceae

        Scabiosa africana                         Macrosiphum rosae

        S. argentea                                   Aphis confusa, spiraecola, thomasi

        S. arvensis = Knautia arvensis

        S. atropurpurea                            Aphis confusa, fabae, thomasi;

                                                              Macrosiphum rosae, weberi

        S. austroaltaica                             Aphis confusa

        S. banatica                                    Aphis confusa

        S. canescens                                 Aphis confusa, thomasi

        S. caucasica                                  Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum rosae; Myzus persicae

        S. columbaria                               Aphis confusa, thomasi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae, weberi;

                                                              Ovatomyzus [boraginacearum], chamaedrys

        S. comosa (incl. var. lachnophylla)    Aphis confusa, spiraecola, thomasi

        S. lachnophylla = S. comosa var. lachnophylla

        S. maritima = S. atropurpurea

        S. ochroleuca                               Aphis confusa, thomasi; Macrosiphum rosae

        S. officinalis (?)                            Macrosiphum rosae

        S. songarica                                  Dysaphis cephalariae

        S. sosnowskii                                Aphis confusa

        S. stellata                                      Macrosiphum rosae

        S. succisa see Succisa pratensis

        S. triandra                                    Aphis thomasi

        S. ucranica                                   Aphis confusa, thomasi

        Scabiosa sp.                                  Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Scabiosa:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 (at least) with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda pale or dark                                                                  …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 7 without MTu. Cauda pale                      …..6

2      Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Head and all thoracic and abdominal segments with spinal tubercles (STu), and MTu present on ABD TERG 1-7                                                                               …..Dysaphis cephalaria*

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. STu absent, and MTu only regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                                        …..3

3      Femoral hairs all shorter than diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda pale, dusky

        or dark with 4-9 hairs                                                                                                        …..4

-       Many femoral hairs long and fine-pointed, exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda black and bearing 7-24 hairs                                                                                  …..5

4      Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 0.2-0.6 Χ ANT BD III                               …..Aphis thomasi

-       Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.6-1.1 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 1.2-2.0 Χ ANT BD III

                                                                                …..Aphis confusa (or Aphis gossypii – see text)

5      ANT III 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda, which usually has a distinct midlength constriction and bears 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings            .....Aphis spiraecola

-       ANT III 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda which is usually without any constriction and bears 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with scattered dark markings anterior to SIPH and dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8                                                                                    …..Aphis fabae

6      Head without spicules                                                                                                       …..7

-       Head spiculose                                                                                                                …..10

7      Head pale. SIPH pale, slightly swollen distally, without subapical polygonal reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria                                                             …..Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

-       Head pale or dark. SIPH pale or dark with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 1-35 rhinaria                                                                                                         …..8

8      Head, legs and SIPH mainly pale. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria

                                                                                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Head, legs and SIPH mainly dark. ANT III with 5-35 rhinaria                                       .….9

9      Body spindle-shaped. SIPH thicker than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, and

        1.8-2.2 Χ head width across (and including) eyes                               …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       Body oval. SIPH about equal in thickness to hind tibiae at midlength, and 1.1-1.5 Χ head width across eyes                                                                               …..Macrosiphum weberi

10    SIPH slightly clavate. ANT 0.7-1.0 Χ BL, without rhinaria on ANT III   …..Myzus persicae

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ANT 1.1-1.3 Χ BL, with (0-)1-2 (-4) rhinaria near base of ANT III

…..Aulacorthum solani

 

Scaevola                                                      Goodeniaceae

      Scaevola frutescens                      Aphis gossypii

        S. koenigii = S. taccada

        S. sericea = S. taccada

        S. taccada                                     Aphis gossypii

        Scaevola sp.                                  Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Scaligeria                                                    Apiaceae

      Scaligera bucharica = Elaeosticta bucharica                            

 

Scandix                                                        Apiaceae

      Scandix pecten-veneris                Aphis craccivora, fabae, solanella; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Semiaphis dauci

Use key to apterae on Daucus.

     

Schanginia see Sueada                                                    Amaranthaceae

 

Schefflera (including Didymopanax,                             Araliaceae

                       Heptapleurum,Tupidanthus)                                                                                

     S. actinophylla                               Aphis gossypii, hederae, spiraecola

      S. arborea                                      

      S. arboricola                                   Aphis aurantii, gossypii, hederae, spiraecola

      S. avenis                                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      S. calyptrata = S. avenis                   

      S. heptaphylla                                Aphis aurantii, odinae; Cavariella araliae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

      S. lutchuensis (?)                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Cavariella araliae

      S. morototoni                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      S. octophylla = S. heptaphylla

      S. pubigera                                     Aphis gossypii                                                                     

      S. stelzneriana = S. pubigera

      S. umbellifera                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      S. veitchii                                        Myzus persicae

      S. venulosa                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

      Schefflera sp.                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to aphids on Schefflera:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a long backwardly-directed process, broad at base but with a narrow  apex that extends beyond cauda                                                             .....Cavariella araliae

-       No supracaudal process                                                                                                      .....2

2      SIPH and cauda both black. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II. Apterae often alatiform, with 0-19 rhinaria on ANT III. Marginal tubercles (MTu) frequently present on ABD TERG 2-4, as well as 1 and 7                                                                                               .....Aphis hederae

-       Without that combination of characters                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Scheuchzeria                                                Scheuchzeriaceae

      Scheuchzeria palustris                  Aphis triglochinis; [Macrosiphum nasonovi of Zirnits1930]

 

Schima                                                                                      Theaceae

        Schima noronhae                                                 Guger Tree

                                                              Greenidea schimae

        S. superba                                     Greenidea schimae                                                             

        S. wallichii                                    Aphis aurantii, citricidus, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                  odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Eutrichosiphum pasaniae, [pseudopasaniae];

                                                              Greenidea [longicornis], longirostris, schimae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              [Subovatomyzus leucosceptri]                                               

Key to aphids on Schima:-

 

1      SIPH without hairs                                                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                                                        …..2

 

2      SIPH black, without any pale reticulation, 0.25-0.32 Χ BL. Cauda without a median papilla

                                                                                                             .....Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

-       SIPH pale brown, with pale reticulation over entire length except spinulose apical part,

        0.42-0.56 Χ BL. Cauda with a median papilla                                                                   .....3

 

3      Aptera with R IV+V 0.23-0.27 mm long, 1.7-2.3 Χ HT II, with 10-12 accessory hairs. Alata with 16-26 rhinaria on ANT III                                                             .....Greenidea schimae

-       Apterae with R IV+V 0.26-0.33 mm long, 2.0-2.75 Χ HT II, with 12-18 accessory hairs. Alata with 19-33 rhinaria on ANT III                                              .....Greenidea longirostris

 

 

Schimpera                                                   Brassicaceae

      Schimpera arabica                        Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Schinus                                     Peppertrees                   Anacardiaceae

        Schinus dependens                       Aphis schinifoliae

        S. gracilipes                                   Aphis schinifoliae

        S. johnstonii                                  Aphis schinivora

        S. molle                                         Aphis craccivora, gossypii, schinifoliae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        S. polygamus                                Aphis schinifoliae

        S. roigii                                          Aphis schinifoliae

        S. terebinthifolius                          Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae; [Sitobion congolense]       

 

Key to species on Schinus:-

 

1     SIPH entirely pale. ANT tubercles undeveloped. Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) usually present on ABD TERG 2-6 as well as 1 and 7                             .....Aphis schinifoliae

-      If SIPH are pale then other characters do not apply                                                          .....2

2     SIPH dark, shorter than R IV+V and only 0.3-0.7 Χ cauda, which is also dark and bears 4-8 hairs. ANT tubercles undeveloped. ABD TERG 1 and 7 and often also ABD TERG 2-6 with well-developed, rather flat MTu                                                        .....Aphis schinivora

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Schisandra                                                  Schisandraceae

      Schisandra grandiflora                Rhopalosiphoninus ehretis

 

Schismus                                                     Poaceae

      Schismus arabicus                        Aphis fabae

                                               

Schizachyrium                                            Poaceae

      Schizachyrium scoparium            Anoecia cornicola

Schizachne                                                  Poaceae

      Schizachne purpurascens             Sitobion avenae

 

Schizanthus                                                 Solanaceae

      Schizanthus sp.                            Neomyzus circumflexus

 

Schizonepeta see Nepeta                                         Lamiaceae

      Schizonepeta multifida = Nepeta multifida

 

Schizopepon                                                Cucurbitaceae

      Schizopepon bryoniifolius             Aulacorthum magnoliae

 

Schizophragma                                           Hydrangeaceae

      Schizophragma hydrangeoides    Taiwanomyzus montanus

 

Schizostachyum                                          Poaceae

      Schizostachyum blumei                Astegopteryx singaporensis; Ceratoglyphina bambusae;

                                                               Pseudoregma pendleburyi

        S. brachycladum                           Astegopteryx singaporensis; Ceratoglyphina bambusae;

                                                               Glyphinaphis bambusae

        S. lima                                           Ceratovacuna hoffmani

        S. zollingeri                                    Ceratoglyphina bambusae;

                                                               Pseudoregma sp. (Stern et al. 1997)

Use key to aphids on Bambusa.

 

Schizostylis see Hesperantha                                     Iridaceae

      Schizostylis coccinea = Hesperantha coccinea

 

Schkuhria                                                    Compositae

      Schkuhria anthemoides                Ucrimyzus villalobosi

        S. pinnata                                      Uroleucon compositae

        S. virgata                                       Ucrimyzus villalobosi

Couplet to separate these two species:-

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering, entirely dark, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation.  Cauda similarly dark                                                                       …..Uroleucon compositae

-       SIPH swollen on about distal 0.7, pale at least at base, without distal polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale                                                                                        …..Ucrimyzus villalobosi

 

 

Schlumbergera see Zygocactus                                Cactaceae

    

Schoenoplectus (including Bolboschoenus)                 Cyperaceae

      Schoenoplectus americanus         Thripsaphis ballii

        S. californicus                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        S. lacustris                                     Hyalopterus pruni; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, [parvae];

                                                               Schizaphis minuta, scirpi; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                               Subsaltusaphis picta

        S. maritimus                                  Sipha glyceriae

        S. tabernaemontani                       Rhopalosiphum cerasifoliae, nymphaeae

      S. triqueter                                     Schizaphis scirpi

Use key to apterae on Scirpus.

 

Schoenus                                                     Cyperaceae

      Schoenus nigricans                       [Anoecia corni]; Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae;

                                                               Vesiculaphis theobaldi

Use key to apterae on Scirpus.

 

Schomburgkia                                             Orchidaceae

      Schomburgkia sp.                         Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Schotia                                                        Leguminosae

      Schotia brachypetala                     Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Myzus persicae

        S. latifolia                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Schoutenia                                                             Tiliaceae

      Schoutenia ovata                          Cervaphis echinata, schouteniae 

             (= Actinophora fragrans)       

          

Couplet to separate these species:-

-       Frontal branched processes including the apical hair more than 0.4 mm long, 0.8-1.0 Χ length of antennae                                                                                            .....Cervaphis echinata

-       Frontal branched processes including the apical hair less than 0.4 mm long, 0.4-0.6 Χ length of antennae                                                                     .....Cervaphis schouteniae

 

       

Schouwia                                                     Brassicaceae

      Schouwia purpurea                      Aphis gossypii

      S. thebaica = S. purpurea

 

Schrenkia                                                               Apiaceae

      Schrenkia vaginata                       Aphis craccivora

      Schrenkia sp.                                Brachyunguis flexosiphon

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0. SIPH 0.5 Χ cauda or less. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotisation                                                                               .....Brachyunguis flexosiphon

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH longer than cauda, Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation                                                                                     .....Aphis craccivora

(or go to key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Sciadopitys                                                             Taxodiaceae

      Sciadopitys verticillata                  Eulachnus thunbergii

 

 

Scilla (including Oziroe)                                               Asparagaceae

     Scilla biflora                                    Myzus persicae

      S. madeirensis                                 Myzus hemerocallis

      Scilla sp.                                          Dysaphis tulipae

Key to apterae on Scilla:-

1      SIPH dark. Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8              …..Dysaphis tulipae

-       SIPH pale. Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. STu absent from head, and rarely on ABD TERG 8                                                                                             …..2

2      SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, more than 2.5 Χ cauda, with coarse imbrication. (Al. without a black dorsal abdominal patch)                                     …..Myzus hemerocallis

-       SIPH slightly to moderately swollen on distal half, less than 2.5 Χ cauda, with normal imbrication. (Al. with a black dorsal abdominal patch)                              …..Myzus persicae

 

Scindapsus                                                  Araceae

      Scindapsus sp.                               Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Scirpoides                                                    Cyperaceae

      Scirpoides holoschoenus               Colopha hispanica; Schizaphis scirpi; Sitobion avenae

Use key to apterae on Scirpus.                                                      

 

Scirpus                                                         Cyperaceae

Many species have been transferred from Scirpus to other genera. We have left some of these in the Scirpus list, with the new generic name in brackets.

      Scirpus americanus = Schoenoplectus americanus

        S. atrocinctus                                 Schizaphis scirpicola

        S. australis = Scirpoides holoschoenus

        S. caespitosus = Trichophorum caespitosum

        S. californicus = Schoenoplectus californicus

        S. campestris (?)                            Rhopalosiphum musae

        S. cernuus (= Isolepis cernua)           Schizaphis scirpi

        S. grossus (= Actinoscirpus grossus)   Carolinaia scirpi

        S. holoschoenus = Scirpoides holoschoenus                              

        S. lacustris = Schoenoplectus lacustris                                       

        S. maritimus (= Bolboschoenus         [Caricosipha paniculatae]; [Juncobia leegei];

                                       maritimus)          Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Schizaphis scirpi;

                                                               Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae; Subsaltusaphis picta;

                                                               Vesiculaphis theobaldi

        S. microcarpus                              Ceruraphis eriophori, viburnicola (in greenhouse)

        S. palustris = Eleocharis palustris

        S. rubrotinctus = Scirpus microcarpus                                       

        S. speciosus = Eriophorum angustifolium

        S. sylvaticus                                   Ceruraphis eriophori; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                               Saltusaphis scirpus; Schizaphis scirpi; Sitobion avenae;

                                                               Subsaltusaphis ornata

        S. tabernaemontani = Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

        S. triqueter = Schoenoplectus triqueter

        S. validus= Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

        S. vulgaris (= Bolboschoenus            Sitobion avenae

                                        maritimus)

        Scirpus spp.                                   Atheroides hirtellus; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                               Schizaphis brachytarsus, caricis;

                                                               [Subsaltusaphis virginica]

Key to apterae on Scirpus (also Bomboschoenus, Schoenoplectus and Scirpoides):-

1      SIPH tubular; tapering, cylindrical or swollen, clearly longer than their basal widths     …..2

-      SIPH in form of short truncate cones not clearly longer than their basal widths, or present merely as pores, or completely absent                                                                             …..21

2      SIPH very small, thin and flangeless, less than 0.7 Χ cauda                  …..Hyalopterus pruni

-       SIPH not thin, more than 0.8 Χ cauda, with a distinct apical flange                                …..3

3      Front of head between ANT produced into 3 large separate rounded processes, each bearing spine-like hairs. SIPH scabrous, cylindrical for most of length and abruptly narrowed distally, with a small terminal aperture. ANT PT/BASE 1.37-1.8

…..Vesiculaphis theobaldi

-      Front of head not produced into 3 large rounded processes bearing spine-like hairs. SIPH various, but not very small at apex. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8                                  …..4

4     Tergum almost entirely dark, and SIPH jet black                                                              …..5

-      Tergum usually pale, sometimes with dusky/dark central patch or dark markings. SIPH pale or dark                                                                                                                                …..6

5     SIPH short, less than 0.1 Χ BL, with close-set rows of fine spinules

                                                                                                               …..Ceruraphis viburnicola

-      SIPH more than 0.2 Χ BL, with coarse denticulate imbrication       …..Ceruraphis eriophori

6      ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, projecting beyond middle part of head in dorsal view, smooth and divergent or bearing rounded scabrous or spiculose processes. ANT III with 1-4 small rhinaria near base                                                                                   .....7

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view. ANT III without rhinara                                                                                                  .....10

7      Head with inner sides of ANT tubercles developed as rounded, scabrous or spiculose processes. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II                                                         …..Carolinaia scirpi

-       Head with inner sides of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent. R IV+V 0.60-0.85 Χ HT II

…..8

8      SIPH pale, without subapical polygonal reticulation                ….. Metopolophium dirhodum

-      SIPH dark, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                             …..9

9      SIPH 1.75-2.25 Χ cauda, which has a rounded apex                             …..Sitobion fragariae

-      SIPH 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda, which has a more pointed apex                             …..Sitobion avenae

10   ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.9, with PT usually curved                                                                   …..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented, but if 5-segmented then hairs are shorter and/or ANT PT/BASE is less than 3.6                                                                                                                     …..11

11   ABD TERG 8 with 5-13 hairs. Hind tibia with numerous long, fine hairs, exceeding 2 Χ its diameter at midlength, along whole length. Longest hairs on ANT III longer than BD III. Papilliform marginal tubercles usually present on all or most of ABD TERG 1-7          …..12

-      ABD TERG 8 with 2-4 hairs. Hind tibia with shorter hairs, or if with hairs about 2 Χ its middle diameter then these do not extend to basal part. Longest hairs on ANT III rarely exceeding BD III. Marginal tubercles present or absent from ABD TERG 2-6             …..15

12   ANT III with 15-16 hairs. SIPH 2.57-2.83 Χ cauda                     …..Schizaphis brachytarsus

-      ANT III with 6-13 hairs. SIPH 1.50-2.78 Χ cauda                                                         …..13

13   Subgenital plate usually with 2-4 hairs on anterior half (rarely up to 10). Dorsal body and ANT hairs variable in length; often some of those on both ANT III and ABD TERG 3 have blunt apices and are less than 50 μm long (range 28-87 μm and 29-100 μm respectively). R IV+V 1.02-1.25 (-1.38) Χ HT II. (Al. with (0-)2-5 rhinaria on ANT V)                                  

…..Schizaphis caricis

-      Subgenital plate with (3-)5-14 hairs on anterior half. Dorsal body hairs all more than 65 μm long with pointed apices; hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 3 are in range (30-) 50-108 μm and 81-132 μm respectively. R IV+V either 0.89-1.14 or 1.25-1.43 Χ HT II. Al with 0-1 rhinaria on ANT V                                                                                                            .....14

14   R IV+V 0.89-1.14 Χ HT II. Hairs on ANT III 53-108 μm long               …..Schizaphis scirpi

-      R IV+V 1.25-1.43 Χ HT II. hairs on ANT III (30-) 50-83 μm long  …..Schizaphis scirpicola

15   SIPH distinctly clavate, 1.8-2.4 Χ cauda                                 …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      SIPH not clavate, 1.2-c.2.0 Χ cauda                                                                                …..16

16    ANT with primary rhinaria on ANT V much smaller than that on VI, its diameter 0.3-0.4 Χ width of segment at that point. SIPH pale with dark apices                  .....Schizaphis minuta

-      ANT with primary rhinarium on ANT V about the same size as that on VI, its diameter more than 0.5 of width of segment at that point. SIPH pale or dark                                      …..17

17   ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Body rather elongate oval

                                                                                                                …..Rhopalosiphum maidis

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-5.2. R IV+V 0.9-1.5 Χ HT II. Body rather broadly oval                …..18

18   ANT usually 5-segmented, with longest hairs on ANT III 1-2 Χ BD III. SIPH c.2 Χ cauda

                                                                                                      …..Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

-      ANT 6-segmented, with longest hiars on ANT III 0.4-1.0 Χ BD III. SIPH 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                                                …..19

19   Longest hairs on ANT III 0.75-1.0 Χ BD III. Dorsal body hairs pointed. SIPH 1.2-1.5 Χ cauda                                                                                               …..Rhopalosiphum musae

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.6 Χ BD III. Dorsal body hairs short and blunt. SIPH 1.5- 1.9 Χ cauda                                                                                                                                …..20

20   SIPH uniformly dark, cylindrical for most of length or with slight swelling of  distal part, with a smooth distinctly constricted region subapically. Cauda dark …..Rhopalosiphum padi

-      SIPH pale/dusky with darker apices, tapering gradually from base and with only slight subapical constriction. Cauda pale/dusky                                 .....Rhopalosiphum cerasifoliae

21   Dorsal body hairs long and spine-like                                                                              …..22

-      Dorsal body hairs short with pointed apices, or fan- or mushroom-shaped                    …..23

22   Body elongate. Tergum entirely black                                                  …..Atheroides hirtellus

-      Body oval. Tergum not black, ornamented with numerous small pointed denticles between the hair-bases                                                                                               …..Sipha glyceriae

23   Body balloon-shaped, with eyes of only 3 facets, ANT and legs greatly reduced and SIPH absent. Faceted wax glands present on all segments                              .....Colopha hispanica

-      Body elongate, with compound eyes and well-developed appendages. SIPH present,

       stump-like or raised pores. No faceted wax glands                                                          .....24

24   Fore and mid tibiae thickened at base, forming a smooth sclerotic “patella” (clearly different from base of hind tibia). SIPH stump-shaped. ABD TERG 8 with a pair of large rounded tubercular processes, each bearing 2 long hairs                                     …..Saltusaphis scirpus

-      Fore and mid tibiae constricted at base like hind tibiae. SIPH as slightly raised pores. ANT TERG 8 enlarged, entirely sclerotic, semicircular or emarginate posteriorly                   …..25

25   Dorsal hairs pointed. ABD TERG 8 with posterior margin rounded, not distinctly emarginate. ANT PT/BASE 0-5-0.6                                                        …..Thripsaphis ballii

-      Dorsal hairs mushroom-shaped. ANT TERG 8 distinctly emarginate posteriorly. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1                                                                                                             …..26

26   Dorsum usually with well-marked and clearly-defined pleural longitudinal dark stripes that run almost the full length of the body (with small breaks between segments); these stripes are almost as dark as the intersegmental muscle plates, and are either side of a very pale spinal region that carries no trace of a darker spinal stripe. (Wholly dark forms also sometimes occur)

…..Subsaltusaphis ornata

-      Dorsum either almost unpigmented (except for muscle plates), or with ill-defined dark pleural longitudinal stripes or rows of paired patches that are paler than intersegmental muscle plates. When pleural bands are well-developed then there is also between them at least a trace of a dark spinal stripe. (Wholly dark forms are not known to occur)

                                                                                                                    …..Subsaltusaphis picta

(If specimens collected from Scirpus run to couplet 23, it would be advisable also to check that they are not one of the numerous other Carex-feeding Saltusaphidine species, by taking them through couplets 5-53 of key B to apterae on Carex.)

 

 

Sciuro-hypnum                                            Brachytheciaceae

      Sciuro-hypnum oedipodium       Muscaphis escherichi; Pseudacaudella rubida

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Scleranthus                                                  Caryophyllaceae

      Scleranthus annuus                      Myzus persicae

 

Scleria                                                         Cyperaceae

      Scleria cochinchinensis = S. terrestris

      S. elata = S. terrestris

        S. pilosissima                                 Carolinaia caricis

        S. pterota = S. melaleuca

          S. melaleuca                                   Carolinaia caricis

        S. racemosa                                   Aphis gossypii

        S. scandens                                    Carolinaia caricis

        S. scrobiculata                               Carolinaia hillerislambersi

        S. terrestris                                     Aulacorthum scirpi of Ghosh & Raychaudhuri 1972, nec.

                                                                   van der Goot                                                                 

Key to apterae on Scleria:-

1      ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces scabrous and parallel or slightly divergent. Tergum entirely dark. ANT c. 0.75-0.8 Χ BL  

        ….. Aulacorthum scirpi of Ghosh & Raychaudhuri, 1972, nec. van der Goot*

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed. Tergum pale or dark. ANT 0.26-0.75 Χ BL              …..2

2      Dorsal cuticle strongly wrinkled or variolate. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, 0.26-0.33 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 1.0-1.5. SIPH pale/dusky, with very coarse imbrication, cylindrical for most of length and abruptly narrowing subapically                                             …..Carolinaia caricis

-      Dorsal cuticle smooth or almost smooth. ANT usually 6-segmented, 0.6-0.75 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 2.0-3.8. SIPH dark to blackish, tapering, with normal imbrication                  …..3

3      ANT III with 2-4 rhinaria on swollen part near base. ANT PT/BASE c.3.75. R IV+V with 4 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                        …..Carolinaia hillerislambersi

-      ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.2. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                …..Aphis gossypii

 

 

Sclerocarya                                                                          Anacardiaceae

        Sclerocarya birrea                        Aphis gossypii

                        (incl. ssp. caffra)

 

Scleropodium see Pseudoscleropodium                       Brachytheciaceae    

 

Scoliopus                                                      Liliaceae

      Scoliopus bigelovii                         Ericaphis scoliopi

 

Scolopia                                                                                   Salicaceae

      Scolopia crenata                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; [Aphis sp.]

      S. ecklonii                                     [Aphis sp.]; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Scolymus                                                     Compositae

      Scolymus grandiflorus = S. hispanicus

      S. hispanicus                                 Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                               [Dysaphis lappae ssp. cynarae]; [Protaphis terricola]

        S. maculatus                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Capitophorus eleaegni 

        Scolymus sp.                                 Uroleucon aeneum

Use key to apterae on Carduus.

 

Scoparia                                                      Plantaginaceae

      Scoparia dulcis                              Aphis gossypii

 

Scorpiurus                                                   Leguminosae

      Scorpiurus muricatus                   Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

        S. sulcatus = S. muricatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Scorzonera  (including Podospermum)                         Compositae

      Scorzonera albicaulis                    Aphis fabae

      S. cana                                           [Aphis medicaginis of Rusanova 1942 (= craccivora?)]

        S. hirsuta                                       Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        S. hispanica                                   Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus tragopogonis;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

        S. humilis                                       Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus tragopogonis;

                                                               Uroleucon jaceae, scorzonerae

        S. iliensis                                        [Protaphis carthami]

        S. laciniata                                     Aphis fabae

        S. parviflora                                   Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus tragopogonis;

                                                               Protaphis aralensis

        S. pubescens                                  Aphis craccivora; Brachycaudus tragopogonis

        S. purpurea                                   Aphis fabae; Protaphis scorzonerae

        S. subaphylla                                 Acyrthosiphon ghanii

        S. tau-saghyz                                 Brachyunguis tausaghyz; Protaphis scorzonerae;

                                                               Rectinasus buxtoni; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                               [Titanosiphon neoartemisiae]

        S. tortuosissima                             Uroleucon tortuosissimae

        Scorzonera spp.                             [Anuraphis controversus Rusanova (nomen nudum)];

                                                               Aphis spiraecola; [Paracletus cimiciformis]

Key to apterae on Scorzonera:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3. Body and appendages densely hairy. SIPH absent          …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE at least 0.5. Body and appendages not densely hairy. SIPH present     …..3

2      ANT V BASE and R IV+V both very long, respectively about 1.7 and 2.5 Χ width of head between antennal bases. ANT II similar in length to ANT I, much shorter than III

.….Rectinasus buxtoni

-       ANT V BASE and R IV+V of normal length , both about 0.5 Χ width of head between antennal bases. ANT II about twice as long as ANT I, similar in length to III

..…Smynthurodes betae

3      ANT tubercles developed but often low, with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1-85 rhinaria                                                                                                         …..4

-      ANT tubercles either undeveloped, or steep-sided and scabrous or spiculose. ANT III without rhinaria, or with only 1-2 small ones near base                                                    …..8

4     SIPH pale or only dark at apices, and if with polygonal reticulation this is confined to distal 0.13-0.20 of length. ANT III with 1-11 rhinaria                                                               …..5

-      SIPH dark, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.40 of length. ANT III with 7-85 rhinaria                                                                                                                               …..6

5     SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria on basal half. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-6.2                                                               …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 4-11 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.33-0.9 of length. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.5                               …..Acyrthosiphon ghanii

6      Cauda pale. Dorsal abdomen without any pigmented sclerites. ANT III with 7-19 rhinaria

         (-30 in alatiform apt.). SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.3-0.4

                                                                                                         …..Uroleucon tortuosissimae*

-      Cauda dark. Dorsal abdomen with pigmented scleroites at bases of hairs. ANT III with 16-54 rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.16-0.26                                         …..7

7      Tibiae mainly pale. Cauda with 10-17 hairs                                   …..Uroleucon scorzonerae

-      Tibiae entirely dark. Cauda with 22-28 hairs                                          …..Uroleucon jaceae

8      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation comprising broad spino-pleural cross-bands or paired patches on ABD TERG 1-7, and separate marginal sclerites. Spiracular apertures rounded. Cauda helmet-shaped, less than 0.8 Χ its basal width

                                                                                                       …..Brachycaudus tragopogonis

-      Dorsal abdomen pale or with a different pattern of sclerotisation. Spiracular apertures reniform. Cauda bluntly conical, tongue- or finger-shaped, 0.9-2.5 Χ its basal width      …..9

9      ANT PT/BASE within range 0.6-1.3. (SIPH and cauda both very short)                      …..10

-      ANT BASE more than 1.5                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 

10    SIPH pale, c. 0.5-0.6 Χ cauda, which bears 6-8 hairs                 …..Brachyunguis tausaghyz*

-       SIPH dark, 0.65-c.1 Χ cauda, which bears 7-18 hairs                                                     …..11

11    SIPH 0.65-0.77 Χ cauda, which bears 16-18 hairs                             …..Protaphis aralensis*

-      SIPH about equal in length to cauda, which bears 7-14 hairs         …..Protaphis scorzonerae

 

Scorzoneroides                                                     Compositae

      Scorzoneroides autumnalis        Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, leontodontis,

                                                                nasturtii, spiraecola, [taraxacicola];

                                                            Aulacorthum palustre, solani; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                            Protaphis middletonii; Trama caudata, troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon cichorii, [grossum], hypochoeridis, leontodontis

Use key to apterae on Leontodon.

 

Scrophularia                                               Scrophulariaceae

      Scrophularia aquatica                  Myzus persicae

        S. buergeriana                               [Uroleucon gobonis]

        S. canina                                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii, verbasci;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. glabrata                                     Aphis verbasci

        S kiriloviana                                  Aphis verbasci

        S. lanceolata                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae,

                                                                   [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1974, 111)]

        S. leporella                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. nodosa                                       Aphis nasturtii;

                                                               [Hyalomyzus monardae (as Phorodon scrophulariae)]

        S. scorodonia                                 [Cryptomyzus galeopsidis]

        S. vernalis                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Uroleucon scrophulariae

        Scrophularia sp.                            Aphis frangulae group

Key to apterae on Scrophularia:-

1      SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on about distal 0.2 of length. Cauda black. ANT III with 20-25 rhinaria                                                                      …..Uroleucon scrophulariae

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale or dark. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria                                                                                                              …..2

2      R IV+V 1.6-1.9 Χ HT II. Cauda short and dark with 8-12 hairs                …..Aphis verbasci

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids                                                                                                                                                      

Scurrula                                                      Loranthaceae

      Scurrula atropurpurea                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Greenidea rappardi;

                                                               Sinomegoura citricola                                                       

        S. fusca                                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Greenidea rappardi

        S. korthalsii                                    Tuberaphis loranthi

        S. philippensis = S. atropurpurea

          Scurrula sp.                                   Tuberaphis scurrulae, takenouchii

Use key to apterae on Loranthus.

 

Scutellaria                                                   Lamiaceae

      Scutellaria altissima                      Aphis fabae, frangulae

        S. baicalensis                                 Aphis gossypii

        S. catharinae                                 Cryptomyzus alatavicus

        S. columnae                                  [Aphis sp. (Italy; Cocuzza et al. 2014)]

        S. cordifrons                                  Aphis gossypii

      S. discolor                                      Myzus ornatus

        S. drummondii                              [Protaphis middletonii]

        S. galericulata                                [Aphis chloris of Wilson & Vickery 1918 (plant genus

                                                                   given in error as Scrophularia?];

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. hastifolia                                    Aulacorthum solani

        S. indica                                         Aphis odorikonis

        S. lateriflora                                   Pseudasiphonaphis corni

        S. mesostegia                                 Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii;

                                                               Cryptomyzus alatavicus

        S. multiglandulosa                        Aphis gossypii

        S. regeliana                                   Aphis gossypii

        S. repens                                        Aphis gossypii

        S. scandens                                    Aphis gossypii; [Brevicoryne brassicae]; Myzus ornatus

        S. sieversii                                      Aphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus alatavicus

        S. transiliensis = S. sieversii

        Scutellaria spp.                              [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];

                                                               Myzus sp. (India; BNMH collection, leg. K. Narayanan);

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Scutellaria:-

1      SIPH as very small, rimless cones, shorter than their basal widths. ABD TERG 1-7 all with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu), longer than SIPH. ANT hairs long and fine, 2-3 Χ BD III                                                                                         …..Pseudasiphonaphis corni

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      Dorsal body hairs long and capitate. ANT III with 10-37 rhinaria

                                                                                                              …..Cryptomyzus alatavicus

-       Dorsal hairs not long and capitate. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria                                       …..3

3      Head spiculose with inner faces of ANT tubercles converging anteriorly. ANT shorter than BL, without secondary rhinaria and with PT/BASE 1.7-3.0. Small, oval aphids, BL less

        than 2 mm. SIPH not clavate                                                                                            …..4

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..5

4      Dorsal abdomen with intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5. SIPH weakly S-shaped with a well-developed flange, of diameter c.1.5 Χ the minimum diameter subapically                                                                                     …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsum without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.0. SIPH straight with small flange of diameter only 1.1-1.2 Χ minimum subapical diameter      …..Myzus sp., India

5      SIPH uniformly dark, not swollen. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..6

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, or with dusky/dark apices, if wholly dark then markedly swollen. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

6      Cauda black with 11-25 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7and 8 and dark markings anterior to SIPH                                         …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda pale or dark with 5-12 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually without dark markings     …..7

7      ANT usually 5-segmented, or with partial fusion of III and IV. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                          …..Aphis odorikonis

-      ANT usually 6 segmented (sometimes 5-segmented in summer dwarfs). R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II  ….. Aphis lamiorum or A. frangulae (incl. ssp. beccabungae) or A. gossypii (see text)

 

Scutia                                                          Rhamnaceae

      Scutia buxifolia                             Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

 

Searsia                                                                                     Anacardiaceae

        Searsia dentata                              Aphis gossypii

       S. pyroides                                     Aphis gossypii

 

 

Secale                                                          Poaceae

      Secale africanum                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. cereale                                       Anoecia corni, vagans; Diuraphis noxia;

                                                               Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;

                                                               Laingia psammae;

                                                               Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphum maidis, nymphaeae, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                               Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, maydis;

                                                               Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                               Smynthurodes betae; Tetraneura ulmi

        S. sylvestre                                     Sipha maydis; Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.       

 

Sechium                                                       Cucurbitaceae

      Sechium edule                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani, spinocaudatum;

                                                               Myzus persicae;

                                                               Pseudomegoura magnoliae, [nipponica]

Use key to aphids on Cucurbita.

 

Securigera                                                   Leguminosae

      Securigera parviflora                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

      S. varia                                          Acyrthosiphon caraganae, pisum;

                                                              Aphis coronillae, craccae, vineti

Use key to apterae on Coronilla.

 

Securinega see Flueggea                                          Phyllanthaceae

      Securinega fluggeoides = Flueggea suffruticosa

      S. fruticosa = Flueggea suffruticosa?

        S. virosa = Flueggea virosa              

 

Sedum                                                          Crassulaceae

      Sedum acre                                    Aphis sedi

      S. aizoon                                        Aphis sedi, sediradicis; Eriosoma moriokense

       S. alboroseum = Hylotelephium erythrostictum

       S. album                                         Aphis sedi; Nasonovia dasyphylli

       S. altissimum = S. sediforme

       S. amplexicaule                             Aphis sedi

       S. anacampseros                            Brachycaudus sedi

       S. anglicum                                    Aphis sedi; [Hyperomyzus lactucae];

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       S. annuum                                     Aphis sedi

       S. argutum = S. telephium

       S. asiaticum = Rhodiola heterodonta

          S. brevifolium                                Aphis sedi                        

       S. bupleuroides = Rhodiola bupleuroides

          S. caeruleum                                  Aphis sedi

       S. caucasicum = S. maximum ssp. ruprechtii

          S. cepaea                                        Aphis sedi

       S. dasyphyllum                              Aphis sedi; Nasonovia dasyphylli

       S. ewersii                                        Aphis sedi

       S. fabaria = S. telephium

       S. forsterianum                              Aphis sedi

       S. gracile                                        Aphis sedi

       S. hirsutum                                    Smynthurodes betae

       S. hispanicum                                Aphis sedi

       S. hybridum                                   Aphis sedi

       S. iwarenge                                    Aphis gossypii

       S. japonicum                                  Aphis sedi, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       S. kamtschaticum                          Aphis [pomi], sedi; [Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae]

       S. lanceolatum = Amerosedum lanceolatum

          S. latifolium = S. maximum

          S. maximowiczii                             Aphis sedi

       S. maximum (incl. ssp. ruprechtii)     Aphis fabae, sedi; [Sitobion avenae]

       S. middendorfianum = Phedimus middendorfianus

          S. ochroleucum                             Aphis sedi; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       S. pallescens = Hylotelephium pallescens

       S. paniculatum (?)                         Aphis fabae

       S. polytrichoides                             Aphis sedi

       S. purpureum = S. telephium

       S. reflexum = S. rupestre

       S. roseum = Rhodiola rosea             

       S. rupestre                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, sedi, solenella, [Aphis sp.

                                                                   (Davletshina 1964)]

       S. sediforme                                   Aphis sedi; [Dysaphis foeniculus]; Myzus persicae

       S. selskianum = Phedimus selskianus

          S. sempervivoides = Rosularia sempervivoides

          S. sieboldii                                      Myzus persicae

       S. spectabile = Hylotelephium spectabile

       S. spurium                                     Aphis sedi; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; [Tetraneura ulmi]

       S. stoloniferum                              Aphis sedi

       S. telephium                                   Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, sedi, smirnovi

       S. telephium ssp. maximum = S. maximum

       S. tenuifolium = S. amplexicaule

       S. villosum                                     [Myzus icelandicus]

       Sedum spp.                                    Aphis acrita; [Brevicoryne brassicae];

                                                              Myzus [certus], ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Eriosoma ulmi

Key to apterae on Sedum (and Sempervivum):-

1      ANT less than 0.33 Χ BL, with PT short and stumpy                                                       …..2

-       ANT at least 0.4 Χ BL, with longer PT                                                                             …..3

2      SIPH present as large pores with partially sclerotised rims, ringed with hairs. Body and appendages sparsely  hairy.Wax glands present, each consisting of a central facet surrounded by a ring of smaller facets                                                …..Eriosoma sp. (moriokense, ulmi)

-       SIPH absent. Body and appendages densely hairy. No discrete wax glands                          

                                                                                                                    …..Smynthurodes betae

3      Cauda very broadly rounded, much broader than long. SIPH stump-like, shorter than basal widths                                                                                                    …..Brachycaudus sedi

-       Cauda helmet-shaped, tongue- or finger-shaped. SIPH tubular, longer than their basal widths

…..4

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                        …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, distinctly longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures usually reniform                                                                                                                 …..5

5      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)       

                                                                                                                                                  …..6

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                              …..12

6      R IV+V c. 0.8 Χ HT II. (Al. with sec. rhin.distributed ANT III 32-40, IV 8-15, V 0-2)

                                                                                                                               …..Aphis acrita*

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.7 Χ HT II. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 3-25, IV 0-2 (-10), V 0-1) …..7

7      ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-6 as well as 1 and 7 with well-developed, hemispherical or conical MTu                                                                                                                                   …..8

-       ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with small papilliform MTu                                       …..9

8      R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II, with (2-) 3-4 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.2-1.8 Χ BD III                                                                                                    …..Aphis sediradicis*

-       R IV+V c. 1.2 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III c.0.5 Χ BD III

                                                                                                                           …..Aphis smirnovi*

9      SIPH pale with dark apices                                                                          …..Aphis nasturtii

-       SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                          …..10

10    Cauda black with 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and some dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femora with many fine hairs longer than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                 …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda pale or dark with 4-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dusky cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femoral hairs all much shorter than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                  …..11

11    ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3. SIPH 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda, which bears 4-6 hairs and is usually rather dark, only a little paler than SIPH                                                                      …..Aphis sedi

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.2. SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 4-8 hairs and is usually pale/dusky, markedly paler than SIPH                                                         …..Aphis gossypii

12    Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones . ANT III usually with numerous secondary rhinaria, and often some also on IV, or IV and V                         …..13

-       Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with or without a few (1-10) rhinaria on basal part, none on IV or V

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

13    Cauda usually with 7 hairs, rarely 6, 8 or 9. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4 (usually more than 8.4). ANT III with 5-36 rhinaria, IV and V with 0. SIPH without imbrication. Dorsal abdomen with paired intersegmental markings                                                  …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Cauda almost always with 5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.6-8.4. Sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 10-42, IV 0-21, V 0-4. SIPH with some imbrication. Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, fused between tergites to form a large dark patch     …..Nasonovia dasyphylli

 

Selaginella                                                  Selaginellaceae

      Selaginella sp.                              Pentalonia nigronervosa

 

Selenicereus                                                Cactaceae

      Selenicereus grandiflorus            Aphis craccivora, gossypii

 

Selenipedium  see Phragmipedium                            Orchidaceae

     Selenipedium vittatum = Phragmipedium vittatum

 

Selinum                                                       Apiaceae

      Selinum carvifolia                        Aphis fabae, selini; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, [cicutae];

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia, [crataegi]; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci, sphondylii

        S. pyrenaeum                               Cavariella aegopodii

        S. tenuifolium = S. wallichianum

        S. wallichianum                           Acyrthosiphon moltshanovi (?);

                                                              Dysaphis selinumi, [Dysaphis sp. (Chakrabarti 1972)];

                                                              [Hyalomyzus sp. (L.K. Ghosh 1977)]

Key to apterae on Selinum:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed process above the cauda, bearing 2 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.25                                                                           …..Cavariella aegopodii

-       No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE more than 2                                                      …..2

2      SIPH very small, less than 0.6 Χ cauda, flangeless, and usually curved towards midline

                                                                                                                             …..Semiaphis spp.

-       SIPH more than 0.6 Χ cauda, with an apical flange                                                          …..3

3      SIPH dark, clavate, 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda                                                   …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-       SIPH not as above                                                                                                             …..4

4      SIPH much shorter than HT II. ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 usually (?) with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                …..Aphis selini*

-       SIPH longer than HT II. MTu present or absent                                                               …..5

5      Cauda triangular or helmet-shaped (pentagonal), with 2-5 hairs. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                                                …..6

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, usually bearing 7 or more hairs                                     …..7 

6      Cauda triangular, 1.20-1.33 Χ its basal width, and bearing only 2-3 hairs. MTu often present on ABD TERG 2-4, but not 1 and 7                                                   ….. Dysaphis selinumi*

-       Cauda helmet-shaped/pentagonal, not longer than its basal width, with 5 hairs. MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5, and frequently also on ABD TERG 7                  …..Dysaphis apiifolia

7      Head smooth with broadly divergent ANT tubercles. SIPH thin, tapering, pale, without subapical reticulation, 1.0-1.3 Χ the thick, pale cauda. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II

                                                                                                         …..Acyrthosiphon moltshanovi

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Semenovia                                                   Apiaceae

     Semenovia rubtzovii                        Brachyunguis flexosiphon

     S. transiliensis                                 Cavariella pastinacae

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0. SIPH 0.5 Χ cauda or less. ABD TERG 8 without a supracaudal process                                                                    .....Brachyunguis flexosiphon

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0. SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with a supracaudal process                                                                           .....Cavariella pastinacae

(or go to key to apterae on Heracleum)

 

Semiaquilegia                                             Ranunculaceae

     Semiaquilegia adoxoides                Aulacorthum solani

 

Sempervivum                                               Crassulaceae

     Sempervivum Χfunckii                   Aphis sedi

     S. globiferum                                  [Aphis sempervivae]; Nasonovia ribisnigri

     S. heuffelii                                       Nasonovia dasyphylli

      S. kosaninii                                     Nasonovia ribisnigri

      S. soboliferum  = S. globiferum         

      S. tectorum                                      Aphis sedi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      Sempervivum sp.                            Aphis fabae; Nasonovia dasyphylli

See key to apterae on Sedum.

 

Senebiera                                                    Brassicaceae

     Senebiera pinnatifidia = Lepidium didymum

 

Senecio (including Kleinia)                                          Compositae

Note: many species formerly placed in Senecio are now placed in other genera, e.g. Jacobaea and Packera. We canot find any evidence that the aphid fauna of these genera differs, so there is still  a single key to apterae on Compositae of the Senecio group.       

      Senecio abrotanifolius                 Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

              (incl. ssp. tiroliensis)                    Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      S. adonidifolius                            Aphis jacobaeae; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                              Seneciobium balachowskyi

      S. affinis                                       Aphis craccivora

      S. alatus                                        Brachycaudus helichrysi

      S. alpinus                                      Brachycaudus cardui; Macrosiphum alpinum

        S. ambavilla                                  Aphis gossypii

      S. angulatus                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. anonymus                                Uroleucon ambrosiae, pseudambrosiae

        S. anthemidiphyllus                     Aphis senecionicoides

        S. aquaticus (incl. ssp.                     Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

                       barbareifolius)

        S. arenarius                                  Brachycaudus cardui

        S. argunensis                                Brachycaudus cardui

        S. asiaticus = Tephroseris praticola

        S. atratus                                      Aphis lugentis

        S. aureus (= Packera aurea)             Aphis gossypii, lugentis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pallidum;

                                                              Pemphigus sp. (as lactucae);

                                                              Uroleucon [eupatoricolens], pseudambrosiae

        S. barbertonicus                           Aphis gossypii

      S. biafrae = Solanecio biafrae

      S. bicolor (?)                                 Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Brachycaudus cardui

      S. bicolor ssp. cineraria = Jacobaea maritima

      S. bonariensis                               Aphis fabae

        S. borysthenicus                           Aphis jacobaeae

        S. bracteolatus                              Aphis papillosa; Pehuenchaphis agilissima

        S. brasiliensis                                Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. cacaliaster                                Aphis cacaliasteris, jacobaeae

        S. campestris = Senecio integrifolius

        S. cannabifolius                           Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Uroleucon sonchi (ssp. afghanicum?)

        S. canus (= Packera cana)                Aphis lugentis, senecionis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

        S. cappa                                        Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi                            

        S. carpetanus                                Aphis cacaliasteris (as ssp. helvetica)

      S. chrysanthemoides                    [Aphis verbasci]; Brachycaudus helichrysi

        S. cineraria = Jacobaea maritima    

      S. confusu