HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Ros-Ryt

 

Rosa

Roscoea

Rosmarinus

Rostellularia

Rostraria

Rosularia

Rothia

Rothmannia

Rottboellia

Rotula

Roystonea

Rubia

Rubus

Rudbeckia

Ruellia

Rugelia

Rumex

Rumohra

Ruppia

Russelia

Ruta

Rytidosperma

 

 

 

Rosa (including Hulthemia)                                            Rosaceae

      Rosa abyssinica                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pseudaphis abyssinica

        R. acicularis                                Chaetosiphon thomasi;

                                                            [Illinoia sp., New Mexico; A.Jensen, aphidtrek.org];

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum mordvilkoi, rosae, [valerianae];

                                                            Maculolachnus sijpkensi, submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum, bucktoni;

                                                            Pseudocercidis rosae; Sitobion fragariae

        R. Χalba                                      Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum rosae, mordvilkoi;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis bucktoni

        R. albertii                                    Amphorophora catharinae;

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum;  

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, juchnevitschae, rosarum, tianshanica

        R. alcea                                       [Chaetosiphon thomasi]; Macrosiphum rosae

        R. alpina                                     Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium alpinum;

                                                            Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni

        R. amblyotis                                Maculolachnus submacula

        R. americana                              Macrosiphum rosae

        R. Χandersoni                             Macrosiphum rosae

        R. arvensis                                  Macrosiphum rosae

        R. banksiae                                 Macrosiphum rosae; Sitobion ibarae

        R. beggeriana                             Amphorophora catharinae; Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum, turanica

        R. blanda                                    Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. boissieri                                  Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. bruniana (?)                           Myzaphis turanica

        R. brunonii                                 Chaetosiphon glabum, gracilicorne; Myzaphis bucktoni

        R. californica                              Macrosiphum rosae

        R. canina                                    Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Amphorophora catharinae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus dunlopi, trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum, [fasciatum (sexuales only)],

                                                                montanum;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; [Pterocomma ?steinheili];

                                                            Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion [aulacorthoides], fragariae, rosaeiformis

        R. carolina                                  Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, [fragaefolii], tetrarhodum,

                                                                 thomasi;

                                                            Macrosiphum impatientis, rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum

        R. caucasica                                Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. Χcentifolia                              Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum; Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion ibarae, rosaeiformis

        R. chinensis                                Aphis gossypii; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae];

                                                            Sitobion fragariae, ibarae, rosivorum

        R. cinnamomea = R. majalis

        R. clinophylla                              Raychaudhuriaphis capitata

        R. collina = R. gallica Χ corymbifera

        R. coreana                                  Sitobion ibarae

        R. corymbifera                            Amphorophora catharinae; Macrosiphum rosae

        R. cuspidata                                Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum, montanum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. Χdamascena                           Amphorophora catharinae; Aphis craccivora;

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, turanica; Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion rosaeiformis; Wahlgreniella nervata

        R. davurica                                 Chaetosiphon coreanum; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum mordvilkoi, rosae; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Myzus japonensis

        R. deseglisei                                Macrosiphum rosae

        R. dumalis                                   Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula

        R. ecae                                        Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon

        R. eglanteria                               Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. fedtschenkoana                      Amphorophora catharinae; Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum, turanica

        R. fendleri                                   Acyrthosiphon pentatrichopus;

                                                            Chaetosiphon thomasi, [sp. near thomasi (western USA)];

                                                            Eomacrosiphum nigromaculosum;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula

        R. floribunda = R. helenae

        R. foetida                                     Chaetosiphon thomasi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae

        R. foliolosa                                  Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. gallica                                     Aphis fabae; Chaetosiphon chaetosphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum; Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. genuina see R. polyantha

        R. glauca = R. rubrifolia

        R. gymnocarpa                           Chaetosiphon thomasi; Ericaphis wakibae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        R. helenae                                   Macrosiphum rosae

        R. hugonis                                  Macrosiphum rosae

        R. iliensis = R. silverhjelmii

        R. ilseana                                    Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. indica                                      Aphis fabae; Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion [indicum], [miscanthi], rosaeiformis

        R. involucrata = R. clinophylla

        R. jundzillii                                  Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion fragariae

        R. klukii                                      Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae 

        R. kokanica                                 Amphorophora catharinae; Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Myzaphis turanica

        R. lacerans = R. lehmanniana

        R. lagenaria                                Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum

        R. laevigata                                 [Macrosiphum floridae]

        R. laxa                                         Amphorophora catharinae; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum

        R. lehmanniana                          Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. livida                                       Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. lucieae                                    Macrosiphum rosae; Myzaphis rosarum

        R. lutea = R. foetida

        R. macrophylla                           Chaetosiphon glabrum, gracilicorne;

                                                            Longicaudus naumanni; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Myzaphis avariolosa, bucktoni, rosarum;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum; Sitobion rosaeiformis

        R. majalis                                    Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum; Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae; Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni

        R. maracandica                          Amphorophora catharinae

        R. marretii                                   Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum paektusani

        R. maximowicziana                    Aphis neospiraeae; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum mordvilkoi, rosae; Sitobion ibarae

        R. medioxima                             Metopolophium dirhodum, montanum; Sitobion fragariae

        R. micrantha                               Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum

        R. mollis                                      Metopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion fragariae

        R. montana                                 Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium alpinum, montanum

        R. moschata                                Chaetosiphon glabrum, gracilicorne, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula; Myzaphis bucktoni;

                                                            Sitobion rosaeiformis 

        R. multiflora                               Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, coreanum, tetrarhodum,

                                                               Chaetosiphon sp. near thomasi (New Zealand);

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, impatientis, mordvilkoi,

                                                                [ perillae], rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum, turanica; Myzus japonensis;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            [Schizoneura rosaefoliae Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                            Sitobion akebiae, fragariae, ibarae, kamtshaticum

        R. nanothamnus                         Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum

        R. nitida                                      [Chaetosiphon minor]; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. nutkana                                  Eomacrosiphum nigromaculosum;

                                                            Ericaphis fimbriata, wakibae;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. obtusifolia = R. klukii

          R. omeiensis                                [Longicaudus netuba]; Myzaphis rosarum

        R. palustris                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzaphis bucktoni

        R. pendulina                               Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, chaetosiphon ssp. montanum,

                                                                tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium alpinum, dirhodum, montanum;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Sitobion fragariae;

                                                            Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni 

        R. persica                                    Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [ignotum]; Aphis gossypii

        R. pimpinellifolia = R. spinosissima                                          

        R. pisocarpa = R. woodsii

        R. platyacantha                           Amphorophora catharinae; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum

        R. polyantha (incl. genuina)           Aphis gossypii; Chaetosiphon coreanum; Sitobion ibarae

        R. pomifera                                 Metopolophium alpinum, dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum

        R. rouletti                                    Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum

        R. rubiginosa                              [Aphis rosasuaveolens Rafinesque (invalid name)];

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. rubrifolia                                Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum

        R. rugosa (incl. vars typica,            Acyrthosiphon gossypii; [Amphorophora amurensis];

                                  gregeliana)          [Anoecia corni]; Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi ;

                                                            Chaetosiphon coreanum, [fragaefolii], tetrarhodum,

                                                                thomasi;

                                                            Ericaphis wakibae; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, mordvilkoi, rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium alpinum, dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum, turanica;

                                                            Myzus japonensis, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum

        R. sempervirens                          Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum rosae

        R. sericea (incl. var. pteragantia)      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        R. setigera                                   Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. setipoda                                  Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum

        R. sherardii                                 Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

        R. sicula                                      Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzaphis rosarum

        R. silverhjelmii                            Amphorophora  catharinae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni

        R. spinossissima                          Aphis craccivora; Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon, tetrarhodum;

                                                            Longicaudus trirhodus;  Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Maculolachnus submacula; Metopolophium dirhodum;  

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum, turanica; Rhodobium porosum;

                                                            Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni

        R. stylosa                                     Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum

        R. suaveolens                              Sitobion akebiae, ibarae

        R. sweginzowii                            Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum

        R. tomentosa                               Myzaphis bucktoni

        R. ultramontana see R. woodsii

        R. villosa                                     Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Metopolophium alpinum, dirhodum;

                                                            Myzaphis bucktoni, rosarum, turanica; Myzus persicae 

        R. virginiana                               Macrosiphum rosae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae 

        R. vosagiaca = R. dumalis

        R. webbiana                                Amphorophora catharinae; Chaetosiphon glabrum;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                            Myzaphis rosarum

        R. wichurana = R. lucieae

        R. woodsii                                   Chaetosiphon hottesi; Ericaphis wakibae;

              (incl. var. ultramontana)             Longicaudus trirhodus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum, montanum;

                                                            Pseudocercidis rosae; Sitobion fragariae

        R. xanthina                                 Ferusaphis xanthinae; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                            Rhodobium porosum

        R. zagrebiensis                            Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum; Macrosiphum rosae

        Rosa spp. (incl. cult.)                  Acyrthosiphon malvae group, pseudodirhodum;

                                                            [Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis];

                                                            Aphiduromyzus rosae; Aphis odinae, stranvaesiae;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani;  [Brachycaudus amygdalinus];

                                                            [Cavariella aegopodii, salicicola];

                                                            Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon ssp. montanum, [jacobi],

                                                            Chaetosiphon sp. near glabrum (Kashmir; BMNH

                                                                collection, leg. N. Rishi);

                                                            [Hyalomyzus raoi];

                                                            [Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiensis];

                                                            Longicaudus himalayensis of David et al. (1970);

                                                            [Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi];

                                                            Macrosiphum centranthi, [davisi del Guercio ex Mason

                                                               1921 (nomen nudum)], [kiowanepus], pachysiphon,

                                                                pallidum;

                                                            [Matsumuraja capitophoroides, rubifoliae];

                                                            Metopolophium [chandrani], rosaesuctum;

                                                            [Ovatus malisuctus]; [Neomasonaphis inulae];

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; [Longicaudus netuba];

                                                            Pseudocercidis tutigulus; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae];

                                                            Wahlgreniella nervata

Key to apterae on Rosa:-

Notes: Blackman & Eastop (2000) provided an illustrated key to aphids on cultivated roses. The present key is considerably extended to cover all Rosa spp. Certain Rubus-feeding aphids such as Matsumuraja spp. may sometimes be found on Rosa but are not included, so if this key does not provide a satisfactory answer, it might be worthwhile to try the key to apterae on Rubus. From couplet 8 onwards, the key cannot be applied to fundatrices.

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.25 or less. SIPH as pores on flat dark discs                                         …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH tubular, conical or absent                                      …..3

2      Dorsal abdominal hairs arising from dark scleroites                 …..Maculolachnus submacula

-       Dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from dark scleroites               …..Maculolachnus sijpenski

3      SIPH 0.17-0.55 Χ cauda, or absent (in fund.). First tarsal segments with 6 hairs             …..4

-       SIPH at least 0.8 Χ cauda. First tarsal segments with 2-6 hairs                                        …..7

4      R IV+V 0.85-1.0 Χ HT II. (Spring populations consisting only of fundatrices without SIPH, and emigrant  alatae)                                                                      …..Longicaudus naumanni

-       R IV+V either 0.6-0.8 or c.1.1 Χ HT II. (Spring populations include 2nd generation apterae with SIPH 0.17-0.55 Χ cauda)                                                                                          …..5

5      R IV+V c.1.1 Χ HT II                             …..Longicaudus himalayensis of David et al., 1970

-       R IV+V 0.6-0.8 Χ HT II                                                                                                   …..6

6      ANT PT/BASE 0.91-1.46. SIPH 0.28-0.41 Χ cauda                      …..Longicaudus trirhodus

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.1. SIPH 0.17-0.26 Χ cauda                             …..Longicaudus dunlopi

7      (Spring colonies consisting only of fundatrices and emigrant alatae.) SIPH clavate, pale on basal 0.4 but dark distally, about 2 Χ cauda which bears 5 hairs. ANT III with (0-) 1-4 rhinaria clustered near base                                                                  .....Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni

-       Spring populations with 2nd and/or 3rd generation apterae, and without that combination of characters                                                                                                                            .....8

8      Dorsal body hairs long and usually thick, with expanded or capitate apices, often much longer than ANT BD III, and arising from prominent tuberculate bases (usually such hairs are on all tergites, but in one species only on head and ABD TERG 8 or 7-8). First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                                        …..9

-       Dorsal body hairs with blunt or pointed apices, usually shorter than or as short as ANT BD III, or if longer then pointed and/or without prominent tuberculate bases. First tarsal segments with 2-6 hairs                                                                                                   …..16

9      SIPH bearing several long capitate hairs                                                                         …..10

-       SIPH without capitate hairs                                                                                            …..11

10    SIPH 1.25-1.75 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.05-1.35 Χ HT II. Hairs on ANT IV and V similar in length to, or only a little shorter than, those on ANT III        …..Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon

-       SIPH 2.0-3.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.85-1.0 Χ HT II. Hairs on ANT IV and V all clearly shorter than the longest hairs on ANT III, and shorter than basal diameters of the segmenets on which they are placed                                                               …..Chaetosiphon gracilicorne

11    Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 all very small, long hairs only being present on head and ABD TERG 8 or 7-8                                                        …...Chaetosiphon sp. near glabrum

-       ABD TERG 1-7 with long hairs                                                                                     …..12

12    ANT PT/BASE less than 2                                                                                              …..13

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 2 (except fundatrices)                                                          …..14

13    SIPH less than 1.5 Χ cauda. Dorsal hairs tapering, with apices only slightly expanded. Tergum wrinkled, with dusky cross-bands                                     …..Chaetosiphon glabrum

-       SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda. Dorsal hairs very thick, almost cylindrical, with apices markedly expanded. Tergum papillated and pale                                        …..Chaetosiphon coreanum

14    Head spinulose dorsally. SIPH more than 2.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 3-6 accessory hairs                                                                                                          …..Chaetosiphon thomasi

-       Head smooth dorsally. SIPH less than 2.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 9-16 accessory hairs …..15

15    Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 duplicated. Cauda thick and blunt, with 6-9 hairs

…..Chaetosiphon tetrarhodum

-       Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 not duplicated. Cauda tapering to a rather acute apex, with 5-6 hairs                                                                                              …..Chaetosiphon hottesi

16    Dorsal thoracic and abdominal cuticle strongly rugose, papillate or variolate. ANT PT/BASE often less than 1.8                                                                                                           …..17

-       Dorsal cuticle smooth, or if somewhat rugose then wrinkled or corrugated. ANT PT/BASE mostly more than 1.8                                                                                                       …..23

17    ANT tubercles well developed and bearing forwardly-directed processes. Median frontal tubercle undeveloped. SIPH strongly clavate, more than 3 Χ cauda, which is swollen on basal half                                                                                                  …..Ferusaphis xanthinae*

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped or developed but lacking forwardly-directed processes. SIPH cylindrical or clavate, and less than 3 Χ cauda, which is not swollen basally                 …..18

18    ANT tubercles well developed, divergent, and median frontal process undeveloped, so that there is a frontal sinus. ANT 0.9-1.25 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.6. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. R IV+V stiletto-shaped, 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II

…..Raychaudhuriaphis capitata*

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed, but median frontal tubercle often very well developed, and middle part of  front of head always furthest forward in dorsal view.  ANT less than 0.5 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.8. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. R IV+V not stiletto-shaped, 0.7-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                                                …..19

19    Front of head broadly convex in dorsal view, with no distinct median frontal tubercle. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.9. SIPH distinctly clavate, 1.5-1.9 Χ cauda

        …..Myzaphis juchnevitschae*

-       Median frontal tubercle evident, quadrate or rounded in shape. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.75. SIPH cylindrical or clavate, 1.6-2.4 Χ cauda                                                                  …..20

20    Dorsal body hairs long and pointed, much longer than ANT BD III

…..Myzaphis tianshanica*

-       Dorsal body hairs short and blunt, much shorter than ANT BD III                               …..21

21    Median frontal tubercle rounded, bearing 4 hairs mostly 1.1-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. Dorsum with two broad dark longitudinal pleural stripes                                   …..Myzaphis bucktoni

-       Median frontal tubercles quadrate or rounded (sometimes rather low), bearing 2-4 hairs that are 0.3-1.1 Χ ANT BD III. Dorsum pale                                                                         …..22

22    Median frontal tubercle quadrate, usually with 2 hairs 0.3-0.6 Χ ANT BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.75. SIPH clavate. Subgenital plate with only 4-7 hairs

…..Myzaphis rosarum

-       Median frontal tubercle rounded, sometimes rather low, with 2-4 hairs 0.8-1.1 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4. SIPH cylindrical or only very slightly swollen distally  . Subgenital plate with 9-12 hairs                                                                               …..Myzaphis turanica

23    Head with numerous spicules, at least on ventral surface. ANT tubercles are steep-sided and spiculose or scabrous                                                                                                       …..24

-       Head without spicules, or with a few minute ones. ANT tubercles variously developed, if well developed then with smooth divergent inner faces                                                 …..32

24    First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.0                …..Myzaphis avariolosa

-       First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-5.5                                          …..25

25    ANT III with (2-)5-18 rather large rhinaria in a row, the sensoriated part often being            infuscated. Cauda with 5-8 (usually 7) hairs, the basal 4 hairs being long and pointed and the distal 3-4 short and blunt                                                                   …..Rhodobium porosum

-       ANT III without rhinaria or with 1-4 small rhinaria near base. Distal caudal hairs not evidently shorter than basal ones                                                                                    …..26

26   Dorsum with a large black U-shaped patch, and broad dark cross bars or paired patches on thorax                                                                                             …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsum without a U-shaped patch, with or without other pigmentation                        …..27

27   ANT III with 1-2 (-4) small rhinaria near base (rarely 0 on one side)  …..Aulacorthum solani

-       ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                …..28

28    SIPH clavate. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 (-1.1) Χ HT II                                            …..Myzus persicae

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering, or slightly swollen subapically, in which case R IV+V is more than 1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                                              …..29

29   Dorsum with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL.

       ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                                                                 …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsum with or without more extensive dark sclerotisation. ANT 0.65-1.2 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.5-5.0                                                                                                            …..30

30   Head densely spiculose dorsally as well as ventrally. Inner faces of ANT tubercles with apically convergent processes. Median frontal tubercle undeveloped. R IV+V 1.3-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.5-2.8 Χ cauda, which is constricted near base                       …..Myzus japonensis

-      Dorsal surface of head without or with only a few spicules. Inner sides of ANT tubercles not apically convergent. R IV+V 0.8-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.5-2.7 Χ cauda, which is not constricted at base                                                                                                           …..31

31   SIPH 1.5-1.9 Χ cauda. R IV+V less than 0.12 mm, 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen always pale and membranous                                                                           …..Ericaphis fimbriata

-      SIPH 2.0-2.7 Χ cauda. R IV+V usually more than 0.12 mm, 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen sclerotic, usually with an ill-defined darker mid-dorsal region of varying extent

…..Ericaphis wakibae

32    SIPH pale and 0.17-0.36 mm long, 0.06-0.14 Χ BL. First tarsal segments all with either 5 or 6 hairs. ANT II with 5-7 hairs. R IV+V 0.55-0.70 Χ HT II                                            …..33

-       SIPH dark or pale, but if pale then more than 0.36 mm long, and more than 0.14 Χ BL. First tarsal segments with 2, 3 or 5 hairs. ANT II with 4 hairs and/or R IV+V more than 0.75 Χ HT II                                                                                                                               …..34

33    First tarsal segments with 5 hairs (1 sense peg). Cauda triangular, a little longer than its basal width, with rather pointed apex                                                   …..Pseudocercidis tutigulus

-       First tarsal segments with 6 hairs (2 sense pegs). Cauda pentagonal or rounded apically, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                         …..Pseudocercidis rosae

34    SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed polygonal cells)              …..35

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation, or with no more than 2 rows of closed polygonal cells                                                                                                                 …..50

35    Front of head almost flat or slightly domed in dorsal view, completely lacking antennal tubercles. Subapical reticulation consisting of no more than 5 rows of closed cells

        …..Pseudaphis abyssinica (part)

-       Antennal tubercles moderately to well developed. Subapical reticulation usually more extensive                                                                                                                          …..36

36    Longest hairs on ANT III are 0.6 or more Χ BD III                                                       …..37

-       Longest hairs on ANT III are 0.55 or less Χ BD III                                                       …..45

37    SIPH pale at least on basal half, sometimes dusky towards apices                                …..38

-       SIPH dark, except sometimes at extreme bases                                                              …..39

38    ANT 0.9-1.4 Χ BL. Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 21-37 μm long. Cauda has 8-12 hairs

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       ANT 1.3-1.7 Χ BL. Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 33-49 μm long. Cauda has 10-19 hairs

…..Macrosiphum centranthi

39    ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH with reticulation consisting of more than 20 rows of numerous small polygonal cells on distal c.0.3 of length. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs

…..Eomacrosiphum nigromaculosum

-       ANT III with 1 or more rhinaria. SIPH with reticulation consisting of less than 12 rows of large polygonal cells, on distal 0.1-0.2 of length. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs      …..40

40    SIPH thick, tapering, c. 6-7 Χ longer than their diameter at midlength, and with a very small flange                                                                                        …..Macrosiphum pachysiphon

-       SIPH almost cylindrical for most of length, 9-20 Χ longer than their diameter at midlength, and usually with a rather well-developed flange                                                            …..41

41    Head black. SIPH entirely dark. ANT III with 10-36 rhinaria                                       …..42

-       Head pale/dusky. SIPH usually pale at extreme bases. ANT III with 1-31 rhinaria      …..43

42    ANT III with a cluster of 10-35 rhinaria concentrated on basal part  …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       ANT III with 23-36 rhinaria distributed over most of length     …..Macrosiphum mordvilkoi

43    ANT III pale, with 19-31 rhinaria                                               …..Macrosiphum paektusani

-       ANT III pale or dark, with 1-18 rhinaria                                                                        …..44

44    ANT III, and usually also tibiae, entirely dark (although populations persisting on roses until late summer may have paler appendages). ABD TERG 7 and 8 each usually with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu)                                                                     …..Macrosiphum pallidum

-       ANT III pale except for rhinariated part and extreme tip, and tibiae usually with pale middle sections. ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually without STu                   …..Macrosiphum impatientis

45    Femora with at least distal 0.25 very dark                                                                      …..46

-       Femora pale, sometimes shading to dusky/dark at apices                                               …..49

46    Cauda 0.15-0.20 Χ BL and 0.5-0.7 Χ SIPH                                                                    …..47

-       Cauda 0.09-0.125 Χ BL and 0.3-0.4 Χ SIPH                                                                  …..48

47    R IV+V 0.95-1.2 Χ HT II. ANT tubercle with 3 hairs. ANT III with 4-10 rhinaria on swollen basal part                                                                                                      .....Sitobion ibarae

-       R IV+V 0.65-0.85 Χ HT II. ANT tubercle with 1 hair. ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria

.....Sitobion akebiae

48    BL c. 4 mm. ANT III pale except at apices, with 6-12 rhinaria not in a single row, and longest hairs c.0.3 Χ BD III                                                                …..Sitobion rosivorum*

-       BL 2.5-2.9 mm. ANT III entirely dark with 5-9 rhinaria in a single row, with hairs that are all minute, the longest being c.0.2 Χ BD III                                              Sitobion kamtshaticum

49    Longest hairs on ANT III 20-27 μm, 0.4-0.55 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 7-9 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda, which tapers to a pointed apex                     …..Sitobion rosaeiformis

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 14-22 μm, 0.3-0.4 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 5-6 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.8-2.7 Χ cauda, which has a blunt, rounded apex                       …..Sitobion fragariae

50    ANT tubercles well developed, with divergent inner faces. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT III with 0-30 rhinaria, if the number is small then they are concentrated on basal part                                                                                               …..51

-       ANT tubercles absent, or if weakly developed then ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu. ANT III usually without rhinaria, or with 1-4 on distal half                                                    …..61

51    ANT III longer than ANT IV+V together, thickened, and bearing 20-40 rhinaria, not in a single row. Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark pigmentation. Femora dark except at bases. Cauda dark                                                                                       …..Aphiduromyzus rosae

-       ANT III not longer than ANT IV + V together, and bearing 0-30 rhinaria, if with more than 10 they are in a single row. Body and appendages mainly pale                                      …..52

52    SIPH very long, 0.37-0.5 Χ BL                                                                                       …..53

-       SIPH 0.14-0.35 Χ BL                                                                                                      …..54

53    Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.6 Χ BD III. SIPH slightly swollen on distal part

…..Amphorophora catharinae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. SIPH thin and cylindrical on distal part

…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

54    SIPH clavate. ANT III without rhinaria. R IV+V 1.0-1.5 Χ HT II. Cauda with 4-6 (usually 5) hairs                                                                                                  …..Wahlgreniella nervata

-       SIPH tapering, cylindrical or slightly expanded apically. ANT III usually with rhinaria. R IV+V 0.6-1.5 Χ HT II. Cauda with 5-12 (usually at least 7) hairs                                  …..55 

55    ANT PT more than 2.2 Χ SIPH, which are only 0.8-1.2 Χ cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon pseudodirhodum

-       ANT PT less than 2.1 Χ SIPH, which are 1.4-4.0 Χ cauda                                             …..56

56    R IV+V 1.0-1.5 Χ HT II, and bearing (7-)10-18 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.4-7.5

…..Acyrthosiphon malvae (s. lat.)

-       R IV+V 0.55-0.95 Χ HT II and bearing 2-11 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-7.5 …..57

57    First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-7.5

…..Acyrthosiphon pentatrichopus

-       First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-5.2                                             …..58

58    SIPH more than 0.65 mm long, 0.25-0.35 Χ BL                                                             …..59

-       SIPH less than 0.65 mm long, 0.15-0.24 Χ BL                                                               …..60

59    ANT III with 16-24 rhinaria in a row extending over most of length. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 c. 65 μm long                                                                       …..Metopolophium rosaesuctum*

-       ANT III with 0-3 small rhinaria near base. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 up to c. 45 μm long

…..Metopolophium alpinum

60    SIPH 1.35-1.75 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II, with 4-7 accessory hairs. SIPH with rather weak imbrication                                                             …..Metopolophium dirhodum

-       SIPH 2.0-2.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.75-0.85 Χ HT II, with 6-10 accessory hairs. SIPH with coarse imbrication                                                                     …..Metopolophium montanum

61    SIPH pale or dusky. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. R IV+V with 4-9 accessory hairs

…..Pseudaphis abyssinica (part)

-       SIPH dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. R IV+V with 2(-3) accessory hairs          …..62

62    Stridulatory apparatus present, with ridges on abdominal sternites 6 and 7 and a row of

        peg-like hairs on hind tibiae                                                                                            …..63

-       No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                …..64

63    SIPH 0.4-0.7 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.4. ABD TERG 8 with 4-12 hairs

…..Aphis odinae

-       SIPH 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.3. ABD TERG 8 with 2-3 hairs

…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

64    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 (-0.8) Χ BD III. Cauda with 4-7(-9) hairs                 …..65

-       Longest hairs on ANT III (0.5-) 0.7-2.2 Χ BD III. Cauda with (7-) 8-25 hairs              …..66

65    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black shield. SIPH and cauda both black

…..Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Cauda paler than SIPH               …..Aphis gossypii

66    ANT III-VI and tibiae almost entirely black. MTu usually present on ABD TERG 2 and 4

        as well as 1 and 7                                                                                   …..Aphis stranvaesiae

-       ANT III-VI and tibiae mainly pale or dusky, only dark apically. MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4                                                                                             …..67

67    Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. SIPH 1.1-1.45 Χ ANT III and 2.8-3.4 Χ ANT BASE VI. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (usually 9-11)                                                 …..Aphis spiraecola

-       Dorsal abdomen with dark markings. SIPH 0.6-1.1 Χ ANT III and 1.5-2.7 Χ ANT BASE VI. Cauda with 9-25 hairs (often more than 15)                                                            …..68

68    Dorsal abdomen often with dark median sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6, sometimes fused between segments. SIPH 0.7-1.0 Χ cauda, which is finger-shaped, with a constriction

…..Aphis neospireae

-       Dorsal abdomen with only scattered small, mainly intersegmental sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6. SIPH usually longer than cauda, which is tongue-shaped, without a constriction

…..Aphis fabae

 

Roscoea                                                       Zingiberaceae

      Roscoea sp.                                   Pentalonia nigronervosa

 

Rosmarinus                                                 Lamiaceae

      Rosmarinus officinalis                 Aphis [affinis], gossypii, spiraecola, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et

                                                                   al. 2014)];

                                                              [Eucarazzia elegans]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Rostellularia see Justicia                                                Acanthaceae

 

Rostraria  (including Lophochloa)                                        Poaceae

      Rostraria cristata                          Israelaphis carmini; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Sipha maydis; Sitobion fragariae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

    

Rosularia                                                     Crassulaceae

      Rosularia platyphylla                    Aphis sedi

        R. schischkinii                              Aphis sedi

        R. sempervivoides                         Aphis sedi

     

Rothia                                                          Leguminosae

      Rothia hirsuta                               Aphis gossypii

 

Rothmannia                                                 Rubiaceae

      Rothmannia capensis                   Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

 

Rottboellia                                                   Poaceae

      Rottboellia cochinchinensis          Aphis gossypii; Rhopalosiphum maidis

        R. exaltata = Ophiuros exaltatus

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

     

Rotula                                                          Boraginaceae

      Rotula sp.                                      Aphis gossypii

 

Roystonea                                                    Arecaceae

      Roystonea oleracea                       Cerataphis lataniae

      R. regia                                         Cerataphis brasiliensis

 

Use key to aphids on palms under Calamus.

 

Rubia                                                           Rubiaceae

      Rubia agostinhoi                          Dysaphis pyri

      R. akane = R. argyi

          R. argyi                                         Aphis gossypii, [rhamnicola]; [Cavariella heraclei];

                                                              [Macrosiphum rubifoliae Shinji 1922 (nomen dubium)]

        R. chinensis                                  Aphis gossypii

        R. cordifolia                                  Aphis citricidus,  fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                   (incl. var. munjista)                 Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Macrosiphum rubifoliae Shinji 1922 (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Melanaphis sacchari]; [Myzakkaia verbasci];

                                                              Myzus cerasi, cerasi ssp. umefoliae, [mumecola], ornatus;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        R. fruticosa                                   Aphis solanella, spiraecola

        R. peregrina                                  Aphis fabae, [sambuci]; Dysaphis pyri;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus cerasi;

                                                              Staegeriella necopinata

        R. tatarica                                     Aphis gossypii

        R. tenuifolia                                  Aphis fabae

        R. tinctorum                                  Aphis fabae, galiiscabri, rubiae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Rubia:-

1      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black sclerotic shield. ANT tubercles well developed, scabrous, and head densely spiculose. SIPH black, coarsely imbricated, 2.3-2.8 Χ cauda and 1.3-1.8 Χ ANT III                                                         …..Myzus cerasi (incl. ssp. umefoliae)

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 with spinal tubercles (STu), usually paired. ABD TERG 1-5 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda short, helmet-shaped with 5 (or sometimes 6) hairs

.....Dysaphis pyri

-       STu absent from head, rarely on ABD TERG 7-8. IF ABD TERG 2-5 all with MTu then they are also present on ABD TERG 7. Cauda short or long, often with more hairs        .....3

3      SIPH (Fig. 29i) short and thick, conical, only 0.5-0.8 Χ the finger-like cauda. MTu absent

…..Staegeriella necopinata

-       SIPH 0.5-2.5 Χ cauda, but if less than 0.8 Χ then ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu         …..4

4      First tarsal segments all with 2 hairs (i.e. all lacking sense pegs). SIPH black, ANT tubercles weakly developed. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.4 Χ BD III                                                                 …..Aphis rubiae

-       First tarsal segments with 3-3-2 or 3-3-3 hairs, i.e. at least first segments of fore and mid-tarsi with sense pegs, and other characters not in that combination                                         …..5

5     ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.2. SIPH 0.5-0.95 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.6-0.95 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with a pair of large black sclerites anterior to SIPH (Fig.29a)    .….Aphis galiiscabri

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Rubus (including Bossekia, Cylactis)                               Rosaceae

      R. aculeatissimus                          Matsumuraja rubi

      R. allegheniensis                           Aphis rubifolii; Aulacorthum solani; Ericaphis wakibae;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis

      R. apetalus                                    Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Pseudaphis abyssinica

        R. arcticus                                     Amphorophora rubi; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rubiarctici

        R. argutus see R. ostryfolius

      R. asper                                         Acyrthosiphon rubi

        R. caesius                                      Acyrthosiphon [gossypii], rubi;

                                                              Amphorophora amurensis, rubi, rubi ssp. zhuravieni;

                                                              Aphis idaei, ruborum; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Illinoia davidsoni; Macrosiphum funestum;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae

        R. caesius var. turkestanicus = R. caesius

        R. calcynoides = R. rolfei

        R. canadensis = R. flagellaris

        R. candicans                                 Aphis ruborum

        R. canescens = R. tomentosus var. canescens

        R. chamaemorus                          Amphorophora rubi;

                                                              Aphis frangulae, rubiradicis, ruborum;

                                                              Aulacorthum cylactis, solani; Ericaphis wakibae;

                                                              Macrosiphum chukotense, euphorbiae, rubiarctici

        R. corchorifolius                           Aphis ichigocola; Matsumuraja rubicola, rubifoliae

        R. coreanus                                   Aphis ichigo; Matsumuraja rubi

        R. corylifolius                                [Amphorophora sp. (as rubi)]

      R. crataegifolius                            Aphis ichigo, ichigocola; Matsumuraja rubi;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae

        R. cuneifolius                                Aphis rubifolii

        R. dalmaticus                                [Longicaudus trirhodus]

        R. deliciosa (= Bossekia deliciosa)     Utamphorophora bossekiae

        R. discolor = R. rigidus

        R. dumetorum                              Amphorophora rubi

        R. ellipticus                                   Acyrthosiphon [malvae], rubi ssp. elliptici, rubifoliae;

                                                              [Amphorophora sp.];

                                                              Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, longisetosa, rubifolii,

                                                                   ruborum;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Capitophorus carduinus];

                                                              Hyalomyzus raoi; [Hyperomyzus carduellinus];

                                                              Macrosiphum pachysiphon; Matsumuraja capitophoroides;

                                                              Microlophium rubiformosanum;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]; Sitobion fragariae

        R. fissus                                         [Amphorophora sp. (as rubi; Janiszewska 1963, 494)];

                                                              Aphis idaei, ruborum; Macrosiphum funestum                  

        R. flagellaris                                  Aphis rubifolii

        R. frondosus = R. villosus var. frondosus

        R. fruticosus                                  Acyrthosiphon rubi, rubifoliae; Amphorophora rubi;

                                                              Aphis [idaei], longisetosa, ruborum; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Chaetosiphon glabrum]; [Hyadaphis coriandri];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, funestum, rosae;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae

      R. geniculatus                               Amphorophora rubi; Macrosiphum funestum

      R. glandulosus                              Macrosiphum funestum

        R. glandulosus ssp. koehleri         Amphorophora rubi

        R. hedycarpus ssp. procerus see R. procerus

      R. hirsutus                                    Aulacorthum solani; Matsumuraja rubifoliae

        R. hirtus                                        Amphorophora rubi; Aphis ruborum;

                                                              Macrosiphum funestum

        R. hispidus                                    [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae]

        R. hochstetterorum                       Aphis ruborum

        R. idaeus                                       [Acyrthosiphon malvae];

                                                              Amphorophora amurensis, idaei, [rubi];

                                                              Aphis gossypii, idaei, ruborum; [Keltenbachiella pallida];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, funestum;

                                                              Matsumuraja hirakurensis,rubi,  rubifoliae, taisetsusana;

                                                              [Myzaphis bucktoni]; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              [Pachypappa warschavensis]; Pemphigus rubiradicis;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae

        R. idaeus var. aculeatissimus = R. sachaliensis

        R. idaeus var. melanolasius          Amphorophora agathonica; Aphis idaei; Illinoia rubicola

        R. idaeus ssp. strigosus  = R. strigosus

        R. illecebrosus                               [Rhopalosiphoninus ichigo (Shinji 1922)]

        R. insularis                                    Amphorophora rubi

        R. koelheri = R. glandulosus ssp. koehleri

        R. laciniatus                                  Amphorophora rubitoxica; Aphis rubifolii, ruborum;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae

      R. lasiocarpus = R. niveus

        R. leucodermis = Melanobatus leucodermis

        R. lineatus                                     Aphis longisetosa

        R. loganobaccus = R.ursinus var. loganobaccus

          R. longisepalus                                       Aphis ichigo                            

        R. macilentus                                Macrosiphum pachysiphon; Matsumuraja capitophoroides

      R. macropetalus = R.ursinus ssp. macropetalus

        R. micans                                      Amphorophora rubi

        R. microphyllus                            Aphis ichigo; Matsumuraja nuditerga, rubi, rubifoliae

      R. Χmollifolius                              Aphis ichigo

      R. mollucata (?)                            Hyalomyzus raoi

      R. moluccanus                              [Amphorophora sp. (Raychaudhuri 1984)]; Aphis gossypii

        R. multiflorus                                Sitobion fragariae

        R. myricae                                     Amphorophora rubi

        R. nemorosus                                Amphorophora rubi

        R. nessensis                                   Amphorophora rubi; Aphis ruborum;

                                                              Aulacorthum nessensis; Sitobion fragariae

        R. nitidus                                       Macrosiphum funestum

        R. niveus                                       Acyrthosiphon rubi; [Aphis sp. (David et al. 1971e)];

                                                              Macrosiphum pachysiphon;

                                                              Matsumuraja capitophoroides, rubifoliae;

                                                              [Myzus sp. (Raychaudhuri, 1984]; Sitobion rosaeiformis

        R. nutkanus see R. parviflorus        

      R. occidentalis                               Amphorophora agathonica, rubicumberlandi, rubitoxica,

                                                                  sensoriata, tigwatensa;

                                                              Aphis idaei, rubicola, rubifolii;

                                                              Capitophorus sp.” (Cutright 1925)];

                                                              [Pemphigus rubi Thomas (= populitransversus?)]

      R. odoratus                                   Amphorophora agathonica; [Aphis idaei]; Macrosiphum sp.

        R. opulifolius                                Metopolophium chandrani

        R. palmatus                                   Aphis longisetosa;

                                                              Matsumuraja nuditerga, rubi, rubifoliae, rubiphila;

                                                              Myzus persicae

      R. paniculatus                               Hyalomyzus raoi

      R. parviflorus (incl. R. nutkanus)       Amphorophora agathonica, pacifica, parviflori;

                                                              Illinoia davidsoni, maxima, [rubicola];

                                                              [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1974)]; Myzus ornatus

        R. parvifolius                                Aphis ichigocola; Sitobion akebiae

        R. peltatus                                     Aphis ichigo; Matsumuraja sorini

        R. phoenicolasius                         Aphis ichigo, idaei; Amphorophora agathonica

        R. pinnatus                                   Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        R. plicatus                                     Amphorophora rubi; Aphis ruborum;

                                                              Macrosiphum funestum; Sitobion fragariae

        R. polyanthemus                           Amphorophora rubi

      R. procerus                                   Amphorophora agathonica, tigwatensa; Aphis rubifolii;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        R. pubescens                                 Amphorophora stolonis; Ericaphis wakibae

        R. radula                                       Amphorophora rubi

        R. reticulatus                                 Hyalomyzus raoi

        R. ribisoideus                                Matsumuraja rubi

        R. rigidus                                      Aphis ruborum

        R. riograndis                                 Aphis gossypii

        R. rolfei                                         Aulacorthum solani

        R. rosaefolius = R. rosifolius

        R. rosifolius                                   Acyrthosiphon rubifoliae; Aphis gossypii, longisetosa;

                                                              Macrosiphum pachysiphon;

                                                              Matsumuraja capitophoroides, rubifoliae, Matsumuraja sp.

                                                                  (Queensland; BMNH collection, leg. V.F.Eastop, 2n=18)

                                                              Myzus ornatus

        R. rosifolius var maximowiczii      Matsumuraja rubifoliae; Microlophium rubiformosanum

        R. rugosus                                     Matsumuraja capitophoroides

        R. sachalinensis                            Amphorophora amurensis; Aphis ichigo, idaei;

                                                              Matsumuraja rubi, taisetsusana

      R. sanctus see R. sanguineus

      R. sanguineus                               Aphis craccivora, ruborum; Myzus persicae

      R. saxatilis                                     Amphorophora rubi;  Aphis idaei, ruborum;

                                                              Aulacorthum cylactis; Macrosiphum funestum, rubiarctici;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus;  Sitobion fragariae

      R. spectabilis                                 Amphorophora forbesi; Illinoia maxima;

                   (= Parmena spectabilis)           Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      R. spinosus (?)                              Acyrthosiphon rubi

        R. stellatus                                     Macrosiphum rubiarctici

      R. strigosus                                   Amphorophora agathonica, [rubi];

                                                              Aphis idaei, rubicola, rubifolii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Illinoia rubicola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae            

        R. sulcatus                                    Amphorophora rubi

        R. takesimensis                             Aphis ichigo

        R. tomentosus var. canescens      Amphorophora rubi; Aphis ruborum;

                                                              Macrosiphum funestum

      R. trifidus                                      Aphis ichigo; Matsumuraja rubi;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphoninus ichigo (Shinji 1922)]

        R. turkestanicus                            Acyrthosiphon rubi

        R. turquinensis                             Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        R. ulmifolius                                 Acyrthosiphon rubi; Amphorophora idaei, rubi, parviflori;

                                                              Aphis [affinis], ruborum; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum funestum, rosae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Sitobion fragariae

        R. ursinus var. loganobaccus       Aphis idaei, rubifolii; Illinoia davidsoni;

                                                              [Hyperomyzus lactucae]

      R. ursinus ssp. macropetalus        Amphorophora parviflori, rubitoxica

        R. ursinus var. vitifolius               Amphorophora rubitoxica

        R. Χvendrariensis                          Amphorophora rubi

        R. vestitus                                      Aphis ruborum

        R. villosus var. frondosus             Aphis rubifolii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Illinoia rubicola

        R. vitifolius = R. ursinus var. vitifolius

      R. volkensii                                   Myzus ornatus

        R. wahlbergii                                Aphis ruborum

      R. xylenica (?)                               Matsumuraja capitophoroides

      Rubus sp.                                      Amphorophora [bonnevilla (al. only)], kesocqua;

                                                              [Aphis rubicolens (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Betulaphis longicornis]; Hyalomyzus himachali;

                                                              [Illinoia reticulata]; [Longicaudus himalayensis];

                                                              Macrosiphum pallidum, [rudbeckiarum],

                                                                  Macrosiphum sp. (Korea, leg. W.H. Paik);

                                                              Maculolachnus rubi;

                                                              Matsumuraja formosana, rubea, urticae;

                                                              Metopolophium lacheni; Paraphorodon omeishanensis;

                                                              [Sappaphis piri];

                                                              Sitobion [aulacorthoides, cornifoliae], kamtshaticum;

                                                              [Tuberoaphis hydrangeae ssp. digitata]

Key to apterae on Rubus:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH either absent or as pores on low dark hairy cones      …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular                                                                      …..4

2      SIPH as pores on low dark hairy cones. ANT densely hairy, with sec. rhinaria on ANT III-VI, and PT/BASE 0.5-0.6                                                                          …..Maculolachnus rubi

-       SIPH absent. ANT sparsely hairy, without sec. rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5   …..3

3      R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, and without accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments short and thick. Cauda and anal plate not projecting posteriorly

…..Pemphigus spp.

-       R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments long and fine. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark posterior projection of the abdomen                                                                               …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

4      Dorsal body, or at least front of head and ABD TERG 7 and 8, with long, capitate hairs, the longest at least 1.5 Χ longer than ANT BD III., arising from prominent tuberculate bases. ANT I often with a prominent projection on inner side at apex (but ANT tubercles without projections). Head finely spiculose                                                                                   …..5

-       Dorsal hairs all less than 1.5 Χ BD III or if longer then with pointed apices. ANT I without a projection (unless ANT tubercle has a much longer projection). Head spiculose, smooth or wrinkled                                                                                                                          …..16

5      ABD TERG 1-7 with spinal capitate hairs arising from large paired finger-like processes, maximally 120-240 μm long, much longer than the hairs borne upon them                     …..6

-       ABD TERG 1-7 without finger-like processes, if with long capitate spinal hairs then these arise from broadly conical tuberculate bases shorter than or not much longer than the hairs borne upon them                                                                                                                …..7

6      Thorax and ABD TERG 1-5 with paired marginal process similar in length to the spinal ones (Fig.47a)                                                                                           …..Matsumuraja rubicola

-       Thorax and ABD TERG 1-5 with marginal hairs arising from conical tuberculate bases shorter than or hardly longer than the hairs borne upon them (Fig.47b)

…..Matsumuraja rubi

7      ANT I with a long finger-like projection that is as long as or longer than the maximum width of ANT I (e.g. Fig.47d,e,f)                                                                                               …..8

-       ANT I with or without a projection, if with a finger- (or thumb-) like projection then this is distinctly shorter than the maximum width of ANT I (e.g. Fig.47g,h)                           …..10

8      Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 minute, only ABD TERG 6-8 with long capitate hairs arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH blackish apically                              …..Matsumuraja rubiphila

-       Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly longer than ANT BD III, with prominent tuberculate bases of similar height to the hairs borne upon them (Fig.47c). SIPH with pale or dusky apices

…..9

9      Projection on ANT I club-like, with rounded, expanded apex (Fig.47f). ANT III when ANT 6-segmented) 1.10-1.35 Χ ANT IV

                                                 …..Matsumuraja sp. with 2n=18 (Queensland, BMNH collection)

-       Projection on ANT I not expanded apically (Fig.47e). ANT III 1.4-1.75 Χ ANT IV

                                                     …...Matsumuraja capitophoroides (or M. formosana – see text)

10    Spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 short, not longer than ANT BD III          …..11

-       Spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 longer than ANT BD III                          …..12

11    Apices of ANT III-V pale or dusky. ABD TERG 1-5 with inconspicuous, minute hairs (this character also visible in embryos)                                                  …..Matsumuraja nuditerga

-       Apices of ANT III-V or IV-V dark. ABD TERG 1-5 with hairs varying from 0.2-1.0 Χ BD III (embryos with long capitate hairs on all ABD TERG)   …..Matsumuraja rubifoliae (part)

12    ANT III with some long capitate hairs, maximally 1-2 Χ BD III. ANT pale                 …..13

-       ANT III with all hairs shorter than BD III. ANT dark or with dark apices to some segments

…..14

13    SIPH cylindrical on distal half or with slight subapical swelling, and lightly imbricated throughout except near base and apex (Fig.47i). ANT c.0.8 Χ BL     …..Matsumuraja rubea

-       SIPH swollen on distal half, smooth or with only the basal part lightly imbricated ventrally (Fig.47j). ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL                                                     …..Matsumuraja taisetsusana

14    R IV+V c. 2 Χ HT II, with 4-6 accessory hairs. ANT flagellum dark except for basal half of III. SIPH cylindrical on distal half (Fig.47k)                            …..Matsumuraja hirakurensis

-       R IV+V less than 1.5 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs. ANT III-V pale or with dusky or dark apices. SIPH usually somewhat swollen on distal half (Fig.47l,m)                                …..15

15    ANT I with projection on inner side at apex very low, with height less than 0.5 Χ ANT II (Fig.47g). SIPH smooth throughout (Fig.47m)                                   …..Matsumuraja sorini

-       ANT I with prominent projection of height more than 0.5 Χ ANT II (Fig.47h). SIPH imbricated (Fig.47l)                                                               .....Matsumuraja rubifoliae (part)

16    Head with numerous spicules, at least on ventral surface. ANT tubercles with inner faces spiculose or scabrous and almost parallel or apically convergent, or with forwardly-directed processes                                                                                                                          …..17

-       Head without spicules, or with a few minute ones anterioventrally. ANT tubercles variously developed, if well developed then with smooth divergent inner faces                          …..26

17    SIPH cylindrical or tapering                                                                                            …..18

-       SIPH slightly to moderately swollen on distal part                                                        …..23

18    ANT tubercles with forwardly-directed finger-like projections, about as long as ANT I and each bearing 5-6 short capitate hairs. Dorsum densely ornamented with small papillae

…..Paraphorodon omeishanensis

-       ANT tubercles without finger-like processes. Dorsum not densely papillate                 …..19

19    Dorsum with a large black U-shaped patch, and broad dark cross bars or paired patches on thorax                                                                                             …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-       Dorsum without a U-shaped patch, with or without other pigmentation                       …..20

20    Dorsum with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                                                                …..Myzus ornatus

-       Dorsum with or without more extensive dark sclerotisation. ANT longer than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-5.3                                                                                                            …..21

21    Head without spicules dorsally, or with very few. ANT III without rhinaria. Tergum sclerotic and variably pigmented, sometimes with a dark central dorsal abdominal area. Cauda with 4-6 hairs                                                                              …..Ericaphis wakibae

-       Head densely spiculose dorsally as well as ventrally. ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria near base. Tergum unpigmented. Cauda with 7 hairs, rarely 6 or 8                                                 …..22

22    ANT III with 0-1 rhinaria (often 0). ANT PT/BASE 2.4-4.5. R IV+V 1.3-1.7 Χ HT II. (Al. with 3-8 rhinaria spaced out along ANT III)                                     …..Aulacorthum cylactis

-       ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria, but usually with 1-2. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.3. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. (Al. with 5-26 rhinaria on ANT III)                                         …..Aulacorthum solani

23    Tergum pigmented and strongly rugose                                                                          …..24

-       Tergum pale, not rugose                                                                                                  …..25

24    R IV+V 1.3-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda with 5-7 hairs                                       …..Hyalomyzus raoi

-       R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II. Cauda with 4 hairs                               …..Hyalomyzus himachali*

25    Head densely spinulose dorsally as well as ventrally. Inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and apically convergent. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.5. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). SIPH 1.9-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 5-8 hairs                     …..Myzus persicae

-       Head only spiculose ventrally. Inner faces of ANT tubercles not apically convergent. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-7.2. R IV+V 1.1-1.33 Χ HT II. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). SIPH 2.5-3.2 Χ cauda, which bears 12-17 hairs                                        …..Amphorophora forbesi

26    SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells, occupying 0.1 or more of total length of SIPH)                                                                                     …..27

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation, or with 1-3 rows of polygonal cells or interconnected transverse striae occupying less than 0.06 of total length)                     …..42

27    Front of head almost flat or slightly domed in dorsal view, completely lacking antennal tubercles. Subapical reticulation consisting of no more than 5 rows of closed cells

…..Pseudaphis abyssinica (part)

-       Antennal tubercles moderately to well developed. Subapical reticulation often more extensive                                                                                                                                         …..28

28    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6 or more Χ BD III                                                             …..29

-       Hairs on ANT III 0.55 or less Χ BD III                                                                          …..38

29    SIPH distinctly swollen proximal to reticulated section                                                 …..30

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                                                                            …..32

30    R IV+V 1.9-2.2 Χ HT II. ANT III with 20-23 rhinaria (-47 in alatiforms). Marginal tubercles (MTu) very small or absent. (Al. without a dark spot at tip of forewing)

…..Illinoia davidsoni

-       R IV+V 1.4-1.85 Χ HT II. ANT III with 7-22 rhinaria. Well-developed MTu usually present at least on ABD TERG 2-5. (Al. with dark spot at tip of forewing)                              …..31

31    MTu usually present on all of ABD TERG 1-7, and spinal tubercles (STu) usually on ABD TERG (6-)7-8. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-8.2                                                     …..Illinoia rubicola

-       MTu usually only on ABD TERG 2-5, and STu absent. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-6.2

…..Illinoia maxima

32    SIPH mainly pale, or dusky towards apices. Femora with pale/dusky apices                …..33

-       SIPH mainly or entirely dark, sometimes pale at bases, in which case the femora have dark apices                                                                                                                               …..34

33    Small marginal tubercles (MTu) only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5 and spinal tubercles (Stu) only occasionally present on ABD TERG 7-8. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs                                                                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       MTu almost always present on ABD TERG 2-5, and STu also consistently present on ABD TERG 7 and 8. R IV+V with 7-13 accessory hairs                  …..Macrposiphum chukotense

34    SIPH thick, tapering, c. 6-7 Χ longer than their diameter at midlength, and with a very small flange                                                                                        …..Macrosiphum pachysiphon

-       SIPH almost cylindrical for most of length, 9-23 Χ longer than their diameter at midlength, with a rather well-developed flange                                                                                …..35

35    Head dark. SIPH entirely dark. ANT III with 10-36 rhinaria            …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       Head pale/dusky. SIPH usually pale at extreme bases. ANT III with 1-20 rhinaria      …..36

36    SIPH with 1-10 hairs on basal half . R IV+V with 5-8 accessory hairs

…..Macrosiphum rubiarctici

-       SIPH without hairs. R IV+V with 12-20 accessory hairs                                               …..37

37    SIPH very long, c.0.33 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II, with 14-20 accessory hairs                                                                                …..Macrosiphum funestum

-       SIPH 0.23-0.28 Χ BL, and 1.2-1.7 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II, with 12-18 accessory hairs                                                                                                …..Macrosiphum pallidum

38    Cauda c.0.28 mm long , shorter than ANT BASE VI (c.0.36 mm)

                                                                         .....Macrosiphum sp. (BMNH colln, leg W.H. Paik)

-       Cauda 0.20-0.51 mm long, 1.8-3.5 Χ ANT BASE VI (0.08-0.15 mm)                           .....39

39    Femora with dark distal section. ANT III-VI entirely dark, or pale only at base of III …..40

-       Femora pale or only dusky at apices. ANT III-VI pale except at apices of segments    …..41

40    Hairs on ANT III all minute, the longest c.0.2 Χ BD III. Femora densely spinulose on distal part                                                                                                  …..Sitobion kamtshaticum

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III. Femora not densely spinulose

…..Sitobion akebiae

41    Longest hairs on ANT III 20-27 μm, 0.4-0.55 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 7-9 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda, which tapers to a pointed apex                     …..Sitobion rosaeiformis

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 14-22 μm, 0.3-0.4 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 5-6 accessory hairs. SIPH 1.8-2.7 Χ cauda, which has a blunt, rounded apex                       …..Sitobion fragariae

42    SIPH swollen on distal half, with narrower section on basal half (clavate)                    …..43

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, without a narrower basal section                …..55

43    BL less than 2 mm. Tergum pitted, strongly rugose. SIPH coarsely imbricated. Head with median frontal tubercle and ANT tubercles similarly developed

…..Utamphorophora bossekiae

-       BL more than 2 mm. Tergum smooth. SIPH smooth or only weakly imbricated. Head with median frontal tubercle undeveloped or weakly developed, and ANT tubercles very well developed, so that there is a deep frontal sinus                                                              …..44

44    R IV+V 0.6-0.8 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..45

-       R IV+V 1.1-2.0 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..46

45    ANT III bearing 23-35 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 10-14 μm long, 0.2-0.3 Χ BD III

…..Amphorophora sensoriata

-       ANT III bearing 10-20 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 20-25 μm long, 0.4-0.5 Χ BD III

…..Amphorophora rubicumberlandi

46    ANT PT/BASE c.2.4-2.5                                                            …..Amphorophora kesocqua

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.9-7.6                                                                                                   …..47

47    Hairs on ABD TERG 3 short, the longest 12-22 μm, c.0.25-0.5 Χ hairs on ABD TERG 8 and 0.4-0.8 Χ longest hairs on ANT III. ANT III-VI usually dark except at base of III, and tibiae and SIPH often also dusky/dark (Al. with dark forewing veins, esp. Cu1a  and Cu1b)   …..48

-       Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 25-60 μm, more than 0.5 Χ hairs on ABD TERG 8 and as long as or longer than longest hairs on ANT III. ANT, tibiae and SIPH pale or dark. (Al. with hyaline forewing veins)                                                                                           …..49

48    SIPH dusky/dark and conspicuously imbricated throughout, 2.2-2.8 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.75-1.1 Χ ANT BASE VI and 1.2-1.45 Χ HT II, bearing 22-26 accessory hairs

…..Amphorophora tigwatensa

-       SIPH variably pigmented, with swollen part almost smooth or with weak imbrication, 1.6-2.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ ANT BASE VI, 1.35-1.75 Χ HT II, and bearing 14-21 accessory hairs                                                                                            …..Amphorophora rubitoxica

49    ANT and tibiae almost entirely dark                                         …..Amphorophora amurensis

-       ANT and tibiae pale or dusky except at segmental apices                                              …..50

50    R IV+V 1.8-2.0 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.3-2.7 Χ cauda. Cauda 1.3-1.8 Χ R IV+V and 1.7-2.1 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                             …..Amphorophora pacifica

-       R IV+V 1.05-1.85 Χ HT II, but if more than 1.7 Χ then SIPH 1.7-2.4 Χ cauda. Cauda 1.5-2.7 Χ R IV+V and 2.2-3.4 Χ BASE VI                                                                                …..51

51    SIPH shading to dusky or dark on distal part                         …..Amphorophora agathonica

-       SIPH entirely pale, or dark/dusky only in contrasting band at apex                               …..52

52    SIPH with maximum width of swollen part more than 2 Χ minimum width of stem. Cauda with 7-9 hairs                                                                                 …..Amphorophora stolonis

-       SIPH with maximum width of swollen part less than 2 Χ minimum width of stem. Cauda with 7-21 hairs                                                                                                                 …..53

53    R IV+V 1.45-1.85 Χ HT II, and bearing 17-28 accessory hairs. SIPH imbricated for most of length, including swollen part, and coarsely so on basal part     …..Amphorophora parviflori

-       R IV+V 1.05-1.3 Χ HT II, and bearing 9-16 accessory hairs. SIPH smooth on swollen part, and smooth or very faintly imbricated on basal part                                                       …..54

54    ANT PT 6.7-8.3 Χ R IV+V (usually more than 7 Χ – measure several specimens)

…..Amphorophora idaei

-       ANT PT 5.4-7.2 Χ R IV+V (usually less than 7 Χ)                             …..Amphorophora rubi

55    ANT tubercles well developed, with divergent inner faces. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT III usually with 1-14 rhinaria, if the number is small then they are concentrated on basal part                                                                                 …..56

-       ANT tubercles absent, or if weakly developed then ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu. ANT III usually without rhinaria, or with 1-4 on distal half                                                    …..60

56    SIPH almost entirely dark, pale only at bases, and usually with 2-3 rows of ill-defined polygonal reticulation proximal to the well-developed flange                                        …..57

-       SIPH mainly pale, sometimes darker at apices, without subapical reticulation              …..58

57    R IV+V 1.20-1.33 Χ HT II, with 8-11 accessory hairs. ANT III with 4-14 rhinaria. First segments of fore tarsi with 4-5 hairs, of mid- and hind tarsi with 3-4 hairs. Cauda rather short and tapering, pointed at apex                                   …..Microlophium rubiformosanum

-       R IV+V 0.95-1.05 Χ HT II, with 5-8 accessory hairs. ANT III with 3-5 rhinaria. First tarsal segments all with 3 hairs. Cauda long, thick and finger-like, rounded at apex

…..Acyrthosiphon rubifoliae

58    R IV+V 0.67-0.79 Χ HT II                                                       …..Metopolophium chandrani

-       R IV+V 0.8-1.2 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..59

59    Hairs on ABD TERG 3 maximally 0.8-1.2 Χ ANT BD III, and those on ANT III maximally 0.5-1.6 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 6 accessory hairs. Tergum membranous

…..Metopolophium lacheni*

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 3 maximally 0.2-0.5 Χ ANT BD III, and those on ANT III maximally 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III. R IV+V with 7-10 accessory hairs. Tergum sclerotic, papillated or wrinkled                                                                  …..Acyrthosiphon rubi (incl. ssp. elliptici)

60    R IV+V with 5-9 accessory hairs. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                               …..61

-       R IV+V with 2(-4) hairs. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu (except sometimes in very small individuals with BL less than 1 mm)                                                         …..62

61    Cauda helmet-shaped, constricted at base, not longer than its basal width. SIPH smooth, with a subapical annular incision                                                  …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda elongate triangular, not constricted at base, longer than its basal width. SIPH imbricated, without a subapical annular incision                   …..Pseudaphis abyssinica (part)

62    SIPH thin on distal half, 2.3-3.5 Χ cauda                                                          …..Aphis idaei

-       SIPH less than 2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                             …..63

63    SIPH only 0.06-0.10 mm long, 0.6-0.8 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 usually with MTu, as well as 1 and 7                                                                                         …..Aphis rubiradicis

-       SIPH more than 0.12 mm long, 0.8-2.2 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 2-6 with or without MTu

…..64

64    SIPH pale or dusky, sometimes dark at apices                                                               …..65

-       SIPH entirely dark brown or blackish                                                                             …..69

65    ANT 5-segmented                                                                                                           …..66

-       ANT 6-segmented                                                                                                           …..68

66    Dorsal body hairs mostly very long, the longest 2.5-4.0 Χ ANT BD III. Cauda with 4(-5) hairs. BL only 0.6-0.9 mm                                               …..Aphis rubicola (summer dwarfs)

-       Dorsal body hairs shorter. Cauda with (4-)6-11 hairs. BL usually more than 0.9 mm    …..67

67    Cauda with 7-11 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.6                                           …..Aphis rubifolii

-       Cauda with 4-7 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.6      …..Aphis ruborum (some summer dwarfs)

68    ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.6. Cauda with (8-)10-12 hairs. R IV+V with (2-) 3-4 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 3-5 hairs                                                                       …..Aphis rubicola

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0. Cauda with (4-) 6-9 hairs. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2 (rarely 3 or 4) hairs                                                             …..Aphis ruborum

69    ANT 5-segmented with ANT PT/BASE 4.3 –5.2. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.7 Χ BD III. Cauda pale. Dorsal abdomen with dark rounded sclerites at bases of hairs

…..Aphis ichigocola

-       ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.3-3.6, and other characters not in that combination                                                                                                                     …..70

70    SIPH 0.8-1.05 Χ cauda, which bears 7-8 hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 long and pointed, maximally 2.0-2.5 Χ ANT BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.7 Χ HT II                  …..Aphis longisetosa

-       SIPH 0.8-2.2 Χ cauda, but if less than 1.1 Χ cauda then either dorsal abdominal hairs are much shorter or cauda bears more than 10 hairs. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II                    …..71

71    MTu regularly present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7. Subgenital plate with up to 16 hairs on anterior half. Cauda dusky to dark and bearing 7-9 hairs                  …..Aphis ichigo

-       MTu only of sporadic occurrence on ABD TERG 2-5. Subgenital plate usually with 2 hairs on anterior half, rarely up to 9. Cauda pale, dusky or dark, with 4-24 hairs

                     .….polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

Rudbeckia                                                   Compositae

      Rudbeckia ampla see R. laciniata

      R. amplexicaulis                           Macrosiphum rudbeckiarum; Uroleucon rudbeckiae

        R. flava                                          Uroleucon rudbeckiae

      R. hirta (incl. var. serotina)               Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, leonardi, [martini], rudbeckiae

        R. laciniata (incl. var. ampla)            Macrosiphum rudbeckiarum;

                                                              [Metopolophium dirhodum (as Myzus haywardi)];

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Uroleucon leonardi, nigrotuberculatum, rudbeckiae

      R. montana                                   Macrosiphum rudbeckiarum

      R. nitida                                        Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

      R. serotina see R. hirta                   

        R. tageteiodes (?)                           Aphis gossypii, [kurosawai], spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Pseudomegoura nipponica]

        Rudbeckia spp.                             Aphis asclepiadis, [umbrella]; [Illinoia goldamaryae];                                                                [Macrosiphum valerianae]; Trama troglodytes;

                                                              [Uroleucon erigeronense]

Key to apterae on Rudbeckia:-

1      HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. SIPH absent        …..Trama troglodytes

-       HT II normal. SIPH present, tubular                                                                                 …..2

2      SIPH with a distal zone of reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)       …..3

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3      SIPH long and thin, more than 1.7 Χ cauda, with reticulation of large polygonal cells on subapical 0.06-0.20 of length                                                                                            …..4

-       SIPH rather thick, less than 1.6 Χ cauda, with reticulation of small polygonal cells on distal 0.25 or more of length                                                                                                       …..5

4      SIPH less than 1.1 mm long                                                       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH more than 1.1 mm long                                                …..Macrosiphum rudbeckiarum

5      Femora pale/dusky, sometimes with darker patch on anterior side at apices. SIPH becoming gradually darker distally, much paler at base than at apex. Postsiphuncular sclerites and scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs pale and inconspicuous               …..Uroleucon rudbeckiae

-       Femora dark distally. SIPH entirely dark.  Postsiphuncular sclerites and at least some of scleroites at base of dorsal hairs pigmented                                                                      …..6

6      R IV+V 0.85-1.1 Χ ANT BASE VI. ANT PT/BASE 4.7-5.6. Cauda with 19-32 hairs (usually more than 23)                                                         …..Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum

-       R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ ANT BASE VI. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-7.2. Cauda with 12-27 hairs (usually less than 23)                                                                                                                       …..7

7      SIPH 1.1-1.3 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-6.5. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent                 

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-       SIPH 1.25-1.55 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 6.3-7.2. Small MTu usually present on at least some segments (easier to see on dark marginal sclerites of alata)        …..Uroleucon leonardi

 

Ruellia                                                         Acanthaceae

     Ruellia caroliniensis ssp. ciliosa     Myzus persicae

     R. coccinea                                     Aphis gossypii

      R. herbstii                                       Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus

      R. paniculata                                  Aphis craccivora, gossypii

      R. prostrata = R. rivularis                 

      R. rivularis                                      Aphis gossypii

      R. simplex                                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

      R. speciosa                                      Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

      R. tuberosa                                     Aphis gossypii; Micromyzodium strobilanthi

      R. tubiflora                                     Aphis gossypii

      R. tweediana                                   Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum cuscutae

Key to apterae on Ruellia:-

1      Tergum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield covering ABD TERG 1-5, and broad dark cross-bands on 6-8. Head spiculose with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II                                       …..Micromyzodium strobilanthi

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      Hind tibiae entirely black. SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation. ANT 1.4-1.7 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 5.5-6.8                                                                   …..Macrosiphum cuscutae

-       Hind tibiae with at least middle section pale, and other characters not in that combination

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Rugelia                                                        Compositae

     Rugelia nudicaulis                         Aulacorthum solani

 

Rumex                                                         Polygonaceae

      Rumex abyssinicus                       Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus rumexicolens; Myzus ornatus

        R. acetosa                                      Aphis acetosae, craccivora, fabae, rumicis, solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus rumexicolens;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis, radicola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, [certus], persicae

        R. acetosella                                  Aphis acetosae, etiolata, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                  polygonacea, rumicis, rumicivora, sambuci,

                                                                  solanella, spiraecola;  

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi, rumexicolens;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis (as albocinerea), radicola;

                                                              [Forda formicaria]; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus [bursarius], populivenae;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

        R. acetosella ssp. angiocarpus      Aphis fabae; Myzus ornatus; Neotoxoptera oliveri;

                                                              Pemphigus sp. (as bursarius)

        R. alpestris                                    Aphis acetosae, rumicis

        R. alpinus                                      Aphis acetosae, fabae, rumicis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus rumexicolens

        R. altissimus                                  Aphis malvae Walker” of Wilson 1918],

                                                                   [relata Walker (nomen dubium)], rumicis;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

        R. ambiguus = R. rugosus

      R. angiocarpus =R. acetosella ssp. angiocarpus

      R. aquaticus                                  Aphis fabae, nasturtii, rumicis; Dysaphis foeniculus

        R. aquaticus ssp. arcticus             Aphis aquilonalis; Brachycaudus rumexicolens

        R. arcticus =R. aquaticus ssp. arcticus

        R. arifolius = R. alpestris

          R. balcanicus                                           Aphis rumicis                         

        R. bequaerti = R. nepalensis

        R. bucephalophorus (incl. ssp.        Aphis etiolata, rumicis; Myzus persicae

                                         hispanicus)

        R. confertus                                  Aphis acetosae, [euonymi], fabae, rumicis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Dysaphis [emicis], rumecicola; Pemphigus plicatus

        R. conglomeratus                         Aphis craccivora, [euonymi], fabae, mordvilkoi, nasturtii,

                                                                  rumicis, [scabiosae Schrank of Nevsky 1929)], solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi, rumexicolens;

                                                              Dysaphis foeniculus, radicola, rumecicola;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Uroleucon siculum]

        R. coreanus                                   Aphis ?horii

        R. crispus                                      Aphis acetosae, asclepiadis, craccivora, [euonymi], fabae,

                                                                  gossypii, [ilicis of  Roepke (1928)], nasturtii, rumicis,                                                                  sambuci, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, rumexicolens;

                                                              Brachyunguis rhei;

                                                              Dysaphis [apiifolia], [emicis], radicola, rumecicola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, venaefuscae;

                                                              Myzus antirrhinii, ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus,

                                                                  persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pemphigus [betae], [bursarius], populitransversus,

                                                                 populivenae;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

        R. cyprius                                      Brachycaudus rumexicolens; Myzus persicae

        R. dentatus                                    Aphis fabae, ?rhoicola, [rubifolii], rumicis, solanella;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis, rumecicola; Myzus persicae

      R. domesticus = R. longifolius

        R. fischeri                                      Dysaphis emicis

        R. flexuosus                                  Aphis fabae

        R. gmelinii                                    Aphis rumicis

        R. hastatus                                    Aphis fabae, frangulae, solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus [amygdalinus], rumexicolens;

                                                              Macrosiphum pachysiphon; Tricaudatus polygoni

        R. hispanicus = R. bucephalophorus ssp. hispanicus

        R. hydrolapathum                        Aphis acetosae, fabae, nasturtii, rumicis, sambuci;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Dysaphis radicola

      R. hymenosepalus                        Aphis  fabae

      R. induratus = R. scutatus ssp. induratus

      R. intermedius                              Aphis fabae

        R. japonicus                                  Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, [rumicis], spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Dysaphis rumecicola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Prociphilus kuwanai

        R. longifolius                                Aphis fabae, nasturtii, rumicis;

                                                              Brachycaudus rumexicolens; Dysaphis emicis;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        R. lunaria                                      Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Brachycaudus rumexicolens;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        R. maritimus                                 Aphis fabae, nasturtii, rumicis

        R. marschallianus                        Aphis rumicis

        R. nepalensis                                 Acyrthosiphon rubi;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi,[amygdalinus],  rumexicolens;

                                                              [Capitophorus indicus];

                                                              Dysaphis emicis, foeniculus, [microsiphon], rumecicola;

                                                              [Hyperomyzus carduellinus]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

        R. nervosus (incl. var.                      Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                           usamberensis)                Brachycaudus rumexicolens

        R. obovatus                                   [Baizongia solanophila Blanchard 1944 (= Pemphigus

                                                                   populitransversus?)]

        R. obtusifolius                               Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, gossypii, [hederae],

                                                                  [ilicis], nasturtii, rumicis, sambuci, solanella, viburni;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus rumexicolens;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis,[lauberti],  radicola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, certus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        R. occidentalis                               Pemphigus sp. (as betae)

        R. pamiricus                                 Aphis acetosae, rumicis; Brachyunguis rhei;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis

        R. patientia                                    Aphis rumicis

        R. paraguayensis = R. obovatus

        R. patientia                                    Aphis gossypii, rumicis

        R. paulsenianus                            Acyrthosiphon rumicis; Aphis rumicis;

                                                              Brachycaudus rumexicolens; Brachyunguis rhei;

                                                              Dysaphis emicis; [Nasonovia ribisnigri]

        R. pseudoalpinus                          Aphis rumicis; Dysaphis radicola; [Nasonovia ribisnigri]

        R. pulcher                                     [Acyrthosiphon gossypii];

                                                              Aphis fabae, nasturtii, rumicis, solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus rumexicolens; Dysaphis emicis, meridialis;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

        R. rechingerianus = R. pamiricus

      R. rugosus                                     Aphis acetosae, fabae

        R. rupestris                                    Aphis fabae

        R. salicifolius                                Aphis nasturtii

        R. sanguineus                               Aphis fabae, rumicis; Aulacorthum solani

        R. scutatus                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, rumicis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus rumexicolens;

                                                              [Cavariella aquatica]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatu, persicae

        R. stenophyllus                             Aphis fabae, rumicis

        R. thyrsiflorus (incl. ssp.                  Aphis acetosae, fabae, rumicis

                                          papillaris)

        R. thyrsoides                                 Aphis craccivora; Aulacorthum solani

        R. tianshanicus                             Aphis rumicis; Brachycaudus rumexicolens

        R. turcestanicus                            Aphis solanella (as euonymi);

                                                              Brachyunguis harmalae (as plotnikovi);

                                                              Pemphigus sp. (as lactucarius)

        R. venosus                                     Aphis craccivora

        R. verticillatus                               Aphis rumicis

        R. vesicarius                                  Aphis craccivora; Brachycaudus rumexicolens;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        Rumex spp.                                  [Acyrthosiphon malvae]; Akkaia bengalensis;

                                                              [Anuraphis subterranea]; [Anoecia corni];

                                                              Aphis aurantii, [confusa, plantaginis];

                                                              [Capitophorus mitegoni (as indicus)];

                                                              [Cavariella pastinacae (as Rhopalosiphum rumicis)];

                                                              [Dysaphis ranunculi, plantaginea];

                                                              [Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiensis];

                                                              Indomasonaphis rumicis; Longisiphoniella subterranea;

                                                              Pemphigus dorocola;

                                                              [Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensis];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus

                                                              [Sappaphis piri]; Trama antennata;    [Uroleucon cichorii]

Key to apterae on Rumex:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.2-0.3. SIPH absent or present as small pores on broad hairy cones     …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.5 or more. SIPH tubular                                                                       …..4

2      HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. Dorsal body hairs numerous, bristle-like. SIPH as small pores on broad hairy cones                                                .....Trama antennata

-       HT II normal. Dorsal body hairs sparse, not bristle-like. SIPH not evident                     …..3

3      R IV+V with 4 or more accessory hairs (?) Wax gland plates present on head, thorax and abdomen (?)                                                                                      …..Prociphilus kuwanai*

-       R IV+V usually without accessory hairs. Wax gland plates only present on abdomen

…..Pemphigus spp.

4      Head cuticle with extensive spiculosity, at least on ventral side                                       .....5

-       Head cuticle smooth, wrinkled, corrugated or partially papillated; without spicules, or with only a few spicules anterioventrally                                                                                 .....13

5      SIPH dark, flangeless, with coarse denticulate imbrication, tapering from a very broad base, with distal part cylindrical or slightly swollen subapically

…..Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

-       SIPH pale or dark, with a distinct reflexed flange; tapering, cylindrical or clavate         …..6

6      SIPH tapering, coarsely imbricated, with a slight S-curve. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.5                               …..Myzus ornatus

-       SIPH tapering, cylindrical or swollen distally, not curved, not coarsely imbricated. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-5.3                                   …..7

7      Dorsum with dark markings                                                                                              …..8

-       Dorsum pale                                                                                                                      …..9

8      SIPH markedly clavate, 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda. Dorsum with dark segmental markings, often fused across ABD TERG 3-5 but not forming a U-shaped sclerite

…..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus

-       SIPH cylindrical, 1.8-2.3 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdomen with a U-shaped sclerite

…..Neomyzus circumflexus

9      SIPH tapering/cylindrical on distal half. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base

…..Aulacorthum solani

-       SIPH at least slightly swollen on distal part. ANT III without rhinaria                         …..10

10    SIPH less than 0.82 Χ ANT III, and almost smooth on swollen part                             …..11

-       SIPH more than 0.83 Χ ANT II, with swollen part imbricated                                      …..12

11    Stem of SIPH a little thicker than hind tibia at its midpoint, (Alata with dark-bordered forewing veins and without a black central dorsal abdominal patch)

                                                                                                                    …..Neotoxoptera oliveri

-       Stem of SIPH a little thinner than hind tibia at its midpoint. (Alata with hyaline forewing veins and a black central dorsal abdominal patch)                                …..Myzus ascalonicus

12    R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function cauda/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

…..Myzus persicae

-       R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function cauda/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                       …..Myzus certus

13   Cauda very broadly rounded, hardly developed, much less than half as long as its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH small, broad-based, conical, shorter than their basal widths

…..Brachycaudus rumexicolens

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, more than 0.7 Χ its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH usually longer than their basal widths                                               …..14

14   SIPH dark, 6-8 Χ longer than cauda which is short and rounded and bears 10-15 hairs

…..Longisiphoniella subterranea

-      SIPH pale or dark, and less than 4 Χ cauda                                                                     …..15

15   Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and bearing 4-8 hairs

…..16

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, finger-shaped, bluntly rounded or bluntly triangular, but if as short as its basal width then bearing more than 8 hairs                                                                 …..22

16   Spinal tubercles (STu) usually present at least on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8. Marginal tubercles (MTu) also usually present on most segments. SIPH without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform,those on ABD TERG 1 and 2 placed on a single, fused marginal sclerite                                                                                          …..17

-      STu absent, and MTu only sporadically present. SIPH with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded, on separate sclerites on ABD TERG 1 and 2   …..21

17   STu usually present on all segments from head to ABD TERG 8                                   …..18

-      STu usually only on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                               …..19

18    Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 fine-pointed,those on ANT III longer than 45 μm, 2 or more Χ ANT BD III. R IV+V 1.55-1.70 Χ HT II                         …..Dysaphis rumecicola

-       Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 often with blunt apices, those on ANT III being all less than 45 μm long, less than 2 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II      …..Dysaphis emicis

19    SIPH 1.2-1.8 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 24-39 μm long, as long as or longer than ANT BD III                                                                     …..Dysaphis foeniculus

-       SIPH 2.0-2.5 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 8-23 μm long, shorter than ANT BD III                                                                                                                             …..20

20    Longest hairs on ANT III 20-40 μm long, 0.9-1.5 Χ BD III         …..Dysaphis radicola s.str.

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 8-13 μm long, 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III

…..Dysaphis radicola ssp. meridialis

21    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda .....Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda                     .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

22    SIPH markedly clavate                                                                                                   …..23

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                                                                            …..24

23    ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces divergent, and median frontal tubercle hardly developed. Longest hair on ANT III c.0.7 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 7 and 8 without median tubercular processes                                                       …..Indomasonaphis rumicis*

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed, median frontal tubercle prominent and scabrous. Longest hair on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, with a median tubercular process bearing a pair of short hairs                                                   …..Tricaudatus polygoni

24    ANT tubercles with longer-than-wide forward-pointing projections. SIPH black, very rugose, scaly or warty                                                                           …..Akkaia bengalensis

-       ANT tubercles without forward-pointing projections. SIPH pale or dark, not very scaly or warty                                                                                                                               …..25

25    ANT tubercles  very well developed, their inner faces divergent, so that there is a deep frontal sinus. ANT III usually with 1 or more small rhinaria on basal part. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                   …..26

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT III without rhinaria, or with rhinaria not restricted to basal part. ABD TERG 1 and 7 usually with MTu                                                     …..29

26    SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Longest hair on ANT III 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III         …..27

-       SIPH with a subapical band of polygonal reticulation. Longest hair on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                                                                                                                             …..28

27    BL more than 4 mm                                                                       …..Acyrthosiphon rumicis*

-       BL less than 3 mm                                                                                …..Acyrthosiphon rubi

28   SIPH mainly dark, paler at base. ANT PT/BASE 6-8. ANT BASE VI 1.4-1.6 Χ R IV+V. Cauda with 7 hairs                                                                     …..Macrosiphum venaefuscae

-      SIPH pale, sometimes darker towards apices. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. ANT BASE VI 0.9-1.3 Χ R IV+V. Cauda with 8-14 hairs                                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

29    MTu absent from ABD TERG 7 and usually also from ABD TERG 1  …..Aphis aquilonalis

-       MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and sometimes on other tergites            …..30

30    ANT PT/BASE less than 1.3                                                                                           …..31

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                                                        …..32

31  SIPH about as long as their basal widths (Fig.36h)                      ….. Brachyunguis harmalae

-     SIPH 1.2-1.7 Χ their basal widths                                                        ….. Brachyunguis rhei*

32    Well-developed MTu consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7, those on 7 being large, similar in diameter to SIPH at midlength                                                    …..33

-       MTu sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4, more often absent. MTu on ABD TERG 7 usually of basal diameter much less than that of SIPH at midlength                             …..37

33    ABD TERG 2-6 with broad dark cross-bands. R IV+V 1.1-1.25 Χ HT II                    …..34

-       ABD TERG 2-6 without dark cross-bands. R IV+V 1.0-1.6 Χ HT II                           …..35

34    Longest hair on ANT III 1.0-1.6 Χ BD III                                                 …..Aphis acetosae

-       Longest hair on ANT III 0.3-0.7 Χ BD III                                              …..Aphis rumicivora

35    SIPH 1.3-1.9 Χ cauda, which is tongue-shaped and bears 8-13 hairs. Longest hair on ANT III 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                       …..Aphis etiolata

-       SIPH 2.0-3.5 Χ cauda, which is short and blunt and bears 10-20 hairs. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-1.9 Χ BD III                                                                                                        …..36

36    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.0 Χ BD III                                                …..Aphis sambuci

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 1.5-1.9 Χ BD III                                                      …..Aphis horii

37    Anterior half of subgenital plate with 9-28 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark cross-bands, variably developed and sometimes reduced or fragmentary on ABD TERG 1-5, but consistently well-developed on ABD TERG 6-8, with an especially broad one on 6

…..Aphis rumicis

-       Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-14 hairs, rarely more than 9. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings or with cross-bands only well-developed on ABD TERG 8 or 7-8

…..38

38    SIPH black, 0.25-0.48 mm long, 1.9-2.3 Χ cauda which is also black, usually has a distinct midway constriction, and bears 7-11 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings

…..Aphis polygonacea

-       Without the above combination of characters; if black SIPH are present and more than 1.8 Χ cauda then either cauda is not also black, or it has more than 11 hairs, or dorsal abdomen has dark sclerotic shield                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

(But note that specimens running to Aphis gossypii could be A. frangulae, or if with ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.2 they could possibly be the northern Indian species tentatively identified as A. rhoicola.)

                                                           

Rumohra (including Leptorumohra)                              Dryopteridaceae

        Rumohra mutica                          Macromyzus woodwardiae

      

Ruppia                                                         Potamogetonaceae

      Ruppia maritima                          Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Russelia                                                       Plantaginaceae

      Russelia equisetiformis                 Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                           (incl. juncea)                  Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae  

Key to apterae on Russelia:-

-       SIPH pale, slender, tapering/cylindrical and without subapical polygonal reticulation. Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                            .....Acyrthosiphon ilka

-       SIPH pale or dark, when pale either with subapical polygonal reticulation or clavate and/or head densely spiculose                                                     .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Ruta                                                             Rutaceae

      R. chalepensis                               Neomyzus circumflexus

      R. graveolens                                Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Brevicoryne brassicae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; [Uroleucon jaceae]

        R. sieversii                                     Protaphis rutae