HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Qua-Rey

 

Qualea

Quamasia

QUERCUS

Quillaja

 

Rabdosia

Racomitrium

Radermachera

Radicula

Radiola

Ramischia

Ramona

Randia

Ranunculus

Rapanea

Raphanus

Raphia

Raphiolepis

Rapistrum

Ratibida

Rauvolfia

Ravenala

Ravensara

Reaumuria

Reboudia

Rechsteineria

Reevesia

Rehmannia

Reichardia

Remijia

Reseda

Retama

Retanilla

Reynoutria

 

 

Qualea                                                         Vochysiaceae

        Qualea multiflora                         Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Quamasia see Camassia                                                    Asparagaceae

 

Quercus (including Cyclobalanopsis)       Oaks       Fagaceae

About 225 aphid species in more than 40 genera feed on oaks. Some species, notably of Hormaphidinae, seem restricted to subgenus Cyclobalanopsis, but within the main subgenus Euquercus there is no clear pattern of host specificity relating to the sections of the subgenus; e.g. the North American aphid species complexes within Myzocallis, subgenera Neomyzocallis and Lineomyzocallis, are thought to be mainly associated with red oaks (sect. Erythrobalanus), yet most species in these groups are also sometimes recorded from American white oaks (sect. Leucobalanus). There is therefore no alternative to keying all Quercus aphids together. A single key would be too long and cumbersome, so after the host list there is a master key to the aphid subfamilies associated with Quercus followed by keys to the species in each subfamily (the drepanosiphine genera being divided into two keys).

Host List:-

      Quercus acuta                                         Japanese Evergreen Oak, Aka-gashi
                                                        Allotrichosiphum kashicola; Dermaphis crematogastri;
                                                        Eutrichosiphum davidi, pasanae;
                                                        Greenidea [kuwanai], nigra;

                                                              [Indonipponaphis fulvicola Sorin];
                                                        Lachnus sorini, tropicalis; Nipponaphis distyliicola;
                                                        Thoracaphis kashifoliae

 

      Q. acutissima                                           Carruth, Japanese Chestnut Oak, Kunugi
                                                        Cervaphis quercus; Diphyllaphis konarae, quercus;
                                                        Eutrichosiphum assamense, tattakanum;
                                                        Greenidea [hangnigra], kuwanai, [nipponica];
                                                        Kurisakia querciphila;

                                                              Lachnus quercihabitans, roboris, takahashii, tropicalis;

                                                              Neothoracaphis quercicola;

                                                              Nipponaphis distyliicola; Phylloxera kunugi;

                                                              Quadrartus yoshinomiyai; Stomaphis japonica;
                                                        Tuberculatus acuminatus, capitatus, fangi,
                                                             fuscotuberculatus, grisipunctatus, indicus, japonicus,
                                                             konaracola, [kunugi Shinji 1924], [kuricola], [pappus],

                                                                   paranaracola ssp. hemitrichus, [quercicola],

                                                                   radisectuae, stigmatus, yokoyamai

 

      Q. aegilops (?)                                Lachnus swirskii;

      (records all applicable to                       Myzocallis castanicola, glandulosa, komareki;
 Q. macrolepis?)                                  Thelaxes dryophila, suberi, valtadorosi;
                                                        Tuberculatus eggleri, pallidus

 

      Q. agrifolia                                              California Live Oak
                                                        Myzocallis agrifolicola, atropunctata, walshii;
                                                        Neosymydobius agrifoliae, paucisetosus;

                                                              Quadrartus agrifoliae; Stegophylla essigi;
                                                        Tuberculatus maureri, pallidus

 

      Q. alba                                                     American White Oak
                                                        [Chaitophorus quercifoliae Fitch 1851 – a Lachnus?];

                                                              Hoplochaitophorus quercicola;

                                                              Lachnochaitophorus querceus;
                                                        Myzocallis bella, discolor, punctata, tuberculata,

                                                                   walshii;
                                                        Neosymydobius albasiphus, mimicus;
                                                        Phylloxera querceti, rileyi; ?stellata;

                                                              Stegophylla quercicola, quercina, brevirostris, davisi;

                                                              Stomaphis quercus; Thelaxes californica;

                                                              Tuberculatus pallidus

 

      Q. aliena                                                  Galcham, Korean Oak
                                                        Cervaphis quercus; Diphyllaphis konarae, quercus;

                                                              Greenidea nipponica; Lachnus tropicalis;

                                                              Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum;

                                                              Neothoracaphis yanonis; Phylloxera coccinea;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila;
                                                        Tuberculatus capitatus, indicus, querciformosanus,

                                                                  stigmatus, yokoyamai, [Tuberculatus sp. D of Yao 2011],

                                                                  [Tuberculatus sp. nr. quercicola (Lee et al. 2017)

      Q. arizonica                                    Myzocallis atropunctata;

                                                              Neosymydobius ajuscanus, neomexicanus, peregrinus;

                                                              Tuberculatus pallidus, spiculatus

      Q. asymmetrica                              Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum

      Q. ×atropatena = Q.×mannifera

      Q. baloot                                         Greenidea nipponica; Hoplocallis microsetosus;

                                                              Pseudothoracaphis himachali; Serratocallis takahashii

      Q. bella                                           Allotrichosiphum cyclobalanopsidis

      Q. bicolor                                                 Swamp White Oak
                                                        Hoplochaitophorus spiniferus;
                                                        Myzocallis discolor, multisetis, punctata, walshii;
                                                        Phylloxera rileyi; Thelaxes dryophila

      Q. boissieri = Q. infectoria ssp. veneris

      Q. borealis = Q. rubra

      Q. brantii                                                 Manna Oak, Brant’s Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis picta, ruperti; Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;
                                                        Lachnus swirskii ssp. persicae, tuatayae;
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, glandulosa, komareki, persica;

                                                              Thelaxes suberi; Tuberculatus maximus

      Q. bumelioides = Q. sapotifolia

 

      Q. calliprinos (= Q. coccifera?)                   Prickly-leaved Evergreen Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta;

                                                              Lachnus roboris, swirskii;
                                                        Myzocallis cocciferina, taurica;
                                                        Phylloxera quercus; Siculaphis vittoriensis;
                                                        Thelaxes suberi; Tuberculatus maculipennis, pallescens

 

      Q. canariensis                                         Mirbeck's Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis picta;

                                                              Myzocallis boerneri, komareki, mediterranea;

                                                              Thelaxes suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus africanus, annulatus, eggleri

 

      Q. castanea                                              Encino, Mexican Oak
                                                        Myzocallis pepperi ssp. iturbide; Stegophylla mugnozae

 

      Q. castaneifolia                                       Chestnut-leaved Oak
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, castanicola; [Phylloxera quercina];

                                                              Thelaxes suberi; Tuberculatus annulatus, [pallidus]

      Q. catesbaei = Q. laevis

      Q. centralis = Q. laeta

 

      Q. cerris                                                   European Turkey Oak
                                                        Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi;
                                                        Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta, ruperti;
                                                        Lachnus [pallipes], roboris;
                                                        Myzocallis bellus, boerneri, castanicola, [glandulosa],

                                                                   komareki;

                                                              Phylloxera coccinea, quercina, quercus;

                                                              Stomaphis bratislavensis, quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus annulatus, borealis, eggleri, querceus

 

      Q. championii                                [Dermaphis sp., Hong Kong: Martin & Lau 2011];

                                                              [?Neohormaphis sp., Martin & Lau 2011 (alatae and

                                                                  immatures only)];

                                                              [Neothoracaphis sp., Martin & Lau 2011];

                                                              Quernaphis tuberculata

 

      Q. chrysolepis                                          Canyon Live Oak
                                                        Neosymydobius agrifoliae, chrysolepis, paucisetosus;
                                                        Tuberculatus chrysolepidis

 

      Q. cinerea = Q. incana Bartram

 

      Q. coccifera                                             Holly Oak, Kermes Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta;

                                                              Lachnus iliciphilus, pallipes, roboris, swirskii;
                                                        Myzocallis castanicola, cocciferina, komareki;
                                                        Phylloxera quercus; Siculaphis vittoriensis;
                                                        Thelaxes suberi, valtadorosi

 

      Q. coccinea                                              Scarlet Oak
                                                        Myzocallis bella, discolor, longirostris, longiunguis,

                                                                  multisetis, neoborealis, spinosa, walshii;

                                                              [Eutrichosiphum pasaniae, tattakanum]

 

      Q. conferta = Q. frainetto

      Q. copeyensis                                  Myzus ornatus

      Q. costaricensis                              Aulacorthum solani

      Q. ×coutinhoi                                 Phylloxera quercus; Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri

      Q. crassipes                                    Mexicallis spinifer;
                                                        Myzocallis atropuncata, pepperi ssp. iturbide, tenochca;
                                                        Stegophylla mugnozae

      Q. crispula = Q. mongolica ssp. crispula

      Q. dalechampii                               Hoplocallis microsiphon; Myzocallis mediterranea;

                                                              Phylloxera quercus; Tuberculatus eggleri

      Q. dealbata (?)                                Allotrichosiphum assamense;
     Q, dealbata Royle = Q. floribunda              Eutrichosiphum assamense, dubium, flavum, khasyanum,
     Q. dealbata Hoof f. Thomson ex Miq              [neotattakanum], pseudopasaniae, rameshi, russellae,

               = Lithocarpus dealbatus                       tattakanum;
                                                        [Greenidea prunicola]; Indonipponaphis tuberculata;
                                                        Lachnus acutihirsutus, tropicalis;
                                                        Myzocallis polychaeta; Serratocallis takahashii;

                                                              Thoracaphis quercifoliae

 

      Q. dentata (incl. var. grandifolia)                 Daimyo Oak, Kashiwa
                                                        Aphis gossypii; Diphyllaphis konarae;

                                                              Eutrichosiphum shiicola;
                                                        Greenidea kuwanai, nipponica, prinicola;

                                                              Lachnus tropicalis; [Mesocallis corylicola];

                                                              [Metanipponaphis cuspidatae]; Myzocallis castanicola;

                                                              Neothoracaphis yanonis; Phylloxera glabra, querceti;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, capitatus, [fulviabdominalis

                                                                   (Shinji 1941)],  fuscotuberculatus, grisipunctatus,

                                                                   higuchii, indicus, japonicus, kashiwae,

                                                                   konaracola, macrotuberculatus, [naganoe Shinji 1941],

                                                                   neglectus, paiki, [quercicola], querciformosanus,

                                                                   stigmatus, yokoyamai

      Q. dilatata = Q. floribunda 

      Q. donarium = Q. serrata

      Q. douglasii                                             Blue Oak
                                                        Neosymydobius agrifoliae, paucisetosus, rumorosensis;

                                                              Phylloxera stanfordiana; Stegophylla essigi;

                                                              Tuberculatus annulatus, pallidus, quercifolii

      Q. dshorochensis = Q. petraea ssp. iberica

      Q. dumosa                                      Myzocallis atropunctata;

                                                              Neosymydobius paucisetosus, romorosensis;

                                                              Stegophylla essigi; Tuberculatus pallidus, passalus

      Q. durandii = Q. sinuata

      Q. durifolia                                     Myzocallis durangoensis

      Q. edithiae                                      Neothoracaphis elongata/saramaoensis group (Martin &

                                                                    Lau 2011)

      Q. emoryi                                        Myzocallis atropunctata, durangoensis;

                                                              Neosymydobius butzei; Tuberculatus pallidus

      Q. engelmannii                              Myzocallis punctata; Neosymydobius chrysolepis;
                                                        Tuberculatus pallidus

      Q. engleriana                                 Myzocallis castanicola

      Q. fabri                                           Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum; Kurisakia querciphila;

                                                              Lachnus tropicalis;   Tuberculatus capitatus, radisectuae

      Q. faginea                                       Hoplocallis picta; Lachnus pallipes, roboris;

                                                              Myzocallis boerneri, castanicola; Phylloxera quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri

 

      Q. falcata                                                 Southern Red Oak, Spanish Oak
                                                        Myzocallis longirostris, longiunguis, multisetis;

                                                              Phylloxera texana

 

      Q. farnetto = Q. frainetto

      Q. fenestrata = Lithocarpus fenestratus

      Q. floribunda                                           Moru Oak, Himalaya Oak
                                                        [Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii];

                                                              Eutrichosiphum assamense, tattakanum;

                                                              Greenidea nipponica; Lachnus acutihirsutus;

                                                              Myzocallis [flooribundi Verma 1965 (nomen nudum)],

                                                                   pakistanica;

                                                              [Schizoneuraphis himalayensis];

      Q. formosana = Lithocarpus formosanus

 

      Q. frainetto                                              Hungarian or Italian Oak
                                                        Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi; Lachnus roboris;

                                                              Myzocallis castanicola, komareki, mediterranea;

                                                              Phylloxera coccinea, quercus; Thelaxes suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus eggleri, etruscus

 

      Q. frutex                                         Mexicallis analiliae ssp. pumilus

      Q. fruticosa = Q. lusitanica

      Q. gambelii  (incl. hybrids,                          Gambel Oak
                   
e.g. "undulata")               Lachnus allegheniensis; Myzocallis discolor, punctata;
                                                        Neosymydobius chrysolepis;
                                                        Stegophylla quercifoliae; Thelaxes californica;

                                                              Tuberculatus kiowanicus

 

      Q. garryana                                             Oregon White Oak
                                                        Myzocallis punctata; Stegophylla essigi;
                                                        Thelaxes californica;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, columbiae, pallidus

 

      Q. gemelliflora                               Eutrichosiphum glabrum

 

      Q. gilva                                                    Ichii-gashi
                                                        Dermaphis crematogastri, japonensis; Greenidea isensis;

                                                              Indonipponaphis fulvicola; Lachnus [roboris], tropicalis;

                                                              Metathoracaphis isensis; Neoreticulaphis nipponica;

                                                              Quernaphis tuberculata

 

      Q. glabra = Lithocarpus glaber

      Q. glandulifera = Q. serrata

 

      Q. glauca (incl. var. amamiana)                    Ara-kashi, Barin, Japanese Oak
                                                        Allothoracaphis piyananensis;

                                                              Allotrichosiphum kashicola;
                                                        Dermaphis crematogastri,  japonensis, takahashii;
                                                        Eutrichosiphum dubium, heterotrichum, glabrum,

                                                                   tattakanum;
                                                        Greenidea kuwanai, nigra, nipponica, quercifoliae,

                                                                   okajimai, pallidipes;
                                                        Kurasakia querciphila;

                                                              Lachnus [siniquercus], sorini, tropicalis;

                                                              [Machilaphis pseudomachili];

                                                              [Metanipponaphis cuspidatae];
                                                        Mollitrichosiphum glaucae, nigrofasciatum, tenuicorpus;

                                                              Neodermaphis lineata, unebiensis;
                                                        Neothoracaphis glaucae, saramaoensis;
                                                        Nipponaphis distyliicola, monzeni;
                                                        Parathoracaphis setigera; Thoracaphis kashifoliae;

                                                              Tuberculatus stigmatus

 

      Q. griffithii                                      Cervaphis quercus;

                                                              Eutrichosiphum khasyanum, tattakanum

                                                              Greenidea nipponica; Pseudothoracaphis himachali;

                                                              Serratocallis takahashii;

                                                              Tuberculatus indicus, [margituberculatus], nervatus,

                                                                  quercicola

      Q. grisea                                         Neosymydobius ajuscanus, butzei

      Q. gunnisonii = Q. gambelii             

      Q. havardii                                     Phylloxera tuberculifera

      Q. ×hispanica Leucombeana”)        Tuberculatus annulatus, borealis, querceus

      Q. humilis Mill. = Q. pubescens        

      Q. ilex  (incl. ssp. rotundifolia)                     Holly Oak, Holm Oak
                                                        Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi;
                                                        Hoplocallis microsetosus, microsiphon, picta;
                                                        Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;
                                                        Lachnus iliciphilus, pallipes, roboris;
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, castanicola, cocciferina, komareki,
                                                             mediterranea, schreiberi;
                                                        Phylloxera coccinea, ilicis, quercus;

                                                              Siculaphis vittoriensis; Stomaphis quercus;
                                                        Thelaxes dryophila, suberi, valtadorosi;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri, pallidus

 

      Q. ilicifolia                                               Bear Oak
                                                        Lachnochaitophorus querceus;
                                                        Myzocallis bella, longirostris, longiunguis, spinosa

 

      Q. imbricaria                                           Shingle Oak
                                                        Myzocallis meridionalis, longirostris, punctata, walshii

 

      Q. incana Bartram                                    Bluejack Oak
                                                        Greenidea haldari; Lachnochaitophorus obscurus;

                                                              Myzocallis longiunguis, multisetis, spinosa;
                                                        Neosymydobius luteus

      Q. incana Roxb. = Q. oblongata

      Q. indica = Castanopsis indica

 

      Q. infectoria (incl. ssp. veneris)                    Mountain Deciduous Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis picta; Hoplochaetaphis  zachvatkini;
                                                        Lachnus roboris, swirskii; Myzocallis boerneri

                                                              Phylloxera glabra (?), quercus; [Stegophylla sp.];

                                                              Thelaxes suberi;
                                                        Tuberculatus albosiphonatus, maculipennis, moerickei,
                                                            pallescens, pallidus

 

      Q. ithaburensis                                        Valonia Oak, Tabor Oak
(for ssp. macrolepis see macrolepis)        Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta;
                                                        Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;
                                                        Lachnus crassicornis, swirskii;
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, glandulosa, komareki, schreiberi;
                                                        Phylloxera quercina; Thelaxes suberi

 

      Q. kelloggii                                              California Black Oak
                                                        Myzocallis atropunctata; Phylloxera reticulata;

                                                              Stegophylla essigi; Thelaxes californica;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, maureri, pallidus

      Q. kerrii                                          Cervaphis quercus

 

      Q. laeta                                           Neosymydobius butzei

 

      Q. laevis                                                   American Turkey Oak, Catesby Oak
                                                        Myzocallis multisetis

 

      Q. lanuginosa (Lam.) Thuill. = Q. pubescens
 

      Q. laurifolia                                             Laurel Red Oak
                                                        Longistigma caryae;
                                                        Myzocallis granovskyi, longirostris, melanocera, pepperi,

                                                                    spinosa;
                                                        [Phyllaphis nigra Ashmead, 1881]

 

      Q. leucotrichophora = Q. oblongata

      Q. liaotungensis                             [Lachnus siniquercus];

                 (= Q. wutaishanica)                  Tuberculatus capitatus, nigrosiphonaceus,

                                                                    querciformosanus;

                                                              Wanyucallis amblyopappos

      Q. libani                                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Tuberculatus querceus

 

      Q. lobata                                                  California White Oak, Valley Oak
                                                        Neosymydobius paucisetosus;

                                                              Stegophylla essigi; Thelaxes californica;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, californicus

 

      Q. lusitanica                                   Acanthochermes quercus; Lachnus roboris;

                                                              Myzocallis castanicola; Phylloxera quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus moerickei, neglectus

      Q. lusitanica var. velutina = Q. faginea

      Q. lyrata                                                   Swamp White Oak
                                                        Myzocallis longirostris, melanocera, meridionalis;
                                                        Neosymydobius memorialis

      Q. ×maccormickii                          Tuberculatus indicus

      Q. macedonica = Q. trojana

      Q. macranthera                              Tuberculatus annulatus, maximus

 

      Q. macrocarpa                                        Bur Oak, Mossycup Oak
                                                        Hoplochaitophorus quercicola;
                                                        Myzocallis bella, discolor, pseudodiscolor,

                                                                  punctata, tuberculata;
                                                        Neosymydobius albasiphus, mimicus;
                                                        Phylloxera querceti, similans;
                                                        Stegophylla davisi; Thelaxes californica;
                                                       

      Q. macrolepis                                          Valonia Oak                                                          

            (= Q. ithaburensis                          Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta;
                          ssp. macrolepis)               Lachnus pseudonudus, roboris;
       (see also Q. aegilops)                      Myzocallis boerneri, komareki, occidentalis, schreiberi;

                                                              Thelaxes suberi

      Q.×mannifera                                Myzocallis komareki

                                                                                                                                                      

      Q. margarettiae                                       Sand Post Oak
                                                        Myzocallis multisetis; Neosymydobius memorialis;
                                                        ?Phylloxera stellata; Stegophylla quercina

 

      Q. marilandica                                        Blackjack Oak
                                                        Longistigma caryae; Myzocallis multisetis, punctata;
                                                        Stegophylla quercina ssp. acutirostris

 

      Q. mexicana                                   Mexicallis ?calvus, spinifer;

                                                              Neosymydobius ajuscanus, butzei

 

      Q. michauxii                                           Swamp Chestnut Oak
       (see also Q. prinus)                       Lachnochaitophorus obscurus; Longistigma caryae;
                                                        Myzocallis discolor; Neosymydobius albasiphus

 

      Q. microphylla                               Tuberculatus garciamartelli, leptosiphon, spiculatus

      Q. mirbeckii = Q. canariensis

 

      Q. mongolica (incl. ssp.                       Mongolian Oak, Japanese White Oak, Mizunara  
   crispula = var. grosseserrata)             Aphis [frangulae], gossypii; Diphyllaphis konarae;
                                                        Greenidea kuwanai, nipponica;

                                                              Lachnus quercihabitans, [siniquercus], tropicalis;
                                                        [Macrosiphum kuricola Matsumura, 1917];
                                                        Myzocallis castanicola; Neothoracaphis yanonis;
                                                        Nipponaphis distyliicola; Phylloxera coccinea;
                                                        Stomaphis japonicus;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, borealis, capitatus,

                                                                  grisipunctatus, higuchii, japonicus, kashiwae,

                                                                  [margituberculata], [naganoe (Shinji, 1941)],

                                                                  nigrosiphonaceus, paiki, [pappus], paranaracola,

                                                                  querceus, quercicola, querciformosanus, stigmatus,

                                                                  yokoyamai

      Q. montana                                    Myzocallis punctata

      Q. morii                                          Allothoracaphis piyananensis

 

      Q. muehlenbergii                                    Chinquapin Oak
                                                        Myzocallis discolor, tuberculata;

                                                              Tuberculatus tuberculatus

      Q. miyagii                                       Nipponaphis distyliicola

 

      Q. myrsinifolia                                        Bamboo-leaved Oak, Shira-kashi
                                                        Allotrichosiphum cyclobalanopsidis, kashicola;

                                                              Greenidea kuwanai, nigra;
                                                        Lachnus sorini, tropicalis;

                                                              Mollitrichosiphum glaucae, tenuicorpus;
                                                        Neothoracaphis elongata, querciphaga,

                                                              Neothoracaphis elongata/saramaoensis group (Martin &

                                                                    Lau 2011);
                                                        Nipponaphis coreanus, distyliicola, monzeni;                                                                          Parathoracaphis setigera

      Q. neglecta = Q. myrsinifolia             

      Q. neomairei                                  Lachnus roboris

 

      Q. nigra                                                   Water Oak
                                                        Lachnochaitophorus obscurus; Longistigma caryae;
                                                        Myzocallis castanicola, granovskyi, longirostris,

                                                                  longiunguis, melanocera, meridionalis, spinosus;
                                                        Neosymydobius luteus

 

      Q. nubium = Q. sessilifolia

      Q. nuttallii = Q. texana

      Q. oblongata                                            Ban Oak
                                                        Eutrichosiphum [alnicola], assamense, garwhalense,

                                                                  khasyanum, tattakanum;

                                                              Greenidea nipponica; Hoplocallis microsetosus;

                                                              Lachnus acutihirsutus;
                                                        Neothoracaphis garwhalensis, yanonis;

                                                              Pseudothoracaphis himachali; Serratocallis takahashii;

                                                              Thoracaphis kumaoni

      Q. obtusiloba = Q. stellata

      Q. oleoides                                      Myzocallis discolor

      Q. oocarpa                                      Mexicallis panamensis

      Q. palustris                                              Pin Oak, Swamp Spanish Oak
                                                        Lachnochaitophorus querceus; Longistigma caryae;
                                                        Myzocallis discolor, exultans, frisoni, granovskyi,
                                                            longiunguis, multisetis, neoborealis, punctata, spinosa,

                                                                  walshii;
                                                        Neosymydobius albasiphus; Stegophylla quercina;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila

      Q. patelliformis = Q. asymmetrica

      Q. paucidentata = Q. sessilifolia       

      Q. peduncularis                              Neosymydobius butzei 'var. papillata';
                                                        Tuberculatus mexicanus

      Q. pedunculata = Q. robur

      Q. pedunculiflora see Q. robur

      Q. persica = Q. brantii

 

      Q. petraea (incl. subsp.                               Bergek, Durmast Oak
         dshorochensis, iberica)                 Acanthochermes quercus; Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi;

                                                              Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;

                                                              Lachnus pallipes, roboris;
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, castanicola, komareki;
                                                        Phylloxera coccinea, confusa, corticalis, foae, glabra,

                                                                   italica, quercus;
                                                        Stomaphis bratislavensis, quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, borealis, eggleri, neglectus,

                                                                   querceus

 

      Q. phellos                                                Willow Oak
                                                        Myzocallis castanicola, exultans;

                                                              Stegophylla quercina ssp. acutirostris;
                                                        Tuberculatus querceus

 

      Q. phillyraeoides                                     Ubame-gashi
                                                        Diphyllaphis alba; Eutrichosiphum tattakanum;
                                                        Greenidea [kuwanai], [myricae], nipponica; 

                                                              Kurisakia querciphila; Lachnus tropicalis;

                                                              Myzocallis punctata; Nipponaphis monzeni;

                                                              Quadrartus agrifoliae; Tuberculatus pallidus, pilosus

 

      Q. pontica                                       Tuberculatus querceus, annulatus

 

      Q. prinus                                                 Chestnut Oak
      (= Q. michauxii?)                           Eutrichosphum [pasaniae];

                                                              Hoplochaitophorus heterotrichus, quercicola;
                                                        Myzocallis discolor, melanocera, multisetis, punctata;
                                                        Neosymydobius albasiphus;

                                                              Stegophylla davisi, quercicola; Thelaxes californica

 

      Q. ×pseudoturneri = Q. ×hispanica

 

      Q. pubescens (incl. subsp.                          Downy Oak
        palensis, subpyrenaica)                Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi; Hoplocallis microsiphon;
                                                        Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini; Lachnus iliciphilus, roboris;
                                                        Myzocallis boerneri, [borealis], castanicola, [komareki],

                                                                  mediterranea, occidentalis;
                                                        Phylloxera coccinea, foae, quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri, inferus, maculipennis,

                                                                   neglectus, pallescens, querceus

 

      Q. pungens × arizonica                  Hoplochaitophorus dicksoni

 

      Q. pyrenaica                                            Rebollo, Pyrenean Oak
                                                        Acanthochermes quercus; Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi;

                                                              Hoplocallis picta; Lachnus pallipes, roboris;
                                                        Myzocallis annulatus, castanicola, eggleri, komareki,
                                                            occidentalis, schreiberi;

                                                              Phylloxera coccinea, quercus; Stomaphis quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri, remaudierei

 

      Q. robur  (incl. var. fastigiata,                     English Oak
                 ssp. pedunculiflora)            Acanthochermes quercus; [Aphis fabae];

                                                              Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi; Foaiella danesii;
                                                        Hoplocallis microsiphon, picta, ruperti;
                                                        Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;

                                                              Lachnus crassicornis, pallipes, roboris;

                                                              [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

                                                              Myzocallis bella, boerneri, castanicola, komareki, taurica;
                                                        Phylloxera coccinea, confusa, corticalis, foae, glabra,                                                                         italica, quercus;
                                                        Stomaphis quercus, wojciechowskii;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;
                                                        Tuberculatus annulatus, borealis, eggleri, maculipennis,

                                                                   moerickei, neglectus, pallescens, querceus

 

      Q. robur × petraea                         Myzocallis castanicola; Tuberculatus neglectus

      Q. rotundifolia see Q. ilex

      Q. rubra                                                   Northern Red Oak
                                                        [Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                                       Diphyllaphis microtrema;       Lachnochaitophorus querceus;

                                                                       [Mollitrichosiphum nigriabdominalis, tenuicorpus];
                                                        Myzocallis bella, castanicola, ephemerata, exultans,

                                                                  granovskyi, longirostris, longiunguis,

                                                                  multisetis, neoborealis, punctata, spinosa, walshii;
                                                        Stegophylla quercina, quercina ssp. acutirostris;

                                                                       [Thelaxes dryophila]; Tuberculatus annulatus

 

      Q. rugosa                                                 Netleaf Oak
                                                        Mexicallis analiliae, analiliae ssp. caulifer, areolatus,

                                                                   spinifer;
                                                        Tuberculatus mexicanus, spiculatus,

                                                                   spiculatus ssp. rebecae

 

      Q. salicifolia                                   Myzocallis spinosa

      Q. salicina                                      Greenidea kuwanai, nigra; Nipponaphis distyliicola

      Q. sapotifolia                                  Myzocallis discolor, pepperi

      Q. semecarpifolia                           Eutrichosiphum [alnicola], khasyanum, pyri;

                                                              Lachnus tropicalis; Myzocallis polychaeta;

                                                              Neothoracaphis semicarpifolia; Serratocallis takahashii

 

      Q. serrata (incl. var. donarium)                    Ko-nara
                                                        Cervaphis quercus; [Chaitophorus narae Shinji 1941];

                                                              Diphyllaphis konarae, quercus;
                                                        Eutrichosiphum davidi, [narafoliae], pasaniae, taoi,
                                                            tattakanum;
                                                        Greenidea [kuwanai], nipponica, prinicola, quercifoliae,

                                                                  [symplocosis];

                                                              Kurisakia querciphila; Lachnus [roboris], tropicalis;

                                                              Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum;
                                                        Myzocallis castanicola;
                                                        Neothoracaphis garwhalensis, quercicola. yanonis;
                                                        Stomaphis japonicus; Thelaxes dryophila;

                                                              Tuberculatus capitatus, [fulviabdominalis (Shinji 1941)],
                                                            higuchii, indicus, kashiwae, konaracola, kunugi,

                                                                  [kuricola], [naganoe (Shinji, 1941)], pilosulus,

                                                                  quercicola, stigmatus, yokoyamai

 

      Q. sessiliflora = Q. petraea

      Q. sessilifolia                                  Lachnus sorini; Neothoracaphis elongata                       

      Q. shumardii                                           Shumard Red Oak
                                                        Myzocallis elliotti, ephemerata, granovskyi, longiunguis,

                                                                   melanocera, meridionalis, spinosa

 

      Q. sinuata                                       Stegophylla quercifoliae

      Q. spinosa                                       Neothoracaphis tarakoensis; Phylloxera quercus

 

      Q. stellata                                                 Iron Oak, Post Oak
                                                        Hoplochaitophorus quercicola;
                                                        Neosymydobius albasiphus, quercihabitus;

                                                              Phylloxera rileyi;
                                                        Stegophylla davisi, quercicola, quercifoliae

 

      Q. stellata var. margarettiae = Q. margarettiae                                                                             

      Q. stenophylloides                                   Taiwan-urajiro-gasi
                                                        Eutrichosiphum tattakanum; Greenidea kuwanai (?);
                                                        [Metanipponaphis cuspidatae]

 

      Q. suber                                                   Cork Oak
                                                        Hoplocallis picta; Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini;
                                                        Lachnus iliciphilus, pallipes, roboris, swirskii;

                                                              Myzocallis boerneri, castanicola, komareki,

                                                                   mediterranea, [schreiberi];

                                                              Phylloxera quercina, quercus; Stomaphis quercus;

                                                              Thelaxes dryophila, suberi;

                                                              Tuberculatus annulatus, eggleri

 

      Q. subsericea                                  Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

      Q. texana                                        Myzocallis discolor, frisoni; Neosymydobius memorialis;

                                                              Stegophylla quercicola

      Q. tomentella                                  Tuberculatus pallidus

      Q. × trabutii                                    Thelaxes dryophila; Myzocallis occidentalis

 

      Q. trojana                                                 Macedonian Oak
                                                        Apulicallis trojanae; Hoplocallis microsiphon;

                                                              Lachnus roboris; Myzocallis boerneri, komareki;

                                                              Thelaxes suberi

     

      Q. turbinella                                   Neosymydobius butzei, peregrinus; Tuberculatus pallidus

      Q. ×undulata                                  Neosymydobius acutipilosus

      Q. urbanii var. parvifolia               Myzocallis durangoensis, longirostris ssp. tepehuaensis

      Q. valentina Cav. = Q. faginea

 

      Q. variabilis                                             Abe-maki, Gulcham, Korean Oak
                                                        Cervaphis quercus;
                                                        Greenidea kuwanai, [nipponica], quercifoliae;

                                                              [Hoplocallis ruperti]; Kurisakia querciphila;
                                                        Lachnus tropicalis; Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum;
                                                        Myzocallis [boerneri], castanicola;
                                                        Neothoracaphis quercicola, saramoensis;
                                                        Phylloxera kunugi; Stomaphis japonica; [Thelaxes suberi];
                                                        Tuberculatus capitatus, capitatus ssp. intermedius, fangi,

                                                                  kashiwae, [kuricola], pallidus, [pappus],[quercicola],

                                                                  querciformosanus, stigmatus

 

      Q. velutina                                               Black Oak, Quercitron Oak
                                                        Diphyllaphis microtrema; Hoplochaitophorus quercicola;
                                                        Lachnochaitophorus querceus;
                                                        Myzocallis bella, frisoni, granovskyi, longiunguis,
                                                            longirostris, melanocera, multisetis. tuberculata,

                                                                  walshii;

                                                              Stegophylla quercian, quercina ssp. acutirostris;

                                                              [Tuberculatus indicus, stigmatus]
                                                       

      Q. vicilurbe (?)                                Hoplocallis microsiphon

      Q. virgiliana = Q. pubescens                      

      Q. virginiana                                           Live Oak
                                                        [Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii]; Diphyllaphis microtrema;

                                                              Lachnus allegheniensis; Longistigma caryae;

                                                              Myzocallis discolor, melanocera, spinosa,
                                                        [Myzocallis sp. (Cuba)]; Neosymydobius luteus;
                                                        Phylloxera [quercus], texana, [Phylloxera sp. (Cuba)];
                                                        Stegophylla brevirostris; Tuberculatus pallidus

 

      Q. wislizeni                                              Interior Live Oak
                                                        Myzocallis agrifolicola; Neosymydobius paucisetosus;

                                                              Stegophylla essigi, quercicola

 

      Q. wutaishanica see Q. liaotungensis

 

      Quercus spp. (unidentified)           Acanthochermes similiquercus; [Betacallis querciphaga];

                                                              Dermaphis crematogastri;
                                                        Eutrichosiphum arunachali, [blackmanum], flavum,

                                                                   [izas], jugeshwari, manipurense, mukerjii, [narafoliae],      nasensis, [neoalnicola], querciphaga, raychaudhurii,

                                                                   russellae ssp. lijiangshanense, [simlaensis], tapatii;
                                                        Greenidea ayyari, [brachyunguis], [decaspermi],

                                                                   [hangnigra], kumaoni, mushana, quercicola,

                                                                   querciphaga, sikkimensis;
                                                        Lachnus chosoni; Lithoaphis quercisucta;
                                                        [Longicaudus himalayensis Hille Ris Lambers, 1965];
                                                        Longistigma xizangensis;

                                                              [Krikoanoecia circula Zhang & Qiao in G.-x. Zhang et al.

                                                                   1996; al. vagrant sexupara of Eriosoma sp.?];

                                                              [Macrosiphum mesosphaeri];

                                                              Mexicallis brevituberculatus, longicaudus, panamensis;

                                                              Microunguis depressa;
                                                        Mollitrichosiphum [godavariense], luchuanum,
                                                             nigriabdominalis, niitakaensis, [trilokum];
                                                        Myzocallis occultus; [Neobetulaphis chaetosiphon];

                                                              Neohormaphis calva, wuyiensis;

                                                              Neothoracaphis sutepensis; Nipponaphis querciphaga;

                                             Paranipponaphis takaoensis;
                                      Parathoracaphis elongata, gooti, spinapilosa;
                                      Parathoracaphisella indica; [Phylloxera bipunctata];

                                                              [Quernaphis chui]; [Reticulaphis sp. (?rotifera)];

                                                              Schizoneuraphis malayna;
                                                        Stomaphis [longirostris], [quercisucta];

                                                              Thoracaphis arboris, flavus; Tuberculatus cornutus

 

Master key to the main groups of oak aphids:-

 

1      Body small, pear-shaped, broadest anteriorly. Antennae 3-segmented; those of aptera with 1 rhinarium, those of alata with 2 rhinaria. Forewing of alata without radial sector, and hindwing without oblique veins                                                     .....Phylloxeridae - KEY A

-       Body small or large, not broadest anteriorly. Antennae 3- to 6-segmented but only ever 3-segmented in aleyrodiform apterae; always with 2 primary rhinaria and, at least in alata, also with secondary rhinaria. Forewing of alata with a radial sector, and hindwing with 1-2 oblique veins                                                                                                                                   .....2

2      Aptera aleyrodiform, with head, thorax and first abdominal segment fused (as prosoma), and reduced antennae, legs and posterior abdominal segments. Alata with narrow annular secondary rhinaria, and forewing with Cu1a and Cu1b touching or united at their bases

.....Hormaphidinae - KEY B

-       Aptera of normal aphid form with well-developed antennae and legs. Alata with round, oval or transversely elongate secondary rhinaria and forewing with Cu1a and Cu1b arising separately                                                                                                                            .....3

3      SIPH tubular, much longer than basal width                                                                     .....4

-       SIPH broadly conical, truncate, pore-like or absent                                                           .....5

4      SIPH with numerous hairs                                                              .....Greenideinae - KEY C

-       SIPH without hairs                                                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

5    Large aphids. First tarsal segments with 9 or more ventral hairs. SIPH in form of large pores, often placed on broad conical bases clothed with numerous hairs      .....Lachninae - KEY D

-     Small to medium-sized aphids. First tarsal segments with 2-7 ventral hairs. SIPH either truncate, small and pore-like, absent, or if on broad cones then with at most a single ring of hairs                                                                                                                                      .....6

6    All adult viviparae alate                                                          .....Calaphidinae (part) - KEY E

-     Colonies including apterae only or both apterae and alatae

                                                      .....Calaphidinae (part) + Thelaxinae + Phyllaphidinae- KEY F

 

KEY A - Phylloxeridae on oaks

The taxonomy of the oak phylloxerids has been little worked, so the key which follows is partial and tentative, and is intended to summarise the available knowledge rather than to enable reliable determination to species. It refers only to apterous females (not fundatrices after the first two couplets), and is based mainly on the available literature.

1     In galls on leaves, with only two generations per year and no alatae; fundatrices produce sexuales. Immature fundatrix bearing stellate processes with 4-11 pointed secondary projections (fig. 90B); processes of adult fundatrix small, digitiform                               …..2

-      Free-living on stems, leaves or roots. Stellate processes if present also in adult stage and with knob-like secondary projections                                                                                          .....3

2     Primary rhinarium on ANT III protruding almost to level of apex of PT, so that antennae appears to be double-tipped (fig. 90A). Immature fundatrix bearing stellate processes with 6-11 pointed secondary projections. Adult fundatrix with ABD TERG 1-4 each bearing 4 dorsal tubercles, the spinal ones shorter than their basal widths, the lateral ones a little longer

.....Acanthochermes quercus

-      Primary rhinarium may protrude but not nearly to level of apex of PT. Immature fundatrix bearing stellate processes with 4-5 pointed secondary projections. Adult fundatrix with ABD TERG 1-4 each bearing 6-10 dorsal tubercles, all longer than their basal widths

.....Acanthochermes similiquercus

3     Body with short, stellate, dorsal processes, bearing knob-like secondary projections (fig. 90C)

       .....Phylloxera stellata*

-      Dorsal processes if present simple, although often bearing spicules or denticles               .....4

4     Dorsal processes either undeveloped or if present then very small, not or hardly as long as their basal widths                                                                                                                .....5

-      Dorsal processes evident, mostly longer than their basal widths                                        .....7

5     Tergum with minute sclerotic ridges appearing as short, disconnected, irregular lines. BL about 0.5 mm                                                                                .....Phylloxera tuberculifera*

-      Tergum nearly smooth. BL 0.70-0.85 mm                                                                          .....6

6     Primary rhinarium on ANT III subapical (i.e., PT developed; fig. 90D). ABD TERG 2-5 with spiracles                                                                                                    .....Phylloxera glabra

-      Primary rhinarium on ANT III either absent or virtually apical (PT undeveloped). ABD TERG 2-5 without evident spiracles                                            .....Phylloxera stanfordiana*

7     Dorsal processes constricted at extreme base, and bearing non-capitate, usually pointed, apical hairs (fig. 90E). (On roots)                                                                .....Foaiella danesii

-      Dorsal processes usually widened at extreme base, and their apical hairs usually have expanded or capitate apices. (On aerial parts)                                                                    .....8

8     Longest dorsal processes on thorax clavate; i.e., constricted centrally and with a swollen apex, or if short and knob-like or almost cylindrical they are not much narrower at apex than at base (e.g. figs 90F-H)                   .....Phylloxera quercus group (coccinea, florentina, foae,

        ilicis, italicum, quercus)

-      Longest dorsal processes on thorax tapering, without a constriction, narrow distally; if cylindrical on distal part then much narrower near apex than at base (e.g. figs 90I-P)      .....9

9     Spicules on dorsal processes very small and arranged in spiral rows (figs 90I, J)            .....10

-      Spicules on dorsal processes larger and not arranged in spiral rows                                 .....11

10   Longest dorsal processes more than 3 × their basal width, with a short apical hair (fig. 90I). ANT III long and thin. Dorsal cuticle with numerous pits                       .....Phylloxera rileyi*

-      Longest dorsal processes less than 3 × their basal width, with apical hair long, 5-6 x its apical diameter (fig. 90J). ANT III rather stout, broadest on distal half. Dorsal cuticle finely reticulate                                                                                            .....Phylloxera reticulata*

11   Dorsal processes with broad, bract-like spicules (figs 90K, L). Spinal processes with long apical hairs that are at least 4 × their apical diameter                                     .....Phylloxera confusa*

-      Dorsal processes with narrower, pointed or denticulate spicules, and with short apical hairs which are usually less than 3 × their apical diameter (except when the processes are very short)                                                                                                                                 .....12

12   All thoracic tergites and ABD TERG 1 with pleural as well as marginal processses. Dorsal cuticle with nodulose ornamentation. Spiracles present on ABD TERG 1-5                   .....13

-      Pleural processes absent from hind margin of pronotum and from ABD TERG 1. Dorsal cuticle variously ornamented. Abdominal spiracles present only on ABD TERG 1        .....14

13   BL 2.0-2.5 mm. Dorsal processes conical, all less than 2 × their basal diameters (fig. 90M)

.....Phylloxera kunugi

-      BL 0.9-1.5 mm. Longest dorsal processes have attenuated, cylindrical apices and are more than 3 × longer than their basal diameters (fig. 90N)                           .....Phylloxera quercina

14   Rostrum short; when directed backwards not reaching to hind coxae. Longest dorsal processes shorter than HT II. Dorsal cuticle with minute, short ridges or wrinkles        

.....Phylloxera similans*

-      Rostrum reaching well beyond hind coxae. Longest dorsal processes usually longer than HT II; if a little shorter then the processes are pigmented and the dorsal cuticle is very rugose

.....15

15   Thoracic and anterior abdominal tergites with very rugose, denticulate sculpturing. Dorsal processes pigmented, the longest usually not more than 2 × HT II and often much shorter (figs 90O, P, as Moritziella corticalis)                                                  .....Phylloxera corticalis

-      Dorsal cuticle less rugose, variously ornamented. Longest dorsal processes often more than 2 × HT II, degree of pigmentation unknown                                                                          .....16

16   Longest dorsal processes more than 0.8 × hind femora, which are rather stout. Tibiae without annular ridges                                                                                       .....Phylloxera querceti*

-      Longest dorsal processes less than 0.7 × hind femora, which are relatively slender. Tibiae with annular ridges                                                                            .....Phylloxera davidsoni*

KEY B - Hormaphidinae (Nipponaphidini) on oaks

The taxonomy of Nipponaphidini on oaks is poorly understood, despite the revisionary work of Ghosh & Raychaudhuri (1973a,b). The primary host forms of most species, presumably forming galls on Distylium, are unknown; many have been collected infrequently or only once, and host plants are often not identified to species. Several species are recorded as feeding on other genera as well as Quercus, including other Fagaceae and especially Lauraceae (Litsea, Machilus), but some of these records may be due to errors of identification. Generic concepts within this group are especially problematic.

The key to aleyrodiform apterae which follows is partial and simplified to include only the better-known or more easily recognised species, but should enable specimens to be placed in the right species-group. The systematic part of the book should be consulted for further information.

1     SIPH present as small pores or shallow cones on the posterior part of the "abdominal plate" (fused ABD TERG 2-7). Tarsi always 2-segmented with claws                                        .....2

-      SIPH completely absent. Tarsi variably developed, reduced in some species                  .....13

2     Prosoma (head, thorax and first abdominal segment) completely fused dorsally with abdominal plate (ABD TERG 2-7), leaving only ABD TERG 8 free                                .....3

-      Prosoma showing at least partial dorsal separation from abdominal plate, although the division may be indistinct medially (e.g. fig. 91A)                                                             .....4

3     Dorsal cuticle without reticulate sculpturing, ornamented with raised clusters of pustules (wax glands?). Antennae 3-segmented. Dorsal cephalic hairs are 37-45 μm, and hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 40-49 μm                                    …..Neohormaphis spp. (calva, wuyiensis)

-      Dorsal cuticle with irregular reticulation (becoming less distinct posteriorly). Antennae 4-segmented (?).  Dorsal cephalic hairs are 13-18 (-38?) μm, and hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 26-38 μm                                                                                             …..Lithoaphis quercisucta*

4     Dorsal cuticle of prosoma (head, thorax and first abdominal segment) densely and entirely ornamented with nodules or pustules                                                                                 .....5

-      Dorsal cuticle of prosoma with at least some areas devoid of pustules (although the perpendicular marginal regions may be densely pustulate)                                                 .....9

5     Prosoma ornamented with blunt conical nodules, often longer than their basal widths (fig. 91A). Prosomal hairs very long and very fine                                    .....Nipponaphis monzeni

-      Prosoma ornamented with low pustules, all or mostly shorter than their basal widths (fig. 91B). Prosomal hairs long or short                                                                                      .....6

6     Prosoma with, in addition to the pustulate ornamentation, a series of paired spinal and marginal finger-like tubercles. Posterior part of abdominal plate (i.e., ABD TERG 7) without spinal hairs                                                                                                                           .....7

-      Prosoma without tubercles. ABD TERG 7 with or without a pair of spinal hairs              .....8

7     Spinal and marginal tubercles on prosoma are thick and finger-like, with broad bases. Prosomal hairs hardly longer than basal diameter of ANT III

       .....Indonipponaphis tuberculata*

-      Spinal and marginal tubercles very small. Prosomal hairs 2-3 × basal diameter of ANT III

.....Indonipponaphis fulvicola*

8     Body box-like, very heavily sclerotised, black, prosoma with short inconspicuous hairs. ABD TERG 7 with a pair of spinal hairs                                  .....Nipponaphis distyliicola/coreanus

-      Body flattened, light to dark brown sclerotic, with fine lateral hairs 3.0-3.5 × the basal diameter of ANT III. ABD TERG 7 without a pair of spinal hairs

....."Thoracaphis"  quercifoliae*

9     Prosoma without any hairs. Antennae very short and unsegmented

.....Microunguis depressa*

 -     Prosoma with hairs (although these may be only submarginal and minute). Antennae reduced and concealed beneath anterior margin of prosoma between eyes, but 3-segmented

.....10

10   Margins of prosoma densely pustulate. Prosomal hairs thick basally and arising from prominent, somewhat tuberculate bases              .....Schizoneuraphis malayana/querciphaga*

-      Margins of prosoma palisade-like, or with longitudinal polygonal reticulation. Prosomal hairs minute or fine, without tuberculate bases                                                                         .....11

11   Margins of prosoma with longitudinal double-walled polygonal reticulation. Prosomal hairs minute                                                                                               .....Thoracaphis kumaoni*

-      Margins of prosoma palisade-like. Prosomal hairs long and fine                                      .....12

12   Abdominal plate with 5-10 spinopleural hairs on each side of midline

.....Thoracaphis arboris

-      Abdominal plate with only 1-2 spinopleural hairs on each side of midline

.....Thoracaphis kashifoliae

13   Prosoma completely fused with ABD TERG 2-7                                                            .....14

-      Prosoma at least showing partial (lateral) separation from ABD TERG 2-7                    .....19

14   Body flattened. Dorsal cuticle pale, not or only lightly sclerotised. Marginal hairs not spine-like. Dorsum with 4 pairs of long blunt or capitate hairs, and 1 pair of similar hairs on ABD TERG 8                                                                                                 ....."Thoracaphis" flava

-      Body box-like. Dorsal cuticle brown-black, sclerotised. Marginal hairs, and 1-2 pairs on ABD TERG 8, spine-like                                                                                                            .....15

15   Dorsal cuticle heavily sclerotised and corrugated, but not distinctly reticulate, with 5 pairs of spine-like spinopleural hairs, like the marginal hairs                .....Parathoracaphis elongatus*

-      Dorsal cuticle either granular with indistinct reticulation or heavily sclerotised and strongly reticulate. Spinopleural hairs either long and fine, minute or absent                                .....16

16   Body almost circular. Dorsal cuticle granular with indistinct reticulation, each prosomal segment bearing a pair of fine spinopleural hairs 40-50 µm long. The 4 spine-like hairs on ABD TERG 8 in a single transverse row, close together and all directed backwards

.....Parathoracaphis gooti

-      Body elongate oval. Dorsal cuticle black, heavily sclerotised with strongly reticulate or convolute sculpturing, and with minute, inconspicuous spinopleural hairs. Spine-like hairs on ABD TERG 8 not close together, the more lateral pair not pointing backwards             .....17

17   Dorsal cuticle convoluted. ABD TERG 7 with 1 thick spine-like marginal hair on each side, the spines anterior to it being smaller and apparently on ABD TERG 6 (fig. 91G)

.....Parathoracaphis kayashimai

-      Dorsal cuticle strongly reticulate. ABD TERG 7 with 2 thick spine-like marginal hairs of similar size, close together on each side (e.g. fig. 91F)                                                     .....18

18   Head with a pair of long, thick and spine-like frontal hairs, similar to the marginal hairs

 .....Parathoracaphis spinapilosa

-      Head with the frontal hairs very short, fine and pointed             .....Parathoracaphis setigera

19   Tarsi all 2-segmented, with claws                                                                                     .....20

-      Tarsi reduced at least on fore and mid legs; absent or one-segmented, often with rudimentary claws                                                                                                                                 .....24

20   Entire prosoma, both dorsally and marginally, and also the abdominal plate, ornamented with flat polygonal pustules (fig. 91C). Prosomal hairs all short and inconspicuous

.....Paranipponaphis takaoensis

-      Dorsal cuticle smooth or with different ornamentation. Prosomal hairs long or short     .....21

21   Prosoma only separate laterally from abdominal plate, which bears 6 pairs of marginal hairs. Prosoma without evident sculpturing medially, except around muscle plates                  .....22

-      Prosoma fully separated from abdominal plate, which is without marginal hairs. Medial area of prosoma with reticulate, convolute or mosaic sculpturing                                            .....23

22   Prosoma with a posterior pair of spinopleural hairs. Abdominal plate with about 5 pairs of spino-pleural hairs as well as the marginal ones                            .....Metathoracaphis isensis*

-      Prosoma without a posterior pair of spinopleural hairs. Abdominal plate with spinopleural hairs only on ABD TERG 7 (i.e. near posterior margin)                  .....Parathoracaphisella indica*

23   Prosoma and ABD TERG 8 with very long (100-150 µm) marginal hairs arising from tuberculate bases. ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs. Entire dorsal cuticle with fine, irregular, mosaic-like sculpturing (fig. 91D)                                                      .....Allothoracaphis piyananensis

-      Prosoma with marginal hairs absent or inconspicuous. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. Dorsal cuticle with corrugated, convoluted sculpturing (fig. 91E), marginal areas of prosoma with reticulate sculpturing                                                              .....Pseudothoracaphis himachali

24   Dorsal cuticle of prosoma and abdominal plate subdivided by clear, longitudinal sutures into medial and lateral plates, which each carry characteristic ornamentation. Margins of body with irregular lateral outgrowths of venter (e.g. fig. 91I)                                                 .....25

-      Dorsal cuticle of prosoma and abdominal plate not subdivided                                       .....26

25   ABD TERG 8 with a large wax gland plate. Vestigeal hind tarsus very small, shorter than its basal width and rounded at apex                                                      …..Quadrartus agrifoliae

-      ABD TERG 8 without a wax plate. Vestigeal hind tarsus triangular, as long as or longer than its basal width, pointed and with a vestigeal claw at apex        …..Quadrartus yoshinomayai

26   Prosoma with long marginal hairs, either pointed or flattened and expanded distally, and often projecting around sides of body (which in old adults is jet black and mostly opaque unless bleached before mounting)                                                                                     .....27

-      Prosoma if with marginal hairs then these are shorter, thick and blunt and do not project around sides of body                                                                                                        .....29

27   Marginal prosomal hairs flattened and expanded distally, with toothed or serrate apices (fig. 48C)                                                                                             .....Reticulaphis distylii group

-      Marginal prosomal hairs with pointed apices (fig. 91L)                                                   .....28

28   BL usually 1 mm or more. Eyes of 3 adjacent facets, on a slight or distinct protruberance. Dorsum convex                                                                                           …..Dermaphis spp.

-      BL 0.7-0.9 mm. Eyes not protruberant, with one facet distinctly separated from the other two. Dorsum flattened                                                                        …..Neodermaphis spp.*

29   Prosoma with very thick and blunt spinopleural and submarginal hairs. Prosoma and abdominal plate with pustulate ornamentation, the prosoma having smooth irregular lateral outgrowths (fig. 91J). Hind legs not projecting behind body         .....Quernaphis tuberculata

-      Prosomal hairs absent or inconspicuous. Dorsal ornamentation mosaic-like or reticulate, or composed of small circular pore-like structures. Hind legs often projecting behind body

.....30

30   Hind legs very short, not much longer than fore and middle legs, concealed beneath body. Marginal areas of prosoma with many small circular pore-like indentations

…..Neoreticulaphis nipponica*

-      Hind legs distinctly longer than fore and middle legs, usually projecting behind body. Marginal areas of prosoma smooth, ridged or with mosaic-like or reticulate ornamentation

…..31

31   Fore and mid legs without tarsi, hind legs with rudimentary tarsi. Dorsal prosoma with polygonal reticulate sculpturing, marginal areas smoother (fig. 91K)

       .....Neothoracaphis yanonis group (quercicola, semicarpifolia, tarakoensis, yanonis)

-      All legs with rudimentary (1-segmented) tarsi. Cuticle of prosoma mosaic-like, ridged, corrugated or nearly smooth                                                                                             .....32

32   Dorsal cuticle of prosoma with fine polygonal mosaic-like sculpturing, apparently extending into marginal areas                                                               .....Neothoracaphis garwhalensis*

-      Dorsal cuticle of prosoma ridged, corrugated or nearly smooth                                       .....33

33   Body elongate, BL 1.5-2.5 × maximum width. Prosoma smooth with a distinct spinal ridge, which has a number of variably-developed constrictions and may have transverse furrows

.....34

-      Body oval, BL 1.4-1.5 × maximum width. Cuticle of prosoma corrugated at least submarginally, spinal ridge absent or indistinct                                                                .....35

34   BL 1.9-2.5 × maximum width. Hind margin of ABD TERG 8 with 4 minute hairs of equal length                                                                                          .....Neothoracaphis elongata*

-      BL 1.5-1.7 × maximum width. Hind margin of ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs, but with median pair distinctly longer than outer pair                                     .....Neothoracaphis saramoensis*

35   Prosoma of cleared specimens dark and distinctly corrugated over entire dorsal surface

.....Neothoracaphis querciphaga*

-      Prosoma of cleared specimens with broad, pale, smooth mid-dorsal area, darker and distinctly corrugated only submarginally                                                                          .....36

36   Hind legs pale                                                                              …..Neothoracaphis glaucae*

-      Hind legs dark                                                                         …..Neothoracaphis sutepensis*

 

KEY C - Greenideinae on oaks (apterous viviparae unless otherwise stated)

Subtropical, oriental, evergreen oak species are the hosts of numerous species of Greenideinae, but many of the aphid species are described from single collections, with the host unidentified to species. Since we first attempted to key the oak-feeding Greenideinae there have been revisions of this group for India (Ghosh & Agarwala 1993), Java (Noordam 1994) and Japan (Greenidea spp. only; Sugimoto 2008) that have resolved some of the problems. The key has been extensively revised in the light of this work, but many of the species separations are still rather tentative, and further work may reveal more synonymies. The rather cumbersome subgeneric classifications that have been erected within the genera Eutrichosiphum and Mollitrichosiphum are probably best ignored for general purposes.

1     SIPH with short hairs. Body with very large, branched, hair-bearing processes (fig. 92A)

.....Cervaphis quercus

-      SIPH with long hairs. Body without large branched hair-bearing processes                      .....2

2     Cauda usually with an apical papilla (fig. 92B). SIPH always with some pale reticulation, at least at base (and often snapped off at base in preserved specimens). Body often brown, broadly pear-shaped and rather flat (genus Greenidea)                                                      .....3

-      Cauda always without an apical papilla. SIPH usually without any reticulation. Body broadly pear-shaped, oval or elongate                                                                              .....16

3     SIPH with pale reticulation extending over most of length (subgenus Greenidea)           .....4

-      SIPH reticulated only at base (subgenus Trichosiphum)                                                   ......6

4     ANT III reticulated over most of length except at extreme base, and also distinctly imbricated distally                                                                                                               .....5

-      ANT III not reticulated nor imbricated                         .....Greenidea quercifoliae/ (mushana)

5     R IV+V 1.7-2.0 × HT II                                                                         .....Greenidea ayyari*

-      R IV+V 2.7-3.2 × HT II                                                                 .....Greenidea querciphaga

6     Tibiae with striate imbrication over most of their lengths                                                   .....7

-      Tibiae smooth                                                                                                                      .....9

7     R IV+V 2.0-3.0 × HT II                                            .....Greenidea quercicola (or pallidipes?)

-      R IV+V 1.3-1.9 × HT II                                                                                                     .....8

8     Ventral abdomen evenly spinulose. Legs dark                                      .....Greenidea okajimai

-      Ventral abdomen without spinules. Legs pale                                        .....Greenidea myricae

9     SIPH more than 0.4 × BL. Longest and thickest hairs on antennae, legs and SIPH mostly arising from brown spots or patches. (R IV+V 2.38-2.63 × HT II)        .....Greenidea isensis*

-      SIPH less than 0.4 × BL. Hairs on appendages not arising from brown spots. R IV+V 1.5-2.8 × HT II                                                                                                                              .....10

10   SIPH short and stout, 0.33-0.47 mm long and 2.5-3.3 × their maximum width (e.g. fig. 92D)

.....11

-      SIPH cigar-shaped, 0.31-1.20 mm long and 3.4-7.1 × their maximum width (e.g. figs 92E, F)

.....13

11   Mid-ventral area of abdomen spinulose                                          .....Greenidea sikkimensis*

-      Mid-ventral area of abdomen without spinules                                                                .....12

12   R IV+V 1.6-1.9 × HT II                                                                      .....Greenidea kumaoni*

-      R IV+V 2.1-2.3 × HT II                                                                          .....Greenidea haldari

13   Ventral abdomen smooth, or only locally and weakly spinulose, the spinules much smaller than hair sockets                                                                                                                .....14

-      Ventral abdomen strongly spinulose, each spinule about as long as the diameter of the sockets of the ventral hairs                                                                                                .....15

14   Tibiae dark brown on basal half and pale brown on distal half. Cauda with 5-9 hairs

.....Greenidea kuwanai

-      Tibiae pale brown, dark at apex. Cauda with 8-14 hairs                       .....Greenidea prinicola

15   Tibiae pale brown                                                                                .....Greenidea nipponica

-      Tibiae dark brown                                                                                       .....Greenidea nigra

16   Hind tibia with a series of narrow (stridulatory?) transverse ridges spaced out on basal 0.5-0.9 of  length (e.g. fig. 57D; genus Mollitrichosiphum)                                                          .....17

-      Hind tibia without transverse ridges (but often imbricated distally)                                .....23

17   Hind tibia with over 50 transverse, very narrow ridges extending over about 0.9 of its length. Antenna 5- or 6-segmented. Dorsum pale                            .....Mollitrichosiphum niitakaensis

-      Hind tibia with only 14-30 transverse ridges on basal 0.5-0.6. Antenna 6-segmented. Dorsum pale or dark                                                                                                                       .....18

18   Body elongate. BL more than 2 × maximum width of abdomen                                     .....19

-      Body broader, pear-shaped. BL less than 2 × maximum width of abdomen                   .....21

19   Dorsal abdomen with a central dark patch extending spinopleurally over ABD TERG 2-5. SIPH 0.45-0.57 × BL                                                ..... Mollitrichosiphum nigriabdominalis*

-      Dorsal abdomen without a central dark patch. SIPH 0.56-0.80 × BL                             .....20

20   R IV 7.5-8.0 × longer than R V                                       .....Mollitrichosiphum godavariense*

-      R IV 4.2-5.3 × longer than R V                                           .....Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus

21   R IV+V 2.2-2.6 × HT II                                                      ..... Mollitrichosiphum luchuanum

-      R IV+V 1.4-1.8 × HT II                                                                                                   .....22

22   R IV+V 1.5-1.8 × HT II                                                 .....Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum

-      R IV+V 1.4-1.6 × HT II                                                            ......Mollitrichosiphum glaucae

23   Longest hairs on antennae and dorsum distinctly capitate (fig. 92C)                              .....24

-      Hairs on antennae and dorsum with pointed, blunt, expanded or bifurcate apices, but never capitate                                                                                                                              .....26

24   Body pear-shaped. SIPH about 0.28 × BL. Antennae 5-segmented

.....Allotrichosiphum assamense

-      Body elongate. SIPH more than 0.5 × BL. Antennae 5- or 6-segmented                        .....25

25   R IV+V more than 3 × HT II, with 10-16 accessory hairs

.....Allotrichosiphum cyclobalanopsidis

-      R IV+V less than 2.5 × HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs         .....Allotrichosiphum kashicola

26   Abdominal tergum with numerous spinules densely scattered or in irregular rows over entire surface                                                                                                                               .....27

-      Abdominal tergum at least with medial area devoid of spinules                                      .....33

27   Abdominal tergum with densely scattered spinules which are much longer than their basal diameters (fig. 92H). SIPH only about 0.16-0.19 × BL. R IV+V 2.6-3.2 × HT II

.....Eutrichosiphum davidi

-      Abdominal tergum with small spinules, hardly longer than their basal diameters, in numerous irregular rows (fig. 92I). SIPH 0.23-0.42 × BL. R IV+V 1.5-3.5 × HT II                       .....28

28   Dorsum pale. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 × HT II. SIPH pale at base, black distally, 0.40-0.55 × BL

.....Eutrichosiphum shiicola

-      Dorsum pale or dark. R IV+V 1.8-3.5 × HT II. SIPH uniformly dark and 0.22-0.35 × BL (e.g. fig. 92G)                                                                                                             .....29

29   Antennae 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4. R IV+V 2.6-3.5 × HT II    .....30

-      Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.9. R IV+V 1.8-2.6 × HT II            .....31

30    ANT III of aptera not longer than ANT VI (BASE + PT) and bearing 13-18 hairs, with long hairs only on anterior side                                                              .....Eutrichosiphum dubium

-      ANT III of aptera 1.1-1.5 × ANT VI and bearing 32-53 hairs, with long hairs on both anterior and posterior sides (fig. 92J)                                   .....Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum

31   Dorsal abdominal hairs all have acute apices                           .....Eutrichosiphum arunachali*

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly have blunt or furcate apices                                             .....32

32   Dorsum brown-black, R IV+V 1.8-2.6 × HT II                           .....Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

-      Dorsum mainly pale, sometimes dark at margins. R IV+V 2.2-2.9 × HT II

.....Eutrichosiphum pseudopasaniae

33   R IV+V 1.0-1.5 × HT II. Antennae 5-segmented                                                            .....34

-      R IV+V 1.6-3.8 × HT II. Antennae 5- or 6-segmented                                                    .....35

34   SIPH 0.20-0.25 × BL. R IV+V 1.07-1.35 × HT II. Dorsal abdominal hairs of various lengths, with acute apices, the longest more than 2 × basal diameter of ANT III

.....Eutrichosiphum tapatii*

-      SIPH 0.40-0.45 × BL. R IV+V 1.32-1.48 × HT II. Dorsal abdominal hairs thick with blunt apices, those on anterior tergites less than 2 × basal diameter of ANT III

.....Eutrichosiphum manipurense*

35   SIPH barrel-shaped, only 0.15-0.20 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.2                                 .....36

-      SIPH 0.21-0.57 × BL. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.3                                                                .....37

36   Body elongate, pale. SIPH pale. R IV+V 2.36-2.90 × HT II          .....Eutrichosiphum flavum

-      Body pear-shaped, dark. SIPH black. R IV+V 2.90-3.70× HT II

.....Eutrichosiphum mukerjii*

37   R IV+V 3.0-3.8 × HT II; if about 3.0 then ANT PT/BASE is more than 1.4                   .....38

-      R IV+V 1.6-3.0 × HT II; if about 3.0 then ANT PT/BASE is less than 1.4                     .....40

38   Antennae 5-segmented. SIPH 0.39-0.57 × BL                        .....Eutrichosiphum quercifoliae

-      Antennae 6-segmented. SIPH 0.21-0.28 × BL                                                                 .....39

39   ANT III with 17-19 hairs, mostly more than 2 × basal diameter of segment. ABD TERG 7 with 15-18 hairs                                                                          .....Eutrichosiphum russellae*

-      ANT III with 9-10 hairs, of which only 2-3 are more than 2 × basal diameter of segment. ABD TERG 7 with 10 or fewer hairs                                          .....Eutrichosiphum rameshi*

40   Head at least partially spinulose dorsally                                                                          .....41

-      Head without spinules on dorsal surface                                                                          .....43

41   ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.2                                                      .....Eutrichosiphum raychaudhurii*

-      ANT PT/ BASE 1.0-1.3                                                                                                    .....42

42   ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 × HT II. SIPH 0.44-0.51 × BL. Dorsal abdomen with spinules anteriolaterally                                                           .....Eutrichosiphum jugeshwari*

-      ANT 5- or (more usually) 6-segmented. R IV+V 2.5-3.0 × HT II. SIPH 0.23-0.31 × BL. Dorsal abdomen without spinules                                             .....Eutrichosiphum khasyanum

43   SIPH pale basally and dark apically, 0.37-0.46 × BL. Antennae 5-segmented

.....Eutrichosiphum glabrum*

-      SIPH pale or dark, 0.22-0.38 × BL. Antennae 5- or 6-segmented                                   .....44

44   Dorsal abdomen with a dark brown central patch on ABD TERG 3-5, irregular in outline and not extending to lateral regions. SIPH 0.32-0.36 × BL        .....Eutrichosiphum querciphaga*

-      Dorsal abdomen without a dark central patch; if dark then the pigmentation is vaguely defined and extends into lateral regions. SIPH 0.22-0.38 × BL                                      .....45

45   Antennae almost always 6-segmented. Dorsal abdomen usually with vaguely defined dark pleuro-lateral pigmentation and paler spinal region                  .....Eutrichosiphum tattakanum

-      Antennae 5-segmented. Dorsal abdomen either more uniformly pale brown, or with a clearly defined oval pale central area encircled by a broad, brown-black margin                        .....46

46   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive, clearly defined oval pale central area encircled by a broad, brown-black margin. SIPH uniformly black                   ..... Eutrichosiphum nasensis*

-      Dorsal abdomen more uniformly pigmented, pale brown. SIPH pale or dark                  .....47

47   SIPH dark, especially towards apices. Dorsal hairs all with acute, blunt or slightly expanded apices, none of them furcate. R IV+V 0.19-0.23 mm long               ..... Eutrichosiphum pyri*

-      SIPH pale. Dorsal hairs include some with furcate apices. R IV+V 0.23-0.30 mm long

.....Eutrichosiphum assamense


KEY D - Lachninae on oaks
(apterous viviparae except where otherwise stated)

 

1     Rostrum much longer than body                                                                                         .....2

-      Rostrum shorter than body                                                                                                 .....5

2     ABD TERG 1-7 all with large paired dark spinal patches, often consisting of clusters of small sclerites                                                                                                                      .....3

-      ABD TERG 3-5 usually without paired dark spinal patches, and ABD TERG 1, 2 and/or 6 either without patches of with small clusters of sclerites                                                    .....4

3     Total antennal length 0.37 × BL or less.  HT II less than 2.85 × longer than HT I, and less than 1.31 × longer than second segment of mid tarsus            …..Stomaphis wojciechowskii*

-      Total antennal length more than 0.37 × BL.  HT II more than 2.85 × longer than HT I, and more than 1.31 × longer than second segment of mid tarsus                 …..Stomaphis quercus

4     ABD TERG 1-7 all without spinal sclerites. HT II elongate, more than 1.55 × longer than second segment of mid tarsus. ANT VI (incl. PT) about as long as ANT V

.....Stomaphis bratislavensis

-      At least ABD TERG 7 with paired spinal patches, which are often present at least as small clusters of sclerites on some other tergites. HT II less than 1.45 × longer than second segment of mid tarsus. ANT VI distinctly longer than ANT V                          .....Stomaphis japonica

5     BL more than 5 mm. Forewings of alata not maculate                                                       .....6

-      BL almost always less than 5 mm. Forewings of alata (if known) maculate                      .....8

6     Forewing of alata with a normal, blunt pterostigma                       .....Lachnus quercihabitans

-      Forewing of alata with an elongate pterostigma that curves around tip of wing               .....7

7     HT II 1.8-2.3 × HT I                                                                             .....Longistigma caryae

-      HT II about 2.6 × HT I                                                                .....Longistigma xizangensis*

8     SIPH pores on very flat cones, hardly raised above level of dorsum, with a broad, reticulated flange and little or no pigmentation (fig. 93A). Appendages and entire body, dorsally as well as ventrally, clothed in a dense pile of hairs; those on ABD TERG 1-5 with bases less than 20µm apart                                                                                           .....Lachnus crassicornis

-      SIPH pores on conical bases that are usually large, pigmented and clearly demarcated, but sometimes small and pale. Hairs numerous, but not forming a dense pile; hair bases more than 20µm apart, at least on dorsum                                                                                           .....9

9     R IV+V 1.15-1.43 × HT II. Mesosternum with a pair of prominent pigmented mammariform processes                                                                                                 .....Lachnus takahashii

-      R IV+V 0.65-1.29 × HT II (if more than 1.15 × then mesosternum is without mammariform processes)                                                                                                                          .....10

10   R IV+V 0.65-0.82 × HT II, but if 0.78-0.82 × HT II then R IV+V is less than 0.2 mm long                                                                                                                                          .....11

-      R IV+V 0.78-1.29 × HT II; if less than 0.85 × HT II then R IV+V is more than 0.2 mm long

       .....12

11   Maximal basal diameter of SIPH cone 0.16-0.24 mm. ANT PT/BASE a little less than 0.5. R IV+V 0.74-0.85 × HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 all shorter than basal diameter of ANT III. Dorsal abdomen with a pale conical median process                   .....Lachnus acutihirsutus

-      Maximal basal diameter of SIPH cone 0.3-0.7 mm. ANT/PT BASE 0.5 or more. R IV+V 0.65-0.70 × HT II. Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 more than 1.5 × basal diameter of ANT III. Dorsal abdomen without a conical process                  .....Lachnus allegheniensis

12   Hind tibia with some of more distal hairs on ventral side very long and fine-pointed, at least 2-3 × longer than neighbouring short hairs (as in fig. 93D)                                                 .....13

-      Hind tibia with hairs on ventral side often longer and finer distally, but not with some hairs 

       2-3 × longer than others                                                                                                    .....15

13   Dorsal body hairs short (less than 30 µm), with blunt or capitate apices, arising from large, ring-like bases                                                                                    .....Lachnus pseudonudus

-      Dorsal body hairs long and fine-pointed (more than 35 µm), with pointed apices          .....14

14   Hind tibiae with proximal half mainly dark except at base, and distal part somewhat paler except near apex. ANT VI  0.14-0.19 mm long (BASE 0.103-0.138 mm, PT 0.035-0.058 mm). Mesosternal processes absent                                                                     .....Lachnus pallipes

-      Hind tibiae with basal half paler and distal part uniformly dark brown. ANT VI 0.21-0.25 mm long (BASE 0.14-0.17 mm, PT 0.07-0.08 mm). Mesosternum with a pair of small, flat processes                                                                                                  .....Lachnus chosoni*

15   SIPH cones small and pale (basal diameter 0.09-0.13 mm). Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 all short and blunt, maximally about 10 µm                                                           .....Lachnus tuatayae

-      SIPH cones usually large (basal diameter more than 0.3 mm) and well-pigmented. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 variable, but the longest always more than 20 µm                                .....16

16   Abdomen bearing a large rounded tubercle on ABD TERG 4, its base about as broad as that of SIPH cones (and another much smaller and flatter tubercle on ABD TERG 5)

…..Lachnus sorini

-      Abdomen without a large tubercle on ABD TERG 4                                                     …..17

17   ANT PT/BASE (0.35-)0.45-0.60 (rarely less than 0.45). Mesosternal processes mammariform (fig. 93B)                                                                                                 .....Lachnus tropicalis

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.19-0.45(-0.50) (rarely more than 0.45). Mesosternal processes papilliform or horn-like (fig. 93C)                                                                                                       .....18

18   ANT PT shorter than diameter of primary rhinarium on VI (fig. 93E). Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 mostly thick, blunt and less than 30 µm long                                       .....Lachnus swirskii

-      ANT PT longer than diameter of primary rhinarium on VI (fig. 93F). Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 variable but mostly pointed, and mostly more than 30 µm long

.....Lachnus roboris (or iliciphilus)

KEY E - Calaphidinae on oaks (alate viviparae only)

  Aphids of the subfamily Calaphidinae which exist only as alatae in their parthenogenetic phase comprise mainly two large genera, Tuberculatus and Myzocallis. Within both these genera there are some distinct subgeneric groupings, which are referred to in the key, although when the world fauna is considered there are several species in each case that do not fit clearly into these groups and are placed in monotypic subgenera. The key has been extensively revised since Blackman & Eastop (1994) following the work of Quednau (1999).

1     Dorsal abdomen with one or more tergites bearing paired or bifurcate hair-bearing spinal processes, which may be conical or finger-like, or merely low hair-bearing bosses which in a few species are only slightly raised above surface. Marginal hairs also often on processes. Forewings not maculate, except in one species that has dark marginal processes (genus Tuberculatus)                                                                                                                      .....2

-      Dorsal abdomen with spinal hairs not raised above surface (except in two species which have maculate forewings, and marginal processes absent or weakly developed)                     .....50

2        Dorsal abdomen with one large black bifurcate spinal process on ABD TERG 3 (fig. 94A)

.....Tuberculatus querceus

-      Dorsal abdomen with more than one pair of spinal processes, usually separated basally

.....3

3     Tibiae with a conspicuous jet black spot at their bases (i.e. on their “knees”) (subgenus Pacificallis)                                                                                                                          .....4

-      Tibiae pale or variably pigmented but without a well-defined jet black basal spot          .....11

4     Forewing with Cu1b thickly bordered with fuscous, the width of this vein plus borders at its halfway point being 0.05-0.07 mm                                                     .....Tuberculatus maureri

-      Forewing with the Cu1b itself often thicker and darker than other veins but not bordered and not more than 0.035 mm wide at its halfway point                                                            .....5

   Spinal hairs on pronotum less than 10µm long. Spinal processes absent from thorax or at most developed as tubercular hair-bases shorter than their basal diameters

.....Tuberculatus passalus

    Spinal hairs on pronotum more than 10µm long. Spinal processes developed on pronotum and mesonotum, with at least those on mesonotum as long as their basal diameters and often finger-like                                                                                                                            .....6

6     Pronotum with only 1 evident (posterior) pair of spinal processes (although the anterior prothoracic spinal hairs may have slightly raised bases)                                                     .....7

-      Pronotum with 2 pairs of evident spinal processes, both pairs longer than their basal diameters                                                                                                                             .....9

7     Head with 6-13 dorsal hairs between the eyes. Pronotum with anterior marginal hairs. Embryos with marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 duplicated

.....Tuberculatus californicus

-      Head with 4 dorsal hairs between eyes. Prothorax with no anterior marginal hairs. Embryos with marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 single                                                                   .....8

8     ANT BASE VI with 1 hair. In embryos and immatures most of the dorsal hairs are strongly capitate, and usually not on sclerites                                             ......Tuberculatus columbiae

    ANT BASE VI with 2 hairs. In embryos and immatures most of their dorsal hairs are rod- or spear-shaped with blunt or pointed apices, and those of the immatures usually arise from pigmented sclerites                                                                     .....Tuberculatus chrysolepidis

9     Antennae often longer than body. ANT III with 6-14 secondary rhinaria. ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal processes all of similar size                                                  .....Tuberculatus kiowanicus

-      Antennae 0.7-0.9 × BL. ANT III with 2-7 (-9) secondary rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 2 with spinal processes about twice as tall as those on more posterior tergites                            .....10

10   R IV+V 0.12-0.13 mm with usually 2 pairs of lateral accessory hairs as well as some ventral hairs. Front of head usually with 3 pairs of hairs, and these are often slightly but distinctly capitate                                                                                            .....Tuberculatus quercifolii

-      R IV+V 0.095-0.11 mm with 1 pair of lateral accessory hairs as well as some ventral ones. Head with 2 pairs of hairs that are blunt but not capitate                  .....Tuberculatus pallidus

11   Immatures with spiculate dorsal hairs (fig. 94B; spicules also discernible on the longest dorsal hairs of embryos within adult alata). First tarsal segments all with 5 ventral hairs (and often 2 dorsal ones) (subgenus Toltecallis)                                                                                    .....12

-      Dorsal hairs of immatures and embryos without spicules. First tarsal segments with 5-7 ventral hairs                                                                                                                        ....15

12   First tarsal segments without dorsal hairs. Spinal and marginal processes very low, hardly raised above dorsal surface                                                          …..Tuberculatus leptosiphon

-      First tarsal segments each with a pair of dorsal hairs. Spinal and/or marginal tubercles variably developed, tubercular to finger-like                                                                                 …..13

13   ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5, and PT more than 1.6 × R IV+V. ANT II pigmented. (ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal processes)                                                   .....Tuberculatus mexicanus

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1.3, and PT less than 1.4 × R IV+V. ANT II pale. (ABD TERG 1-2 or 1-4 with spinal processes)                                                                                             .....14

14   R IV+V 0.09-0.10 mm. ABD TERG 1-2 (and also mesosternum) with spinal processes; height of those on mesosternum is 0.3-0.5 × HT II                  .....Tuberculatus garciamartelli

-      R IV+V 0.11-0.16 mm. Mesosternum, ABD TERG 1-4, and often 6 also, with spinal processes; those on mesosternum 0.7-1.1 × HT II                         .....Tuberculatus spiculatus*

15   Frontal hairs mostly shorter than, and hairs on ANT III less than 0.5×, basal diameter of ANT III (subgenus Tuberculoides)                                                                                   .....16

-      Frontal hairs usually 2 or more × basal diameter of ANT III, and hairs on ANT III more than 0.5× basal diameter of ANT III (and sometimes much longer)                                        .....26

16   ABD TERG 1-4 each with a pair of pale spinal processes (e.g. fig. 94C; although those on 4 may be small)                                                                                                                    .....17

-      Only ABD TERG 1-3 with spinal processes (fig. 94D)                                                   .....20

17   R IV+V 0.13-0.19 mm, 1.15-1.50 × HT II, with 3 pairs of lateral accessory hairs (as well as 3-6 ventral ones)                                                                      .....Tuberculatus remaudierei

-      R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm, 0.80-1.05 × HT II, with 2 pairs of lateral accessory hairs (and 3-5 ventral ones)                                                                                                                      .....18

18   Spinal hairs of embryos (seen through abdominal cuticle of alate vivipara) all similar in length to the long marginal hairs on the same tergites (fig. 95A)                   .....Tuberculatus eggleri

-      Spinal hairs on at least ABD TERG 2-3 of embryos only half as long as marginal hairs on same segments or shorter                                                                                                  .....19

19   Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 all about 5-8 µm long, thin, with blunt apices; marginal hairs 15-45 µm long, with those on at least ABD TERG 2-3 not overlapping those of next tergite (fig.95B)                                                                          .....Tuberculatus borealis

-      Embryos with distinctly capitate spinal hairs, those on ABD TERG 1 being 6-10 µm long, increasing in size on more posterior tergites to 26-75 µm on ABD TERG 6; marginal hairs 26-75 µm long, all except those on ABD TERG 1 overlapping those on next tergite (fig. 95C)

       .....Tuberculatus eggleri (early season form)

20   Spinal hairs of embryos mostly very long and overlapping between segments               ......21

-      Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 of embryos all very short (less than 5 µm)                   ......23

21   ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.8. R IV+V 1.20-1.35 × HT II and bearing 12-15 accessory hairs

.....Tuberculatus etruscus

    ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.8. R IV+V 0.90-1.15 × HT II and bearing 7-10 accessory hairs   .....22

22   BL 1.3-2.3 mm. ANT PT/BASE 1.42-1.78                                          .....Tuberculatus inferus

    BL 2.0-3.1 mm. ANT PT/BASE 0.88-1.39                                      .....Tuberculatus maximus

23   SIPH almost completely pale. ANT PT/BASE 0.85-0.95. ANT III usually with dusky section about one third from base (use hand lens)                              .....Tuberculatus albosiphonatus

-      SIPH dark on apical third or more. ANT PT/BASE 0.87-1.53, but if less than 0.95 then ANT III is pale except for black distal section                                                                 .....24

24   ANT PT/BASE 0.87-1.14. ANT III pale except for black distal section. ABD TERG 2-5 of embryos with marginal hairs 8-13 µm long, like the spinal hairs on same segments; usually only ABD TERG 8 with long capitate hairs (fig. 95D)                   .....Tuberculatus annulatus

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.95-1.53, but if less than 1.14 then ANT III usually has a dusky section around  the most distal secondary rhinarium. Embryos with marginal hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 always much longer than spinal hairs on those segments, and at least ABD TERG 7 as well as 8 with long  capitate hairs (e.g. fig. 95E)                                                                            …..25

25   ANT PT/BASE 0.95-1.13. ANT III usually with a dusky central section. SIPH a little shorter than R IV+V                                                                                    .....Tuberculatus moerickei

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.14-1.53. ANT III pale except for black distal section. SIPH a little longer than R IV+V                                                                                    .....Tuberculatus neglectus

26   Thorax of mounted specimens pale (pronotum sometimes marginally dark, or with dark scutellum). Mesonotum without spinal processes                                                             .....27

-      At least mesothorax usually dark brown dorsally and/or ventrally or with a dark brown dorsal patch, but if pale then mesonotum has a pair of long spinal processes                             .....38

27   Pronotum without spinal processes, or rarely with the posterior spinal hairs on slightly raised bases. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1 and 2 not more than 2 × longer than their basal widths                                                                                                                              …..28

-      Pronotum usually with at least one pair of spinal processes; if with none, then processes on ABD TERG 1-2 are 2.5-3.5 × longer than their basal widths                                          .....29

28   Spinal processes at least on ABD TERG 3 much longer than their basal widths; those on ABD TERG 3 usually have dark apices. Forewing veins ending in dark triangles. Femora with dark subapical spots. SIPH dark distally     …..Tuberculatus (Tuberculoides) pallescens

-      Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3 low, hardly longer than their basal widths, and usually pale. Forewing veins not ending in dark triangles. SIPH pale

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) kashiwae

29   Pronotum only with a single (posterior) pair of (sometimes very small) spinal processes. Hairs on ANT III not deeply pigmented. Base of ANT VI with 1 hair                                    .....30

-      Pronotum with 2 pairs of spinal processes. Longest 1-3 hairs on ANT III often capitate and markedly pigmented, the sockets around the hair-bases also being pigmented. Similar hairs often present on ANT I and II and on front of head. Base of ANT VI with 1-2 hairs   .....36

30   Head with 3 pairs of long capitate dorsal hairs anterior to the lateral ocelli

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) querciformosanus

-      Front of head with only 2 pairs of long capitate hairs anterior to the lateral ocelli, plus one much shorter pair                                                                                                               .....31

31   Pterostigma with a dark inner margin. One or more of spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3 entirely black or dark, and often with pigment extending between bases. SIPH with at least distal half black. Femora with distal brown mottling or a subapical dark smudge          …..32

-      Pterostigma pale or with weakly pigmented inner margin. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3 pale or only dusky on distal part. SIPH pale or dark only on distal third or less. Femora without a subapical dark smudge                                                                                     …..33

32   Spinal processes on ABD TERG 3 wholly pigmented and often with pigment extending between their bases, but those on ABD TERG 1 and 2 are paler. Marginal abdominal processes each with 2-3 hairs                                      .....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) konaracola

-      Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3 all dark, or those on ABD TERG 1 darkest. Marginal abdominal processes each with 3-4 (-5) hairs

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) fuscotuberculatus

33   Embryos with all spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-6 short, less than half of length of marginal hairs on same segments (only about 0.2 × longer than marginal hairs in paranaracola s. str.; 0.3-0.5 × longer with capitate apices in ssp. hemitrichus)

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) paranaracola

-      Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-6 long, comparable in length to marginal hairs on same segments                                                                                                                   .....34

34   Hairs on inner side of ANT III (opposite rhinaria) short, thin and cylindrical or club-shaped, only up to about 0.6 × basal diameter of segment, and not on raised bases.  (ANT III with 3-6  rhinaria, confined to basal 0.3-0.5 of segment even in spring populations. (Forewing with Cu1a , Cu1b and media all of similar thickness and degree of  pigmentation)

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) higuchii

-      Hairs on inner side of ANT III capitate, 0.75-1.50 × basal diameter of segment, with raised bases                                                                                                                                  .....35

35   R IV+V shorter than (c. 0.8 ×) HT II. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.75-1.2 × basal diameter of segment. ANT III in spring populations with 4-10 secondary rhinaria extending over 0.5-0.9 of segment, only in midsummer populations confined to basal 0.3 of segment and 2-4 in number. Cu1a  and especially Cu1b of forewing thicker and darker than distal branches of media (use hand lens)                                                     .....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) yokoyamai

-      R IV+V longer than (1.1-1.2) × HT II. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.3-1.7 × basal diameter of segment. ANT III with 4-7  rhinaria restricted to basal 0.5 of segment even in spring populations. Cu1a , Cu1b and media of forewing all of similar thickness and pigmentation

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) paiki

36   Forewing veins including media with diffuse fuscous bordering over whole length. Base of ANT VI with 1 hair. Spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 1-3 pigmented and with dark sclerites between their bases                                        ….. Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) nervatus

-      Forewing veins unbordered except sometimes for Cu1b and basal part of Cu1a. Base of ANT VI usually with 2 hairs. Only spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 3 pigmented                  …..37

37   Front of head, ANT I-III and dorsal thorax all with strongly capitate hairs. Dorsal hairs on basal half of hind tibia rather stiff, about 1.0-1.3 × diameter of tibia, with blunt or slightly capitate hairs. Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-6 very thickly capitate

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) capitatus

-      Front of head, ANT I-III and dorsal thorax with acute, blunt and/or slightly capitate hairs. Dorsal hairs on basal half of hind tibia thin with very fine apices, up to 2 × diameter of tibia. Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-6 blunt or only slightly capitate

.....Tuberculatus (Orientuberculoides) fangi

38   Longest hair on ANT II 2 or more × longer than longest hair on ANT III. Secondary rhinaria with ciliate rims. Pronotum without any spinal processes                                                 .....39

-      Longest hair on ANT II usually similar in length to or shorter than longest hair on ANT III, or not more than 1.5 × longer. Secondary rhinaria with or without ciliation. Pronotum with or without spinal processes                                                                                                    .....40

39   Forewings maculate. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-4 pigmented, and shorter, pale spinal processes also present on more posterior tergites. SIPH pale or only dark basally

.....Tuberculatus maculipennis

-      Forewings not maculate. Abdomen with 2 pairs of dark spinal processes (very long and basally joined on ABD TERG 3). SIPH wholly dark                       .....Tuberculatus cornutus

40   Forewings membrane densely covered with scales and often with scattered hairs. Head and thorax dark or mottled with pigment                                                                                .....41

-      Forewings not or only weakly scaly and without hairs on wing membrane. Head and thorax mainly pale, sometimes darker on margins                                                                       ......45

41   Membrane of forewing without hairs. Head uniformly dark sclerotic. Mesonotum with reticulate sculpturing. Thorax without spinal processes. ABD TERG 1-3 with low wart-like spinal processes                                                                                                                …..42

-      Membrane of forewing with scattered hairs. Head mottled with dark pigment. Mesonotum smooth or weakly nodulose. Pronotum and sometimes also mesonotum with wart-like or finger-like processes. Spinal processes on at least ABD TERG 2 and 3 well-developed, longer than their basal widths                                                                                          …..43

42   Forewings with veins narrowly bordered and ending in dark triangles. Pterostigma with dark inner border and a small dark spot at base. Pronotum with 4-5 posterior spinal hairs

…..Tuberculatus (Acanthocallis) nigrosiphonaceus*

-      Forewings with at least media and Cu1a  unbordered and without dark triangles at ends of veins. Pterostigma weakly pigmented without dark spot at base. Pronotum with 2-3 posterior spinal hairs                                                           …..Tuberculatus (Acanthocallis) acuminatus

43   Forewings with Cu1a  and Cu1b and unbranched base of media fuscous-bordered, but distal branches of media unbordered. Hairs on inner side of ANT III stiff and with blunt or capitate apices. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3 short; those on 3 not much longer than their basal diameters                                                        .....Tuberculatus (Acanthocallis) grisipunctatus*

-      All forewing veins evenly bordered with fuscous over their entire length. Hairs on inner side of ANT III long, wavy and finely pointed. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 1-3, especially those on 3, much larger and darker than those on 4-5                                     …..44

44   R IV+V longer than HT II. ANT I with (4-)6-10 hairs. ANT III with 4-9 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI (including PT) 0.7-1.1 × ANT IV. Caudal knob oval, longer than wide

       .....Tuberculatus (Acanthocallis) macrotuberculatus

-      R IV+V shorter than HT II. ANT I with 3-5 hairs. ANT III with 3-6 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI (including PT) 1.1-1.6 × ANT IV. Caudal knob rounded, about as long as wide

….. Tuberculatus (Acanthocallis) quercicola

45   Pronotum with 2 pairs of (pale) spinal processes                                                              .....46

-      Pronotum without spinal processes                                                                                   .....49

46   Forewings with all veins evenly fuscous-bordered. First tarsal segments with 5 ventral hairs

…..Tuberculatus (Acanthotuberculatus) radisectuae

-      Forewings with diffuse bordering at bases of veins, but distal parts at least of media and Cu1a  unbordered. First tarsal segments usually with 6 ventral hairs                                …..47

47   Frontal hairs strongly capitate. Dorsal hairs on femora and on basal half of hind tibia all stiff and distinctly capitate                                  .....Tuberculatus (Acanthotuberculatus) japonicus

-      Frontal hairs with finely pointed, acute or rounded apices, sometimes slightly capitate. Dorsal hairs on femora pointed, and many of those on basal half of hind tibia fine and pointed (a few may be blunt or slightly capitate)                                                                                      .....48

48   Frontal hairs and those on dorsal side of tibiae with finely pointed apices. Longest hairs on inner side of ANT III pointed, longer than those on ANT I and II

….. Tuberculatus (Acanthotuberculatus) pilosulus*

-      Frontal hairs with blunt or slightly capitate apices, and on dorsal side of tibiae with acute apices. Longest hairs on inner side of ANT III usually not longer than those on ANT I and II

…..Tuberculatus (Acanthotuberculatus) indicus

49   Forewing veins with broad fuscous borders. Hind tibia mainly pale. ANT III with 12-24 secondary rhinaria. Front of head slightly convex

.....Tuberculatus (Nippotuberculatus) pilosus

-      Forewing veins not bordered. Hind legs entirely black, in sharp contrast to other legs. ANT III with 3-8 secondary rhinaria. Front of head between antennae concave

.....Tuberculatus (Arakawana) stigmatus

50   ABD TERG 1-6 each with only 1 pair of spinal hairs, pleural hairs being absent. (Mesonotal lobes smooth, wings hyaline, tibiae not marked with black)                …..Apulicallis trojanae

-      ABD TERG 1-6 each with 2 or more pairs of spinal hairs, often in paired clusters, and pleural hairs present or absent; if with only a single pair on some tergites then mesonotum is nodulose and forewings are maculate or have dark triangles at ends of veins                …..51 

51   Head and prothorax with a median longitudinal pale stripe extending backward from the median ocellus between bands of pigment. Pronotum with anterior and posterior spinal and marginal clusters of small hairs. Abdomen with paired dark spinal sclerites that are fused posteriorly across midline, on ABD TERG 1-7 (fig. 96A) or on 1-2 only. ANT PT/BASE 0.50-0.95 (genus Hoplocallis)                                                                                           .....52

-      Head and prothorax pale or variously pigmented but never with a pale median longitudinal stripe. Pronotal hairs not in clusters, and anteriolateral ones often absent. Abdomen either without sclerites or with paired sclerites not usually fused across the midline, at least on anterior tergites. ANT PT/BASE 0.95-3.50 (genus Myzocallis)                                       .....55

52   R IV+V stiletto-shaped, more than 1.7 × HT II. Abdomen with dark sclerites only on ABD TERG 1 and 2, and with segmental clusters of pleural hairs        .....Hoplocallis microsetosus

-      R IV+V less than 1.6 × HT II. Abdomen usually with dark sclerites on ABD TERG 1-7 (fused across midline at least on 1-5). ABD TERG 1-5 without pleural hairs                 .....53

53   SIPH small, c.0.04 mm long, 0.2-0.3 × R IV+V and about 0.5 × as long as knob of cauda. R IV+V stiletto-shaped, 1.30-1.65 × HT II                                      .....Hoplocallis microsiphon

-      SIPH 0.07-0.10 mm long, 0.50-0.85 × R IV+V, about as long as knob of cauda. R IV+V obtuse, 1.00-1.55 × HT II                                                                                                 .....54

54   R IV+V 1.25-1.55 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.8. ANT III with 2-4 secondary rhinaria

.....Hoplocallis picta

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.2 × HT II. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-0.95. ANT III with 3-5 secondary rhinaria

.....Hoplocallis ruperti

55   Forewings with pigmentation thickly bordering all veins, or extending between veins (sometimes not so evident in spring populations where it may be reduced to triangles at ends of veins, but in such cases the mesonotal lobes are always nodulose)                              .....56

-      Forewings without pigmentation along or between veins, except along costal margin, and sometimes RS and/or Cu1b (sometimes with narrow bordering of other veins or with veins ending in dark triangles, but then the mesonotal lobes are smooth)                                 .....60

56   SIPH dark, on large dark sclerites, with or without spicules                                            .....57

-      SIPH pale, with spiculose ornamentation                                                                         .....59

57   SIPH (and basal sclerite) smooth. Mesonotal lobes smooth. Forewings with RS almost indiscernible. Head and pronotum very dark with a very narrow pale medial stripe

.....Myzocallis (Californicallis) agrifolicola

-      SIPH (and basal sclerites) with rows of spicules. Mesonotal lobes nodulose. Forewings with RS distinct. Head and pronotum if dark then without a medial stripe                             .....58

58   ANT III with 4-12 rhinaria distributed over most of its length. HT I with 4-5 ventral hairs.  Posterior margin of pronotum denticulate in middle. Embryo with spinal and marginal hairs of ABD TERG 1 about half as long as those on other segments

…..Myzocallis (Neomyzocallis) discolor

-      ANT III with 3-6 rhinaria confined to basal 0.4 of its length. HT I with 6 (rarely 5, 7 or 8) ventral hairs. Posterior margin of pronotum not denticulate in middle. Embryo with spinal and marginal hairs of ABD TERG 1 not much shorter than those on other segments

…..Myzocallis (Neomyzocallis) pseudodiscolor

59   ABD TERG 1 and 2 with paired spinal processes, low (c. 0.75 × basal width) in spring populations, but in summer they are conical or finger-like, sometimes pigmented, with those on ABD TERG 1 largest (up to 0.14 mm), usually with a single apical hair. Clypeus produced anteriorly                                                                …..Myzocallis (Neomyzocallis) tuberculata

-      ABD TERG 1 and 2 with or without small paired wart-like spinal processes not more than 0.5 × their basal widths. Clypeus normal                            …..Myzocallis (Neomyzocallis) punctata

60   Head and pronotum with a distinct dark, median longitudinal stripe (fig. 35E)

.....Myzocallis (Agrioaphis) castanicola

-      Head and pronotum variously pigmented but not with a dark median stripe                  .....61

61   Costal margin of forewing with a usually continuous band of pigment extending beyond pterostigma to tip of wing (fig. 96D). Thorax rather pale except that the lateral margins of the pronotum, have conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes, continuing on the mesonotum to the base of the forewing. (Spring generations can however almost entirely lack pigmentation, except for dusky patches at tips of RS  and apical branch of media) (subgenus Lineomyzocallis)                                                                                                                .....62

-      Costal margin of forewing without a continuous line of pigment. Thorax variously pigmented but without contrasting dark marginal stripes                                                                   .....79

62   Hairs on ANT III finely pointed, maximally 30-40 μm long, up to 2 × basal diameter of segment                                                                      .....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) spinosa

-      Hairs on ANT III with acute, blunt or slightly capitate apices, 10-25 μm long, rarely longer than basal diameter of segment                                                                                         .....63

63   ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.5, with ANT BASE VI measuring less than 0.15 mm. Immatures with long, pointed dorsal hairs                                             .....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) elliotti

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-3.5, with ANT BASE VI more than 0.16 mm. Immatures with at least some of dorsal hairs capitate                                                                                             .....64

64   Fore tibiae very dark or black, usually for most of their lengths, distinctly darker than and usually contrasting with mid and hind tibiae, although often paler at base (and sometimes only very dark distally in spring populations). Antennae longer or shorter than body (distinctly longer than body in the species with least contrast between fore tibiae and mid/hind tibiae)                                                                                                                 .....65

-      All tibiae similarly pigmented. Antennae not longer than body                                       .....72

65   Antennae distinctly longer than body, with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.5. Mid and hind tibiae often almost as dark as fore tibiae                                 .....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) longiunguis

-      Antennae not distinctly longer than body, ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.8. Mid and hind tibiae much paler than fore tibiae                                                                                                         .....66

66   Fore femur with pigment dorsally and ventrally, at least on distal 0.3-0.5

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) exultans

-      Fore femur unpigmented except sometimes at apex                                                         .....67

67   R IV+V 0.95-1.35 × HT II                                                                                              …..68

-      R IV+V 0.62-0.92 × HT II                                                                                              …..70

68   HT I with 3 ventral hairs. Knob of cauda with a short rounded dorsal process. Pronotum with (2-) 3-5 posterio-lateral hairs on each side. ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.6

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) multisetis

-      HT I with 4-5 ventral hairs. Knob of cauda without a dorsal process. Pronotum usually with 2 posterio-lateral hairs on each side. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.8                                              .....69

69   ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.8. R IV+V 0.08-0.11 mm long. Summer populations often have very little pronotal marginal pigment, but dark marginal processes on ABD TERG 3 and 4

….. Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) longirostris s. str.

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.6. R IV+V 0.12-0.14 mm long. Marginal processes on ABD TERG 3 and 4 pale                             ….. Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) longirostris ssp. tepehuanensis

70   ABD TERG 2-4 with marginal processes black. Immature alatae with dark spinal and marginal sclerites                                                             ….. Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) atropunctata

-      ABD TERG 2-4 with marginal processes unpigmented (except in some late-season alatae). Immature alatae usually without dark sclerotisation                                                        …..71

71   Apices of fore femora pale. Immature alatae with each of ABD TERG 1-5 having 1-2 pairs of spinal hairs and 1 pair of pleural hairs, in spring as well as summer populations; the spinal hairs being mostly shorter than the distances between their bases. Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 short, their ends not touching

…..Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis)walshii

-      Apices of fore femora sometimes with some pigment. Immature alatae with each of ABD TERG 1-5 having 2-5 pairs of spinal hairs, and usually more than 1 pair of pleural hairs (more in spring populations); the spinal hairs being mostly shorter than the distances between their bases.. Embryos with spinal hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 longer, their ends mostly touching or overlapping                                                         …..Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) ephemerata

72   Pronotum with 1 marginal hair on each side and without anterior pleural hairs. Antennae as long as or longer than body. Femora pale or only dark at apices                                      .....73

-      Pronotum with 2 (or 3) marginal hairs on each side and with 2 (rarely 1 on one side) anterior pleural hairs. Antennae shorter than body. Hind femora pigmented over distal 0.3 or more of length                                                                                                                                .....75

73   ANT IV and V uniformly dark. Immature alatae with 2 dorsal longitudinal rows of dark spots

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) frisoni

-      ANT IV and V pale basally shading to dark distally. Immature alatae with (ssp. iturbide) or without dorsal pigmentation                                                                                             .....74

74   Head with a conspicuous black spot immediately posterior to eye. ANT III with small hairs on inner side (opposite rhinaria) capitate. Immature alatae with dorsal longitudinal rows of dark spots                                                      …..Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) pepperi ssp. iturbide

-      Head spot behind eye absent or indistinct. ANT III with small hairs on inner side pointed. Immature alatae without dorsal pigmentation

…..Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) pepperi s. str.

75   Hind femora with dark pigmentation only on about distal 0.3 of length                         .....76

-      Hind femur with dark pigmentation over at least half of length                                      .....77

76   ANT III-VI pale except at apices of segments. Lobes of anal plate longer than their basal width, and cauda with an elongate "neck" (fig. 96C)

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) granovskyi

-      ANT III-VI dark except at base of III.  Cauda and anal plate normal for genus, i.e. lobes of anal plate shorter than their basal width, and constricted part of cauda not elongated

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) durangoensis

77   Prothoracic dark marginal stripes 0.16-0.18 mm wide, with pale area between them longer than wide. ANT I and II often dark. ANT III-V usually pale except apically. Immature alatae with 5 pairs of large contrasting black dorsal patches

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) bella

-      Prothoracic dark marginal stripes 0.09-0.14 mm wide, with pale area between them at least as wide as long (e.g. fig. 96E). ANT I and II are usually pale, never darker than base of III. ANT III-V either pale or dark. Immature alatae with dorsal pigmentation variable or absent

…..78

78   ANT I and II pale or dusky, and ANT III-VI usually blackish throughout, sometimes paler at base of III. HT I with 4 (-5) ventral hairs. Immature alatae (and oviparae) without a dark spot adjacent to posterior margin of eye, even in individuals with dark dorsal sclerites

.....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) melanocera

-      ANT I and II always pale, ANT III-VI pale or slightly dusky with only apices of III-V blackish. HT I with 5 (-6) ventral hairs. Immature alatae ( and oviparae) with a small dark spot adjacent to posterior margin of eye                                      ….. Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) neoborealis

79   PT 1.5 or more × ANT III; ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0. ANT III with 1-3 (usually 2) secondary rhinaria near base                                                       .....Myzocallis (Paramyzocallis) tenochca

-      PT shorter than ANT III; ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.5. ANT III with 2-12 (rarely 2) secondary rhinaria                                                                                                                              .....80

80   Radial sector dark, with a black spot at base

..... Myzocallis (Neomyzocallis) punctata (pale form)

    Radial sector very pale, especially at base                                                                        .....81

81   Pterostigma of normal length, i.e. its length measured from proximal end of black patch is 3.8-4.7 × its maximum width (fig. 96H). Primary rhinarium on ANT VI similar in size to that on V. Dorsal abdomen with paired spinal sclerites variably developed but with hairs arising from them rarely exceeding 40 μm in length                                                                             .....82

-      Pterostigma short, trapezoid, its length 2.5-3.8 × its maximum width (fig. 96I; subgenus Pasekia). ABD TERG 1-7 usually with a well-developed series of spinal sclerites, that often bear hairs 50-60 μm long, similar to those of immature stages                                         .....84

82   R IV+V stiletto-shaped, 0.15-0.22 mm long, 1.6-2.0 × HT II         .....Myzocallis occidentalis

-      R IV+V 0.10-0.16 mm long, 0.8-1.5 × HT II                                                                   .....83

83   R IV+V 1.2-1.5 × HT II, with 4-7 accessory hairs                             .....Myzocallis schreiberi

     R IV+V 0.84-1.25 × HT II (usually less than 1.2 in summer populations), with 4-12 accessory hairs                                                                                                        .....Myzocallis boerneri

84   ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. (Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 oval, with longest hairs 28-50 µm long, having blunt or slightly capitate apices; fig. 96G)

.....Myzocallis (Pasekia) cocciferina

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.1. (Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 and the hairs upon them of various shapes and forms, but if longest hairs are more than 40 µm long then they usually have strongly expanded or capitate apices)                                                                      .....85

85  Longest hairs on vertex very long, about 2.5 × basal diameter  of ANT III, and those on  ANT III about equal to  basal diameter of ANT III or a little longer, and distinctly capitate.  Primary rhinarium  on ANT IV not ciliated, elongate, 41-50 µm long. ANT III with 8-12 secondary rhinaria                                                            .....Myzocallis (Pasekia) persica

    Longest hairs on vertex 0.5-1.2 × basal diameter of ANT III, and those on ANT III about 0.5 × that diameter. Primary rhinarium on ANT IV ciliated, less than 40 µm long. ANT III with 2-8 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                       .....86

86   Empodial hairs setiform. Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly pointed, and all less than 40 µm long. Sclerites on ABD TERG 4 and 5 often fused intersegmentally to form a pair of large dark patches                                                                    .....Myzocallis (Pasekia) taurica

-      Empodial hairs spatulate. Longest spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 often more than 40 µm long, with expanded or capitate apices. Sclerites on ABD TERG 4 and 5 never fused  intersegmentally                                                                                                     .....87

87   Hairs on vertex arising from pigmented sclerites (pale in spring forms). ABD TERG 1-5 each with a pair of oval to quadrate sclerites that have a dark margin around a large pale central area (fig. 96F). Primary  rhinarium on ANT VI 26-33 µm long

.....Myzocallis (Pasekia) komareki

-      Vertex without pigmented sclerites at hair-bases, but with paired longitudinal bands of brown pigment running through lateral ocelli (indistinct in spring forms). Paired spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 oval or irregular in shape, often paler in centre but without a clearly defined dark margin. Primary rhinarium on ANT VI 19-25 µm long

.....Myzocallis (Pasekia) mediterranea

 

KEY F - Calaphidinae and Thelaxinae with apterous viviparae on oaks
 (refers to apterous viviparae only except where otherwise stated).

1     Eyes of 3 facets. Antennae 5-segmented. Dorsal hairs fine if long, or short and thick      .....2

-      Eyes multifaceted. Antennae 4- to 6-segmented; if 4- or 5-segmented then dorsal hairs very long and thick                                                                                                                     .....6

2     Cauda rounded. Dorsal hairs all long and fine                                   .....Kurisakia querciphila

-      Cauda knobbed. Many dorsal hairs short, thick and spine-like, dagger-like or club-shaped

.....3

3     ABD TERG 5 with 12-25 short, blunt, club-shaped hairs (fig. 97A). Head and pronotum with 50-67 and mesonotum with 30-53 hairs                                       .....Thelaxes valtadorosi

-      ABD TERG 5 with 8-14 pointed, spine-like (fig. 97B) or dagger-like (fig. 97C) hairs. Head and pronotum with 20-26 hairs, mesonotum with 13-28                                                   .....4

4     R V less than 0.25× R IV and less than 2 × ANT PT. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 usually less than 24 µm long, spine-like (fig. 97B). (Alata with 4-7 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)

.....Thelaxes dryophila

-      R V more than 0.25× R IV and 2 or more × ANT PT. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 mostly more than  25 µm long, thick and dagger-like (fig. 97C). (Alata with 0-5 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                                             .....5

5     ABD TERG 1-5 each with a single hair on each side, which is thick and dagger-like. Knob of cauda as long as or longer than broad                                                          .....Thelaxes suberi

-      ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with 2 or more dagger-like marginal hairs on each side (except in summer dwarfs). Knob of cauda slightly broader than long                .....Thelaxes californica

6     Dorsal hairs mostly conspicuously bifurcate, resembling fishes' tails (fig. 97D). Cauda tongue-shaped                                                                                                 .....Siculaphis vittoriensis

    Dorsal hairs not bifurcate. Cauda tongue-shaped or knobbed                                            .....7

7     At least some of dorsal hairs thick and spine-like, rod-shaped or capitate, arising from raised sclerites or elongate processes, or with tuberculate bases                                                   .....8

-      Dorsal hairs all thin and setaceous, sometimes with expanded apices but not arising from tuberculate bases                                                                                                               .....22

8     Antennae 4- or 5-segmented                                                                                               .....9

-      Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                                     .....17

9     Spinal hairs on thorax and ABD TERG 1-6 are all minute (only 3-5 μm long)                .....10

-      Long spinal hairs present on at least some segments, arising from large tubercular processes, similar to the marginal hairs                                                                                              .....11

10   Dorsal cuticle strongly and densely nodulose. Front of head with 2 long finger-like forwardly-directed hair-bearing processes. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 2-3 pairs of marginal hairs arising from large backwardly directed processes. ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.9

.....Mexicallis areolatus

-      Dorsal cuticle wrinkled and only locally and very weakly nodulose. Front of head without finger-like processes. ABD TERG 1-4 each with a single pair of marginal hairs arising from tuberculate bases not much longer than their basal diameters. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0

.....Mexicallis brevituberculatus

11   ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.7. Dorsal hairs on head and pronotum less than 20 µm long. Dorsal cuticle with faint nodulose sculpturing                                                      .....Mexicallis calvus

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. Dorsal hairs on head and pronotum longer than 25 µm. Dorsal cuticle spiculose or wrinkled                                                                                             .....12

12   Dorsal hairs all capitate. Antennae 4-segmented with 0-1 hairs on ANT III

.....Mexicallis panamensis*

-      Only the shortest dorsal hairs are capitate. Antennae 4- or 5-segmented with 2 hairs on the penultimate segment                                                                                                        …..13

13   Cauda elongate, with knob 1.3-1.4 × its maximum width. SIPH short (0.03-0.04 mm), about as long as their apical diameters. Metanotum without spinal hairs

…..Mexicallis longicaudus

-      Cauda short with knob about as long as wide. SIPH often longer. Metanotum with spinal hairs                                                                                                                                  …..14

14   Dorsal cuticle not spiculose. Antennae always 4-segmented, with ANT III 4-7× SIPH. SIPH 0.027-0.044 mm long, less than 2 × their minimum diameter. Base of last antennal segment without a hair                                                                                           .....Mexicallis spinifer

-      Dorsal cuticle spiculose. Antennae of 4 or 5 segments, with ANT III only 2-3× SIPH.

       SIPH 0.046-0.166 mm long, 2-6 × their minimum diameter. Base of last antennal segment with 1 hair                                                                                                                         .....15

15   Antennae 4-segmented, less than 0.4 × BL. Spinal processes shorter than 55 μm, and marginal processes are merely tubercular hair-bases shorter than 20 μm. SIPH 0.048-0.060 mm long

…..Mexicallis analiliae ssp. pumilus

-      Antennae 4- or 5-segmented, 0.45-0.55 × BL. Spinal processes 70-200 μm, and marginal processes 25-100 μm. SIPH 0.067-0.166 mm long                                                          …..16

16   Marginal processes large, sausage-shaped, at least 40-50 μm long. R IV+V 0.83-1.30 × SIPH and 1.3-1.9 × HT II.  All dorsal hairs smooth or nearly smooth

…..Mexicallis analiliae ssp. caulifer

-      Marginal processes less than 25 μm long. R IV+V 0.60-0.77 × SIPH and 1.1-1.3 × HT II.  Largest dorsal hairs are densely spiculose                                   …..Mexicallis analiliae s. str.

17   Cauda triangular but with a membranous bladder-like, hairless apex. Anal plate moderately indented with a T-shaped sclerite at the base of the cleft        …..Wanyucallis amblyopappos

-      Cauda tongue-shaped or knobbed. Anal plate without a T-shaped sclerite                    …..18 

18   Cauda tongue-shaped, without a constriction, anal plate only weakly indented. Dorsal spine-like hairs bearing many minute spinules                                           .....Serratocallis takahashii

    Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. Dorsal spine-like hairs not bearing minute spicules

.....19

19   R IV+V longer than HT II, with rather pointed apex and bearing 6 accessory hairs. Pronotum with a single marginal hair on each side                                   .....Hoplochaitophorus dicksoni

-      R IV+V shorter than HT II, with obtuse apex and bearing 8-15 accessory hairs. Pronotum with a group of marginal hairs on each side                                                                      .....20

20   Spine-like dorsal hairs outnumbered by fine hairs with finely-pointed apices (fig. 97E); sometimes spine-like hairs are few in number, or even absent in weakly-pigmented midsummer individuals. Longest hairs on ANT III long and fine, at least 2 × basal diameter of segment                                                                        .....Hoplochaitophorus heterotrichus

-      Most dorsal body hairs spine-like and on tuberculate bases (e.g. fig.97F). Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.25 × basal diameter of segment                                                                .....21

21   SIPH flared apically and almost as long as R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.65

.....Hoplochaitophorus quercicola

-      SIPH small, not much widened apically, about 0.5 × R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.6

.....Hoplochaitophorus spiniferus

22   Anal plate bilobed, cauda with or without a constriction. Wax pore plates not evident. ANT II as short as or shorter than ANT I                                                                                  .....23

-      Anal plate entire, cauda broadly rounded. Wax pore plates evident. ANT II much longer than ANT I                                                                                                                                .....43

23   ANT PT/BASE 1.0 or less                                                                                                .....24

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.2                                                                                          .....39

24   Many of dorsal body hairs very long, up to or exceeding length of ANT III. Cauda knobbed

.....Hoplochaetaphis zachvatkini

-      Dorsal body hairs all very much shorter than ANT III. Cauda with or without a constriction

.....25

25   Antennae densely hairy; ANT VI BASE with 7-15 hairs. (Alata with forewing veins thickly bordered with fuscous)                                                                                                     .....26

-      Antennae sparsely hairy; ANT VI BASE with 1-3 hairs. (Alata with forewing veins not or only weakly bordered)                                                                                                      .....27

26   Alata with 4-8 (most commonly 5 or 6) secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and wing veins with borders not more than 0.10 mm across, the pigment of veins Cu1a  and media not coalescing at their bases. Sclerotic cross-bands on ABD TERG 5 and 6 each with 14-35 spino-pleural hairs. Aptera with an almost complete shield from mesonotum to ABD TERG 7

.....Lachnochaitophorus querceus

-      Alata with 6-11 (most commonly 8 or 9) secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and wing veins with borders up to 0.15 mm across, the pigment of veins Cu1a  and media coalescing at their bases. Sclerotic cross-bands on ABD TERG 5 and 6 each with 2-20 spino-pleural hairs. Aptera with mutually separate cross-bands on ABD TERG 1-7              .....Lachnochaitophorus obscurus

27   Mid femora, hind femora and hind tibiae mainly dark (hind tibiae sometimes with a pale middle or distal section)                                                                                                    .....28

-      Mid femora, hind femora and tibiae mainly pale                                                              .....36

28   ABD TERG 8 with more than 20 hairs. Apex of hind femur smooth                              .....29

-      ABD TERG 8 with less than 16 hairs. Apex of hind femur spiculose                             .....33

29   ANT III-VI almost entirely dark, except for base of III and PT

….. Neosymydobius neomexicanus*

-      ANT III-V pale with only distal parts or apices of segments dark                                  …..30

30   ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. ABD TERG 1-5 with transverse bars and long fine hairs (more than 50 µm). R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs              .....Neosymydobius albasiphus

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. ABD TERG 1-5 without transverse bars, but with small sclerites at bases of the short or very short dorsal hairs (8-38 µm). R IV+V with 8-11 accessory hairs                                                                                                                  …..31

31   Hairs on ANT III long , erect and pointed with wavy apices, not shorter on basal part, where they are 1.3-1.5 × basal diameter of segment. Femoral hairs with wavy apices, maximally 45 µm, and marginal hairs are 40-63 µm                                  …..Neosymydobius rumoresensis*

-      Hairs on ANT III pointed, blunt or weakly capitate, often inclined or adpressed, usually shorter on basal part. Femoral hairs blunt, 15-25 µm, and marginal hairs are 10-25 µm

…..32

32   Hind tibiae almost entirely dark. Base of ANT VI with 10-20 hairs. Longest hairs on distal part of ANT III are 1.5-2 × basal diameter of segment, distinctly longer than those on basal part                                                                                               .....Neosymydobius agrifoliae

-      Hind tibiae with pale middle sections. Base of ANT VI with 1-7 hairs. Longest hairs on distal part of ANT III are not longer than basal diameter of segment, only a little longer than those on basal part                                                                   .....Neosymydobius paucisetosus

33   Abdomen with spinal and pleural hairs in groups, 25-40 per tergite, with some hairs not on the transverse sclerites. ANT I with 4-7 hairs                         …..Neosymydobius peregrinus*

-      Abdomen with spinal and pleural hairs in transverse rows on the transverse sclerites, at most 10 per tergite. ANT I with 3-4 hairs                                                                                …..34

34   Hairs on ANT III erect, pointed, 38-45 µm long, 1.25-1.5 × basal diameter of segment. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 thin with pointed apices                         .....Neosymydobius acutipilosus*

-      Hairs on ANT III often rather blunt, at most 25 µm long, not longer than basal diameter of segment. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 blunt or with incrassate apices                                …..35

35   Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 pointed, blunt or very slightly capitate. Hairs on ANT III pointed, blunt or weakly capitate, 19-25 µm, more than 0.5 × basal diameter of segment

.....Neosymydobius chrysolepis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 thick and flared apically. Hairs on ANT III blunt, 8-19 µm, at most 0.5 × basal diameter of segment                                                        .....Neosymydobius butzei

36   ABD TERG 1-7 each with 1-3 (usually 2) marginal hairs on each side                           .....37

-      ABD TERG 1-7 each with 3-7 marginal hairs on each side                                             .....38

37   Marginal tubercles present on all tergites (10-12 on pronotum, 1-4 on other segments). ANT PT/BASE less than 0.6. ABD TERG 1-6 with broad but only lightly pigmented transverse bands each bearing 12-16 hairs                                  .....Neosymydobius ajuscanus

-      Marginal tubercles absent or rarely present. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. ABD TERG 1-6 with well-pigmented transverse bands bearing only 6 hairs (2 spinal, 4 marginal)

.....Neosymydobius mimicus

38   Hairs on ANT III long and fine, 2-3 × BD III. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.8

.....Neosymydobius quercihabitus

-      Hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.8

.....Neosymydobius luteus

39   Dorsal abdominal hairs very short, pointed. Marginal tubercles present on all tergites (5-10 on pronotum, 0-5 on other segments)                                             .....Neosymydobius memorialis

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs long with blunt, swollen, capitate or flared apices. Marginal tubercles absent                                                                                                                                .....40

40   Cauda not knobbed, but swollen dorsally into a membranous, hemispherical bladder with a sclerotic, hair-bearing plate on the underside (fig. 97G)

.....Myzocallis (Globulicaudaphis) pakistanica

-      Cauda knobbed                                                                                                                 .....41

41   Spinopleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 very numerous (more than 30 per segment), 15-55 µm long. Longest hairs on ANT III strongly capitate, longer than basal diameter of segment

.....Myzocallis (Neodryomyzus) polychaeta

-      ABD TERG 1-6 each with 8-14 spinopleural hairs 15-140 µm long. Longest hairs on ANT III blunt or weakly capitate, shorter than basal diameter of segment                               .....42

42   Antennae banded, tibiae mainly pale. ABD TERG 1-7 with dark spinal sclerites, not fused  between segments. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.7. (Fore wing of alata unpigmented except for small dark spots on the pterostigma and at base of Cu1b)            .....Myzocallis glandulosa

-      Antennae and tibiae mainly dark. Dorsal abdomen with a black spinal patch restricted to ABD TERG 3-5, fused between segments. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.0. (Alata with entire costal margin of forewing pigmented round to tip)                  .....Myzocallis (Lineomyzocallis) meridionalis

43   SIPH pores small to minute (usually less than 25 µm in diameter), not surrounded by a ring of hairs                                                                                                                              .....44

-      SIPH pores larger (usually more than 25 µm in diameter), with an encircling ring of hairs

.....48

44   SIPH pore much larger than (4-6 × diameter of) nearest wax pores. Fore femur 4-5 × its maximum width. R IV+V with convex sides, somewhat pointed apically but not stiletto-shaped (e.g. fig. 98A)                                                                                                       .....45

-      SIPH pore only 1-2 × diameter of nearest wax pores. Fore femur 2.5-3.5 × its maximum width  R IV+V with slightly concave sides, either blunt apically or stiletto-shaped       .....46

45   ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.2 or less                  ....Diphyllaphis mordvilkoi

-      ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.3               .....Diphyllaphis quercus

46   ABD TERG 8 with 8-10 hairs, cauda with 2 hairs. R IV+V blunt apically (fig. 98C), with primary (subapical) hairs not displaced proximally (all on distal third)

.....Diphyllaphis microtrema

-      ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs, cauda with 3-4 hairs. R IV+V pointed or stiletto-shaped, with primary hairs displaced proximally (fig. 98B)                                                                   .....47

47   ANT II shorter than ANT III. R IV+V shorter than HT II. ABD TERG 6-8 fused

.....Diphyllaphis konarae

-      ANT II as long as or longer than ANT III. R IV+V longer than HT II. ABD TERG 6-8 with separate sclerites                                                                                       .....Diphyllaphis alba

48   Vertex of head with all wax pore elements ring-shaped and double-contoured. First tarsal segments with 3-4 hairs, and second tarsal segments with 1-2 hairs at about midlength. Embryos with 5-segmented antennae                                                                               .....49

-      Vertex of head with wax pore elements in form of cribriform discs, in addition to minute ring-shaped pores. First tarsal segments mostly with 2 hairs, and second tarsal segments often without hairs other than the subapical ones. Embryos with 4-segmented antennae         .....50

49   R IV+V 0.087-0.095 mm long, obtuse, with somewhat convex sides. (Ovipara with 20-40 scent glands on hind tibiae)                                                       .....Stegophylla quercina s. str.

-      R IV+V 0.102-0.129 mm long, acute, tapering, almost stiletto-shaped. (Ovipara with 5-21 scent glands on hind tibiae)                                       .....Stegophylla quercina ssp. acutirostris

50   ANT II c. 3.0-3.5 × as long as its midlength width. R IV with 2 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 1-5 often with submarginal or duplicated marginal hairs                                                  .....51

-      ANT II at most 2.75 × as long as its midlength width. R IV usually without any accessory hairs. ABD TERG 1-5 with 1 pair each of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs                  .....52

51   R IV+V 0.110-0.121 mm long, 0.93-1.05 × HT II. Second tarsal segments (in apterae) with 2 mediolateral hairs                                                                             …..Stegophylla mugnozae

-      R IV+V 0.132-0.148 mm long, 1.16-1.32 × HT II. Second tarsal segments (in apterae) only with subapical hairs                                                                        …..Stegophylla quercifoliae

52   R IV+V 0.064-0.083 mm long, 0.57-0.90 × HT II and 0.9-1.1 × ANT II                      …..53

-      R IV+V (0.80-) 0.087-0.114 mm long, 0.80-1.13 × HT II and 1.4-1.6 × ANT II          …..54

53   Tarsi with empodial hairs. R IV+V 0.068-0.083 mm long, 0.75-0.90 × HT II. R IV sometimes with 1-2 accessory hairs                                                                           .....Stegophylla davisi

-      Tarsi (of adult viviparae) without empodial hairs. R IV+V 0.064-0.076 mm long, 0.57-0.83 × HT II. R IV without accessory hairs                                               .....Stegophylla brevirostris

54   R IV+V 0.8-0.9 × HT II                                                                   .....Stegophylla quercicola

-       R IV+V (0.9-) 1.0-1.13 × HT II                                                              .....Stegophylla essigi

Quillaja                                                       Rosaceae

      Quillaja saponaria                      Aphis craccivora, marthae

Key to apterae on Quillaja:-

(Both species have variably developed but usually extensive black dorsal sclerotisation.)

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 short, 15-25 µm, shorter than basal diameter of ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.8 × its basal diameter. Cauda with 4-9 hairs        .....Aphis craccivora

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 long, 45-70 µm, 1.5-1.8 × basal diameter of ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.1 × its basal diameter. Cauda with 9-14 hairs                  .....Aphis marthae

 

 

R

Rabdosia see Isodon                                                  Lamiaceae

 

Racomitrium (including Niphotrichum)                       Grimmiaceae

      Racomitrium canescens             [Nurudea meitanensis]

               = Niphotrichum canescens

      R. lanuginosum                          Pseudacaudella rubida    

      Racomitrium sp.                         Myzodium modestum; [Prociphilus xylostei]

(or use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)

 

Radermachera                                             Bignoniaceae

      Radermachera sp.                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Radicula see Rorippa                                                             Brassicaceae

      (Radicula armoracia see Armoracia lapathifolia)

 

Radiola                                                        Linaceae

      Radiola linoides                          Aphis fabae

 

Ramischia see Orthilia                                                         Ericaceae

 

Ramona see Salvia                                                                  Lamiaceae

 

Randia                                                                    Rubiaceae

      Randia aculeata                      Aphis spiraecola; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      R. dasycarpa = Catunaregam tomentosa

      R. mitis = R. aculeata

      R. sinensis                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      R. spinosa  = Catunaregam spinosa           

      Randia spp.                             [Eutrichosiphum subinoyi];

                                               [Greenidea himansui (described from vagrant alata?)];

                                               Taiwanaphis randiae

 

-         ANT PT/BASE about 1.0  SIPH short, dark, conical, much shorter than their basal width. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed.  ANT III of alata with 32-46 transversely oval secondary rhinaria, not in a row                                                            .....Taiwanaphis randiae

-         ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0  SIPH tubular.  Cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire. ANT III of alata with 2-17 roundish secondary rhinaria in a single row

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids

     

     

Ranunculus (including Batrachium, Beckwithia)            Ranunculaceae

     Ranunculus acris                         Acyrthosiphon sp. near malvae (Switzerland, BMNH

      (incl. ssp. strigulosus, var. stevenii)            collection, leg. W. Meier);

                                                            Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                            [Aploneura lentisci]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Dysaphis ranunculi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, ranunculi;

                                                      Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                      Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                      Thecabius affinis; Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. angustifolius see R. pyrenaeus

      R. aquatilis                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      R. arvensis                                    Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Dysaphis ranunculi;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Sitobion miscanthi; Thecabius affinis

      R. asiaticus                                   Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

      R. auricomus                                Macrosiphum ranunculi; Thecabius affinis

      R. biternatus                                 Aulacorthum solani

      R. bulbosus (incl. ssp. aleae)            Aphis fabae, nasturtii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Dysaphis ranunuculi;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; Protrama [radicis],  ranunculi;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Thecabius affinis, populiconduplifolius

      R. californicus                              Thecabius affinis

      R. cassubicus                                Macrosiphum ranunculi

      R. cortusifolius                             Aphis fabae, solanella; Aulacorthum solani

      R. diffusus                                    Aulacorthum solani

      R. flammula (incl. var. ovalis)          Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Thecabius affinis

      R. fluitans                                     Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      R. glaber                                       Thecabius affinis

      R. glacialis (=Beckwithia glacialis) [Nasonovia brevipes]

      R. gramineus                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      R. grandis                                     Cavariella japonica, nipponica, salicicola;

                                                            Miyazakia ranunculi; Thecabius affinis;

                                                            Tubaphis ranunculina; Sitobion akebiae

      R. hirtellus                                    Thecabius affinis

      R. japonicus = R. grandis

      R. lanuginosus                             Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum ranunculi

      R. lingua                                       Aphis nasturtii, triglochinis; Thecabius affinis

      R. lyallii                                         Aulacorthum solani

      R. montanus                                 Thecabius affinis

      R. multifidus                                 Aulacorthum solani

      R. muricatus                                 Dysaphis ranunculi; Thecabius affinis

      R. nemorosus = D. serpens ssp. nemorosus

      R. polyanthemos                           Dysaphis ranunculi; Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. propinquus                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Tubaphis ranunculina]

      R. pyrenaeus (incl. ssp.                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

                              angustifolius)

      R. quelpaertensis                          Thecabius affinis

      R. recurvatus                                Neomyzus circumflexus

      R. repens                                       Aphis nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Dysaphis [annulata], ranunculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;

                                                            Protrama [radicis], ranunuculi;

                                                            Thecabius affinis; Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. rupestris = R. spicatus

      R. sardous                                     Aulacorthum solani; Dysaphis ranunculi; Thecabius affinis

      R. sceleratus (incl. ssp.                    Aphis nasturtii; [Lipaphis erysimi];

                        .    reptabundus)              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae; Thecabius affinis

      R. serbicus                                    Aphis fabae

      R. serpens ssp. nemorosus            Dysaphis ranunculi

      R. silerifolius                                 Thecabius affinis; Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. spicatus                                    Aphis fabae

      R. stevenii = R. propinquus

      R. subcorymbosus                        Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. sundaicus                                 Neomyzus circumflexus

      R. ternatus                                    Thecabius populiconduplifolius

      R. trichophyllus                            Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      R. velutinus                                   Protrama ranunculi; Tubaphis ranunculina

      R. vernyi = R. silerifolius

      Ranunculus spp.                          Abstrusomyzus phloxae; [Aleurodaphis blumeae];

                                                            Aphis montanicola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            [Macrosiphum centranthi]; Nasonovia ranunculi;

                                                            Protaphis middletonii; [Thecabius orientalis ssp. minensis];

                                                            Tubaphis clematophila

Key to apterae on Ranunculus:-

1      HT II greatly elongated, 0.5-0.65 × hind tibia. SIPH as pores on dark sclerites. All apt. alatiform with dark dorsal cross bands and marginal sclerites            …..Protrama ranunculi

-       HT II of normal length. SIPH tubular or absent . Dorsum with or without dark markings

…..2

2      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of only 3-facets. SIPH absent. Dorsal wax gland plates (Fig.45a) present on all segments except ABD TERG 8

        …..Thecabius affinis (incl. Th. populiconduplifolus)

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular. No discrete wax glands

…..3

3      Cauda semicircular, pentagonal, helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, shorter than or not more than 1.2 × longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                        …..4

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, more than 1.25 × its basal width                                  …..7

4      Cauda bluntly triangular, with 10 or more hairs. ABD TERG 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                …..Protaphis middletonii

-       Cauda either broadly rounded, semicircular, pentagonal or helmet-shaped, with 4-7 hairs. ABD TERG 7 usually without MTu                                                                                 …..5

5      SIPH pale, legs mainly pale. Tergum membranous. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. Head without spinal tubercles (STu), and MTu also usually absent

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       SIPH dark, legs mainly dark. Tergum with more-or-less extensive sclerotisation. Spiracular apertures reniform. Head with a pair of STu, and MTu present at least on ABD TERG 1-5

…..6

6      SIPH bearing 5-8 hairs (Fig.45d). Hairs on dorsal body, ANT and legs 2.5-3.5 × ANT BD III. Cauda broadly rounded, much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view (Fig.45b)

…..Miyazakia ranunculi

-       SIPH without hairs. Hairs on dorsal body, ANT and legs variable in length, but maximally 2 × ANT BD III and often much shorter. Cauda helmet-shaped/pentagonal, about as long as its basal width (Fig.45c)                                                                       …..Dysaphis ranunculi

7      SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)

…..8

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..11

8      SIPH wholly dark, 1.4-1.9 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III

…..Sitobion akebiae (or miscanthi)

-       SIPH mainly pale, often darker towards apices, 1.7-2.2 × cauda. Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 × BD III                                                                                                              …..9

9      ANT PT/BASE c. 3. ANT III with 7-10 rhinaria. Cauda with 12-17 hairs

…..Macrosiphum ranunculi*

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 5. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria (usually less than 7). Cauda with

        8-15 hairs                                                                                                                         …..10

10    Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin                                             .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-       Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

11    Cauda with a constriction near base. SIPH pale, tapering or cylindrical, rather straight, and with very coarse imbrication. Head spiculose, dorsal abdomen without dark markings

…..12

-       Cauda not constricted near base, and other characters not in that combination             …..13

12    ANT I with a rounded, scabrous process at inner apex (Fig.45e). SIPH tapering on distal half, with diameter of flange less than diameter at midlength. Mesosternal furca sessile

…..Tubaphis clematophila

-       ANT I not extended at inner apex (Fig.45f). SIPH cylindrical on distal half or slightly flared apically, with large flange of diameter greater than diameter at midlength (Fig.45g). Mesosternal furca with a distinct broad basal stem                         …..Tubaphis ranunculina

13    Thoracic spiracles large and rounded, much larger than abdominal ones. ANT III with c. 15-17 rhinaria in a row along its whole length. R IV+V with c.10-11 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.9-1.0 × cauda, which has a midway constriction and bears 5 hairs                …..Nasonovia ranunculi

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size and shape to abdominal ones, ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria, and other characters not in that combination                                                                  …..14

14    Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of bead-like spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH clavate

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Dorsal abdomen without a pattern of spicules. SIPH cylindrical, tapering or clavate    …..15

15   ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda; in some species reduced to a small, warty, knob in the centre of ABD TERG 8, with 2 associated hairs                  .....16

-       No supracaudal process, nor are there 2 hairs on ABD TERG 8  close together and associated with a warty knob                                                                                           .....18

16    ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. Process on ABD TERG 8 is a small knob. SIPH thick, tapering/ cylindrical, or with only slight subapical swelling                                .....Cavariella japonica

-       ANT PT/BASE  0.6-1.33. Process on ABD TERG 8 projects backwards over cauda. SIPH clavate                                                                                                                              .....17

17    R IV+V 1.05-1.2 × HT II. SIPH short and stout, narrowing only near base

.....Cavariella salicicola

-       R IV+V 1.3-1.5 × HT II. SIPH with narrower basal stem extending over c.0.33 of length

.....Cavariella nipponica

18    ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.73. SIPH pale and 0.7-1.3 × cauda                      …..Aphis triglochinis

-       Without that combination; if ANT PT/BASE less than 1.8 then SIPH are dark and/or more than 1.5 × cauda                                                                                                              …..19

19    ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large marginal tubercles (MTu). Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1 are 0.3-0.6 × diameter of adjacent MTu. (SIPH dark, R IV+V 1.2-1.5 × HT II, ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3)                                                                                 …..Aphis montanicola

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu, but if with MTu then marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1 are 0.7-2.8 × diameter of MTu on that segment. (SIPH pale or dark, R IV+V 0.8-1.4 × HT II, ANT PT/BASE 1.7-5.3)                                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Rapanea                                                      Primulaceae

      Rapanea avenis                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      R. guianensis =Myrsine guianensis

 

Raphanus                                                    Brassicaceae

      Raphanus acanthiformis = R. sativus                                      

      R. landroides                               Brevicoryne brassicae

        R. macropodus = R. sativus

        R. maritimus = R. raphanistrum ssp. landra

        R. raphanistrum                         Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                 (incl. ssp. landra)                      Aulacorthum solani; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                            Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; Pemphigus populitransversus;

                                                            Smynthurodes betae

        R. sativus                                     [Akkaia bengalensis, sikkimensis];

                                                            Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus helichrysi];

                                                            Brevicoryne brassicae, [crambe];

                                                            Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, [dycei], ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum [nymphaeae], [padi];

                                                            Smynthurodes betae; Uroleucon compositae

        Raphanus sp.                              [Myzus certus]; [Neotoxoptera sungkangensis]

Use key to apterae on Brassica.

 

Raphia                                                                                     Arecaceae

        Raphia gaertneri = R. palma-pinus           

        R. hookeri                                Cerataphis brasiliensis

        R. palma-pinus                        Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                         Cerataphis brasiliensis, lataniae

Use key to aphids on palms under Calamus.

 

Raphiolepis see Rhaphiolepis                                              Rosaceae

                                                           

 

Rapistrum                                                    Brassicaceae

      Rapistrum perenne                     Aphis gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae, [crambe];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

      R. rugosum                                 Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.

 

Ratibida                                                       Compositae

      Ratibida columnaris = R. columnifera                                      

        R. columnifera                            Aphis ornata; Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Ratibida:-

-       SIPH dark, shorter than R IV+V, 0.7-1.0 × the dark broadly conical cauda, which bears 8-10 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large marginal tubercles. Abdomen with variable dark dorsal sclerotisation, most developed on ABD TERG 4-5                                       …..Aphis ornata

-       Without that combination of characters                          .….go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Rauvolfia                                                                                Apocynaceae

        Rauvolfia caffra                          Sitobion halli

      R. densiflora = R. verticillata

        R. inebrians = R. caffra

        R. lamarkii = R. viridis                 

        R. nitida                                      Aphis craccivora

        R. tetraphylla                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola

        R. verticillata                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        R. viridis                                      Aphis spiraecola

        R. vomitoria                                Sitobion halli, krahi (?)

        Rauvolfia spp.                            [Clethrobius dryobius]

Key to species:-

1       Antennal tubercles not developed. ANT PT/BASE less than 6. SIPH without any subapical reticulation. Cauda black                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, couplet 24

-        Antennal tubercles well-developed, divergent. ANT PT/BASE more than 6. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale, without a constriction                    .....2

2       Longest posterior dorsal cephalic hairs (between eyes) less than 18 µm long. R IV+V 0.80-1.05× HT II. SIPH narrow (about 0.5× width of cauda at their respective midpoints), with

         zone of polygonal reticulation extending less than 0.2 of its total length       .....Sitobion halli

-        Longest posterior cephalic hairs more than 18 µm long.  R IV+V 1.05-1.20× HT II.  SIPH broad (about as wide as cauda at their respective midpoints), with zone of polygonal

         reticulation extending more than 0.3 of total length                                      .....Sitobion krahi

 

 

Ravenala                                                     Strelitziaceae

      Ravenala madagascariensis       Pentalonia nigronervosa

 

Ravensara                                                                                                       Lauraceae

          Ravensara aromatica                 Sinomegoura citricola

Reaumuria                                                   Tamaricaceae

      Reaumuria hirtella                     ?Xerobion sp. (Egypt, BMNH collection)

 

Reboudia                                                     Brassicaceae

        Reboudia pinnata

            (= Erucaria pinnata)              Myzus persicae

 

Rechsteineria see Sinningea                                              Gesneriaceae

 

Reevesia                                                      Sterculiaceae

      Reevesia thyrsoidea                    Myzus persicae

 

Rehmannia                                                  Plantaginaceae

        Rehmannia glutinosa                 Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        Rehmannia sp.                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Rehmannia:-

-       Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spicules arranged in polygons, with 1-3 spicules in the centre of each polygon. SIPH clavate, dusky/dark, without imbrication

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH not clavate (or if clavate then pale and with imbrication)                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Reichardia (including Picridium)                                Compositae

        Reichardia intermedia                Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon [chondrillae], sonchi  

        R. picroides                                 Aphis fabae, picridis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Protaphis terricola;

                                                            Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis, picridis, sonchi;

        R. tingitana                                 Aphis fabae; Hyperomyzus carduellinus, lactucae

        R. vulgare = R. picroides

Key to apterae on Reichardia:-

1      ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. Cauda bluntly triangular with 10-24 hairs     …..Protaphis terricola

-       ANT PT/BASE more thn 1.5. Cauda either tongue- or finger-shaped or with fewer hairs

…..2

2      ANT III with 4-97 rhinaria; if with less than 11 then SIPH are either black or markedly clavate                                                                                                                               …..3

-       ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria; if with more than 3 then SIPH are pale and not clavate      …..8

3      SIPH pale, markedly swollen, and without polygonal reticulation                                   …..4

-       SIPH dark, not swollen, with distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                 …..5

4      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 8-19 μm long, and on the ANT tubercles 6-11 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-29, IV (0)-1-16, V 0 (-9). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.6. ANT PT 1.6-2.3 × cauda                                                                         …..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-50 μm long, and on the ANT tubercles 18-30 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 4-20, IV 0 (-1), V 0. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-7.4. ANT PT 2.0-3.0 × cauda                                                                                               …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

5      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 not placed on dark scleroites. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or vestigeal. R IV+V 0.73-0.88 × HT II                                                     …..Uroleucon sonchi

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 placed on dark scleroites. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. R IV+V 0.84-1.84 × HT II                                                                    …..6

6      R IV+V 1.45-1.84 × HT II. (ANT III with 25-60 rhinaria)                  …..Uroleucon picridis

-       R IV+V 0.84-1.33 × HT II                                                                                               …..7

7      R IV+V 1.17-1.33 × HT II. ANT III with 56-97 rhinaria                    …..Uroleucon cichorii

-       R IV+V 0.84-1.08 × HT II. ANT III with 20-85 rhinaria          …..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

8      Rostrum reaching back beyond hind coxae; length (measured from base of protractor apodeme) 0.35-0.38 × BL                                                                             …..Aphis picridis

-       Rostrum not reaching back beyond hind coxae, its length 0.2-0.33 × BL

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

       

Remijia                                                        Rubiaceae

      Remijia densiflora                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      R. laevifolia = R. densiflora

 

Reseda                                                         Resedaciae

     Reseda alba                                  Brevicoryne brassicae

     R. complicata                                [Anoecia corni]; Aphis fabae; [Therioaphis trifolii]

     R. lutea                                         [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                            Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

     R. luteola                                      [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Aphis fabae;

                                                            Brevicoryne brassicae; [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                            [Uroleucon cichorii]

     R. muricata                                   Myzus persicae

     R. odorata                                     Aphis fabae, [introducta Walker, 1849 (nomen dubium)]

     R. orientalis                                  Myzus persicae

      Reseda sp.                                     Brevicoryne brassicae

Key to apterae on Reseda:-

1      ANT III 2.5-3.7 × SIPH. SIPH short and thick, 0.8-1.0 × the broadly triangular cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with variable dark markings …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-       ANT III less than 2 × SIPH, and other characters not in that combination                     …..2

2      SIPH pale and distally attenuate, thinner than hind tibia at midpoint. ANT VI BASE

        0.24-0.39 mm long and 1.6-2.7 × R IV+V                                        …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Retama                                                        Leguminosae

       Retama monosperma                 Aphis craccivora/ cytisorum group (Israel, BMNH collection)

     R. raetum                                    Aphis craccivora

      R. sphaerocarpa                          Aphis craccivora, fabae

      Retama sp.                                  Acyrthosiphon gossypii

Use key to apterae on Vigna.

 

Retanilla                                                                                 Rhamnaceae

        Retanilla trinervia                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Reynoutria see Fallopia                                        Polygonaceae             

     Reynoutria aubertii see Fallopia aubertii

      R. cuspidatum see Fallopia japonica

      R. elliptica see Fallopia forbesii

      R. forbesii see Fallopia forbesii

      R. japonica see Fallopia japonica

      R. multiflora see Fallopia multiflora

      R. sachalinensis see Fallopia sachalinensis