HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Rha-Ror

 

Rhabdadenia

Rhabdosia

Rhacomitrium

Rhagadiolus

Rhamnella

Rhamnus

Rhamphicarpa

Rhaphiolepis

Rhapis

Rhaponticum

Rheum

Rhigozum

Rhinanthus

Rhinopetalum

Rhipogonum

Rhizomnium

Rhizophora

Rhodiola

Rhodobryum

Rhodococcum

Rhododendron

Rhodomyrtus

Rhodotypos

Rhoicissus

Rhus

Rhynchelytrum

Rhynchosia

Rhynchosinapis

Rhynchospora

Rhynchostegium

Rhytidiadelphus

Rhytidophyllum

Ribes

Richardia

Ricinus

Riedlea

Ritchiea

Robinia

Rochea

Rodriguezia

Roegneria

Roellia

Roemeria

Roldana

Romneya

Rorippa

 

 

 

Rhabdadenia                                               Apocynaceae

      Rhabdadenia biflora                     Aphis gossypii

 

Rhabdosia error for Rabdosia (see Isodon)                           Lamiaceae

                                               

Rhacomitrium see Racomitrium                            Grimmiaceae

    

Rhagadiolus                                                Compositae

        Rhagadiolus hedypnois                [Protaphis sp. (Iran: Stary et al. 2000)]

        Rh. stellatus                                  Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis;

                                                              Uroleucon hypochoeridis, mierae, picridis

Key to apterae on Rhagadiolus:-

1      SIPH pale, markedly swollen, and without polygonal reticulation                                   …..2

-       SIPH dark, not swollen, with distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                 …..3

2      R IV+V 1.45-1.8 Χ HT II, with 8-12 accessory hairs                       …..Hyperomyzus picridis

-       R IV+V 0.85-1.05 Χ HT II, with 6-9 accessory hairs                     …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

3      R IV+V 0.84-1.08 Χ HT II                                                         …..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

-       R IV+V 1.19-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                                               …..4

4      R IV+V 0.24-0.32 mm long, 1.50-1.84 Χ HT II. Marginal sclerites of ABD TERG 2-5 regularly have well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu)                     …..Uroleucon picridis

-       R IV+V 0.19-0.25 mm long, 1.19-1.58 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 2-5 rather irregularly with small MTu (rarely more than 3 in total)                                                  …..Uroleucon mierae

 

 

Rhamnella                                                                             Rhamnaceae

        Rhamnella franguloides               Aphis odinae, [Aphis rhamnellae Shinji 1922];

                                                              Machiatiella itadori;

Use key to aphids on Rhamnus.

 

 

Rhamnus (including Frangula)                                       Rhamnaceae

     Rhamnus alaternus                        Aphis aurantii, craccivora, frangulae group, gossypii,

                                                                  nasturtii, spiraecola;
                                                         Macchiatiella rhamni

     Rh. alnifolia                                    Aphis glycines, nasturtii

     Rh. alpina (incl. ssp. fallax)                 Aphis frangulae, nasturtii; Macchiatiella rhamni

     Rh. californica                                Aphis nasturtii; Sitobion rhamni

     Rh. caroliniana                               Aphis nasturtii

     Rh. cathartica                                  Aphis commensalis, craccivora, fabae, frangulae group,

                                                                  glycines, gossypii, mammulata, nasturtii,

                                                                  spiraecola, versicolor;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macchiatiella rhamni, rhamni ssp. tarani;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. chlorophora = Rh. globosa

        Rh. clusii = Rh. alaternus

        Rh. coriacea                                  Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani

        Rh. costata                                    Aphis nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. crenata                                   Aphis nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. davurica                                 Aphis frangulae group, glycines, gossypii, nasturtii

        Rh. dolichophylla                         Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani

 

        Rh. erythroxylum                         Aphis nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. fallax see Rh. alpina

        Rh. frangula                                          Alder Buckthorn

                                                              Aphis frangulae group, gossypii, nasturtii, zamorana

                                                              Macchiatiella rhamni

        Rh. globosa                                   Aphis nasturtii

        Rh. hemsleyana                            Aphis nasturtii

        Rh. imeretina                                Aphis frangulae group, nasturtii

        Rh. japonica                                 Aphis [frangulae group], glycines, gossypii,[mammulata];

                                                              Macchiatiella itadori

        Rh. koraiensis                               Aphis gossypii

        Rh. lanceolata                               Macchiatiella rhamni

        Rh. leptophylla                              Aphis nasturtii

        Rh. libanotica                               Aphis craccivora, frangulae group, gossypii, spiraecola

        Rh. ludovici-salvatoris                  Aphis nasturtii

        Rh. lycioides                                  Aphis frangulae, nasturtii

        Rh. napalensis                              Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum rhamni; Greenidea psidii; Myzus ornatus

        Rh. palaestina                               Aphis craccivora, frangulae group, gossypii, spiraecola

        Rh. pallasii                                    Aphis frangulae group, iranensis, nasturtii;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. prinoides                                Aphis gossypii; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        Rh. pumila                                    Aphis nasturtii

        Rh. purshiana                               Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Macchiatiella itadori, rhamni

                                                              Sitobion rhamni 

        Rh. saxatilis                                  Aphis frangulae group, nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. Χspathulifolia                         Aphis nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Rh. tinctoria                                           Dyer’s Buckthorn                                                    

                                                              Aphis mammulata, nasturtii

        Rh. triquetra                                 Aphis gossypii

        Rh. ussuriensis                             Aphis frangulae group

        Rh. utilis                                        Aphis nasturtii, [utilis]

        Rh. virgata                                    Aphis rhamnifila

        Rhamnus spp.                              Dysaphis microsiphon; Greenidea heeri;

                                                               [Myzakkaia verbasci]

                                                                                             

Key to Rhamnus-feeding species (apterae viviparae except fundatrices):-

1       SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                                                          .....2

-        SIPH without hairs                                                                                                             .....3

2       R IV+V 1.8-2.4 Χ HT II                                                                             .....Greenidea psidii

-        R IV+V 1.2-1.75 Χ HT II                                                                           .....Greenidea heeri

3     Cauda very broadly rounded, less than 0.5Χ basal width.  Dorsal abdomen usually with distinctive black markings                                                                                                  .....4

 -     Cauda helmet, tongue or finger-shaped, 0.6 or more Χ its basal width.  Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                                                    .....5

4       SIPH black.  Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black patch. R IV+V 1.15-1.28 Χ HT II

.....Macchiatiella itadori

 -     SIPH pale.  Dorsal abdomen with dark patch broken centrally or in midline, often on ABD TERG 3-4 (-5) only and sometimes absent.  R IV+V 1.0-1.15 Χ HT II

.....Macchiatiella rhamni

 

5      SIPH very small, conical, shorter than their basal width. Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width                                                                                   .....Dysaphis microsiphon

 -       SIPH tubular, longer than their basal width. Cauda tongue or finger-shaped, or bluntly triangular, usually at least as long as its basal width                                                           .....6

6       Head spiculose                                                                                                                    .....7

-        Head smooth                                                                                                                     .....10

7     Dorsal abdomen with a large dark roughly horseshoe-shaped patch (fig. 121I)

.....Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsal abdomen without a large horseshoe-shaped patch                                                  .....8

8     ANT III with a small secondary rhinarium near base. Antennal tubercles with inner faces almost parallel.  R IV+V 1.25-1.40Χ HT II.  SIPH straight, tapering, dark at least on distal half. Cauda also dark. (Alata with dark transverse bars on dorsal abdomen)

.....Aulacorthum rhamni

-     ANT III without any rhinaria.  Antennal tubercles strongly convergent.  R IV+V 0.09-1.18 Χ  HT II.  SIPH slightly swollen or curved outwards distally.  SIPH and cauda mainly

         pale. (Alata with a black dorsal abdominal patch)                                                              .....9

9    Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark spots and flecks.  ANT PT/BASE 2.5 or less.  SIPH tapering with shallow S-curve, not swollen distally               .....Myzus ornatus

 -    Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE more than 3.  SIPH slightly swollen on distal half                                                                       .....Myzus persicae

10   Antennal tubercles well-developed, divergent. ANT PT/BASE more than 6. ANT III with 1-2 secondary rhinaria near base.  SIPH pale, with subapical polygonal reticulation, 0.3 or more Χ BL                                                                                                               .....Sitobion rhamni

-     Antennal tubercles weakly developed.  ANT III without rhinaria.  ANT PT/BASE less than 6.  SIPH pale or dark without subapical polygonal reticulation, less than 0.2 Χ BL        .....11

 

11   Stridulatory ridges present on abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and a row of peg-like hairs on hind tibia                                                                                                                           .....12

 -    No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                  .....13

12   SIPH much shorter than (0.4-0.6Χ) cauda (fig. 121O).  ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0

.....Aphis odinae

 -    SIPH usually longer than (0.9-1.5Χ) cauda (figs 121 P, Q).  ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0

..... Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

13   Longest hairs on ANT III longer than basal diameter of segment                                   .....14

 -    Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than basal diameter of segment                                   .....16

14   Femora dark at least distally.  ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark cross bands, and more anterior tergites with some dark segmental and intersegmental markings                      .....Aphis fabae

-     Femora pale or dusky. ABD TERG 7 and 8 without or with only faint cross-bands, and more anterior tergites without any dark markings                                                                    …..15

15   Pronotum and ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 with extremely large, hemispherical marginal tubercles. SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda and 4-7 Χ their width at midpoint       .....Aphis mammulata

 -    Marginal tubercles of normal size on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and absent from ABD TERG

       2-4.  SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda, and 1.5-3.0 Χ their width at midpoint       .....Aphis commensalis

16   ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 with large, hemispherical marginal tubercles         .....Aphis versicolor

 -    Marginal tubercles of normal size on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and smaller or absent on ABD

      TERG 2-4                                                                                                                           .....17

17   SIPH and cauda both pale, or SIPH dark only towards apices. (Alata with 8-18 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 1-6 on IV and 0-2 on V)                                              .....Aphis nasturtii

 -     SIPH dark, cauda pale or dark                                                                                         .....18

18   Dorsal abdomen almost wholly covered by an extensive solid black sclerite (fig. 121N)

.....Aphis craccivora

 -     Dorsal abdomen mainly membranous                                                                              …..19

19   Cauda dark with 11-24 hairs (rarely less than 12).  Femora dark at least distally.  ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark cross bands, and more anterior tergites often with some dark markings

       .....Aphis fabae (or solanella)

 -    Cauda pale or dark, with 4-15 hairs (rarely more than 12).  Femora pale or dark.  Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                                      .....20

20   Cauda as dark as SIPH with 7-15 (usually 8-12) hairs and a slight constriction at or just proximal to midpoint                                                                                                  .....21

-     Cauda paler than SIPH, with or without a constriction, or if as dark as SIPH then with only 

       4-7 hairs                                                                                                                             .....22

21   Femora with basal half pale, gradually becoming darker on distal half. Marginal tubercles (MTu) usually only on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7                     …..Aphis spiraecola

-      Femora blackish except at base. Small MTu usually present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as on 1 and 7                                                                                                       …..Aphis zamorana

22   Dorsal cephalic hairs finely pointed, 35-45 ΅m long. Hind femur with some ventral hairs more than 45 ΅m long, exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture.  Cauda almost as dark as SIPH, with about 6 hairs                                                               .....Aphis rhamnifila

 -     Dorsal cephalic hairs blunt, less than 30 ΅m long.  Hairs on hind femur all not exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture.  Cauda usually paler than SIPH, with 4-10 hairs

 .....23

23   Head and ANT I-V pale, only ANT VI dusky. SIPH usually more than 0.2 Χ BL. Cauda much paler than SIPH, often with a midpoint constriction, and bearing 8-10 hairs

.....Aphis glycines

 -     Head and at least ANT I, II and last segment (V or V) dusky or dark.  SIPH usually less than 0.2 Χ BL.  Cauda often dusky, not contrasting with SIPH, unconstricted, bearing 4-9 hairs

        .....24

24    ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.9 (the majority of specimens have 5-segmented antennae). SIPH short and thick, 1.5-3.5 Χ longer than their midlength width. Cauda short and bluntly triangular

.....Aphis iranensis

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.0 (most specimens of normal size have 6-segmented antennae). SIPH 3.3-8.0 Χ longer than their midlength width. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped

..... Aphis frangulae group (incl. gossypii, rhamnicola)

 

Rhamphicarpa                                             Orobanchaceae

     Rhamphicarpa fistulosa                 Aphis gossypii

 

Rhaphiolepis                                               Rosaceae

      Rhaphiolepis indica                      Aphis craccivora, pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Illinoia macgillivrayae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Nippolachnus piri; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae;

                                                              Sinomegoura photiniae

      Rh. japonica                                  Aphis gossypii                  

      Rh. umbellata                               Aphis spiraecola; Nippolachnus piri;

                                                              Sinomegoura photiniae

        Rh. vinifera                                   [Cerataphis brasiliensis]

Key to apterae on Rhaphiolepis:-

1      ANT less than 0.25 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 0.45-0.75. Body elongate, pale, and body and appendages densely clothed in long fine hairs. SIPH poriform             …..Nippolachnus piri

-      ANT more than 0.5 Χ BL, with PT/BASE more than 1.5. Body oval or spindle-shaped, sparsely hairy. SIPH tubular                                                                                              …..2

2      SIPH dark, 1.2-1.3 Χ the long, rather acutely-pointed cauda, which bears 10-18 hairs. Head markedly spiculose on ventral surface, but not dorsally, and with well-developed, broadly divergent ANT tubercles                                                                …..Sinomegoura photiniae

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

3      SIPH 2.4-2.7 Χ cauda, with swollen section on distal half, narrowing to a subapical region with 4-5 rows of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                                                                                         …..Illinoia macgilllivrayae

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..4

4      SIPH and cauda both black. Cauda finger-like, usually with a midway constriction. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                                       …..5

-      SIPH and cauda pale or dark, but if both black then cauda is tongue-shaped without a constriction, and dorsal abdomen has dark markings     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

5      Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13). R IV+V more than 130μm long                                                        …...Aphis pomi

-      MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V less than 120μm long                                                                                ......Aphis spiraecola

 

Rhapis                                                          Arecaceae

        Rhapis excelsa                              Aphis gossypii; Sinomegoura citricola

        Rh. javanica                                  Astegopteryx rhapidis

 

Rhaponticum                                               Compositae                 

      Rhaponticum carthamoides = Stemmacantha carthamoides     

        Rh. repens                                     [Acyrthosiphon ilka];

                                                              Aphis craccivora; Dysaphis acroptilidis;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Protaphis anuraphoides, [carthami], iliensis;

                                                              Uroleucon acroptilidis, compositae, [jaceae]

        Rh. serratuloides                           Protaphis anuraphoides

Key to apterae on Rhaponticum and Stemmacantha:-

1      Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width                                                        …..2

-       Cauda helmet-shaped or conical, not longer than its basal width                                     …..6

2      SIPH pale or dark, if entirely dark then without subapical polygonal reticulation           …..3

-       SIPH dark with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.33 of length                               …..4

3      Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark pleural markings. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4                                        …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Thoracic and abdominal spiracles all small. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings. ANT PT/BASE less than 7                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

4      Cauda pale, with 7-11 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs    …..Uroleucon mongolicum

-       Cauda dark, with 9-20 hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                       …..5

5      ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.7. R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II                           .....Uroleucon acroptilidis

-      ANT PT/BASE 5.1-7.3. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II       .....Uroleucon compositae (or gobonis)

6      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.8. Cauda with 5 hairs                                     …..Dysaphis acroptilidis

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.05. Cauda with 16-20 hairs                                                            …..7

7      ANT PT/BASE 0.85-1.1. ANT III 1.8-2.5 Χ PT                          …..Protaphis anuraphoides

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.55-0.75. ANT III 2.7-3.8 Χ PT                                   …..Protaphis iliensis

 

Rheum                                                         Polygonaceae

      Rheum australe                            Aphis fabae

      Rh. compactum                            Aphis fabae, solanella

      Rh. emodii = Rh. australe

        Rh. franzenbachii = Rh. rhabarbarum

      Rh. maximowiczii                         Aphis rheicola; Brachyunguis rhei; Dysaphis emicis

        Rh. moorcroftianum = Rh. spiciforme

        Rh. nutans = Rh. compactum

      Rh. officinale                                Aphis fabae; Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Rh. palmatum                               Aphis fabae, rumicis; Myzus ornatus

        Rh. rhabarbarum                         Aphis acetosae, craccivora, fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi,

                                                                  gossypii, rumicis, solanella;

                                                               Dysaphis rumecicola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, [certus], ornatus, persicae

      Rh. rhaponticum                          Aphis fabae, rheicola, rumicis, solanella;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        Rh. spiciforme                               Aphis fabae                      

      Rh. tataricum                                Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                              [Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) sp. (Kadyrbekov 2003c)];

                                                              Dysaphis emicis, rumecicola

        Rh. undulatum = Rh. rhabarbarum 

        Rheum spp. (and cultivars)           [Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani, [solani ssp. orientale];

                                                              Dysaphis radicola

Key to apterae on Rheum:-

1      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Paired spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and (at least) ABD TERG 8                                                         …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, more than 1.2 Χ its basal width in dorsal view. STu absent from head, and usually from ABD TERG 8                                                                     …..4

2      Paired STu on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, absent from ABD TERG 1-6. Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 shorter than ANT BD III. SIPH 2.0-2.5 Χ cauda

…..Dysaphis radicola

-       Single or paired STu present on most or all segments from head to ABD TERG 8. Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 much longer than ANT BD III. SIPH 1.5-2.2 Χ cauda

…..3

3      Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 fine-pointed, those on ANT III longer than 45 μm, 2 or more Χ ANT BD III. R IV+V 1.55-1.70 Χ HT II                         …..Dysaphis rumecicola

-      Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 1-5 often with blunt apices, those on ANT III being all less than 45 μm long, less than 2 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II      …..Dysaphis emicis

4      ANT PT/BASE c. 1.0                                                                          …..Brachyunguis rhei*

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                                                          …..5

5      Dorsal hairs, or at least those on head and ABD TERG 8, long, thick and capitate, arising from tuberculate bases. R IV+V rostrate, i.e. with R V extended into a short, beak-like process                                                               .....Capitophorus hippophaes (ssp. javanicus)

-      Dorsal hairs not long, thick and capitate, not on tuberculate bases. R IV+V not rostrate

.....6

6      ANT tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped. Prothorax, ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                  …..7

-       ANT tubercles well developed. Prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu      …..11

7     Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black sclerite centred on ABD TERG 4-5. Cauda black like SIPH, tongue-shaped, rather pointed and bearing 4-7 hairs     .....Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsl abdomen with or without dark markings, but without an extensive solid black sclerite. Cauda pale or dark, but if black then with more than 9 hairs                                            .....8

8      Well-developed MTu present on all or most of ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7

…..Aphis acetosae

-       Small MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4                                               …..9

9      Cauda paler than SIPH and bearing 4-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings

…..Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH and cauda both dark, cauda with 10-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                                                                          …..10

10    ANT III darker on distal half, and IV entirely dusky/dark. Dorsal abdomen usually with dark cross-bands including an especially broad one on ABD TERG 6 between SIPH

…..Aphis rumicis

-       ANT III entirely pale, IV pale or darker distally. Dorsal abdomen with cross-bands absent or only well developed on ABD TERG 7 and 8

…..Aphis fabae group (including solanella, and possibly rheicola*)

11    Head smooth, and inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                         …..12

-      Head spiculose, inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous or spiculose and parallel or apically convergent. SIPH without polygonal reticulation           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

12    Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair

        26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin                                             .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-      Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Rhigozum                                                    Bignonaceae

      Rhigozum obovatum                    Myzus persicae

     

Rhinanthus (including Alectorolophus)                         Orobanchaceae

     Rhinanthus alectorolophus            [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus luteus, rhinanthi;

                                                              Myzus alectorolophi

     Rh. alpinus = Rh. riphaeus

      Rh. angustifolius                            Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus persicae;

                                                              Hyperomyzus rhinanthi; Myzus cerasi

      Rh. borbasii (incl. ssp. songaricus)      Aphis craccivora; Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

      Rh. crista-galli = Rh. glacialus

      Rh. glaber                                       Aphis fabae

      Rh. glacialis                                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

     Rh. hirsutus                                    Hyperomyzus rhinanthi   

      Rh. major = Rh. serotinus                 

      Rh. minor                                       Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

      Rh. riphaeus                                   Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

      Rh. serotinus                                  Hyperomyzus luteus, rhinanthi; Myzus cerasi

      Rh. songaricus = Rh. borbasii ssp. songaricus

      Rh. spadiceus                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

      Rh. subalpinus                               Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Hyperomyzella erratica of Weis 1955 (= Hyperomyzus  

                                                                  rhinanthi?)]                  

      Rhinanthus spp.                             [Myzus padellus]

Key to apterae on Rhinanthus:-

1      Dorsal abdomen with a large black quadrate central patch. SIPH black and markedly swollen over distal 0.75 of length. ANT III with 25-64 rhinaria                …..Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      SIPH markedly swollen on distal half, with maximum diameter greater than R IV+V or ANT BASE VI                                                                                 …..Hyperomyzus luteus*

-       SIPH not swollen                                                                                                              …..3

3      Head spiculose with well-developed scabrous ANT tubercles. SIPH very coarsely imbricated (scaly)                                                                                                                                …..4

-      Head not spiculose, ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. SIPH smooth or with normal imbrication                                                                                                             …..5

4      Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH more than 7 Χ longer than their width at midlength. Cauda with 6-9 hairs                                                                    …..Myzus cerasi

-      Dorsum sclerotic but not dark in mounted preparations. SIPH less than 6 Χ longer than width at midlength. Cauda with 4-6 hairs                           …..Myzus alectorolophi (or M. padellus)

5      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, with 11-24 hairs. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..Aphis fabae group (incl. A. solanella)

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with 4-8 hairs. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ABD TERG 7 without MTu                                                             …...6

6      Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. SIPH black, imbricated, more than 2 Χ cauda

…...Brachycaudus persicae

-      Dorsum pale. SIPH pale, smooth-surfaced, less than 2 Χ cauda

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

Rhinopetalum see Fritillaria                                         Liliaceae

 

Rhipogonum                                                Rhipogonaceae

      Rhipogonum scandens                 Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Sitobion miscanthi

Key to apterae on Rhipogonum:-

-      SIPH dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. R IV+V less than 0.8 Χ HT II

…..Sitobion miscanthi

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Rhizomnium                                                Mniaceae

     Rhizomnium magnifolium        [Clydesmithia canadensis]; [Pachypappa sacculi]

     Rhizomnium sp.                     [Prociphilus xylostei]

Try key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Rhizophora                                                  Rhizophoraceae

      Rhizophora mangle                      Aphis gossypii

     

Rhodiola                                                      Crassulaceae

      Rhodiola atropurpurea                 Aphis gossypii

        Rh. bupleuroides                           Aphis sedi

        Rh. gelida                                      [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

        Rh. heterodonta                            Aphis sedi

      Rh. rosea                                       Aphis fabae, sedi; Brachycaudus sedi

        Rh. semenovii                               [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

Key to apterae on Rhodiola:-

1      Cauda broadly rounded, much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH stump-like

…..Brachycaudus sedi

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH tubular                                    …..2

2      Cauda black with 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and some dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femora with many fine hairs longer than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                 …..Aphis fabae

-      Cauda pale or dark with 4-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dusky cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femoral hairs all much shorter than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                    …..3

3      ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3. SIPH 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda, which bears 4-6 hairs and is usually rather dark, only a little paler than SIPH                                                                      …..Aphis sedi

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.2. SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 4-8 hairs and is usually pale/dusky, markedly paler than SIPH                                                         …..Aphis gossypii

 

Rhodobryum                                                                        Bryaceae

      Rhodobryum roseum                  Muscaphis escherichi

 

Rhodococcum see  Vaccinium                                      Ericaceae

      Rhodococcum vitis-idaea = Vaccinium vitis-idaea

 

Rhododendron (including Azalea, Ledum)                   Ericaceae

      Rhododendron albiflorum = Azaleastrum albiflorum

        Rh. albrechtii                                Vesiculaphis caricis

      Rh. arboreum                               Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Chaetomyzus rhododendri, [Chaetomyzus sp. (Dutta &

                                                                   Gautam 1993);

                                                              Ericolophium holsti, rhododendri, takahashii;

                                                              Indiaphis crassicornis; [Macrosiphoniella spinipes];

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Sinomegoura rhododendri

      Rh. calendulaceum                       Illinoia lambersi

      Rh. californicum = Hymenanthes californica

        Rh. campanulatum                       Myzus brevisiphon

      Rh. campylocarpum                     [Aulacorthum perillae]; Ericolophium takahashii;

                                                              Myzus brevisiphon, persicae

        Rh. canescens                               Illinoia rhokalaza

        Rh. catawbiense Χmetternichii     Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. cunninghami                         Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. dauricum                                Vesiculaphis cephalata, kongoensis

        Rh. decorum                                 Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. degronianum(?)                     Neoamphorophora ledi

        Rh. ferrugineum                           Aphis remaudieri

        Rh. flavum = Rh. luteum

        Rh. formosanum                          Ericolophium taiheisanum

        Rh. groenlandicum                       Illinoia paqueti, pianwae

        Rh. hirsutum                                 Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. indicum = Rh. simsii                 

        Rh. japonicum(?)                          Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. japonoheptamerum(?)           Neoamphorophora ledi

        Rh. kaempferi                               Vesiculaphis caricis

        Rh. kesselringii                             Illinoia lambersi

      Rh. lasiostylum                             Ericolophium itoe

      Rh. luteum                                    Illinoia dzhibladzeae, lambersi  

        Rh. macrophyllum = Hymenanthes macrophyllum

        Rh. maximum = Hymenanthes maxima

        Rh. maxwellii                                Illinoia lambersi

        Rh. molle                                       Illinoia azaleae, lambersi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      Rh. morii                                       Ericolophium holsti

        Rh. mucronulatum                       Vesiculaphis caricis, cephalata, kongoensis

                   (incl. ssp. sichotense)

        Rh. obtusum                                 Vesiculaphis caricis

      Rh. oldhamii                                 Sinomegoura rhododendri

        Rh. palustre (= Ledum palustre)        Illinoia azaleae; Neoamphorophora ledi

        Rh. ponticum                                Illinoia lambersi               

        Rh. przelwaskii                              Ericolophium ninguidum

        Rh. reticulatum                             Ericolophium itoe; Vesiculaphis kongoensis

        Rh. rhodora                                  Illinoia azaleae ssp. rhododendronia

        Rh. schlippenbachii                      Vesiculaphis caricis

        Rh. sichotense = Rh. mucronulatum ssp. sichotense

      Rh. simsii                                      [Chaetomyzus rhododendrophila (alata only)];

                                                              Ericolophium alpiginiae, nigripunctatum, rectisiphon;

                                                              Illinoia azaleae, lambersi, rhododendri;

                                                              Rostratusaphis rhododendronitos; Vesiculaphis caricis

        Rh. sublanceolatum                      Illinoia lambersi

      Rh. viscosum                                 Illinoia rhokalaza

        Rh. yedoense                                 Vesiculaphis caricis

        Rhododendron spp.                      Acyrthosiphon [rubi], Acyrthosiphon sp. (Norway, BMNH

                                                                  collection, leg. C. Stenseth);

                                                              [Aiceona retipennis];

                                                              Aphis fabae, [kurosawai], nerii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              [Chaitophorus clarus Tseng and Tao];

                                                              Ericolophium ovalifolii, tianchiense;

                                                              [Eulachnus thunbergii (Wilson)]; [Eutrichosiphum sp.];

                                                              [Hillerislambersia darjeelingi]; [Hyperomyzus nabali];

                                                              Indiaphis indica, rostrata, Indiaphis sp.(W Bengal; BMNH

                                                                  colln, leg. A.N. Basu);

                                                              Indomasonaphis anaphalidis; [Lipaphis erysimi];

                                                              [Macrosiphum rosae]; Neomasonaphis inulae;

                                                              Rhododendraphis tuatayae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]; [Trichaitophorus aceris];

                                                              [Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum, sonchi];

                                                              Vesiculaphis grandis, rhododendri;

                                                              Wahlgreniella nervata

Key to apterae on Rhododendron:-

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of rather large polygonal cells, occupying distal 0.06-0.2 of total length). ANT III usually with 1 or more rhinaria on basal part. ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces divergent                                      …..2

-      SIPH without reticulation; sometimes with interconnected transverse striae near apex, but no polygonal cells. ANT III with or without rhinaria. ANT tubercles variably developed or undeveloped                                                                                                                      …..9

2      Tergum almost wholly dark sclerotic. Cauda dusky/dark. ANT III and most of IV pale

…..Illinoia dzhibladzeae

-       Tegum pale or if pigmented then Cauda pale and ANT III and IV dusky/dark              …..3

3      ANT hairs very short and blunt, the longest on III much less than 0.5 Χ BD III            …..4

-       Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                           …..5

4      R IV+V less than 0.14 mm long, 1.1-1.45 Χ HT II, and bearing 8-12 accessory hairs. Second tarsal segments without spinules on the imbrications (Fig.46a). HT II more than 1.5 Χ longer than maximum diameter of swollen part of SIPH

        .....Illinoia azaleae (incl. ssp. rhododendronia)

-      R IV+V more than 0.14 mm long, 1.4-1.9 Χ HT II, and bearing 15-23 accessory hairs. Second tarsal segments with spinules on the imbrications (Fig.46b). HT II less than 1.5 Χ longer than maximum diameter of swollen part of SIPH                          .....Illinoia lambersi

5      SIPH entirely dark. ANT III-V rather evenly dusky/dark                     …..Illinoia rhokalaza

-      SIPH pale at least on basal part, although often dark distally. ANT III –V mainly pale, darker at apices                                                                                                                  …..6

6      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. Second tarsal segments without spinules on the imbrications    …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      R IV+V 1.05-1.90 Χ HT II, with 14-38 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with (4-)5 hairs. Second tarsal segments with (sometimes minute) spinules on the imbrications                …..7

7      R IV+V 0.21-0.24 mm long, 1.05-1.45 Χ HT II, which has long thin spinules on the imbrications, and HT I is also spinulose (Fig.46c)                                      …..Illinoia paqueti

-      R IV+V 0.125-0.20 mm long, 1.65-1.90 Χ HT II, which has very small spinules on the imbrications, and no distinct spinules on HT I                                                                  …..8

8      ANT shorter than BL. R IV+V 0.125-0.155 mm long, with 14-20 accessory hairs. SIPH rather thick, usually without a thinner section on basal half (Fig.46d)

 …..Illinoia rhododendri

-       ANT longer than BL. R IV+V 0.175-0.20 mm long, with c. 30 accessory hairs. SIPH long and thin with some distal swelling so that there is a thinner section on basal half (Fig.46e)

…..Illinoia pinawae

9      SIPH conspicuously warty or nodulose throughout length                                            …..10

-      SIPH smooth, or with normal, spiculose or denticulate imbrication, or warty only towards apices                                                                                                                               …..15

10    ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. ANT tubercles well-developed, with inner faces apically covergent

…..Myzus ornatus

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. ANT tubercles not projecting forward beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                                                     …..11

11    SIPH clavate                                                                            …..Vesiculaphis rhododendri*

-       SIPH not clavate, i.e., without a narrower section on basal half                                    …..12

12    BL more than 3.5 mm. R IV+V 1.8-2.0 Χ HT II. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present).

      (ANT III of alata with 82-85 rhinaria)                                     …..Vesiculaphis grandis

-      BL less than 2.5 mm. R IV+V 1.0-1.4 Χ HT II. HT I with 2 hairs (sense peg absent). (ANT III of alata with 19-54 rhinaria)                                                                                      …..13

13    Head warty with small blunt nodules dorsally along posterior margin, and frontal part produced into 3 large lobes. (Alata with anterior dorsal cephalic hairs a little longer than ANT BD III. Cauda tongue-shaped, at least 1.5 Χ its basal width. SIPH more than 0.75 Χ head width across eyes)                                                                  …..Vesiculaphis cephalata

-      Head scabrous with many minute spicules in rows dorsally along posterior margin, and frontal part produced into a ledge, with median tubercle as a low swelling beneath it. (Alata with anterior dorsal cephalic hairs shorter than ANT BD III. Cauda triangular, less than 1.5 Χ its basal width. SIPH less than 0.75 Χ head width across eyes)                                          …..14

14    (Alata) Forewing with media once-branched. Dorsal abdomen without any dark cross-bands. ANT III smooth, with 28-54 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.6-1.2 Χ ANT BASE VI

…..Vesiculaphis caricis

-       (Alata) Forewing with media twice-branched. Abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 3-5. ANT III imbricated, with 19-23 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.4-0.5 Χ ANT BASE VI

…..Vesiculaphis kongoensis

15    Most dorsal hairs arising from rounded, broad-based processes                                    …..16

-       Dorsal hairs not arising from broad-based processes                                                      …..18

16    Dorsal processes scabrous, those on ABD TERG 5 and 6 being longer than their basal widths, bearing hairs much shorter than height of processes (Fig.46f). SIPH markedly clavate. Cauda with 5-6 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs

…..Chaetomyzus rhododendri

-       Dorsal processes smooth, hemispherical, all much shorter than their basal widths, bearing long thickish hairs, longer than heights of processes, and with expanded apices (Fig.46g). SIPH clavate or cylindrical.  Cauda with 24-60 hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs

…..17

17    SIPH distinctly clavate. Cauda with 35-60 hairs                  …..Indomasonaphis anaphalidis

-      SIPH cylindrical or only very slightly swollen on distal half. Cauda with 24-34 hairs

…..Indomasonaphis inulae

18    SIPH clavate or at least slightly swollen (i.e. with narrower section on basal half)       …..19

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering                                                                                           …..24

19    ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.7. R IV+V extremely long, 3.3-3.7 Χ HT II and bearing 32-42 accessory hairs                                                                …..Rostratusaphis rhododendronitos

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.0-6.8. R IV+V less than 3 Χ HT II, with less than 30 accessory hairs

…..20

20    ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.3 (estimated, because only alatae have been described). First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                            ….. “Ericolophium” alpigeniae*

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-6.8. First tarsal segments with (2-)3 hairs                                       …..21

21    Head densely spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent. ANT PT/ BASE 2.8-4.5                                                                                              …..Myzus persicae

-       Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.4 or

        5.2-6.8                                                                                                                             …..22

22    ANT PT/BASE 5.2-6.8. Tergum entirely pale                                 …..Wahlgreniella nervata

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.4. Tergum with some dark markings                                           …..23

23    ANT III without rhinaria. Tergum mainly membranous, with only small sclerites anterior to SIPH and dark cross-bands on posterior tergites. R IV+V less than 1.3 Χ HT II, with 2-4 accessory hairs                                                                                …..Neoamphorophora ledi

-       ANT III with 3-8 rhinaria, spaced out over distal 0.5-0.7 of length. Tergum mainly dark sclerotic. R IV+V more than 1.9 Χ HT II, with c.25 accessory hairs

        …..Rhododendraphis tuatayae

24    Second tarsal segments with spinules on the imbrications, at least ventrally                 …..25

 -      Second tarsal segments without spinules on the imbrications                                        …..36

25    R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II, with 16-21 accessory hairs. Cauda with 10-15 hairs

…..Ericolophium holsti

-       R IV+V 0.8-1.7 Χ HT II, with 2-6 accessory hairs. Cauda with 4-12 hairs                   …..26

26    First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Cauda with 8-12 hairs. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II

.....Ericolophium ninguidum

-       First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. Cauda with 4-8 hairs. R IV+V 0.9-1.7 Χ HT II        .....27

27    Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 more than 24 μm, 1-6 Χ ANT BD III                      …..28

-       Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 less than 20 μm, shorter than ANT BD III              …..32

28    Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 only 25-30 μm, 1.0-1.2 Χ ANT BD III, with blunt apices. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-3.0                                    …..Indiaphis indica

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 more than 50 μm, 1.5-6 Χ ANT BD III, with pointed apices. Other characters not in above combination                                                         …..29

29    R IV+V 1.6-1.7 Χ HT II. (ANT 5-segmented, with PT/BASE 1.1-1.2)

                                                                                                 …..Indiaphis rostrata (fundatrices?)

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..30

30    ANT 0.9-1.5 Χ BL, with PT/BASE c.3. SIPH more than 4 Χ longer than their width at midlength                                                                                   …..Ericolophium takahashii*

-      ANT only c.0.5 Χ BL, and PT/BASE 1.0-1.9. SIPH stout, less than 3 Χ longer than their width at midlength (e.g. Fig.46h)                                                                                   …..31

31    R IV+V more than 0.15 mm long, longer than cauda. ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.9                                                                              …..Indiaphis crassicornis

-       R IV+V less than 0.12 mm long, shorter than cauda. ANT tubercles low but evident. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.1                                                                                            …..Indiaphis sp.

 (?fundatrix; W Bengal, BMNH colln, leg. AN Basu)

32    R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II. SIPH dark                                        …..Ericolophium itoe (partim)

-       R IV+V 0.6-1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH pale at least basally                                                      …..33

33    R IV+V 0.6-0.9 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..34

-       R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..35

34    Tergum with a dark sclerotic patch extending from ABD TERG 3-6. Dorsal hairs pointed

…..Ericolophium nigripunctatum*

-       Dorsal abdomen without a dark patch. Dorsal hairs blunt       …..Ericolophium rectisiphon*

35    Tergum pale. SIPH c.2.5-2.6 Χ cauda                                            …..Ericolophium ovalifolii

-       Tergum entirely dark brown. SIPH c. 1.9-2.0 Χ cauda           …..Ericolophium taiheisanum*

36    ANT longer than BL. ANT III with 1-4 rhinaria near base. SIPH entirely pale or with dark apices                                                                                                                                .....37

-      ANT shorter than BL. ANT III without rhinaria, and other characters not in above combination                                                                                                                     …..39

37    Head densely spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided, almost parallel

.....Aulacorthum solani

-      Head not spiculose, inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                                          …..38

38    SIPH strongly tapering to dark apices, 0.7-1.2 Χ the dark cauda. R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs                                                                                            .....Sinomegoura rhododendri

-       SIPH almost cylindrical over most of length, entirely pale, 2.0-2.1 Χ the pale cauda. R IV with 1-16 accessory hairs

.....Acyrthosiphon sp. (Norway, BMNH collection, leg. C. Stenseth)

39    ANT tubercles moderately or well developed (if rather low then scabrous, and inner side of ANT I also scabrous). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles and cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width                                                                       …..40

-      ANT tubercles undeveloped, or weakly developed but not scabrous. Either ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu or cauda is helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 15

(Note: specimens running to Aphis solanella may be A. remaudieri Bφrner - see text)

40    SIPH stout, less than 6.5 Χ longer than their midlength widths, and almost flangeless (Fig.46i). Second tarsal segments weakly imbricated, almost smooth on distal half (Fig.46j). Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 maximally 55-85 μm, c.2 Χ ANT BD III

…..Ericolophium rhododendri

-       SIPH more than 7 Χ longer than their widths at midlength, with a distinct flange. Second tarsal segments normally imbricated (often with at least traces of spinules on the imbrications). Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 maximally 20μm, not longer than ANT BD III                             …..41

41    ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.4. R IV+V c.1.4 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs. Cauda with 5-7 hairs

…..Ericolophium itoe (partim)

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.6-1.8. R IV+V 0.75-0.9 Χ HT II, with 8-14 accessory hairs. Cauda with 10-11 hairs                                                                                  …..Ericolophium tianchiense

     

Rhodomyrtus                                               Myrtaceae

      Rhodomyrtus tomentosa               Greenidea psidii

       Rhodomyrtus sp. (?)                     Greenidea siamensis

Key to apterae on Rhodomyrtus:-

(Both species have SIPH with numerous long hairs.)

-      BL 1.3-1.7 mm. SIPH black, darker than dorsal abdominal sclerotisation. (Al. with 7-17 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                          ….. Greenidea siamensis

-      BL 1.8-2.6 mm. SIPH not as dark as dorsal abdominal sclerotisation.  (Al. with 20-31 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                ….. Greenidea psidii

 

Rhodotypos                                                  Rosaceae

      Rhodotypos kerrioides = Rh. scandens

        Rh. scandens                                 Aphis fabae; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Rhoicissus                                                   Vitaceae

      Rhoicissus cuneifolia                    Sitobion cissi

        Rh. tridentata                                Sitobion cissi

 

Rhus                                Sumacs                 Anacardiaceae

        Rh. abyssinica                               Aphis rhoicola

        Rh. ambigua = Toxicodendron orientale

        Rh. aromatica = Rh. canadensis

        Rh. canadensis                              Carolinaia rhois

        Rh. chinensis                                         Chinese Sumac
                                                       Aphis
aurantii, citricidus, craccivora, odinae;

                                                  Chuansicallis chengtuensis;

                                                    Kaburagia rhusicola; [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

                                                    [Neobetulaphis pusilla]; 

                                                  Nurudea ibofushi, shiraii, yanoniella;

                                                   [Prociphilus oriens];  Schlechtendalia chinensis, peitan;

        Rh. crenata                                   Aphis gossypii

        Rh. dentata                                    Aphis gossypii

       Rh. diversiloba = Toxicodendron diversilobum

          Rh. glabra                                              Smooth Sumac
                                                     
Carolinaia rhoisMelaphis rhois

        Rh. hirta = Rh. typhina                                                                                                               

        Rh. hypoleuca                               Aphis odinae

        Rh. japonica                                           Bug-namu, Korean Sumac

                                                    Schlechtendalia chinensis

        Rh. javanica = Rh. chinensis

        Rh. khasiana                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

        Rh. laevigata                                 Aphis gossypii

       Rh. lancea                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       Rh. lucida                                      Aphis gossypii

       Rh. magalismontana                    Melaphis rhois

       Rh. nepalensis                               [Neobetulaphis chaetosiphon]

       Rh. pendulina                               Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       Rh. potaninii                                 Kaburagia [ovatirhusicola], rhusicola; Floraphis choui;

                                                              [Meitanaphis microgallis]

        Rh. punjabensis var. sinica           Kaburagia rhusicola;                                                      

                                                              Meitanaphis elongallis, [flavogallis Tang, 1978];

                                                              Floraphis meitanensis; Nurudea yanoniella;

                                                              Schlechtendalia chinensis, peitan

        Rh. pyroides                                  Aphis gossypii

        Rh. radicans  = Toxicodendron radicans

        Rh. semialata = Rh. chinensis

        Rh. sinica = Rh. punjabensis var. sinica

        Rh. succedanea = Toxicodendron succedaneum

        Rh. sylvestris = Toxicodendron sylvestre

        Rh. trichocarpa = Toxicodendron trichocarpum

        Rh. trifoliolata = Rh. magalismontana

       Rh. trilobata                                  Carolinaia rhois

           Rh. typhina                                            Staghorn Sumac
                                                       [Aphis fabae]; Carolinaia rhoisMelaphis rhois

        Rh. verniciflua = Toxicodendron vernicifluum      

        Rh. viminalis = Rh. pendulina    

        Rh. wallichii                                  [Eutrichosiphum assamense]

        Rhus sp.                                        Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; [Illinoia spiraeae];

                                                              Mollitrichosiphon rhusae; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to aphids on Rhus:- 

1      ANT PT/BASE much less than 0.5, with PT short and thick. SIPH absent. Gall formers. (ANT of al. with strap-like, annular secondary rhinaria.)                                                  …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5, with PT thin and elongate. SIPH present, tubular. Free-living aphids. (ANT of al. with rounded or oval secondary rhinaria)                                       …..12

2      (Couplets 3-11  refer to alate migrants from galls)  Pterostigma of forewing extending in a curve around tip of wing (fig. 99A)                                                                                   .....3

-      Pterostigma of normal length, not extending around wing-tip (fig. 99B)                         .....5

3      Antenna 6-segmented, II-VI each with a single very large rhinarium occupying most of its surface area, in which are scattered many small islands of sclerotized cuticle (fig. 99C)

.....Meitanaphis elongallis

-      Antenna 5-segmented; II-V each with at least partial separation of the sensoriated surface into smaller units (fig. 99D)                                                                                               .....4

4     ANT III longer than base of ANT V                                          …..Schlechtendalia chinensis

-      ANT III shorter than base of ANT V                                            …..Schlechtendalia peitan*

5     Antenna 6-segmented                                                                                                         .....6

-      Antenna 5-segmented                                                                                                         .....9

6     ANT III-VI each with a single large oblong rhinarium occupying most of its surface area

       (fig. 99E)                                                                                              .....Kaburagia rhusicola

 -     ANT III-VI with separate, transversely elongate rhinaria                                                  .....7

7     Rhinaria on ANT III-VI numerous (minimum of 8 on ANT III), and some of them completely ringing the antenna (fig. 99F)                                          .....Melaphis rhois (part)

 -     Rhinaria on ANT III-VI fewer in number (maximum of 8 on ANT III), never completely ringing the antenna (e.g. fig 99G)                                                                                     .....8

 

8     ANT III less than 1.5 Χ IV.  Tibiae with short hairs                        .....Floraphis meitanensis

-      ANT III more than 1. 5 Χ IV.  Tibiae with long hairs                                 .....Floraphis choui

 

9     ANT III with 10 or more narrow, annular secondary rhinaria (fig. 99H)

.....Melaphis rhois (part)

-      ANT III with less than 10 broad or narrow secondary rhinaria (figs. 99I-K)                  .....10

10   ANT IV and V each with a single large rhinarium occupying most of the surface area,
enclosing small scattered islands of cuticle (fig. 99I)                             .....Nurudea ibofushi*

-      ANT IV and V with separated, annular rhinaria like ANT III                                       .....11

11   Rhinaria on ANT IV and V mostly broad and strap-like, and sometimes joined to form rhinaria longer than width of antenna (fig. 99J)                                          .....Nurudea shiraii

-      Rhinaria on ANT IV and V all narrow and separate (fig. 99K)          .....Nurudea yanoniella

12   SIPH tubular, dark brown, about half of body length and densely clothed in long hairs. (Hind tibiae with about 30 stridulatory (?) ridges on basal 0.6-0.7 of length)

..... Mollitrichosiphon rhusae

-      SIPH shorter and without hairs                                                                                        .....13

 

13   ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH as small, truncate cones, shorter than basal width. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                       .....Chuansicallis chengtuensis

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular, longer than basal width. Cauda tongue- or finger-like, anal plate entire                                                                                              .....14

14   Stridulatory ridges present ventrolaterally on abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and hind tibia with a row of short, peg-like hairs. Cauda with 10-54 hairs                                                             

       .....Aphis (Toxoptera) spp. and Aphis odinae (use couplets 26-27 of polyphagous aphids key)  

-     No stridulatory ridges nor peg-like hairs on hind tibiae. Cauda with fewer hairs             .....15

15   SIPH cylindrical or tapering from base to flange                                                             .....16

-      SIPH swollen at least slightly in middle or on distal half                                                .....18

16   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black patch                                        .....Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen without an extensive black patch                                                          .....17

17   ANT PT/BASE less than 2                                                                            .....Aphis rhoicola

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 2                                                                          .....Aphis gossypii

18   Head capsule smooth or wrinkled, with ANT tubercles weakly developed.  SIPH are entirely dark                                                                                                            .....Carolinaia rhois

-      Head capsule scabrous or spiculose, at least ventrally, and ANT tubercles well developed, with steep-sided or apically convergent inner faces. SIPH at least basally pale             …..19

19   Antennae and legs mainly dark, SIPH dark distally.  ANT III with 1-2 secondary rhinaria near base. Antennal tubercles with inner faces parallel            .....Pseudomegoura magnoliae

-      Antennae, legs and SIPH mainly pale.  ANT III without any rhinaria.  Antennal tubercles with inner faces convergent                                                                         .....Myzus persicae

 

Rhynchelytrum see Melinis                                           Poaceae

 

Rhynchosia                                                  Leguminosae

      Rhynchosia cytisoides                   Acyrthosiphon pisum

      Rh. minima                                   Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Sitobion nigrinectarium

       Rh. nyasica                                   Aphis craccivora

       Rh. resinosa                                  Sitobion nigrinectarium

       Rhynchosia sp.                             Microparsus rhynchosiae

Key to apterae on Rhynchosia:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.4. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                           …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ANT III with 1-5 small rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-7.4. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                      …..3

2      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black patch. SIPH and cauda both black

…..Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation. SIPH black, cauda pale or dusky

…..Aphis gossypii

3      SIPH somewhat clavate, 0.16-0.21 Χ BL                                   …..Microparsus rhynchosiae

-       SIPH long and thin, tapering/cylindrical, more than 0.21 Χ BL                                       …..4

4      SIPH pale, distally attenuate, without any polygonal reticulation    …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      SIPH dark with subapical zone of polygonal reticulation             …..Sitobion nigrinectarium

 

Rhynchosinapis                                           Brassicaceae

     Rhynchosinapis cheiranthos = Coincya monensis ssp. cheiranthos

 

Rhynchospora (including Dichromena)                      Cyperacaeae

      Rhynchospora alba                      Sitobion paludum

        Rh. cyperoides = Rh. holoschoenoides

        Rh. elongata = Rh. uniflora

        Rh. holoschoenoides                    Carolinaia caricis

        Rh. marisculus                             Carolinaia caricis; Hysteroneura setariae

      Rh. radicans                                 Carolinaia caricis; Hysteroneura setariae

        Rh. rugosa                                    Carolinaia caricis

        Rh. setacea (?)                              Carolinaia caricis

        Rh. uniflora                                  Rhopalosiphum maidis    

        Rhynchospora sp.                         Rhopalosiphum padi

Key to apterae on Rhynchospora:-

-      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation extending without subdivision across all of  ABD TERG 1-5, including margins. SIPH black, 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..Sitobion paludum

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to apterae on Cyperus

 

Rhynchostegium see Eurhynchium                            Brachytheciaceae

 

Rhytidiadelphus                                          Hylocomiaceae

     Rhytidiadelphus loreus                   Melaphis rhois

     Rh. squarrosus                               [Cryptaphis poae]; Decorosiphon corynothrix;

                                                              Jacksonia papillata; Melaphis rhois;

                                                              Muscaphis escherichi; [Prociphilus xylostei];

                                                              Pseudacaudella rubida

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Rhytidophyllum                                           Gesneriaceae

     Rhytidophyllum villosulum            Aphis spiraecola

 

Ribes (including Chrysobotrya, Grossularia)                      Grossulariaceae

      Ribes aciculare                             Aphis grossulariae; Eriosoma ulmi

      R. acidum                                     Aphis schneideri

        R. affine                                        Aphis solitaria

        R. alpestre                                     Aphis fabae

        R. alpinum                                    Aphis grossulariae, schneideri,triglochinis;

                                                              Cryptomyzus [ballotae], galeopsidis, heinzei, korschelti,

                                                                   [ribis];

                                                              Eriosoma anncharlotteae, [ulmi];

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, [luteus], pallidus, picridis,

                                                                   rhinanthi, zirnitsi;

                                                              Nasonovia cynosbati, ribisnigri

        R. altissimum                                Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. ambiguum                                Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. americanum                             Aphis grossulariae

        R. atropurpureum = R. petraeum

        R. aureum                                     Aphis [cornifoliae Fitch (of Gillette 1910)],

                                                                  [costalis? (see aphidtrek.org)];  fabae,

                                                                  grossulariae, mimuli, nasturtii, oenotherae, schneideri;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis; Eriosoma ulmi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, nigricornis, pallidus, picridis,

                                                                  rhinanthi, ribiellus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia cynosbati, houghtonensis ssp. russellae,

                                                                 ribisnigri

        R. bracteosum                               Cryptomyzus ribis; Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. burejense                                  Aphis grossulariae; Cryptomyzus taoi

        R. cereum                                     Aphis grossulariae, [Aphis (Bursaphis) sp., Washington,                                                               USA – see aphidtrek.org] ;

                                                              Nasonovia arizonensis (?), cynosbati,

                                                                  houghtonensis ssp. cerei, grossa, [polemonii]

        R. cereum var. inebrians              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus, picridis;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. ciliatum                                    Aphis solitaria

        R. cynosbati                                  Cryptomyzus ribis;

                 (= Grossularia cynosbati)           Nasonovia cynosbati, houghtonensis ssp. similis

        R. diacanthum                              Aphis grossulariae, schneideri, varians;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. distans                                      Cryptomyzus korschelti

        R. divaricatum (incl. ssp.                 Aphis grossulariae; Eriosoma ulmi;

                                        parishii)           Nasonovia cynosbati,?vannesii

        R. fasciculatum (incl. var.               Aphis grossulariae, triglochinis;

                                            chinense)              Cryptomyzus taoi; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              [Macrosiphum suguri Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Sitobion akebiae]

        R. fragrans                                    Aphis grossulariae, triglochinis, varians

        R. glaciale                                     Cryptomyzus korschelti; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri 

        R. glandulosum                            Hyperomyzus nabali; Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. glutinosum = R. sanguineum var. glutinosum

          R. Χgordonianum                         Aphis schneideri

        R. gracile                                       Hyperomyzus nabali; Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. graveolens                                Aphis grossulariae

        R. grossularia  = R. uva-crispa

          R. grossularioides = R. burejense

        R. heterotrichum                          Aphis grossulariae, schneideri;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, malkovskii, [ribis];

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae; [Nasonovia alatavica]

        R. hirtellum                                   Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. similis, ribisnigri

        R. hispidulum = R. spicatum ssp. hispidulum

          R. hudsonianum var. petiolare    Hyperomyzus petiolaris

          R. inebrians = R. cereum var. inebrians

        R. inerme                                      Cryptomyzus ribis; Hyperomyzus pallidus;

                                                              Nasonovia grossa, houghtonensis ssp. occidentalis,

                                                                  houghtonensis ssp. russellae, ribisnigri

        R. irriguum = R. oxyacanthoides var. irriguum

        R. janczewskii                               Aphis triglochinis; [Cryptomyzus ribis (really korschelti?)];

                                                              Eriosoma ulmi

        R. japonicum                                Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. komarovii                                 Aphis grossulariae; Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus

        R. lacustre = Limnobotrya lacustris  

        R. latifolium                                  Aphis grossulariae; Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. laxiflorum                                Aphis oenotherae; Cryptomyzus galeopsidis;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. leptanthum                               Aphis oenotherae; Nasonovia cynosbati

        R. longiflorum = R. aureum

          R. longiracemosum                      Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. lucidum = R. alpinum

          R. luridum                                    Aphis grossulariae

        R. macwiggi (?maximowiczii)           Cryptomyzus korschelti

        R. magellanicum                          Aphis varians; Cryptomyzus ribis; Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. malvaceum                               Nasonovia cynosbati, ribifolii

        R. malvifolium                              [Cryptomyzus ribis (really korschelti?)]

        R. manshuricum                          Aphis grossulariae, schneideri;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, ribis; Hyperomyzus pallidus

        R. maximowiczii                           Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. menziesii                                   Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus, picridis

                   (= Grossularia menziesii)

        R. meyeri                                       Aphis grossulariae, schneideri;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, [multipilosus], ribis;

                                                              Eriosoma ulmi; Hyperomyzus pallidus, picridis;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. missouriense                            Cryptomyzus ribis

                   (= Grossularia missouriensis)

        R. montigenum                             Nasonovia cynosbati, ribifolii

        R. multiflorum                              Cryptomyzus ribis; Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. nevadaense                               [Aphis (Bursaphis) sp.]; Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. nigrum                                     Aphis [epilobii], fabae, grossulariae, manitobensis, mimuli,

                                                                  oenotherae, schneideri, triglochinis, varians;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, galeopsidis ssp. citrinus,

                                                                galeopsidis ssp. dickeri, ribis

                                                              Eriosoma ulmi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, nigricornis, pallidus, petiolaris,

                                                                  [picridis], rhinanthi, ribiellus;

                                                              Nasonovia cynosbati, houghtonensis ssp. similis, ribisnigri

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus ribesinus

        R. niveum = R. gracile

        R. non-scriptum                            Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. odoratum = R. aureum

        R. orientale                                   Cryptomyzus ballotae; Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. oxyacanthoides                        Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. similis, ribisnigri

        R. oxyacanthoides                        Eriosoma ulmi; Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus;

                          var. irriguum               Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. oxyacanthoides var. setosum   Cryptomyzus korschelti

        R. palczewskii = R. spicatum

        R. pallidiflorum                            Aphis grossulariae

        R. pallidum                                   Aphis grossulariae, schneideri; Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. parishii = R. divaricatum ssp. parishii

        R. petiolare = R. hudsonianum var. petiolare

        R. petraeum                                  Aphis grossulariae, schneideri;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, ribis;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis, rhinanthi;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. pinetorum                                 Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. pubescens = R. spicatum

        R. quercetorum                             Nasonovia cynosbati

        R. rotundifolium                           Nasonovia ribisnigri

                     (= Grossularia rotundifolia)

        R. rubrum                                     Aphis [epilobii], fabae, [gossypii], grossulariae,

                                                                  schneideri, triglochinis;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, galeopsidis ssp. citrinus,

                                                                   maudamanti, ribis, stachydis;

                                                              Eriosoma grossulariae, ulmi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus, rhinanthi, zirnitsi;

                                                              Nasonovia cynosbati, ribisnigri;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus ribesinus

        R. rubrum                                     Aphis oenotherae

               var. subglandulosum (?)       

        R. ruizii                                         Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. sachalinense                             Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. sanguineum                             Aphis fabae, grossulariae, schneideri;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis

                                                              Eriosoma anncharlotteae, grossulariae, ulmi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, pallidus, picridis;

                                                              Nasonovia cynosbati, houghtonensis ssp. similis,

                                                                  muesebecki

        R. sanguineum var. glutinosum   Nasonovia ribifolii

        R. sativum                                     Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, ribis; [Myzus ribis Shinji 1922]

        R. saxatile                                     Aphis grossulariae;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti, malkovskii, ribis;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. saxosum (= Grossularia saxosa)    Nasonovia cynosbati

        R. setosum = R. oxyacanthoides var. setosum

        R. sinanense                                 Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              [Macrosiphum suguri Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Myzus ribis Shinji 1922]; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              [Prociphilus pini]

        R. speciosum                                 Aphis oenotherae; Nasonovia cynosbati

        R. spicatum                                   Aphis grossulariae; Cryptomyzus ribis, stachydis;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. spicatum ssp. hispidulum         Cryptomyzus ribis; Hyperomyzus lactucae, rhinanthi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus ribesinus

        R. trifidum                                    Cryptomyzus korschelti; Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. triste                                          Aphis grossulariae, schneideri, triglochinis, varians;

                                                              Cryptomyzus korschelti; Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. urceolatum                               Cryptomyzus ribis

        R. ussuriense                                Hyperomyzus lactucae; Nasonovia ribisnigri

        R. uva-crispa                                 Aphis [epilobii], fabae, grossulariae, oenotherae,

                                                                  schneideri, triglochinis, varians;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis;

                                                              Eriosoma grossulariae, ulmi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae, [luteus], pallidus, picridis,

                                                                  rhinanthi, ribiellus;

                                                              Nasonovia brachycyclica, cynosbati, houghtonensis,

                                                                  ribisnigri

        R. valdivianum                             Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. vilmorianum (?)                       Hyperomyzus lactucae

        R. viscosissimum                          Nasonovia grossa, houghtonensis ssp. cerei

        R. watsonianum                           Aphis grossulariae

                  (= Grossularia watsoniana)

        Ribes spp.                                     Aphis [atromaculata], oenotherae ssp. pacifica, [popovi],

                                                                 spiraecola, [viburni (= ?fabae)];

                                                              Nasonovia arizonensis, [suguri Shinji (= ?cynosbati)],

                                                                  vannesii

Key to apterae on Ribes:-

Note: This key is applicable to second generation apterae of host-alternating species of Cryptomyzus, Hyperomyzus and Nasonovia in spring colonies on Ribes; it will not work for fundatrices, except where this morph is specified. It does not include Hyperomyzus luteus, which we have not seen, and for which there is no adequate published description. Couplets 26-38 are based largely on Heie (1979).

For an illustrated key to the common aphids on commercially grown Ribes spp. see Blackman & Eastop (2000).

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 1. ANT V+VI about equal to or shorter than R IV+V. Dorsal wax glands present each consisting of a ring of facets around an undivided central area (most easily seen on head and margins of abdomen). SIPH as pores with sclerotic rims           …..2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. No evident wax glands. SIPH tubular                            …..4

2      Wax glands with a ring of 9-20 small facets, each of diameter less than 0.25 of that of central area. ANT V 0.63-0.87 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT)                      …..Eriosoma grossulariae

-      Wax glands with a ring of 5-10 facets, each of diameter more than 0.33 of that of central area. ANT V 0.86-1.26 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT)                                                                    …..3

3      Central area of wax gland defined by a distinct fine dark double line. ANT VI 0.45-0.58 Χ R IV+V, which is 1.32-1.63 Χ HT II. Longest apical hair on ANT PT 15-20 μm

…..Eriosoma ulmi

-       Central area of wax gland delimited by a greyish band or single line. ANT VI 0.31-0.45 Χ R IV+V, which is 1.6-2.0 Χ HT II. Longest apical hair on ANT PT less than 15 μm

…..Eriosoma anncharlotteae

4      Dorsal body hairs with distinctly capitate apices; either at least some of these hairs are long and very thick, more than 2.5 Χ longer than ANT BD III and with bases at least 2-3 Χ thicker than those of ventral hairs, or they arise from transverse rows of sclerites          …..5

-      Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, or if hairs are long and have somewhat expanded apices then they are not much thicker at base than ventral hairs and/or not on transverse rows of pigmented sclerites                                                                                                     …..11

5      Dorsal abdomen with sclerites at bases of capitate hairs. SIPH tapering for most of length. Cauda pentagonal, not longer than its basal width                     …..Cryptomyzus malkovskii*

-      Dorsal abdomen membranous. SIPH either thin and cylindrical for most of length, or swollen on distal half. Cauda tongue-shaped, usually longer than its basal width                        …..6

6      R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II, with 5-18 accessory hairs. Longest hair on ANT III shorter than or about equal to (0.5-1.1 X) BD III, usually shorter than longest hair on ANT I, or if similar in length then R IV+V more than 1.4 Χ HT II with 7-18 accessory hairs                            …..7

-      Longest hair on ANT III longer than (1.2-2.1 X) BD III, similar in length to longest hair on ANT I. R IV+V 0.95-1.35 Χ HT II, with 2-7 accessory hairs                                        …..10

7      ABD TERG 1-4 each with at most 6-12 long capitate hairs (only marginal hairs are duplicated), plus some much smaller hairs amongst them. RIV+V with 11-18 accessory hairs. Cauda not longer than its basal width                                            …..Cryptomyzus korschelti

-      ABD TERG 1-4 each with (10-)12-18 long capitate hairs (spinal hairs often and pleural sometimes duplicated, as well as marginal hairs). R IV+V with 5-14 accessory hairs. Cauda usually a little longer than its basal width                                                                         …..8

8      ANT PT/BASE 5.9-9.0. R IV+V 1.48-1.75 Χ HT II   …..Cryptomyzus ballotae (or heinzei?)

-       ANT PT/BASE 9.0-11.5. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II                                                          …..9

9      SIPH cylindrical or only slightly thickened on distal half, 2.5-4 Χ cauda, which is not constricted at base. R IV with 5-8 accessory hairs                                   …..Crytomyzus ribis

-      SIPH slightly but distinctly clavate, 4.3-5 Χ cauda, which is slightly constricted at base. R IV with 9-13 accessory hairs                                                                   …..Cryptomyzus taoi

10    SIPH cylindrical or only slightly swollen on distal half, 0.13-0.18 Χ BL, and 1.5-2.4 Χ cauda

        …..Cryptomyzus galeopsidis

-      SIPH distinctly clavate, 0.17-0.20 Χ BL and 2.3-4 Χ cauda     …..Cryptomyzus maudamanti

11    SIPH slightly to markedly swollen or clavate                                                                 …..12

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                                                                           …..25

12    Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided or apically convergent

…..13

-       Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                                          …..14

13    SIPH black and strongly clavate. ANT III with 5-28 rhinaria. Tergum sclerotic, and often dark. SIPH 2.5-3 Χ the triangular cauda                               …..Rhopalosiphoninus ribesinus

-      SIPH pale and only slightly clavate. ANT III without rhinaria. Tergum not sclerotic. SIPH 1.9-2.5 Χ the tongue-shaped cauda                                                             …..Myzus persicae

14    SIPH ornamented with fine imbrications throughout most of length, even on swollen part

…..15

-       SIPH smooth, or with some imbrication basally or apically, but not on swollen part    …..18

15    SIPH only slightly swollen on distal half, with maximum width of swollen part 1.05-1.3 Χ minimum diameter basad                                                                                                …..16

-      SIPH distinctly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part 1.5-2.6 Χ minimum diameter basad                                                                                                                               …..17

16    SIPH 2.4-2.7 Χ cauda. Apterae with 7-37 secondary rhinaria on ANT III (and alata with 30-43)                                                                                     ….. Hyperomyzus ribiellus (partim)

-       SIPH 1.5-2.4 Χ cauda. Apterae with 6-16 secondary rhinaria on ANT III (and alata with 38-63)                                                                                              ….. Hyperomyzus nigricornis

17    R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                           …..Hyperomyzus petiolaris

-       R IV+V longer than HT II                                                                 …..Hyperomyzus nabali

18    Dorsum with extensive black sclerotic markings, including a black patch on ABD TERG

        2-4(-5). SIPH black, spindle-shaped. Cauda black                        …..Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

-       Dorsum pale or only with small dark intersegmental markings. SIPH pale, dusky, or

        dark-tipped, clavate. Cauda pale                                                                                     …..19

19    SIPH 2.9-4.1 Χ cauda. ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria                          …..Cryptomyzus stachydis

-       SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda. ANT III with 0-40 rhinaria                                                        …..20

20    R IV+V 0.88-1.25 Χ HT II, and SIPH with maximum width of swollen part less than 2 Χ minimum width basad. ANT III with 0-14 rhinaria; if present these are usually restricted to basal half                                                                                                                         …..21

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.7 Χ HT II, but if less than 1.3 Χ then SIPH has maximum width of swollen part more than 2 Χ minimum width basad. ANT III with 8-40 rhinaria, often extending in an irregular row onto distal half                                                                                           …..24

21  ANT III without or sometimes with 1-4 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.5 (fund.)           .....22

-     ANT III with (0-)4-12 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 4.3-7.7                                                   .....23

22    SIPH 1.2-1.9 Χ ANT PT. R IV+V 0.9-1.01 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.6(-4.1)

.....Hyperomyzus lactucae (fund.)

-      SIPH 0.6-1.1 Χ ANT PT. R IV+V 1.0-1.25 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE (3.1-)3.5-4.5

.....Hyperomyzus pallidus (fund.)

23    ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.5(-6.0). R IV+V 0.88-1.0 Χ HT II. SIPH (1.65-)1.7-2.0 Χ cauda. (Al. with dark dorsal patch fenestrated)                                                ..... Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      ANT PT/BASE 5.5-7.8. R IV+V 0.99-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.45-1.7(-1.83) Χ cauda. (Al. with solid dark dorsal patch)                                                                    ..... Hyperomyzus pallidus

24    R IV+V 1.2-1.35 Χ HT II. Maximum width of swollen part of SIPH 2.1-2.6 Χ minimum width of stem, which is narrower than hind femur at midlength      …..Hyperomyzus zirnitsi

-      RIV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II. Maximum width of swollen part of SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ minimum width of stem, which is thicker than hind femur at midlength                   …..Hyperomyzus picridis

25    Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones. ANT III with 0-52 rhinaria

…..26

-      Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria

…..39

26    Abdominal spiracular apertures almost circular, not covered with a cowl-like operculum. Cauda usually with 7-9 hairs (1 dorsoapical  and 3-4 lateral pairs)                                 …..27

-       Abdominal spiracular apertures reniform or oval, partially covered by cowl-like opercula. Cauda usually with 5 hairs (1 dorsoapical  and 2 lateral pairs), rarely with 4, 6, 7 or 8

…..28

27    SIPH imbricated throughout length, 2.4-2.7 Χ cauda. ANT III with 7-37 rhinaria, not restricted to basal half, and longest hairs 1.0-1.3 Χ BD III …..Hyperomyzus ribiellus (partim)

-      SIPH with little or no imbrication except near apices, 1.6-2.2 Χ cauda. ANT III with 0-18 rhinaria on basal half, and longest hairs 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III                  …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

28    Secondary rhinaria tuberculate. Tergum pale                                                                  …..29

-      Secondary rhinaria sunken, flat or only very slightly protruding. Tergum pale or dark, or with dark markings                                                                                                                  …..30

29    R IV+V 2.1-2.9 Χ HT II, with 20-24 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-5.0. ANT III with 10-19 rhinaria, and longest hairs 1.2-1.8 Χ BD III                           …..Nasonovia muesbecki

-       R IV+V c.1.4 Χ HT II, with c. 9-10 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE c. 7. ANT III with

        c.28-32 rhinaria, and longest hairs c 1.0 Χ BD III                               …..Nasonovia vannesii

30    SIPH dark, 2.6-3.0 Χ cauda. Dorsum with an extensive black shield extending from metanotum to ABD TERG 5 or 6, but not extending laterally on abdomen to spiracles and marginal sclerites                                                                                     …..Nasonovia grossa

-      SIPH pale or dark, 0.9-2.4 Χ cauda. Dorsum pale or with dark markings, or if with extensive dark pigmentation this includes marginal sclerites                                                          …..31

31    SIPH with spinulose imbrication over almost entire length                                            …..32

-       SIPH almost smooth or wrinkled, but with spinulose imbrication only on distal part   …..38

32    SIPH and cauda dark. Dorsal abdomen usually with dark sclerotisation, consisting of  dark sclerites or cross-bars or a complete shield extending to marginal sclerites                    …..33

-      SIPH pale or dark-tipped, cauda pale. Dorsal abdomen pale or variably sclerotised, but never with an extensive dark area (Nasonovia houghtonensis s.lat.)                                       ….. 34

33    R IV+V 0.13-0.14 mm, 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II, with 7-12 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.5  Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-3.7. SIPH 0.07-0.11 Χ BL

        .....Nasonovia arizonensis

 -     R IV+V 0.15-0.18 mm, 2.0-2.1 Χ HT II, with 16-18 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.6-2.0 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.5. SIPH 0.19-0.27 Χ BL    .....Nasonovia ribifolii

34    SIPH 0.30-0.57 mm long, usually more than 1.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.8-2.7 Χ HT II. (Al. with 30-63 rhinaria on ANT III)                                         …..Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. cerei

-      SIPH 0.17-0.33 mm long, usually less than 1.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.4-2.1 Χ HT II. (Al. with 16-30 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                             …..35

35    R IV+V 1.4-1.7 Χ HT II, with 10-14 accessory hairs

.…. Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. houghtonensis

-       R IV+V 1.6-2.1 Χ HT II, with 12-23 accessory hairs                                                     …..36

36    R IV+V with 12-13 accessory hairs               ….. Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. occidentalis

-       R IV+V with 14-23 accessory hairs                                                                                …..37

37    Prothorax and ABD TERG 2-5 usually with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu). ABD TERG 3 usually with 4 marginal hairs on each side

….. Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. russellae

-      MTu usually absent. ABD TERG 3 usually with 2 marginal hairs on each side

….. Nasonovia houghtonensis ssp. similis

38    ABD TERG 1-7 usually with a pattern of more-or-less fused dark sclerites or cross-bars. SIPH almost smooth, and dusky or dark, sometimes with paler middle section

…..Nasonovia brachycyclica

-      Dorsal abdomen pale, rarely with rather pale indistinct sclerites. SIPH pale, usually with some imbrication, occasionally dusky or dark                                    …..Nasonovia cynosbati

39    ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces divergent or almost parallel. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                         …..40

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu

…..42

40    Head spiculose, with steep-sided, almost parallel ANT tubercles. SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                           …..Aulacorthum solani

-       Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                      …..41

41    ANT PT/BASE c.7. R IV+V 1.1-1.2 Χ HT II                       …..Macrosiphum bisensoriatum

-       ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II                     …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

42    R IV+V with 3-12 accessory hairs                                                                                  …..43

-       R IV+V with 2  accessory hairs                                                                                      …..48

43    Hairs on ANT III very long, fine and wavy, the longest of them 1.8-4 Χ BD III         …..44

-       Hairs on ANT III straight or curved, not fine and wavy, maximally 1-2 Χ BD III     ……46

44    SIPH 0.13-0.23 mm long, 0.08-0.10 Χ BL, 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda                …..Aphis manitobensis

-       SIPH 0.23-0.38 mm long, 0.12-0.25 Χ BL, and 1.0-2.2 Χ cauda                                   …..45

45    ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..Aphis schneideri

-       ABD TERG 2-5 only sporadically with small MTu                                      …..Aphis varians

46    Marginal tubercles (MTu) present at least on some of AND TERG 2-6

…..Aphis grossulariae

-       MTu usually absent from ABD TERG 2-6                                                                     …..47

47    ANT III usually with 1-8, and IV with 0-2, rhinaria, on distal halves of segments; these are of bursiform type, i.e. sunk in pits, with small irrregular-shaped openings. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 usually less than 55 μm long. Dorsal cuticle distinctly reticulated. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg)                                                                                      …..Aphis solitaria 

 -     ANT III and IV without rhinaria. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 rarely less than 55 μm long. Dorsal cuticle not reticulated. HT I with 3 hairs                                                 …..Aphis oenotherae

48    SIPH and cauda pale or dusky, SIPH sometimes dark-tipped                                       …..49

-       SIPH and cauda black                                                                                                    …..51

49    ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.0. SIPH 0.9-1.6 Χ cauda. longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III

…..Aphis nasturtii

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. SIPH 0.7-1.3 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.2 Χ BD III

…..50

50    SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than their basal width, shorter than ANT PT, and also shorter than cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in al. III 9-20, IV 4-6, V 0)                                …..Aphis mimuli

-      SIPH 2.0-3.5 Χ longer than their basal width, longer than ANT PT and often longer than cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in al. III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)                …..Aphis triglochinis

51    SIPH 0.75-1.1 Χ ANT III and 1.8-2.7 Χ ANT BASE VI. ANT PT 0.27-0.46 mm, and ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.8 (mostly 2.4-3.6). Cauda not constricted near midlength and bearing 11-24 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark bands, and dark dorsal markings also usually present anterior to SIPH. (Al. with 10-23 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)                  .....Aphis fabae

-      SIPH 1.1-1.45 Χ ANT III and 2.8-3.4 Χ ANT BASE VI. ANT PT 0.22-0.29 mm, and ANT  PT/BASE 2.1-2.6. Cauda usually clearly constricted near midlength and bearing 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs. Abdomen without any dark markings. (Al. with 4-12 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                              …..Aphis spiraecola

 

 

Richardia Kunth. see Zantedeschia                     Araceae

 

Richardia L.                                                          Rubiaceae

      Richardia pilosa = R. scabra

        R. scabra                                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Ricinus                                                        Euphorbiaceae

      Ricinus communis                               Castor Oil Plant

                                                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              [Chromaphis juglandicola]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Riedlea see Melochia                                                          Malvaceae

 

Ritchiea                                                       Capparidaceae

      Ritchiea sp.                                 Aphis gossypii

 

 

Robinia                                                                    Leguminosae

      Robinia luxurians                         Aphis craccivora

      R. neomexicana                            Appendiseta robiniae

      R. pseudoacacia                                          Black Locust

                                                    Acyrthosiphon caraganae, gossypii, pisum;

                                                    Aphis craccivora, craccivora ssp. pseudoacaciae,

                                                       fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola

                                                    Appendiseta robiniae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                    [Lachnus tropicalis]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                    Myzus persicae;

                                                    [Eotrama orientalis (Narzikulov 1962)];

                                                   [Tinocallis zelkowae]

      R. viscosa                                      Aphis craccivora

 

Key to aphids on Robinia:-

1     All viviparae alate, with cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed.  Secondary rhinaria on ANT III transversely elongate.  ANT PT/BASE about 0.5.  SIPH short,  truncated cones with a single short hair attached at base                                                     .....Appendiseta robiniae

-      Apterous viviparae normally present. Cauda tongue or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. Secondary rhinaria round or oval. ANT PT/BASE more than 2.  SIPH tubular, without attached hair                                                                                               .....2

 

2     Antennal tubercles well-developed, broadly divergent, smooth.  SIPH long, pale, tapering from a broad base, without supabical reticulation                                                              .....3

-      Antennal tubercles weakly developed or, if well-developed, convergent and scabrous.  SIPH dark or pale, if pale then slightly swollen on distal half or with subapical reticulation                                                         ..... go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

3     SIPH tapering, not attenuate distally, thicker than hind tibia at midlength

.....Acyrthosiphon caraganae

-      SIPH thin and attenuate distally, thinner than hind tibia at midlength                        .....4

4     SIPH 0.33-0.50 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                                    .....Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH 0.20-0.36 Χ BL and 1.2-1.8 Χ cauda                                        .....Acyrthosiphon pisum

 

Rochea see Crassula                                                           Crassulaceae

 

Rodriguezia                                                 Orchidaceae

      Rodriguezia sp.                             Sitobion luteum

 

Roegneria see Elymus                                                        Poaceae

 

Roellia                                                         Bryaceae

      Roellia roellii                                 Myzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Roemeria                                                     Papaveraceae

      Roemeria sp.                                 Acyrthosiphon ilka

 

Roldana                                                       Compositae

      Roldana heracleifolia                   Uroleucon ambrosiae, mexicanum

        R. petasitis                                    Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Senecio.

 

Romneya                                                      Papaveraceae

      Romneya coulteri                          Aulacorthum solani

 

Rorippa (including Radicula)                                       Brassicaceae

      Rorippa amphibia                         Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, triglochinis;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus     

      R. aquatica                                    Aphis frangulae, nasturtii, triglochinis

        R. Χ armoracioides                       Myzus persicae

        R. atrovirens                                 Myzus ascalonicus

        R. austriaca                                   Aphis nasturtii,[ spiraephaga], triglochinis;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi

        R. dubia                                        Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        R. heterophylla = R. dubia

        R. hispida = R. palustris

        R. humifusa = R. madagascariensis

        R. indica                                        Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                              Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera oliveri; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        R. islandica                                   Aphis craccivora, nasturtii, triglochinis;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae

        R. kerneri                                      Aphis nasturtii

        R. madagascariensis                     Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

        R. microphylla = Nasturtium microphyllum

        R. nasturtium                                Aphis nasturtii; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae

        R. nasturtium-aquaticum = Nasturtium officinale

        R. obtusa = Rorippa teres

        R. officinalis = Nasturtium officinale

        R. palustris                                    Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, roripae,

                                                                   spiraecola;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi

        R. portoricensis                             Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        R. sinuata                                      Pemphigus populitransversus

        R. sublyrata = Rorippa dubia

        R. sylvestris                                    [Acyrthosiphon pisum];

                                                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, mizutakarashi, nasturtii, triglochinis;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae

        R. teres                                          Aphis mimuli

Key to apterae on Rorippa:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5.  SIPH absent. Wax pore-plates on posterior abdomen

       ..…Pemphigus populitransversus

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0. SIPH present. No wax pore-plates                                 …..2

2      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if rather well developed then median frontal tubercle is also similarly developed, so that front of head is convex, straight or sinuate in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without marginal tubercles (MTu)                  …..3

-      ANT tubercles well developed, so that there is a frontal sinus. ABD TERG 1 and 7 never with MTu                                                                                                                         …..13

3      SIPH slightly to distinctly swollen in middle, or on distal half                                        …..4