HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Sab-San

 

Sabia

Sabicea

Sabinea

Saccharum

Sageretia

“Saggina”

Sagina

Sagittaria

Saintpaulia

Salacca

Salicornia

SALIX

Salpichroa

Salsola

Salvia

Salvinia

Sambucus

Samolus

Sanchezia

Sanguinaria

Sanguisorba

Sanicula

Sanionia

Sannantha

Santalum

Santolina

Sanvitalia

 

 

 

Sabia                                                            Sabiaceae

      Sabia japonica                              [Akkaia taiwana]; [Mollitrichosiphum taiwanum]

 

Sabicea                                                        Rubiaceae

      Sabicea africana = Stipularia africana

      S. venosa                                       Aphis gossypii

 

Sabinea see Poitea                                                  Leguminosae

     Sabinea punicea = Poitea punicea

 

Saccharum (including Erianthus )                                Poaceae

        Saccharum narenga                     Rhopalosiphum maidis

      S. officinarum                               Anoecia corni; Aphis aurantii, gossypii;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Ceratovacuna lanigera, perglandulosa, sylvestrii;

                                                              Forda orientalis; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Melanaphis indosacchari, sacchari, sorghi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis,  javensis,[kalimpongensis], 

                                                                  nigriabdominalis

        S. ravennae                                   Geoica lucifuga; Paracletus cimiciformis; Sipha maydis

        S. sinense                                      Ceratovacuna lanigera

        S. spontaneum                              Ceratovacuna lanigera, [longifila]; Hysteroneura setariae

        S. strictum                                     Rhopalosiphum maidis

        Saccharum sp.                              Ceratovacuna perglandulosa; Melanaphis donacis;

                                                              Tetraneura radicicola

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

 

Sageretia                                                     Rhamnaceae

        Sageretia brandrethiana               Aphis frangulae

        S. theezans                                    Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

“Saggina” of del Guercio, 1913; probably Sorghum bicolor var. saccharatum

       

Sagina                                                          Caryophyllaceae

      Sagina crassicaulis = S. maxima ssp. crassicaulis

        S. maxima ssp. crassicaulis          [Staticobium loochooense]

        S. micrantha = S. saginoides           

      S. procumbens                              Myzus ascalonicus, certus, cymbalariae, persicae

        S. saginoides                                 Aulacorthum solani

Use key to apterae on Cerastium.

 

Sagittaria                                                     Alismataceae

      Sagittaria guayanensis              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. latifolia                                      Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. sagittifolia                                 Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, nymphaeae; Sipha glyceriae

        S. trifolia (incl. var. edulis)             Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to apterae on Sagittaria:-

1      Tergum heavily sclerotised with long spine-like hairs and numerous small denticles between the hairs. SIPH stump-like, cauda knobbed. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5

…..Sipha glyceriae

-       Tergum not sclerotic, dorsal hairs not spine-like. SIPH tubular, cauda tongue- or finger-shaped. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                                             …..2

2      SIPH dusky or dark and swollen on distal half. Dorsal cuticle with a reticulate pattern of bead-like spinules                                                                     .....Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Saintpaulia                                                  Gesneriaceae

        Saintpaulia diplotricha                 Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. ionantha                                   Aphis aurantii, gossypii; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Saintpaulia sp.                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Salacca                                                        Arecaceae

      Salacca edulis                               Astegopteryx nipae; Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on Calamus.

       

Salicornia                                                    Amaranthaceae

      Salicornia europaea                     [Sitobion alopecuri (as salicornii Richards)]

        Salicornia sp.                                Aphis salsolae

 

Salix                                     Willows                                 Salicaceae

Over 120 aphid species feed on Salix, the main genera being Chaitophorus (50+ species), Pterocomma (12 species) and Cavariella (21 species),the latter having host alternation between Salix and Umbellifereae or Araliaceae.  Although almost all willow-feeding aphids restrict themselves exclusively to the genus Salix there are no clear patterns of host specificity within the genus. Therefore, following the host plant list,  the aphids are keyed for the genus as a whole; the three main groups noted above are taken out at couplets 17-18 and keyed separately in supplementary keys A, B and C respectively.

Host List:-

 

        Salix abscondita                      Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus horii

        S. acmophylla                                           Bada, Bisu, Gadhbhains

                                                              Chaitophorus pakistanicus; Pterocomma pilosum;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. acuminata                          Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, gomesi, niger, salicti, truncatus;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosus, konoi, salicis

 

        S. acutifolia                                     Long-leaved Violet Willow, Sharp-Leaf Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa; Cavariella archangelicae, konoi;

                                                              Chaitophorus diversisetosus, niger, quinquemaculatus,

                                                                  ramicola;

                                                              Pterocomma flocculosa, jacksoni, konoi, rufipes

 

        S. aegyptiaca                          Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus ramicola, saliceti;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosum, salicis; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. alativica                             Pterocomma salicis

        S. alaxensis                            Pterocomma rufipes

        S. alba                                                       Pil, Vitpil, White Willow

           (incl. vars coerulea, sericea,           Aphis aurantii, [craccivora], farinosa, gossypii, roumanica;

                     vitellina)                       Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, archangelicae, konoi,

                                                                   nipponica, pastinacae, salicicola, salicis, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, crinitus, gomesi, israeliticus, niger,

                                                                   nigritus, [populeti], ramicola, salicti, truncatus,

                                                                   viminalis, viminicola, vitellinae, vitellinae ssp.

                                                                   danubicus;

                                                              Neopterocomma asiphum; Phylloxerina capreae, salicis;

                                                              Plocamaphis amerinae, flocculosa ssp.brachysiphon;

                                                              Pterocomma bicolor, chaetosiphon, jacksoni, konoi,

                                                                  pilosum, pilosum ssp. sarmaticum, [populeum],

                                                                  ringdahli, rufipes, salicis, smithiae;

                                                              Stomaphis [graffii], longirostris; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. alpina                                        Aphis farinosa; [Brachycaudus helichrysi]

        S. amplexicaulis = A. purpurea ssp. amplexicaulis

 

        S. amygdaloides                                        Peachleaf Willow

                                                              Chaitophorus pusillus; Macrosiphum californicum;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. apennina                                   Chaitophorus niger, quinquemaculatus, salicti, vitellinae

        S. appendiculata                      Aphis farinosa; Cavariella [cicutae], intermedia;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, pilosum, rufipes

        S. arbuscula                           Aphis farinosa; Cavariella intermedia; Pterocomma rufipes

        S. arbusculoides                      Aphis farinosa

        S. arbutifolia                          Cavariella salicicola; [Pterocomma baicalense];

                (= Chosenia arbutifolia)             Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. arctica                               Cavariella borealis

        S. argophylla = S. exigua

        S. argyracea                           Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, niger, ramicola, salicti;

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, rufipes; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. atrocinerea = S. acuminata

        S. aurita                                        Aphis farinosa;

                                                               Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, intermedia,

                                                                   konoi, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, niger, ramicola, salicti, truncatus;

                                                              Plocamaphis amerinae, flocculosa;

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, konoi, pilosum, rufipes, salicis;

 

        S. babylonica                                                         Weeping Willow

                                                              Aphis aurantii, [craccivora],  farinosa, gossypii, roumanica;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, [angelicae], archangelicae,

                                                                  aquatica, aspidaphoides, biswasi, [cicutae],

                                                                  indica, japonica, konoi, pastinacae, saliapterus,

                                                                                    salicicola, salicis, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, himalayensis,

                                                                  horii ssp. beuthani, niger, pakistanicus,

                                                                  populialbae, saliapterus, salijaponicus, saliniger,

                                                                  truncatus, viminalis, vitellinae;

                                                              Lachnus salicis; Macrosiphum californicum;

                                                              [Myzus persicae]; Neopterocomma asiphum;

                                                              Phylloxerina salicis; Plocamaphis salijaponica;

                                                              [Pterochloroides persicae];

                                                              Pterocomma bicolor, konoi, pilosum, rufipes,

                                                                  salicis, [salijaponica], sanguiceps;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. bakko (= S. caprea?)                Aphis farinosa; Cavariella salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus matsumurai, saliniger; Prociphilus oriens

        S. ืbalfouri                            Chaitophorus capreae

        S. bebbiana                            Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aquatica;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, saliapterus, salicti;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, rufipes, salicis, xerophilae

        S. bicolor                                       Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii

        S. brachypoda                         Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus niger

        S. breviserrata                         Aphis farinosa; Cavariella theobaldi

        S. caesia                                Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aquatica, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus salicti, truncatus;

                                                              Pterocomma salicis; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. ืcalodendron                      Chaitophorus horii ssp. beuthani

        S. canariensis                         Aphis farinosa; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. cantabrica                          Chaitophorus niger

        S. capensis                             Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. caprea                                                   Goat Willow, Sallow

                                                              Aphis farinosa, roumanica;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, intermedia,

                                                                  konoi, nipponica, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, [flavissimus], furcatus,

                                                                  horii, horii ssp. beuthani, [leucomelas], niger,

                                                                  quinquemaculatus, ramicola, salicti,

                                                                  salijaponicus, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              [Lachnus distinguendus Dahlbom 1851];

                                                              Neopterocomma asiphum;

                                                              Pachypappa warshavensis; Phylloxerina capreae;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa (incl. sspp. brachysiphon,

                                                                            goernitzi);

                                                              Pterocomma [baicalense], jacksoni, konoi, pilosum,

                                                                  [populeum], rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Stomaphis longirostris; Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. capusii                               Cavariella aquatica

        S. cardiophylla                        Aphis gossypii; Pterocomma rufipes

        S. carmanica                                 Pterocomma pilosum; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. caroliniana                               Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus longipes, minutus;

                                                              Phylloxerina sp.; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. caspica                              [Aphis craccivora];

                                                              Chaitophorus quinquemaculatus, salicti;

                                                              Pterocomma rufipes, xerophilae; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. chaenomeloides                   Aphis farinosa (incl. ssp. yanagicola);

                                                              Cavariella salicicola; Chaitophorus saliniger;

                                                              Plocamaphis coreana; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. chinensis = S. babylonica

        S. chlorostachya = S. rhamnifolia

        S. chrysostela (?)                    Cavariella aegopodii

 

        S. cinerea                                                  Grey Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, intermedia,

                                                                  japonica, konoi, pastinacae, rutila, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, crinitus, gomesi,

                                                                  horii ssp. beuthani, niger, ramicola, salicti,

                                                                  salijaponicus, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Phylloxerina salicis;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa (incl. sspp. brachysiphon, goernitzi);

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, konoi, pilosum, rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. coerulea see S. alba                 

        S. cordata                              Chaitophorus nigrae, viminalis

        S. crassijulis                           Plocamaphis coreana

        S. cupularis                            Aspidophorodon cornuatus

        S. cuspidata                            Cavariella pastinacae; Pterocomma rufipes

 

        S. daphnoides                                           Violet Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa (incl. ssp. yanagicola);

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, archangelicae, [cicutae];

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, salicti, vitellinae;

                                                              Phylloxerina daphnoides; Pterocomma konoi, pilosum;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. dasyclados see S. smithiana

        S. decipiens                            Cavariella konoi; Pterocomma rufipes

        S. denticulata = S. elegans

        S. dependens                          Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. ืdichroa                            Cavariella archangelicae

 

        S. discolor                                               American Pussy Willow

                                                              Chaitophorus pallipes, pusillus; Phylloxerina salicola;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. dodgeana (?)                             Thecabius populimonilis

 

        S. drupifolia (?)                       Cavariella salicicola

        S. dshugdshurica                     Chaitophorus saliapterus; Pterocomma rufipes

        S. elaeagnos = S. incana

        S. elegans                                      [Aiceona longisetosa]; [Aphis punicae];

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, biswasi, japonica, nigrae,

                                                                  salicicola;

                                                              Ericolophium dubium

        S. elegantissima                     Chaitophorus niger; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. erdingeri                                 Aphis farinosa

        S. eriocarpa                                   Cavariella salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus salijaponicus, saliniger;

                                                              [Pseudomegoura magnoliae]

        S. eriophylla = S. psilostigma

        S. erythroclados                     Aphis farinosa; Cavariella theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus niger, vitellinae; Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. exigua                                                   Sandbar Willow

                                                              Cavariella pustula;

                                                              Chaitophorus macrostachyae, viminalis;

                                                              Pterocomma sanguiceps

        S. expectata                                 Chaitophorus niger

 

        S. fluviatilis (?)                                          River Willow

                                                              Chaitophorus nigrae, populicola;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. fragilis                                                   Crack Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa, [spiraecola];

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, [cicutae],

                                                                   konoi, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii ssp. beuthani, niger,

                                                                  quinquemaculatus, salicti, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Lachnus longirostrum; [Myzus ornatus];

                                                              [Neomyzus circumflexus]; Neopterocomma asiphum;

                                                              Pemphigus saliciradicis; Phylloxerina salicis;

                                                              Plocamaphis amerinae, flocculosa ssp. goernitzi;

                                                              Pterocomma chaetosiphon, jacksoni, konoi,

                                                                  pilosum, [populeum], rufipes, salicis, smithiae;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

        S. fulvopubescens                         Cavariella ?aegopodii, japonica

        S. fuscescens                                 Pterocomma rufipes

        S. gilgiana                                     Aphis farinosa; Cavariella salicicola; Chaitophorus horii

        S. glabra                                        Aphis farinosa; Cavariella intermedia

        S. glandulosa = S. chaenomeloides

        S. glauca                                       Aphis farinosa; Cavariella archangelicae, konoi;

                                                              Chaitophorus lapponum; Pterocomma rufipes, smithiae

        S. graciliglans                         Chaitophorus saliniger; Plocamaphis coreana

        S. gracilistyla (incl. var.               Aphis farinosa;

                            melanostachys)           Cavariella archangelicae, konoi, nipponica, salicicola,

                                                                  theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus hokkaidensis, niger, saliniger;

                                                              Pterocomma rufipes, [salijaponica];

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. hallaisanensis                      Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. hastata                                      Aphis farinosa; [Plocamaphis sp.]; Pterocomma pilosum

        S. herbacea                                   Cavariella aegopodii; Pemphigus saliciradicis

        S. hirsuta                                       Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. hultenii                                      Aphis farinosa ssp. yanagicola

        S. humboldtiana                      Cavariella aegopodii; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. humilis                                     Phylloxerina salicola

         S. iliensis                                      Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, niger, ramicola, vitellinae;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosum; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. incana (incl. S. elaeagnos)         Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, horii ssp. beuthani, salicti,

                                                                 similis;

                                                              Phylloxerina daphnoides;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, pilosum, salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. integra                                      Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii, nipponica;

                                                              Chaitophorus matsumurai, saliapterus,

                                                                  salijaponicus, saliniger

         S. irrorata                                     Cavariella archangelicae; Chaitophorus nigrae

         S. kangensis                                 Cavariella konoi, nipponica

         S. kinuyanagi                               Cavariella nipponica;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, saliapterus

         S. kirilowiana                               Cavariella archangelicae;

                                                              Chaitophoris capreae, niger, ramicola;

                                                              Pterocomma salicis; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. kochiana                                  Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus vitellinae

         S. koreensis                                  Cavariella salicicola; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. koriyanagi                                Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, konoi, nipponica, salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, saliapterus, salijaponicus;

                                                              Plocamaphis coreana; [Pterocomma salijaponica];

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. laevigata                                   Cavariella pastinacae;

                                                              Chaitophorus macrostachyae, monelli, nigrae,

                                                                   salicorticis;

                                                              Fullawaya saliciradicis; Macrosiphum californicum;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. lanata                                       Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae;

                                                              Chaitophorus lapponum, truncatus;

                                                              Phylloxerina ?capreae;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, groenlandicum

         S. lapponum                                [Acyrthosiphon brachysiphon]; Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, archangelicae,

                                                                  theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, horii ssp. beuthani,

                                                                  lapponum;

                                                              Plocamaphis amerinae ssp. borealis;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosum, rufipes, salicis

 

         S. lasiandra                                              Pacific Willow

                                                              Cavariella konoi, pastinacae; Macrosiphm californicum;

                                                              Pterocomma ?populeum, smithiae;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

         S. lasiolepis                                              Arroyo Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Chaitophorus monelli, nigrae;

                                                              Macrosiphum californicum; Phylloxerina salicola;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. laurina                                     Chaitophorus niger

         S. ledebouriana                            Chaitophorus capreae; Pterocomma konoi, rufipes, salicis

         S. legionensis                             Chaitophorus niger

         S. livida                                        Cavariella aquatica; Chaitophorus niger, truncatus

         S. longifolia                                  Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Chaitophorus abditus, nigrae, viminalis;

                                                              Fullawaya saliciradicis;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, salicis

         S. longipes = S. caroliniana         

 

         S. lucida                                                   Shining Willow

                                                              Cavariella pastinacae, salicis; Chaitophorus viminalis;

                                                              Pterocomma rufipes, salicis

 

         S. lutea                                         Aphis farinosa; Macrosiphum californicum;

                                                              Pterocomma bicolor

         S. macrolepis = S. arbutifolia

         S. macropoda = S. bebbiana

         S. macrostachya                          Chaitophorus crucis, macrostachyae;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. magnifica                                 Aphis farinosa; Plocamaphis flocculosa

         S. matsudana                               Aphis farinosa (incl. ssp. yanagicola);

                 (incl. var. tortuosa)                [Aspidophorodon sinisalicis], Cavariella salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus truncatus;

                                                              [Pachpappa tortuosae (?vagrant sexupara)];

                                                              Pterocomma salicis; Stomaphis sinisalicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. medenii                                    Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae

         S. melanopsis                               Chaitophorus macrostachyae

         S. melanostachys see S. gracilistyla

         S. micans                                     Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus vitellinae;

                                                              [Pterocomma populeum]

         S. michelsonii                              Chaitophorus niger

         S. miyabeana                               Cavariella salicicola; Chaitophorus saliniger

         S. multidentata                          Aphis farinosa

         S. multinervis = S. integra             

         S. myrsinifolia = S. nigricans         

         S. myrsinites                                 Chaitophorus pentandrinus

         S. myrtillifolia                              Aphis farinosa

         S. myrtilloides                              Aphis farinosa

         S. neotricha                                  Cavariella theobaldi; Chaitophorus niger, vitellinae;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi

 

         S. nigra                                                    Black Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae,  salicis;

                                                              Chaitophorus nigrae, viminalis, viminicola;

                                                              Pterocomma smithiae

 

         S. nigricans                                  Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aquatica, archangelicae, konoi,

                                                                   pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, lapponum, nigricantis,

                                                                   salicti, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. goernitzi;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosum, [populeum], rufipes, salicis

         S. nipponica                                 Cavariella salicicola; Chaitophorus saliniger

         S. onusta                                    Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii

         S. parallelinervis                          Plocamaphis coreana; Pterocomma salicis

         S. pedicellata                                Pterocomma pilosum; [Pterochloroides persicae];

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

 

         S. pentandra                                          Bay Willow, Sweet Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, [cicutae],

                                                                  konoi, pastinacae, salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, niger, pentandrinus,

                                                                   quinquemaculatus, salicti, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, pilosum, rufipes, salicis

         S. phylicifolia                         Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, archangelicae,

                                                                   intermedia, konoi, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus lapponum, nigricantis, ramicola,

                                                                  salijaponicus ssp. stroyani, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, pilosum, rufipes, salicis

         S. pierotii                                      Chaitophorus saliniger; Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. polaris                                      Pemphigus saliciradicis; Sitobion calvulum

         S. pseudolasiogyne                      Cavariella salicicola; Chaitophorus saliciniger;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

         S. pseudomedemii                        Aphis farinosa

         S. pseudosalvifolia                 Chaitophorus capreae

         S. pseudotangii                            Aspidophorodon salicis

         S. psilostigma                               Cavariella sp.

  

         S. purpurea (incl. sspp.                               Purple Osier

             amplexicaulis, lambertiana)         Aphis farinosa, gossypii, roumanica;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica, archangelicae, [cicutae],

                                                                  konoi, pastinacae, rutila, salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, diversitosus ssp. austriacus,                                                                          gomesi, horii ssp. beuthani, mordvilkoi, niger,

                                                                  nigricantis, parvus, [purpureae], quinquemaculatus,

                                                                  salicti, truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Plocamaphis amerinae;

                                                              Pterocomma italica, jacksoni, konoi, pilosum,

                                                                  rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. pycnostachya                            Cavariella aquatica, pastinacae; Chaitophorus niger;

                                                              Pterocomma rufipes, xerophilae

        S. pyrenaica                                  Aphis farinosa

        S. pyrolifolia                                  Aphis farinose; Cavariella theobaldi; Pterocomma konoi

        S. repens                                       Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, hypogaeus, mordvilkoi,

                                                                 niger, parvus, ramicola, salicti, truncatus;

                                                              Neopterocomma verhoeveni;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. brachysiphon,

                                                                  flocculosa ssp. goernitzi;

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, konoi, pilosum, rufipes,

                                                                  salicis

        S. reticulata                                   [Pemphigus groenlandicus]

        S. retusa                                        Cavariella aegopodii; Pterocomma rufipes

        S. rhamnifolia                               Cavariella aegopodii

        S. rockii                                         [Aspidophorodon sinisalicis]

        S. rorida                                        Aphis farinosa (incl. ssp. yanagicola);

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, konoi, nipponica, pastinacae,

                                                                   salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, lapponum, ramicola, saliapterus;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, salicis; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. rossica = S. viminalis

        S. rosmarinifolia                           Chaitophorus truncatus

        S. rotundifolia                               Pterocomma jacksoni

        S. rubens                                     Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus niger;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. sachalinensis = S. udensis          

        S. salvifolia                                    Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus gomesi

        S. schwerinii                                 Aphis farinosa; Cavariella nipponica;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, niger;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, rufipes, salicis

        S. scouleriana                               Aphis farinosa; Macrosiphum californicum;

                                                              Pterocomma salicis

        S. sepulcralis                               Aphis farinosa

        S. sericea see S. alba

        S. sieboldiana                                Cavariella nipponica; Chaitophorus matsumurai, saliniger

        S. silesiaca                                     Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, rutila;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae; Pachypappa warshavensis;

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, rufipes

        S. sinopurpureae(?)                      [Pterocomma purpureae?]

        S. sitchensis                                              Sitka Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa

                                                              Pterocomma smithiae

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S.smithiana                                Aphis farinosa;

                  (incl. S. dasyclados)              Chaitophorus capreae, horii ssp. beuthani,

                                                                  [purpureae?], salicti;

                                                              Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. macrosiphon;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. songarica                                  Cavariella aegopodii, aquatica; Chaitophorus niger;

                                                              [Pterocomma populeum]

        S. stipularis                                 Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. subfragilis                                 Cavariella salicicola

        S. subopposita                               Cavariella aegopodii

        S. taraikensis                                 Aphis farinosa

        S. tenuijulis                                   Chaitophorus niger, salicti, truncatus

 

        S. tetrasperma                                           Indian Willow, Jalmola

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Chaitophorus himalayensis, pakistanicus;

                                                              Ericolophium dubium; Lachnus salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. tianschanica                             Aphis farinosa; Chaitophorus niger, salicti;

                                                              Pterocomma salicis

        S. tinctoria                                  Cavariella archangelicae, pastinacae

 

        S. triandra (incl. ssp. discolor)                      Almond-Leaved Willow

                                                              Aphis farinosa;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, [cicutae], konoi,

                                                                  pastinacae, salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus capreae, horii ssp. beuthani, niger,

                                                                 nigricantis, quinquemaculatus, ramicola, salicti,

                                                                 truncatus, vitellinae;

                                                              Macrosiphum californicum; Plocamaphis flocculosa;

                                                              Pterocomma chaetosiphon, jacksoni, konoi,

                                                                  pilosum, [populeum], rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. turanica                                    Aphis farinosa; Cavariella aegopodii, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus lapponum, niger, shaposhnikovi;

                                                              Pterocomma pilosum; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. udensis                                      [Acyrthosiphon kapustjanae]; Aphis farinosa, gossypii;

                                                              Aspidophorodon salicis;

                                                              Cavariella hidaensis, japonica, nipponica,

                                                                   salicicola;

                                                              Chaitophorus horii, saliapterus; Prociphilus oriens;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, rufipes, salicis

        S. urbaniana                                 Cavariella aquatica; [Pemphigus yanagi Shinji 1928]

 

        S. viminalis                                               Basket Willow, Common Osier

                                                              Aphis farinosa, roumanica; Aspidophorodon salicis;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, intermedia,

                                                                   pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Chaitophorus [brunealineata], capreae, gomesi, horii,

                                                                  horii ssp. beuthani, morvilkoi, niger, parvus, ramicola,

                                                                  salicti, truncatus, viminalis, vitellinae;

                                                              Phylloxerina capreae; Plocamaphis amerinae, flocculosa;

                                                              Pterocomma jacksoni, konoi, pilosum, [populeum],

                                                                  rufipes, salicis;

                                                              Stomaphis longirostris; Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. vitellina see S. alba                                           

        S. wallichiana                               [Macrosiphum stellariae];

                                                              Prociphilus (Neoparacletus) ghanii

        S. warburgii                                  Aphis aurantii, farinosa (incl. ssp. yanagicola), gossypii;

                                                              Cavariella araliae, salicicola;

                                                              [Chaitophorus aquasalignus Zhang, Qiao & Chen (in

                                                                     G. Zhang 1999 - alata only)];

                                                              Tuberolachnus salignus

        S. wardiana                                   Cavariella archangelicae

        S. wilhelmsiana                            Aphis farinosa; Cavariella theobaldi;

                                                              Pterocomma konoi, [populeum]

        S. xerophila                                   Pterocomma xerophilae

        S. yezoalpina                                 Tuberolachnus salignus

        Salix spp. (unidentified)            [Acyrthosiphon hamiense Zhang, Chen, Zhong & Li 1999];

                                                              [Aleurodaphis blumeae]; [Aphis spiraecola]

                                                              Aspidophorodon harvensis, obtusus;

                                                              [Bituberculaphis inexpectata Rusanova 1943];

                                                              Brevicoryne fraterna;

                                                              Cavariella aspidaphoides, bhutanensis, cessana,

                                                                  digitata, gilgiana, japonica, pustula, takahashii;

                                                              Chaitophorus [acupilus Zhang, Qiao & Chen (in G.                                                                              Zhang 1999 - alata only)], [dabanchengus],

                                                                  [dulciculus] eoessigi, israeliticus, knowltoni,

                                                                  macgillivrayae, manaliensis, nigricentrus, nigritus,

                                                                  pustulatus, remaudierei, saliciniger, shaposhnikovi,

                                                                  [tumurensis Zhang in Zhang & Zhong 1985a (alata)];

                                                              [Elatobium salicifoliae]; [Eriosoma yangi, yangiparasitica];

                                                              Fullawaya bradleyi, braggii, bulbosa, terricola;

                                                              Lachnus [salicellis Fitch 1851], tatakaensis, yunlangensis;

                                                              [Lambersaphis pruinosa]; Longistigma xizangensis;

                                                              Paducia antennata, aterrima;

                                                              Plocamaphis [assetacea], martini;

                                                              Pterocomma [henanense], [salicicola (Uhler 1862)],

                                                                  saliciphagum, salicis ssp. rohdendorfi, [tibetasalicis];

                                                              [Tranaphis syriaca B๖rner ex Bodenheimer 1937]

Main key to willow-feeding aphids (refers to apterous viviparae only except where otherwise stated):-

1     Body very small (BL less than 1.24 mm), pear-shaped, broadest anteriorly.  Antenna 3-segmented.  Spinal, pleural amd marginal wax pore plates on all thoracic and abdominal segments. (All morphs oviparous)                                                                                      .....2

 -     BL usually more than 1.25 mm.  Antenna 5- or 6-segmented.  Wax glands present or absent but never in a complete series on all segments. (Parthenogenetic females viviparous)      .....3

2     R IV+V elongate, 5-6ื its basal width and a little longer than antenna. Facets of wax pore plates polygonal with subdivisions (fig. 100A). Prothorax usually with a hair-bearing supplementary wax pore plate between the spinal and pleural wax pore plates on each side, sometimes fused with the spinal wax pore plate, which then appears to be extended laterally and includes 2 hairs                                                                               .....Phylloxerina salicis

 -     R IV+V 2.5-3.5ื its basal width and a little shorter than antenna. Facets of wax pore plates rounded (fig. 100B). Prothorax usually without a supplementary wax pore plate between the spinal and pleural wax pore plates

.....Phylloxerina capreae or daphnoidis or salicola*

3     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.7                                                                                              .....4

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7                                                                        .....16

4     SIPH tubular, swollen on distal third. (ABD TERG 8 with a triangular supracaudal process similar to cauda. BL less than 2 mm)                                                  …..Cavariella gilgiana*

-      SIPH either as large pores on broad hairy cones, or absent. (No supracaudal process, and BL usually much greater than 2 mm)                                                                                       …..5

5     SIPH present as large pores on broad pigmented cones with numerous hairs. Eyes multifaceted                                                                                                                        .....6

 -     SIPH absent.  Eyes as triommatidia                                                                                 .....13

6     Rostrum much longer than body                                                                                         ....7

 -     Rostrum much shorter than body                                                                                       .....8

7     ANT VI a little shorter than ANT V.  ANT III with 1-12 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV with 4-10                                                                                         .....Stomaphis longirostris

 -     ANT VI about 1.6 ื ANT V.  ANT III without secondary rhinaria and ANT IV with 1-4

.....Stomaphis sinisalicis*

8     Abdomen with a large dark spinal tubercle                                    .....Tuberolachnus salignus

 -     Abdomen without a spinal tubercle                                                                                    .....9

9     BL more than 5.5 mm.  Alata with pterostigma elongate, curved around tip of forewing

.....Longistigma xizangensis*

 -     BL less than 5.5 mm.  Alata (where known) with a short pterostigma                            .....10

10   Dorsal abdomen with transverse rows of large black circular sclerites., about 6 per tergite

.....Lachnus tatakensis

-      Dorsal abdomen without tranverse rows of round black sclerites                                    .....11

11   ANT III (of aptera) with 11-15 secondary rhinaria, IV with 4-8 and V with 0-2. R IV with 24-32 accessory hairs                                                                       .....Lachnus yunlangensis*

 -     ANT III with 0-1 secondary rhinaria, IV with 0-4 and V with 0-1. R IV with about 10 accessory hairs                                                                                                                  .....12

12   R IV+V 0.42-0.51 ื HT II                                                                          .....Lachnus salicis

 -     R IV+V 0.61-0.68 ื HT II                                                                .....Lachnus longirostrum

13   Hairs on antennae and legs long; e.g. those on ANT III longer than basal diameter of segment. Abdomen with only marginal wax pore plates ever well developed                .....14

 -     Hairs on appendages short and sparse. Posterior abdominal tergites with well-developed spinal and pleural wax pore plates                                                                                    .....15

14   Body hairs short, hairs on antennae and legs very long and fine. R IV+V about as long as HT II.  Marginal abdominal wax pore plates well developed. Anal plate forming

       a ring around cauda                                                                                 .....Prociphilus oriens

 -     Hairs on body, legs and antennae of similar size, all with rather thick bases.  R IV+V 1.4-1.5ื HT II.  Marginal abdominal wax pore plates poorly developed, possibly represented by small round membranous areas on each tergite.  Anal plate wholly below cauda

.....Prociphilus ghanii

15   R IV+V acute, longer than HT II, which is without spinules and appears fused to HT I.  Antenna 5-segmented, with PT shorter than its basal diameter

.....Pachypappa warshavensis

 -     R IV+V blunt, shorter than HT II which is spinulose and has a functional articulation with HT I.  Antenna 6-segmented, with PT at least as long as its basal width

.....Pemphigus saliciradicis (= Thecabius populimonilis? – see text)

16   Body usually rather densely clothed with either long and fine, or thick, hairs; if hairs are rather short and sparse mid-dorsally then the antennae, legs and cauda are all densely hairy

.....17

 -     Body hairs sparse and usually rather short, at least dorsally                                            .....18

17   Small to medium-sized (BL 1.5-2.6 mm).  SIPH stump-shaped, usually with reticulate sculpturing (fig. 103).  Cauda either knobbed, rounded or bluntly triangular, with 6-14 hairs

.....Chaitophorus spp. - KEY A

 -     Medium to large (BL 2.0-4.5 mm).  SIPH almost cylindrical or swollen, usually without reticulate sculpturing (see fig. 106).  Cauda either rounded or bluntly triangular with about 20-60 hairs, or tongue-shaped with a constriction and fewer hairs (in which case SIPH are dark and strongly swollen and antennae are 4-segmented)

.....Pterocomma and related genera - KEY B

18   ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed supracaudal process bearing a pair of hairs near apex (fig. 107)                                                                              .....Cavariella spp. - KEY C

 -     ABD TERG 8 without a supracaudal process                                                                  .....19

19   Antennal tubercles with forwardly-directed processes on either side of well-developed median tubercle, and ANT I also with projecting inner face. Antenna 4- or 5-segmented.  SIPH thin and flangeless, spoon-shaped, obliquely truncated at apex (fig. 101A)         .....20

 -     Antennal tubercles developed or undeveloped, without processes. Antenna usually

       6-segmented.  SIPH not spoon-shaped, with a flange                                                     .....23

20   Marginal processes, each with a small apical hair, present on thoracic and abdominal tergites                                                                                                                                          .....21

-      Marginal processes absent                                                                                                .....22

21   Processes on ANT tubercles very long, horn-shaped, more than 4 ื basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.25                                        .....Aspidophorodon cornuatus*

-      Processes on ANT tubercles short and cylindrical with blunt apices, less than 2 ื basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE less than 1                      .....Aspidophorodon obtusus* 

22   Processes on antennal tubercles not much longer than their basal widths, only slightly longer than median tubercle, which is bilobed (fig. 101B). Hairs on frontal processes, and on ABD TERG 8, blunt or pointed                                                               .....Aspidophorodon salicis

 -     Processes on antennal tubercles more than 2ื longer than median tubercle, which is not bilobed (fig. 101C). Hairs on frontal processes and ABD TERG 8 slightly capitate

.....Aspidophorodon harvensis

23   SIPH usually dark                                                                                                            .....24

 -     SIPH pale at least at base, if rather dark then with subapical polygonal reticulation      .....25

24   ANT PT/BASE 3.5 or more.  Cauda dark with 10-26 hairs. Stridulatory apparatus present (fig. 122)                                                                                     .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.2.  Cauda paler than SIPH, with 4-9 hairs. No stridulatory apparatus

.....Aphis gossypii

25   ANT PT/BASE 0.75-0.90. SIPH short, swollen in middle                 .....Brevicoryne fraterna

 -     ANT PT/BASE 1.6-7.5. SIPH not swollen in middle                                                      .....26

26   Antennal tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped. Cauda darker than SIPH.

       ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.5                                                                                                    .....27

 -     Antennal tubercles moderately to well developed, with divergent inner faces, so that outline of front of head is U- or W-shaped. Cauda pale. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-7.5                      .....29

27   ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles. R IV+V shorter than HT II and bearing 4-6 accessory hairs. SIPH with a slight inward curve and some rather indistinct subapical reticulation                                                                                              …..Sitobion calvulum

-      At least ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles. R IV+V shorter or longer than HT II and bearing 2 accessory hairs. SIPH straight or with a slightly outward curve and no trace of subapical reticulation                                                                    …..28

28   R IV+V 1.03-1.25ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 each with 2-3 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 2, or rarely 3-4, hairs                                                               .....Aphis farinosa

-      R IV+V 0.93-1.07ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 each with 5-11 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 4-7 hairs                                                                    .....Aphis roumanica

29   ANT PT/BASE 6.5-7.5  SIPH darkened distally with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                 .....Macrosiphum californicum

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.1-4.5  SIPH wholly pale with no distinct zone of polygonal reticulation

.....30

30   ANT III with 1-5 secondary rhinaria.  ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.5  SIPH 1.00-1.32ื cauda

.....Acyrthosiphon aurlandicum*

 -     ANT III without rhinaria.  ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.6  SIPH 2.5-3.5ื cauda                     .....31

31   Antenna more than 0.75ื BL, with ANT III longer than head width across (and including) eyes                                                                                                    .....Ericolophium dubium

 -     Antenna less than 0.7ื BL, with ANT III about 0.5 ื head width across eyes

.....Cavariella hidaensis

 

KEY A-  Chaitophorus spp. on Salix (apterous viviparae only, except where otherwise stated).

 

 1    Cauda broadly rounded, less than 0.6ื its basal width, without any trace of a constriction (fig. 102A)                                                                                                                          .....2

 -     Cauda either with a distinctly knobbed apex, or bluntly conical with or without a slight midway constriction; more than 0.6ื its basal width in dorsal view (e.g. figs 102B-D)  .....7

 2    ANT BASE VI with 7-14 hairs.  R IV with 11-20 accessory hairs.  ANT PT/BASE usually less than 1                                                                                           .....macrostachyae group

 -     ANT BASE VI with 2-5 hairs.  R IV with 2-8 accessory hairs.  ANT PT/BASE usually more than 1                                                                                                                         .....3

 3    Tergum ornamented with numerous small rounded nodules                                .....pustulatus

 -     Tergum with mainly imbricate and at least partly reticulate ornamentation                       .....4

 4    Hind femora much darker than tergum.  R IV with 6-8 accessory hairs.  Dorsal pigmentation rather uniform with darker intersegmental markings                                             .....utahensis

 -     Hind femora as pale as or paler than tergum.  R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs.  Dorsal pigmentation either pale or only regionally pigmented                                                      .....5

 5    Tergum entirely pale.  Hairs on ANT III mainly thick, stiff and blunt (fig. 102E).  First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                                  .....crucis

 -     Tergum regionally pigmented.  Hairs on ANT III mostly long and fine-pointed (e.g. fig. 102F).  First tarsal segments with 7 (or rarely 6) hairs                                                       .....6

 6    Tergum dark laterally and usually with a distinct pale central area                     .....saliciniger

 -     Tergum paler laterally, with dark brown central area                                         .....nigricentris

 7    ANT III with only 0-4 hairs, the longest of which are only 5-20 ตm long (fig. 102G)     .....8

 -     ANT III with 2-30 hairs, but if 4 or less then the longest are 30-100 ตm long                  .....9

 8    BL 1.8-2.1ื maximum body width.  ABD TERG 1-5 each with only 0-12 smaller accessory hairs between the long spinal, pleural and marginal pairs, and mostly forming a single row with them (fig. 103A)                                                                                              .....capreae

 -     Body narrower; BL 2.1-2.5ื maximum body width.  ABD TERG 1-5 each with 12-30 smaller accessory hairs, some in an additional row anterior to the large primary hairs (fig. 103B)

.....horii

 9    Abdominal tergum membranous and mainly pale except for dusky scleroites at bases of spinal and pleural hairs, marginal sclerites and transverse bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8.  Dorsal body hairs very long and pointed                                                            .....hypogaeus

 -     Abdominal tergum sclerotic, pale or pigmented, with usually at least ABD TERG 2-6 fused together.  Dorsal body hairs variable                                                                                .....10

10   Hind tibia slightly swollen ventrally near base, with a group of 2-17 small circular ?scent plaques (fig. 103C).  Tergum dark, with nodulose ornamentation                         .....saliniger

 -     Hind tibia without a basal swollen part bearing ?scent plaques.  Tergum pale or dark, ornamentation variable                                                                                                     .....11

11   Cauda bluntly conical, often with an indentation or constriction partially delimiting a tongue-shaped or rounded apical part, but with the width at the constriction not usually less than 0.8ื the maximum diameter of the apical part (e.g. figs 102C, D; examine several specimens)

.....12

 -     Cauda always with a distinct constriction or neck dividing it into a triangular basal part and a globular apical knob, with the width at the constriction less than 0.8ื the maximal diameter of the knob (fig. 102B)                                                                                                     .....20

12   ANT BASE VI with 2-4 hairs, but usually with 3 hairs (examine several specimens). Tergum ornamented with separate small nodules. (R IV+V 1.05-1.20ื HT II; ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.2; dorsal body hairs long, 100-160 ตm; dorsum pale in spring and early summer, with dark pleural bands in late summer)                                                                                 .....vitellinae

 -     ANT BASE VI with 2, or rarely 3, hairs.  Tergum variously ornamented, and without the above characters in that combination                                                                               .....13

13   Tergum pale.  Dorsal body hairs mostly with furcate apices                                            .....14

 -     Tergum usually dark, either totally or with a paler spinal region.  Dorsal body hairs usually with pointed apices                                                                                                           .....16

14   R IV+V less than 0.8ื HT II                                                                                   .....monelli

 -     R IV+V at least 0.9ื HT II                                                                                              .....15

15   ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.3, R IV+V 1.1-1.3 ื HT II                                         .....shaposhnikovi

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.5, R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II                                                 .....furcatus

16   ABD TERG 1-6 all fused                                                                                                 .....17

 -     ABD TERG 1 separate, 2-6 fused or separate                                                                 .....18

17   SIPH unpigmented, with a clear surrounding area. ABD TERG 1-8 all with pale spinal areas

.....pallipes

-      SIPH dusky, without any clear surrounding area (fig. 103D). ABD TERG 1-5 often with clear spinal areas in heavily pigmented specimens, but then ABD TERG 7 and 8 are always evenly pigmented                                                                                   .....nigrae group (part)

18   ABD TERG 2 separate from 3, and ABD TERG 3-6 often with separate or only partially fused bands.  R IV+V 1.0-1.3 ื HT II                                                                  .....ramicola

 -     ABD TERG 2-6 usually wholly or partially fused; if separate in some specimens then R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II                                                                                                      .....19

19   R IV with 3-6 accessory hairs (most commonly 4).  First tarsal segments most commonly with 5 hairs                                                                                                                .....parvus

 -     R IV with 2 accessory hairs.  First tarsal segments most commonly with 7 hairs

.....mordvilkoi

20   ABD TERG 1 fused with 2-6                                                                                         ......21

 -     ABD TERG 1 separate from 2-6                                                                                      .....29

21   ABD TERG 1-6 with a pattern of reticulate imbrication, at least on pleural areas.  Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly long and pointed (fig. 103D)                           .....nigrae group (part)

 -     Ornamentation of ABD TERG 1-6 not reticulate, usually consisting of separate small nodules or spicules, sometimes smooth.  Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or bifurcate    .....22

22   R IV+V short, less than 1.5ื its basal width, 0.6-0.8 ื HT II                                        .....23

 -     R IV+V more than 1.5ื its basal width, 0.9-1.4 ื HT II                                                .....25

23   First tarsal segments with 6-7 hairs (rarely 5 on some tarsi).  Body and appendages pale or variably pigmented                                                                         .....viminalis (or purpureae)

-      First tarsal segments mostly with 5 hairs, sometimes 6, rarely 7 on some tarsi.  Body and appendages always pale                                                                                                   ......24

24   Hairs on ANT VI BASE rather short, the longer of the two up to about 2 ื basal diameter of ANT III. ABD TERG 7 and 8 each with a single row of hairs (except that medial hair is displaced anteriorly)                                                                                                 .....pusillus

-      Longest hair on ANT BASE VI 2.5 or more ื basal diameter of ANT III. ABD TERG 7 and 8 each with two rows of hairs, the anterior row of each with at least 3 hairs

.....macgillivrayae*

25   Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT BASE V usually bearing only a single, short hair

.....minutus

 -     Antennae 6-segmented, ANT BASE VI with 2-3 hairs                                                   .....26

26   R IV+V 0.90-0.95 ื HT II, and always with only 2 accessory hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with bifurcate apices                                                                                    .....eoessigi

 -     R IV+V 1.0-1.4 ื HT II, with 2-15 accessory hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs with either bifurcate or pointed apices                                                                                               .....27

27   All femora dark.  R IV+V 1.2-1.4 ื HT II, with 3-15 accessory hairs.  Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with bifurcate apices                                                                           .....longipes

 -     Either all femora pale, or fore femora paler than mid and hind femora.  R IV+V 1.0-1.2 ื HT II, with 2-4 accessory hairs.  Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with pointed apices           .....28

28   Mid and hind femora very dark.  ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.2                                  .....viminicola

 -     Mid and hind femora pale or dusky.  ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.8                        .....hokkaidensis

29   First tarsal segments usually with 6-7 hairs (but occasionally 5 on some or even all tarsi of some specimens)                                                                                                               .....30

 -     First tarsal segments normally with 5, or occasionally with 6, hairs                                 .....39

30   ANT VI BASE with 3-4 hairs which have blunt or expanded apices.  R IV+V 1.05-1.20 ื HT II, with R IV bearing 5-7 accessory hairs                                .....vitellinae ssp. danubicus

 -     ANT VI BASE with 2-3 hairs with pointed apices.  R IV+V 0.60-1.05ื HT II, with R IV bearing 2-6 accessory hairs                                                                                               .....31

31   SIPH dark, at least apically                                                                                              .....32

 -     SIPH pale, even when tergum is dark                                                                              .....34

32   R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs.  ANT PT/BASE 3.0-3.8                                 .....himalayensis

 -     R IV with 2-3 accessory hairs.  ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.3                                                  .....33

33   Spinal hairs with blunt or expanded apices, shorter than marginal hairs on same tergites.  SIPH reticulated on distal half only.  Tergum rather pale or with dark brown pleural longitudinal stripes                                                                                          .....diversisetosus

 -     Spinal hairs long and pointed and similar in length to marginal hairs.  SIPH almost wholly reticulated.  Tergum with transverse bars, usually fused between ABD TERG 3-6

.....remaudierei*

34   Longest hair on ANT BASE VI (or V if antenna 5-segmented) more than 1.5 ื maximum diameter of segment                                                                                                         .....35

 -     Longest hair on ANT BASE VI less than 1.5 ื maximum diameter of segment            .....36

35   ANT PT/BASE 3.4-3.7.  Spinopleural abdominal hairs long and fine-pointed.  R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs                                                                                                   .....manaliensis

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.0.  Spinopleural abdominal hairs thick with abruptly pointed, blunt or bifid apices (fig. 103E), only marginal hairs sometimes long and fine-pointed. R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs                                                                                                  .....pentandrinus

36   ABD TERG 1-5 with longest spino-pleural hairs 2-4ื basal diameter of ANT III         .....37

 -     ABD TERG 1-5 with longest spino-pleural hairs 4-8ื basal diameter of ANT III         .....38

37   ANT V with 1-3 hairs.  R IV with 2 accessory hairs. (Alata with secondary rhinaria on ANT III-V)                                                                                                                   .....saliapterus

 -     ANT V with 3-6 hairs.  R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs. (Alata with secondary rhinaria only on ANT III)                                                                                                  .....quinquemaculatus

38   Antennae wholly pale except for duskiness around primary rhinaria. (Alata with broad transverse dark bars on ABD TERG 3-8, often fused into a solid patch on ABD TERG 3-6)

.....nigricantis

 -     ANT I and most of ANT V and VI darker than ANT III.  (Alata with separate,        narrow, often broken transverse bars on ABD TERG 3-8)                                                .....truncatus

39   R IV+V with 3-6 (usually 4) accessory hairs                                                                   .....40

 -     R IV+V with 2, or rarely 3-4, accessory hairs                                                                  .....41

40   R IV+V 0.7-1.0ื HT II.  Legs, or at least the femora, pigmented                      .....lapponum

 -     R IV+V 1.1-1.6ื HT II.  Legs except tarsi wholly pale                                             .....salicti

41   Antennae and legs except tarsi wholly pale, contrasting with blackish-brown tergum; at most, ANT VI BASE and hind femora slightly dusky                                                      .....nigritus

 -     Tergum pale or dark; if very dark, then at least ANT VI BASE and hind femora are also dark

.....42

42   Dorsal abdominal hairs all fine-pointed                                                                            .....43

 -     Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with either abruptly acute, blunt, expanded or bifurcate apices

       .....45

43   Tergum pale                                                                                                         .....israeliticus

 -     Tergum dark                                                                                                                     .....44

44   ANT V with only 1 hair in most specimens.  SIPH completely or partially included in dorsal shield, without a clear ring at base (fig. 104A)                                                .....salijaponicus

 -     ANT V with 1-4 hairs.  SIPH usually with a broad, clear basal ring separating them from dorsal shield (fig. 104B)                                                                                               .....niger

45   Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with either abruptly acute, blunt, or narrowly or minutely bifid apices                                                                                                                                .....46

 -     Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly with distinctly expanded, bifurcate or fan-shaped apices, often as broad apically as at base                                                                                     .....48

46   Tergum dark.  ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.3                                                                    .....stroyani

 -     Tergum pale.  ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.8                                                                              .....47

47   R IV+V 0.11-0.13 mm, 1.1-1.4 ื HT II                                                                   .....gomesi

 -     R IV+V 0.09-0.11 mm, 0.8-1.0 ื HT II                                                           .....pakistanicus

48   ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.0;  R IV+V 1.1-1.5 ื HT II                                                          .....49

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0;  R IV+V 0.8-1.2 ื HT II                                                          .....50

49   Antennae 6-segmented.  ANT V usually with 1 hair, and VI BASE with 1-2 short hairs, the longest not or hardly exceeding basal diameter of ANT III                                  .....crinitus*

 -     Antennae usually 5-segmented; penultimate segment (IV or V) with 1-4 hairs, and ANT V (or VI) BASE with 2 hairs, the longest 1.7-2.5 ื basal diameter of ANT III         .....similis*

50   ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.0; R IV+V 0.8-0.9 ื HT II                                             .....longiunguis

 -     ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.0; R IV+V 1.05-1.11 ื HT II                                        .....matsumurai

 

KEY B-  Pterocomma and related genera on Salix (can be applied to both apterous and alate viviparous females).

 

 1    Antennae 4-segmented.  SIPH blackish, large and strongly inflated, with distal imbrication (fig. 106A).  Cauda clearly longer than its basal width, with a midlength constriction, and bearing 5-14 hairs                                                                                    .....Paducia antennata

 -     Antennae 6-segmented.  SIPH pale or dark, rather small, variably shaped.  Cauda shorter or longer than its basal width, rounded or bluntly triangular, with 20-60 hairs                      .....2

 2    SIPH present or absent, if present then rounded at apex, completely lacking a flange (e.g. figs 106B-F)                                                                                                                        .....3

 -     SIPH truncate apically, usually with at least a small flange (figs 106I-P)                        .....17

 3    SIPH very short, conical with a broad base (e.g. fig. 106B). Dorsal hairs rather

       sparse and mostly shorter than basal diameter of ANT III                                                .....4

 -     SIPH either longer than their basal width, with a constricted base (e.g. fig. 106C), vestigeal or absent.  Dorsal hairs all longer than basal diameter of ANT III                                     .....5

 4    ANT PT/BASE more than 1. R IV with 16-20 accessory hairs. Cauda a little shorter than

       its basal width                                                                              .....Neopterocomma asiphum

 -     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. R IV with 7-10 accessory hairs. Cauda a little longer than

       its basal width                                                                          .....Neopterocomma verhoeveni

 5    Empodial hairs short, less than half of length of claws (fig. 105A).  Mid-dorsal abdominal hairs rather sparse, mostly shorter than the distances between their bases                         .....6

 -     Empodial hairs long, much more than half of length of claws (fig. 105B).  Mid-dorsal abdominal hairs dense and longer than the distances between their bases                       .....12

 6    SIPH up to about 0.5 ื HT II (e.g. fig. 106C).  Dark markings only on ABD TERG 1 and 2, or absent.  Abdominal marginal tubercles present or absent                                               .....7

 -     SIPH about as long as HT II or longer (e.g. fig. 106E, F).  Abdomen with paired dark patches on ABD TERG 2-5.  Abdominal marginal tubercles present                                .....9

 7    Hairs on ANT III mostly shorter than basal diameter of segment.  R IV+V shorter than SIPH, and bearing only 2-3 accessory hairs                                       .....Plocamaphis coreana

 -     Hairs on ANT III mostly much longer than basal diameter of segment.  R IV+V longer than SIPH and bearing 4-6 accessory hairs                                                                                .....8

 8    Abdomen with small marginal tubercles on most tergites               .....Plocamaphis amerinae

 -     Abdomen usually without any marginal tubercles                              .....Plocamaphis martini

 9    SIPH less than 1.25 ื HT II                                                                                             .....10

 -     SIPH more than 1.25 ื HT II                                                                                           .....11

10   SIPH (fig. 106E) usually more than 1.1 ื HT II.  Hairs on ANT III mostly about 1.5 ื basal diameter of segment or shorter, rarely a few hairs up to 2 or more ื basal diameter of segment                                                                                  .....Plocamaphis flocculosa s. str.

 -     SIPH (fig. 106F) less than 1.1 ื HT II.  Hairs on ANT III mostly more than 2ื basal diameter of segment                                          .....Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. brachysiphon

11   SIPH 1.25-1.5 ื HT II.  ANT III with 12-14 secondary rhinaria

.....Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. goernitzi

 -     SIPH more than 1.5 ื HT II.  ANT III with 15-18 secondary rhinaria

.....Plocamaphis flocculosa ssp. macrosiphon

12   Marginal tubercles on prothorax bulbous, with a narrow neck (fig. 105C).  Abdominal marginal tubercles either similar or tubercular with height greater than basal diameter

.....Fullawaya bulbosa*

 -     Prothoracic and abdominal marginal tubercles broad and low                                         .....13

13   SIPH absent, or present only as vestigeal, misshapen tubercles without apical pores      .....14

 -     SIPH present, complete with an apical pore, even if very small (e.g. fig. 106G, H)        .....15

14   Hairs on ANT III maximally 1.5 ื basal diameter of segment       .....Fullawaya saliciradicis

 -     Hairs on ANT III maximally 2 or more ื basal diameter of segment

.....Fullawaya bradleyi (part)

15   SIPH (fig. 106H) very small, less than 0.5 ื HT II                                .....Fullawaya braggii

 -     SIPH more than 0.5 ื HT II (fig. 106G)                                                                          .....16

16   Rostrum long, extending beyond 5th abdominal segment; R IV with 12-13 hairs

.....Fullawaya terricola

 -     Rostrum not reaching 5th abdominal segment; R IV with 15-23 hairs

.....Fullawaya bradleyi (part)

17   SIPH cylindrical or slightly tapering, bearing 1-4 hairs on basal half (fig. 106I).  ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5, with PT very thick, only a little narrower than BASE VI, and bearing many long hairs (fig. 105E)                                           .....Pterocomma chaetosiphon

 -     SIPH swollen or cylindrical, without hairs.  ANT PT/BASE more or less than 1.5, with PT much narrower than BASE and bearing a few short hairs                                               .....18

18   ANT II with 8-20 hairs. SIPH slightly to markedly swollen                                            .....19

 -     ANT II with 3-7 hairs. SIPH swollen or cylindrical                                                         .....21

19   ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0;  R IV+V 0.65-0.90 ื HT II.  SIPH strongly swollen, to more than 1.5 ื their basal width (fig. 106J)                                                         .....Pterocomma salicis

 -     ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.9 (only below 1.0 in spring);  R IV+V 0.85-1.30 ื HT II. SIPH slightly to moderately swollen, up to 1.5 ื basal width                                                                .....20

20   SIPH moderately swollen, with maximal swelling distal to midlength, and with imbrication reduced on swollen part, the imbrication throughout showing no trace of spinules (fig. 106K).  ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.3 in spring and 1.25-1.65 in summer/ autumn

.....Pterocomma jacksoni

 -     SIPH slightly swollen, with maximal swelling at or proximal to midlength, and with rather evenly distributed spinulose imbriaction (fig. 106L).  ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.8 in spring and 1.5-1.9 in summer/autumn                                                                     .....Pterocomma italica

21   SIPH short and stout, with maximal swelling near base (fig. 84A).  ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.2

.....Pterocomma smithiae

 -     SIPH cylindrical or swollen distally.  ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.2                                         .....22

22   ANT BASE VI with 5-10 long hairs exceeding diameter of segment, plus 2-4 short hairs

.....23

 -     ANT BASE VI with only 1-3 long hairs, plus 2-4 short hairs                                          .....26

23   SIPH (fig. 106M) a little shorter than HT II                                 .....Pterocomma sanguiceps

 -     SIPH (fig. 106N) longer than HT II                                                                                 .....24

24   Prothorax and ABD TERG 1-7 without marginal tubercles (MTu), or rarely with 1-2 small ones. ABD TERG 7 with 10-20 spinopleural hairs (i.e. not including marginal hairs)

       .....Pterocomma pilosum

-      Prothorax and ABD TERG 1-7 usually all with MTu, rarely missing from some segments.  ABD TERG 7 with 10-34 spinopleural hairs                                                                    .....25

25   MTu usually large, up to 2 ื diameter of abdominal spiracles. ABD TERG 7 with 13-34 spinopleural hairs                                                                                    .....Pterocomma konoi

 -     MTu small, slightly smaller than spiracular apertures. ABD TERG 7 with 10-18 spinopleural hairs                                                                                          .....Pterocomma saliciphagum*

26   Prothoracic and abdominal marginal tubercles small (not much larger than a hair-base) or absent.  SIPH 0.23-0.31 mm                                                   .....Pterocomma groenlandicum

 -     Marginal tubercles present and well developed on prothorax and most of ABD TERG 1-7; variably shaped but often conical and broad-based, much larger than adjacent hair-bases.  SIPH 0.16-0.54 mm                                                                                                          .....27

27   SIPH shorter than or similar in length to HT II                            .....Pterocomma xerophilae*

-      SIPH 1.3-2.4 ื HT II                                                                                                       .....28

28   Longest hairs on ANT III 85-115 ตm, 2.2-3.3 ื basal diameter of segment.  SIPH usually markedly swollen distally, up to 1.5-1.9 ื their basal diameter (fig. 106O).  Alata with 12-26 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                                            .....Pterocomma bicolor

 -     Longest hairs on ANT III 120-150 ตm, 3-4 ื basal diameter of segment.  SIPH almost cylindrical or swollen to not more than 1.5 ื their basal diameter (e.g. fig. 106P).  Alata with usually 25-30 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                      .....Pterocomma rufipes

 

KEY C- Apterae viviparae (except fundatrices) of Cavariella spp. on Salix

 

 1    Tergum and SIPH blackish; antennae and legs also mainly dark                                 .....nigra

 -     Tergum sclerotic but usually pale, if rather pigmented then antennae, legs and SIPH are mainly pale                                                                                                                          .....2

 2    SIPH cylindrical or tapering, not all swollen (e.g. figs 108A, B)                                       .....3

 -     SIPH clavate or at least slightly swollen (fig.s 108C-J)                                                     .....4

 3    ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.45.  Process on ABD TERG 8 conical with 2 short hairs placed well below apex, plus 1-3 very small hairs more basad (fig. 107A).  SIPH strongly imbricated over entire length (fig. 108A)                                                                                           .....digitata

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0  Process on ABD TERG 8 quadrate with 2 hairs at apical corners and none more basad (fig. 107B).  SIPH more weakly imbricated, often almost smooth on basal half (fig. 108B)                                                                                        .....theobaldi

 4    SIPH completely flangeless, rounded apically, with small terminal aperture (e.g. fig. 108H) (subgenus Cavaraiellia)                                                                                                      .....5

 -     SIPH with at least a small flange, and a normal terminal aperture                                     .....6

 5    SIPH 0.95-1.5 ื cauda, which has 9-15 hairs                                                         .....aquatica

 -     SIPH c.1.8 ื cauda, which has 4-5 hairs                                                               .....cessana*

 6    ANT PT/BASE more than 2.4  SIPH long, clavate, smooth or weakly imbricated (fig. 108C), process on ABD TERG 8 quadrate                                                                     .....pastinacae

 -     ANT PT/BASE less than 2.4.  SIPH variable                                                                     .....7

 7    R IV+V more than 1.3 ื HT II                                                                                          .....8

 -     R IV+V less than 1.3 ื HT II                                                                                          .....11

 8    ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0                                                                                .....nipponica

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.2                                                                                            .....9

 9    Process on ABD TERG 8 short and broad, much shorter than cauda (fig. 107D).  SIPH swollen over entire length, without a narrower central section (fig. 108E).  Tergum often pigmented, ornamented with angular pustules                                                       .....japonica

-      Process on ABD TERG 8 long, woth distal part finger-like, as long as or longer than cauda.  SIPH slightly clavate (i.e. with a narrow central section: fig. 108D).  Tergum pale, ornamented with rounded pits                                                                                          .....10

10   Process on ABD TERG 8 very long and broad-based, with tip extending beyond cauda (fig. 107C)                                                                                                                        …..araliae

 -     Process on ABD TERG 8 as long as or a little longer than cauda                           …..biswasi

 11  SIPH short and thick, swollen over most of length, less than 4 ื their maximum width (fig. 108F)                                                                                                                     .....salicicola

 -     SIPH slightly to moderately swollen distally, with narrower basal section; more than 4 ื longer than maximum width of swollen part (figs 108G-J)                                              .....12

12   ANT PT/BASE more than 1.4                                                                                          .....13

 -     ANT PT/BASE less than 1.4                                                                                            .....14

13   SIPH longer than head width across (and including) eyes.  Process on ABD TERG 8 at least 1.6 ื maximum width of swollen part of SIPH. (Alata with a complete black band on ABD TERG 6 and with 0-19 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)                               .....archangelicae

 -     SIPH equal to or a little shorter than head width across eyes.  Process on ABD TERG 8 (fig. 107E) less than 1.5 ื maximum width of swollen part of SIPH. (Alata with a pair of roundish dark marks on ABD TERG 6 and with 2-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)              .....konoi

14   R IV with 1-2 accessory hairs in most specimens                                                             .....15

 -     R IV without any accessory hairs in most specimens                                                       .....19

15   ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0                                                                                            .....16

 -     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0                                                                                          .....17

16   R IV+V more than 1.15 ื HT II.  (Alata with 14-32 secondary rhinaria on ANT III and 2-6 on IV)                                                                                                                  .....intermedia

 -     R IV+V less than 1.15 ื HT II.  (Alata with 5-9 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 0 on IV)

.....pustula

17   R IV+V less than 0.95 ื HT II                                                                                 .....indica*

 -     R IV+V more than 0.95 ื HT II                                                                                      .....18

18   SIPH rather thick, 4.3-4.9 ื longer than maximum width of swollen distal half

..... bhutanensis

-      SIPH 5.5-6.8 ื longer than maximum width of swollen distal half                   .....hendersoni

19   Distal part of SIPH swollen to more than 1.6 ื minimum diameter of proximal part (fig. 108I)                                                                                                                            .....salicis

 -     Distal part of SIPH much less swollen, rarely more than 1.5 ื minimum diameter of proximal part (e.g. fig. 108J)                                                                                                            .....20

20   Process on ABD TERG 8 very large and cowl-like, extending over tip of cauda, tapering almost to a point from a very broad base, and bearing 3-5 additional short hairs besides the 2 hairs near the apex (fig. 107I).  SIPH 2.4-2.7 ื cauda, which is short and flask-shaped

.....aspidaphoides

 -     Process on ABD TERG 8 usually smaller, if extending beyond tip of cauda then the distal part of the process is finger-like, with a rounded apex, with only the 2 hairs near the apex.  SIPH 1.6-2.6 ื cauda, which is tongue-shaped                                                               .....21

21   SIPH dusky, 1.6-1.9 ื cauda. Process on ABD TERG 8 short, about 0.5 ื cauda or less, never broad-based (fig. 107F)                                                                                  .....borealis

 -     SIPH (e.g. fig. 108J) 1.9-2.6 ื cauda.  Process on ABD TERG 8 more than 0.5 ื cauda, and often extending finger-like from a broad base                                                                 .....22

22   Cauda with 4 hairs, rarely with 5 in which case all are lateral.  Process on ABD TERG 8 often extending beyond tip of cauda (fig. 107G). (Alata with 5-9 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and 3-4 on V)                                                                                                          .....rutila

 -     Cauda almost always with 5 hairs, 4 on the sides and 1 dorsad.  Process on ABD TERG 8 rarely extending beyond tip of cauda (fig. 107H). (Alata with 0-2 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and none on V                                                                                                 .....aegopodii

 

Salpichroa                                                   Solanaceae

      Salpichroa origanifolia                 Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        S. rhomboidea = S. origanifolia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Salsola (including Caroxylon)                                       Amaranthaceae

      Salsola arborescens = S. arbuscula

        S. arbuscula                                  Aphis salsolae; Brachyunguis harmalae, salsolacerarum

        S. baryosma                                  Brachyunguis harmalae

        S. collina                                       Aphis salsolae; Chaitaphis tenuicauda; [Schizaphis rufula]

        S. dendroides                                Aphis craccivora;  Brachyunguis salsolacearum

        S. ericoides                                    Brachyunguis salsolacearum

        S. iberica = S. kali

        S. kali (incl. ssp. tragus                     Aphis craccivora, fabae, salsolae;

                     = Kali tragus)                          Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;

                                                              [Schizaphis rufula]

        S. kali ssp. ruthenica                     Aphis craccivora; Asiphonaphis utahensis;

                                                              [Bipersona torticauda]

        S. komarovii                                  Clypeoaphis suaedae

        S. lanata                                        Chaitaphis ?tenuicauda

        S. pestifer = S. kali ssp. ruthenica      

        S. richteri                                      Brachyunguis berezhkovi, harmalae, salsolacearum

        S. ruthenica = S. kali ssp. ruthenica

        S. soda                                           Aphis craccivora, salsolae

        S. tragus = S. kali ssp. tragus

        Salsola spp.                                   Chaitaphis shaposhnikovi; Clypeoaphis stavropolensis;

                                                              Dysaphis ubsanurensis

Key to apterae on Salsola:-

1      Dorsal hairs with expanded, often furcate apices (e.g. Fig.36a). Cauda long and thin, 4-5 ื longer than its middle width (e.g. Fig.36c)                                                                       …..2

-       Dorsal hairs blunt or pointed. Cauda less than 3 ื its middle width                                …..3

2      Longest hairs on front of head 1.0-1.2 ื ANT BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.1

…..Chaitaphis shaposhnikovi*

-       Longest hairs on front of head 1.7-2.0 ื ANT BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.45-1.8

…..Chaitaphis tenuicauda

3      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-3.0. SIPH 1.1-2.5 ื cauda. Clypeus normal                                     …..4

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.5-c.1.2. SIPH 0.4-0.9 ื cauda. Clypeus globose or hemispherical      …..6

4      Cauda shorter than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and on ABD TERG 7-8                                                                                       …..Dysaphis ubsanurensis

-       Cauda longer than its basal width. STu never on head and absent or sporadically present on ABD TERG 7-8                                                                                                                …..5

5      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black sclerotic shield

…..Aphis craccivora or A. salsolae

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black sclerotic shield            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

6      Clypeus weakly sclerotised, pale or dusky. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.7. Cauda conical, less than 2 ื longer than its basal width                                                                                                                                 …..7

-       Clypeus strongly sclerotised, dark (e.g.Fig.36d). R IV+V with 4 or more accessory hairs. HT I with 3 hairs. MTu absent, or small and indistinct. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-c.1.2. Cauda finger-like, more than 2 ื its basal width                                                                                    …..9

7      SIPH c. 0.4 ื cauda which bears c.10 hairs                              …..Brachyunguis berezhkovi*

-       SIPH 0.5-0.7 ื cauda which bears 6-8 hairs                                                                     …..8

8      SIPH cylindrical, slightly constricted basally. Clypeus globose

…..Brachyunguis salsolacearum*

-       SIPH conical, broader at base (Fig.36h). Clypeus hemispherical …..Brachyunguis harmalae

9      SIPH adpressed to abdomen. ANT PT/BASE c.1.2. R IV+V with c.8 accessory hairs

…..Clypeoaphis (?) stavropolensis*

-       SIPH not adpressd to abdomen. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.0. R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs

…..Clypeoaphis suedae

 

Salvia (including Ramona)                                            Lamiaceae

      Salvia aegyptiaca                          Myzus persicae

        S. aethiopis                                    Aphis fabae, salviae

        S. africana-caerulea                     Aphis gossypii

        S. africana-lutea                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        S. apiana                                       Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        S. arborescens                               Eucarazzia elegans

        S. aspera                                       Aphis gossypii

        S. aurea = S. africana-lutea             

        S. austriaca                                   Aphis salviae; Aulacorthum solani

        S. azurea                                       Hyalomyzus collinsoniae; Myzus ornatus

        S. ceratophylloides = S. pratensis

        S. coccinea                                    Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum salviae; Myzus ornatus

        S. cubensis                                    Macrosiphum salviae

        S. deserta                                       Aphis salviae

        S. dorrii                                         Aulacorthum solani

        S. dumetorum                               Macropodaphis rechingeri (as kulundensis)

        S. elegans                                      Aphis gossypii

        S. farinacea                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. fruticosa                                    Aphis verticillatae

        S. glandulifera                              Acyrthosiphum malvae group

        S. glutinosa                                   Acyrthosiphum malvae group; Chaetosiphon heterotrichum;

                                                              Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        S. grandiflora (?)                          [Aphis sp. (Bozhko 1976a)]

        S. greggii                                       Myzus persicae

        S. hierosolymitana                        Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        S. horminoides = S. verbenacea

        S. horminum = S. viridis

          S. japonica                                    Chaetosiphon hirticorne

        S. leucantha                                  Aphis gossypii; Cryptaphis salviae;

                                                              [Greenidea anonae, kumaoni]; Myzus persicae

        S. longistyla                                   Eucarazzia elegans

        S. lyrata                                         Aulacorthum solani         

        S. mellifera                                    Eucarazzia elegans; Macrosiphum salviae

        S. micrantha = S. serotina

        S. microphylla                               Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

        S. misella                                       Macrosiphum [mesosphaeri], salviae

        S. moorcroftiana                           [Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensis]

        S. moschata = S. tortuosa

        S. nemorosa                                  Aphis craccivora, gossypii, salviae;

                       ( incl. ssp. sylvestris)            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        S. nigrescens (?)                            Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

        S. nilotica                                      Sitobion colei

        S. nipponica                                  Myzus siegesbeckiae

        S. nutans                                       Aphis gossypii, salviae

        S. occidentalis                               Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Macrosiphum salviae

        S. officinalis                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, passeriniana, salviae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Eucarazzia elegans; Myzus ornatus

        S. polystachya                               Aphis gossypii

        S. pratensis                                    Aphis fabae, salviae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Eucarazzia elegans

        S. pseudosylvestris = S. nemorosa ssp. sylvestris

        S. rectiflora  = S. longistyla

        S. rhytidea                                     Klimaszewskia salviae

        S. rutilans = S. elegans

        S. satureja  (?Satureja sp.)            Eucarazzia elegans

        S. scapiformis                               Aphis gossypii

        S. sclarea                                       Aphis [althaeae ssp. afghanica], craccivora, fabae, salviae;

                                                              Klimaszewskia salviae

        S. serotina                                     Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum [mesosphaeri], salviae

        S. splendens                                  Aphis egomae, fabae, gossypii, passeriniana, salviae;

                                                              Aulacorthum [prasinum], solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Eucarazzia elegans; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        S. stachyoides                                Aphis ramona

        S. stepposa = S. dumetorum

          S. tomentosa                                 Aulacorthum solani

        S. tortuosa                                     Aphis solanella

        S. verbenaca                                 Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, salviae, verticillatae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Eucarazzia elegans; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        S. verticillata                                 Aphis fabae, nasturtii, passeriniana, salviae, verticillatae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Cryptomyzus ribis]

        S. virgata                                       Aphis salviae

        S. viridis                                        Eucarazzia elegans; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        Salvia spp.                                    Aphis [narzikulovi], raji, [umbrella];

                                                              [Bituberculata inexpecta Rusanova (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

Key to apterae on Salvia:-

1     Fore femora greatly enlarged, about twice as thick as mid femora, and fore tibiae with strengthened bases. Dorsum adorned with numerous mammariform or quadrate processes, each bearing a wax gland and 1-3 hairs. Cauda knobbed          .....Macropodaphis rechingeri

-       Fore femora not enlarged. Dorsum without such processes. Cauda not knobbed           …..2

2      SIPH strongly swollen, with maximum diameter of swollen part more than 2 ื minimum diameter of stem (Fig.48a). SIPH 5.4-8.2 ื cauda                               …..Eucarazzia elegans

-      SIPH not swollen or less swollen, and less than 4.5 ื cauda                                            …..3

3      Dorsal cuticle of head with nodules or spicules, at least marginally. If ANT tubercles are well developed then they have scabrous and steep-sided or gibbous inner faces                     …..4

-      Dorsal cuticle of head more-or-less smooth, without nodules or spicules (although their may be some spicules ventrally). If ANT tubercles are well developed then their inner faces are smooth and slightly to markedly divergent                                                                       …..9

4      Hairs on ANT III and dorsal abdomen mostly thick and more than 20 μm long, with slightly to distinctly expanded apices (e.g. Fig.48b); those on ANT III 0.6-3.0 ื BD III,          …..5

-      Hairs on ANT III and dorsum very short, 5-10 μm, less than 0.5 ื BD III                     …..7

5      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT PT/BASE c.2.5-2.7. SIPH c.1.5 ื cauda

…..Cryptaphis salviae*

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ANT PT/BASE c.4-6. SIPH 2.3-3.1 ื cauda                 …..6

6      Hairs on ANT III 2-3 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE c.4. SIPH 2.3-2.6 ื cauda

…..Chaetosiphon hirticorne

-      Hairs on ANT III not longer than BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-5.9. SIPH 2.7-3.1 ื cauda

…..Chaetosiphon heterotrichum

7      Head posterioventrally with a pair of scabrous tubercles placed on either side of clypeus (Fig.48c). SIPH dusky to dark, evidently clavate (Fig.48d). (Al. with dark-bordered forewing veins and sec. rhin. distributed III 42-65, IV 18-42, V 1-9)

…..Hyalomyzus collinsoniae

-      Head without posterioventral tubercles. SIPH pale or dusky, tapering/cylindrical or clavate. (Al. with forewing veins not dark-bordered and sec. rhin. distributed III 6-28, IV 0-10, V 0-3)

…..8

8      SIPH 3-4 ื cauda, cylindrical/tapering, coarsely imbricated (Fig.48e). Cauda often basally constricted, with 4 hairs. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III c.26-28, IV c.9-10, V 1-3)

…..Myzus siegesbeckiae

-      SIPH 1.8-2.7 ื cauda, cylindrical/tapering or clavate, coarsely or normally imbricated. Cauda not basally constricted, with 4-8 hairs (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 4-28, IV 0-8, V 0)                                                       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

9      ANT tubercles well developed, extending forward well beyond middle part of head in dorsal view, with inner faces slightly to broadly divergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                 …..10

-      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not or hardly projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view (if at all developed then ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu)

…..16

10    Longest hairs on ANT III 8-20 μm, 0.2-0.6 ื BD III                                                    …..11

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 22-36 μm, 0.6-1.2 ื BD III                                                  …..14

11    Tergum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH entirely black with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                     …..Sitobion colei

-      Tergum pale. SIPH pale at least basally, with or without some subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                       …..12

12    ANT dark beyond base of III, and SIPH dark distally, with 1-2 rows of subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                                 …..Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-      ANT and SIPH pale, SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                     …..13

13    ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. ANT tubercles with inner faces broadly divergent. Cauda tapering, broadest at base and bearing 7-12 hairs                  …..Acyrthosiphon malvae group

-      ANT III without rhinaria. ANT tubercles slightly divergent, rounded at inner apices. Cauda constricted basally and usually bearing 5 hairs                     …..Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

14    R IV+V with c.25-30 accessory hairs. Tibial apices and tarsi densely clothed with long hairs (Fig.48f). First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. (ANT III of al. with 40-50 rhinaria)

…..Klimaszewskia salviae

-      R IV+V with 7-10 accessory hairs. Tibial apices and tarsi not densely hairy. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. (ANT III of al. with 12-21 rhinaria)                                           …..15

15    Hind tibiae and SIPH entirely or mainly dark, femora dark distally. R IV+V 1.25-1.55 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen with or without a dark central patch                 …..Macrosiphum salviae

-      Hind tibiae and SIPH pale or dark only distally, femora entirely pale. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen never with a dark patch                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

16    Cauda helmet-shaped, with 4-8 hairs. SIPH with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu) …..17

-      Cauda triangular or tongue-shaped, with 4-28 hairs. SIPH without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1, and usually also 7, with MTu   …..18

17    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 ื cauda

......Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

18    Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation on ABD TERG 1-6, with pale polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                       …..19

-      ABD TERG 1-6 pale or with only small scattered dark sclerites                                    …..20

19    R IV+V 0.87-1.18 ื HT II (rarely more than 1.1 ื)                                …..Aphis craccivora

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.42 ื HT II (usually at least 1.13 ื)                                        …..Aphis salviae

20   R IV+V 0.19-0.23 mm, 2.0-2.2 ื HT II. Marginal abdominal hairs 78-103 μm long, 3-4 ื ANT BD III. MTu present on ABD TERG 1 but often absent from ABD TERG 7

…..Aphis raji

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                          .….21

21    R IV+V with 5-7 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.8. SIPH pale, or dark only at apices

…..Aphis ramona

-      R IV+V with 2 (-3) accessory hairs, and other characters not in that combination        …..22

22    R IV+V 1.54-2.02 ื HT II, which is very short                                   …..Aphis passeriniana

-      R IV+V less than 1.5 ื HT II                                                                                         …..23

23    SIPH long and almost cylindrical on distal half, with coarse imbrication; 6.8-9.0 ื longer than their midlength diameter (Fig.48g). Cauda pale or dusky              …..Aphis verticillatae

-      SIPH pale or dark, tapering, with normal imbrication, and rarely more than 6.5 ื longer than their midlength diameter, unless SIPH and cauda are both black                                    .....24

24    ANT 5-segmented. (SIPH dark, cauda pale)                                               .....Aphis egomae*

-      ANT 6-segmented (except sometimes in summer dwarfs)

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 25

     

Salvinia                                                       Salviniaceae

        Salvinia adnata                             Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. auriculata                                 Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        S. molesta = S. adnata

        S. natans                                       Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae                                               

Key to apterae on Salvinia:-

1      Dorsum with extensive dark markings, including a horseshoe-shaped abdominal patch. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, not at all swollen distally                               …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-       Dorsum without any extensive dark markings. SIPH slightly to moderately swollen distally

…..2

2      Head spiculose, with ANT tubercles well-developed, their inner faces apically convergent. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons                                 …..Myzus persicae

-       Head smooth, with ANT tubercles weakly developed. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spicules arranged in polygons                                                 …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

         

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

 

Sambucus                                    Elders                           Adoxaceae

        Sambucus australis                      Aphis sambuci

        S. buergeriana = S. racemosa ssp. sieboldiana

        S. caerulea                                                             Blue Elder

                                                              Macrosiphum stanleyi; Myzus persicae                              

        S. callicarpa                                                           Pacific Red Elder

                                                              Macrosiphum stanleyi

 

        S. canadensis                                                         American Elder

                                                              Aphis sambuci, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        S. coreana                                     Aphis horii, sambuci; Pseudomegoura magnoliae             

        S. ebulus                                       Aphis sambuci

        S. javanica                                    Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus [cerasi], ornatus, persicae

        S. melanocarpa                             Macrosiphum stanleyi

        S. mexicana                                  Myzus persicae

        S. microbotrys                               Macrosiphum stanleyi

        S. miquelii = S. racemosa ssp. sieboldiana

        S. nigra                                                                  European Black Elder

                                                              Aphis craccivora, sambuci;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        S. pubens                                                               Scarlet Elder

                                                              Macrosiphum stanleyi

        S. racemosa                                                           European Red Elder

                                                              Aphis sambuci; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum stanleyi; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        S. racemosa ssp. sieboldiana        Aphis horii, sambuci; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphoninus hydrangeae]

        S. sibirica                                      Aphis sambuci; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        S. sieboldiana = S. racemosa ssp. sieboldiana

        S. thunbergiana                            Aphis sambuci

        Sambucus sp.                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to elder aphids (apterae viviparae only):-

 

1     Large pale aphid (BL more than 3 mm).  SIPH long and pale, more than 3ื cauda, with distal swelling and a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation          .....Macrosiphum stanleyi

-      BL less than 3 mm.  SIPH if pale less than 3ื cauda and/or without subapical reticulation

 .....2

2     Abdomen with marginal tubercles only on ABD TERG 1 and 7, or with any marginal tubercles on other tergites small and inconsistently present.  SIPH pale or dark, but if dark and tapering then less than 2ื cauda                                .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      ABD TERG 1-4 (or 1-5) and 7 with large domed marginal tubercles placed between the dark marginal (prespiracular) sclerites.  SIPH dark, tapering, 2.2-4.0ื cauda which is short, dark and blunt                                                                                                                             .....3

3     Hairs on ANT III long and very fine, the longest 1.7-2.1ื basal diameter of segment

.....Aphis horii

-      Hairs on ANT III shorter, the longest 0.5-1.7ื basal diameter of segment  .....Aphis sambuci

 

 

Samolus                                                       Primulaceae

     Samolus repens                      Aphis sp. (New Zealand; Teulon et al. 2013)

 

Sanchezia                                                    Acanthaceae

      Sanchezia nobilis = S. oblonga     

        S. oblonga                                     Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        S. parvibracteata                           Myzus persicae

        Sanchezia sp.                                Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Sanguinaria                                                 Papaveraceae

     Sanguinaria canadensis                 Linosiphon sanguinarium

 

Sanguisorba   (including Poterium)                            Rosaceae

     Sanguisorba albiflora                   Aphis sanguisorbicola

     S. alpina                                        [Acyrthosiphon galijae]

      S. maderensis                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ornatus;

             (= Marcetella maderensis)             Neomyzus circumflexus; [Schizaphis pyri] 

     S. menendezii (menziesii?)            Myzus persicae

      S. minor  (incl. ssp. muricata)            Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. poterii, sanguisorbae;

               (= Poterium sanguisorba)             Aphis sanguisorbae, sanguisorbae ssp. poterii;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            [Metopolophium dirhodum]; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

      S. officinalis                                  Acyrthosiphon galijae;

                                                            Aphis craccivora (? – as laburni), gossypii, sanguisorbae,

                                                                sanguisorbicola, soan;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Cryptosiphum artemisiae];

                                                            [Macchiatiella itadori];

                                                            Macrosiphum [cholodkovskyi], euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae

      S. parviflora = S. tenuifolia var. alba

      S. sitchensis = S. stipulata

      S. spinosa                                      Aphis gossypii, sanguisorbae

              (= Sarcopoterium spinosum)

      S. stipulata                                    Aphis sanguisorbicola

      S. tenuifolia (incl. var. alba)             Aphis fabae, sanguisorbicola

Key to apterae on Sanguisorba:-

1      SIPH dark, cauda pale/dusky                                                                                           …..2

-       Either SIPH and cauda are both dark, or both are pale (SIPH sometimes darker at apices)

.....6

2      ANT tubercles well-developed. ANT longer than body with ANT III bearing 10-35 rhinaria on darkened basal part. SIPH with a zone of subapical polygonal reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                             …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT shorter than body, without rhinaria on ANT III. SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..3

3      Cauda with c.13-14 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 ื BD III            …..Aphis soan

-       Cauda with 4-9 (-10) hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-1.0 ื BD III                         …..4

4      R IV+V 0.87-1.0 ื HT II. Longest hairs on ANT III (0.6-) 0.7-1.0 ื BD III. First segments of fore and mid tarsi usually with 4 hairs (2 sense pegs). SIPH 1.5-2.1 ื cauda. ABD TERG 2-4 without MTu                                                                              …..Aphis sanguisorbicola

-       R IV+V 1.07-1.27 ื HT II. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.7 (-0.8) ื BD III. First segments of fore and mid tarsi with 3 hairs (1 sense peg). SIPH 0.9-2.5 ื cauda. ABD TERG 2-4 with or without MTu                                                                                       …..5

5      MTu often present (and sometimes large) on at least some of ABD TERG 2-4, as well as large ones on ABD TERG 1 and 7. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is less than 0.5 ื height of MTu on same segment.  SIPH 0.9-1.5 (-1.7) ื cauda                     …..Aphis sanguisorbae

-       MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4, and rather small on ABD TERG 1 and 7. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.7-1.8 ื height of MTu on same segment. SIPH 1.3-2.5 ื cauda

…..Aphis gossypii

6      Head cuticle smooth or with only a few spicules ventrally, and with moderately developed, divergent ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale except at apices, and without subapical reticulation                                                   .....7

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

7      RIV+V 0.98-1.15 ื HT II. SIPH 3.7-5.0 ื R IV+V    .....Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. poterii

-       RIV+V 0.62-0.79 ื HT II. SIPH 5.8-8.5 ื R IV+V                                                        .....8

8      Dorsal hairs very short; frontal hairs maximally only 5-10 ตm, and hairs on ABD TERG 8 are maximally 9-14 ตm                                                                 .....Acyrthosiphon sanguisorbae

-       Dorsal hairs longer; frontal hairs maximally 17-28 ตm, and hairs on ABD TERG 8 are maximally 40-67 ตm                                                                        .....Acyrthosiphon galijae*

 

 

Sanicula                                                      Apiaceae

      Sanicula canadensis (incl. var.       Aphis clydesmithi, fabae, saniculae

                                       marilandica)

        S. crassicaulis                               Aphis asclepiadis (? – as cornifoliae),

                                                                  Aphis sp. (California, USA: BMNH collection);

                                                              Myzus persicae

        S. elata                                          Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, salicicola, simlaensis;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi;  Macrosiphum [gei], holmani;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

        S. europaea = S. elata                    

        S. marilandica see S. canadensis

        S. menziesii  = S. crassicaulis          

        Sanicula sp.                                  Aphis thaspii

Key to apterae on Sanicula:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed median process bearing 2 hairs near apex. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5                                                                                                      …..2

-       No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                   …..4

2      Tergum dark-pigmented, at least in central area. SIPH blackish. Supracaudal process c.0.33 ื cauda                                                                                               …..Cavariella simlaensis*

-       Tergum not dark-pigmented. SIPH pale. Supracaudal process 0.75-1.5 ื cauda             …..3

3      Supracaudal process longer than (1.2-1.5 ื) cauda. SIPH coarsely imbricated and stout, less than 5 ื longer than the maximum width of the swollen part            .....Cavariella salicicola

-       Supracaudal process mostly shorter than (0.75-1.05 ื) cauda. SIPH weakly imbricated and  more than 5 ื longer than maximum width of swollen part               .....Cavariella aegopodii

4     SIPH dark, clavate, and similar in length to the dark finger-like cauda

…..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical, or if clavate then pale and much longer than cauda which is also pale