HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Psa-Pyr

 

Psamma

Psammisia

Psedera

Pseudabutilon

Pseudechinolaena

Pseudelephantopos

Pseuderanthemum

Pseudocydonia

Pseudofumaria

Pseudognaphalium

Pseudolinosyris

Pseudolysimachion

Pseudopanax

Pseudosasa

Pseudoscleropodium

Pseudosophora

Pseudostellaria

Pseudotsuga

Psiadia

Psidium

Psila

Psilopogon

Psophocarpus

Psoralea

Psoralidium

Psychilis

Psychotria

Ptarmica

Ptelea

Pteleopsis

Pteranthus

Pteretis

Pteridium

Pteris

Pterocarpus

Pterocarya

Pteroceltis

Pterocephalus

Pterocypsela

Pterolobium

Pterospermum

Pterostyrax

Pterotheca

Ptilium

Ptiloria

Ptilostemon

Ptilotrichum

Ptychosperma

Ptychotis

Puccinellia

Pueraria

Pulicaria

Pulmonaria

Pulsatilla

Punica

Purshia

Pycnanthemum

Pycnocomon

Pycreus

Pyracantha

Pyrethrum

Pyrola

Pyrostegia

Pyrrhopappus

Pyrrosia

Pyrularia

Pyrus

 

 

Psamma see Ammophila Poaceae

 

Psammisia Ericaceae

Psammisia macrophylla Myzus persicae

 

Psedera see Parthenocissus Vitaceae

 

Pseudabutilon see Abutilon Malvaceae

 

Pseudechinolaena Poaceae

Ps. polystachya Ceratovacuna lanigera; Pseudoregma panicola

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

Pseudelephantopus see Elephantopus Compositae

 

Pseuderanthemum Acanthaceae

Ps. atropurpureum Aphis gossypii

 

Pseudocydonia see Chaenomeles Rosaceae

Pseudocydonia sinensis = Chaenomeles sinensis

 

Pseudofumaria Fumariaceae

Pseudofumaria lutea Aphis craccivora, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pseudognaphalium Compositae

Pseudognaphalium bioletti Illinoia richardsi; Uroleucon russellae

Ps. brachypterum Uroleucon ambrosiae

Ps. californicum Uroleucon russellae

Ps. inornatum Uroleucon ambrosiae, gnaphalii

Ps. microcephalum Uroleucon russellae

Ps. obtusifolium Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon pseudoambrosiae

Use key to apterae on Gnaphalium.

 

Pseudolinosyris Compositae

Pseudolinosyris grimmii [Macrosiphoniella aktaschica]; Uroleucon asterophagum

(Use key to apterae on Aster.)

 

Pseudolysimachion see Veronica Plantaginaceae

 

Pseudopanax Araliaceae

Pseudopanax lessonii Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pseudosasa Poaceae

Pseudosasa cantorii Chucallis bambusicola

Ps. japonica Melanaphis bambusae; Paracolopha morrisoni;

Sitobion miscanthi; Takecallis arundicolens, arundinariae

Use key to aphids on Bambusa.

 

Pseudoscleropodium Brachystegiaceae

Pseudoscleropodium purum Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi, musci;

Pseudocaudella rubida

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Pseudosophora see Sophora Leguminosae

 

 

Pseudostellaria Caryophyllaceae

Pseudostellaria jamesiana Aphis fabae

 

Pseudotsuga Pinaceae

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa Cinara pseudotsugae, splendens; Essigella californica

 

P. menziesii (=Ps. taxifolia) Douglas-Fir
Adelges cooleyi, coweni; [Aphis fabae];
Cinara commatula, [curvipes], [dubia],[osborni],
           pseudotaxifoliae, pseudotsugae, splendens,
    [taxifoliae], vagabunda;

Elatobium abietinum; Essigella californica, wilsoni;

[Mindarus abietinus];

Pachypappa rosettei, tremulae, vesicalis;
Prociphilus americanus (?), xylostei

P. mucronata = Ps. menziesii

 

Pseudotsuga sp. [Cinara occidentalis]

Key to aphids on Pseudotsuga:-

1 Adult females without chitinous ovipositor (viviparous) .....2

- Adult females with chitinous ovipositor .....13

2 SIPH absent. Eyes of 3 facets .....3

- SIPH present as pores or pigmented hairy cones. Eyes multi-facetted .....7

3 Antenna with hairs longer than basal diameter of ANT III. R IV+V with about 20 accessory hairs. Head with wax pore plates. Cauda dark, protruberant, with many long hairs

.....Prociphilus americanus

- Antenna with hairs shorter than basal diameter of ANT III. R IV+V 0-6 accessory hairs. Head without wax pore plates. Cauda not protruberant, with a few short hairs .....4

4 R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs, and without a pale subapical zone .....Prociphilus xylostei

- R IV+V without any accessory hairs, and with a pale subapical zone .....5

 

5 Hairs on HT I thick and usually spine-like, with short or blunt apices (fig. 66C)

.....Pachypappa vesicalis

- Hairs on HT I small and thin, or if thick basally then with finely-pointed apices         .....6

 

6 Hairs on HT I and apical dorsal hairs on HT II very small, 4-8 m long, with abrupt apices. Segment I of fore tarsus usually with 2 hairs; if a third middle hair is present then it is longer than the lateral hairs .....Pachypappa rosettei*

- Hairs on HT I and apical dorsal hairs on HT II longer, 10-15 m, with finely-pointed apices. Segment I of fore tarsus almost always with 3 hairs, and with the middle hair shorter and blunter than the lateral hairs (fig. 66A) .....Pachypappa tremulae

7 Body elongate. Antenna 5-segmented. R V very short .....8

- Body oval. Antenna 6-segmented. R V elongate .....9

8 Second tarsal segments mostly dusky to dark. ANT PT at least 0.5 diameter of rhinarium on ANT V. R IV+V 0.07-0.10 mm. Tarsal claws with distinctly bifurcate apices

.....Essigella californica

- Second tarsal segments mainly pale, sometimes dusky on distal third. Primary rhinarium on ANT V exceptionally distal, so that length of PT is greatly reduced, less than 0.5 diameter of rhinarium. R IV+V 0.04-0.07 mm. Tarsal claws with apices double but not distinctly bifurcate .....Essigella wilsoni

9 SIPH pores on broad pigmented conical bases 0.4 mm or more in diameter. (Antennal hairs numerous, 80 m or more long; hind tibial hairs 100-150 m long) .....Cinara commatula*

- SIPH cones very small, with pigmented area less than 0.2 mm in diameter ....10

10 All tibiae almost wholly pale, except that hind tibiae have contrastingly black apices

  .....Cinara splendens

- At least hind tibia dark or shading to dark over distal third or more of length .....11

11 Longest abdominal hairs more than 100 m long, longer than hairs on dorsal side of hind

tibia which are about 80 m long .....Cinara vagabunda*

- Longest abdominal hairs less than 100 m long or, if longer, then they are shorter

than longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia .....12

12 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 90-160 m. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 0.8-1.0 mm .....Cinara pseudotsugae

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 50-75 m. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.1-1.5 mm .....Cinara pseudotaxifoliae

13 Alatae (sexuparae) with large dorsal wax gland plates having numerous rather large pores

.Adelges (Gilletteella) cooleyi

- Alatae (gynoparae) with reduced dorsal wax gland plates having rather small pores

.Adelges (Gilletteella) coweni

 

 

Psiadia Compositae

Psiadia arabica = Ps. punctulata

Ps. punctulata Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Psidium Guava Myrtaceae

Psidium cattleianum Greenidea psidii

Ps. friedrichsthalianum Greenidea psidii

Ps. guajava  Aphis aurantii, craccivora, eugeniae, gossypii, [nasturtii],

    spiraecola;
Greenidea [decaspermi], ficicola, psidii;

[Mollitrichosiphum nandii];
  Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Pentalonia nigronervosa];

[Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]

Key to apterae on Psidium:-

1 SIPH without hairs .....use key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 2

- SIPH with numerous long hairs .....2

2 SIPH with reticulation only at base .....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

- SIPH with a pattern of pale reticulation extending over almost their entire length

.....Greenidea ficicola

 

 

Psila Compositae

Psila spartioides [Aphis craccivora]; Uroleucon essigi, macolai, tucumani

Use key to apterae on Baccharis.

 

Psilopogon see Microstegium Poaceae

 

Psophocarpus Leguminosae

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Aphis craccivora

Psoralea Leguminosae

Psoralea bituminosa = Bituminaria bituminosa

Ps. corylifolia = Cullen corylfolium

Ps. drupacea = Cullen drupaceum

Ps. lanceolata [Acyrthosiphon sp. (Idaho, Washington; A. Jensen colln aphidtrek.org]

Ps. macrostachya = Hoita macrostachya

(Use key to apterae on Caragana.)

 

Psoralidium see Psoralea Leguminosae

Psoralidium lanceolatum = Psoralea lanceolata

 

Psychilis Orchidaceae

Psychilis atropurpurea Aphis spiraecola

 

Psychotria (including Ipecacuahna, Mapouria, Rubiaceae

Rudgea, Straussia)

Psychotria alba [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a:102)]

Ps. coronata Aphis gossypii

Ps. grandis Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Ps. pubescens Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Ptarmica see Achillea Compositae

Parmica speciosa = Achillea cartilaginea

Pt. vulgaris = Achillea ptarmica

 

Ptelea Rutaceae

Ptelea trifoliata Aphis fabae; [Mesocallis pteleae]; [Sipha maydis]

Pteleopsis Combretaceae

Pteleopsis anisoptera Paoliella pteleopsidis

Pteranthus Caryophyllaceae

Pteranthus dichotomus Aphis craccivora

 

Pteretis see Matteuccia Woodsiaceae

 

Pteridium Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum Amphorophora ampullata, ampullata ssp. bengalensis;

(incl. var. latiusculum) Aphis gossypii,. nasturtii, [pteridisaquilinoides

Rafinesque (invalid);

Gibbomyzus pteridophytorum; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;

Macrosiphum clydesmithi, dryopteridis, osmaroniae,

ptericolens, pteridis, rhamni;

Mastopoda pteridis; Shinjia orientalis

Pt. caudatum Aphis aurantii, gossypii;

Macrosiphum cyatheae, ptericolens

Pt. latiusculum = Pt. aquilinum

Pt. revolutum Shinjia orientalis

Pteridium sp. Aulacorthum solani; Macromyzella polypodicola

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Pteris Pteridaceae

Pteris aquilina = Pteridium aquilinum

Pt. childsii Idiopterus nephrelepidis

Pt. cretica Idiopterus nephrelepidis

Pt. ensiformis Micromyzus niger

Pt. longifolia Micromyzodium filicium

Pt. ovalifolia (?) Shinjia orientalis

Pt. ovata = Pellaea ovata

Pt. pancheri Idiopteris nephrelepidis

Pt. tremula Idiopterus nephrelepidis

Pt. vittata Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Micromyzella filicis

Pteris spp. Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;

Macrosiphum rhamni;

[Eriosoma longipilosum (vagr. alate sexupara)]

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Pterocarpus Leguminosae

 

Pterocarpus soyauxii African Padouk, Camwood
Aphis
aurantii, craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.
 

Pterocarya Wing-nuts Juglandaceae

Pterocarya fraxinifola Caucasian Wing-nut
[Chromaphis californica];
[Eucarrazia caucasica Aizenberg, 1956];
[Monelliopsis bisetosa]; (all probably vagrants)

Pt. rhoifolia  Japanese Wing-nut
Kurisakia ailanthi ssp. sawagarumii, onigurumii;
Myzus persicae; Prociphilus oriens; Stomaphis pterocaryae

Pt. stenoptera Chinese Wing-nut
Aphis fabae; Dasyaphis mirabilis;
Kurisakia onigurumii (?); [Tinocallis insularis]

Pterocarya sp. [Anoecia japonica]; Kurisakia indica

 

Key to aphids on Pterocarya spp.:-

1 SIPH tubular. ANT PT/BASE much more than 1 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

- SIPH broadly conical, pore-like or absent. ANT PT/BASE less than 1  .....2

2 Apterae flattened, cimicoid, with 3-segmented antennae. Dorsum with variably developed finger-like hair-bearing processes, sometimes absent. Cauda knobbed, anal plate divided deeply into two triangular lobes .....Dasyaphis mirabilis

- Apterae with 5- or 6-segmented antennae, body without long processes. Cauda rounded, anal plate entire .....3

3 Rostrum longer than body .....Stomaphis pterocaryae

- Rostrum much shorter than body .....4

4 SIPH as large pores on shallow cones, ringed with long hairs. Alata with 5-segmented antennae and media of forewing once-branched .....Kurisakia sp(p).

- SIPH absent. Alata with 6-segmented antennae and media unbranched

.....Prociphilus oriens

Pteroceltis Ulmaceae

Pteroceltis tatarinowii Shivaphis pteroceltis

 

 

Pterocephalus Caprifoliaceae

Pterocephalus lasiospermus Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Pterocypsela Compositae

Pterocypsela formosana Uroleucon formosanum

Pt. indica Aulacorthum solani; Hyperomyzus carduellinus, lactucae;

Uroleucon formosanum, hasanicum, lactucicola, picridis,

sonchi

Pt. laciniata [Aphis lactucae Shinji 1922];

Uroleucon formosanum, lactucicola

Use key to apterae on Lactuca.

 

Pterolobium Leguminosae

Pterolobium punctatum Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Pterolobium sp. Aphis craccivora

 

Pterospermum Sterculiaceae

Pterospermum spp.  Cervaphis schouteniae; Eutrichosiphum subinoyi

Key to apterae on Pterospermum:-

- Body with very long, branched, hair-bearing marginal processes. SIPH cylindrical with sparse hairs .....Cervaphis schouteniae

- Body without long branched hair-bearing processes. SIPH swollen, with numerous

long hairs .....Eutrichosiphum subinoye


 

Pterostyrax Styracaceae

Pterostyrax corymbosus Myzus persicae

 

Pterotheca see Crepis Compositae

Pterotheca marschalliana = Crepis sancta ssp. obovata

 

Ptilium Brachytheciaceae

Ptilium crista-castrensis Muscaphis escherichi

(or use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)

 

Ptiloria see Stephanomeria Compositae

 

Ptilostemon Compositae

Ptilostemon afer Brachycaudus cardui

Pt. casabonae Aphis fabae

Pt. strictus Aphis fabae, Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to apterae on Ptilostemon:-

- Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield ..Brachycaudus cardui

- Without that combination of characters ..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Ptilotrichum Brassicaceae

Ptilotrichum canescens Smiela mongolica

Use key under Alyssum.

 

Ptychosperma Arecaceae

Ptychosperma elegans Cerataphis brasiliensis

Pt. macarthurii Cerataphis brasiliensis

 

Ptychotis Apiaceae

Ptychotis saxifraga Defractosiphon brevisiphon; Dysaphis apiifolia

Couplet for apterae of these two species:-

- SIPH very short, mammariform or conical, shorter than basal width, with a small subapical aperture; 0.12-0.2 cauda, which is digitiform ..Defractosiphon brevisiphon

- SIPH tapering/cylindrical, c.2 or more cauda which is helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width ..Dysaphis apiifolia

(Or try key to apterae on Seseli.)

 

Puccinellia (including Atropis) Poaceae

Puccinellia distans Atheroides brevicornis; Forda hirsuta;

Paracletus cimiciformis; Sipha elegans;

Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi

P. maritima Aploneura lentisci; Atheroides brevicornis, serrulatus;

Forda formicaria; Rhopalosiphum padi;

Sipha elegans, glyceriae, littoralis

Puccinellia sp. Forda marginata

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Pueraria Leguminosae

P. javanica = P. phaseoloides var. javanica

P. lobata = P. montana var. lobata

P. montana var. lobata Aphis craccivora, glycines

P. phaseoloides (incl. var. Aphis craccivora, glycines

javanica)

P. thunbergiana = P. montana var. lobata

Use key to apterae on Glycine.

 

Pulicaria Compositae

Pulicaria crispa Aphis gossypii;

Brachyunguis/Xerobion sp. (North Yemen, BMNH

collection);

Capitophorus inulae

P. dysenterica Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

(incl. ssp. uliginosa) Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae;

Myzus ornatus, persicae; Ovatus inulae;

Protaphis pseudocardui;

Uroleucon inulae, pulicariae, siculum

P. odora Brachycaudus helichrysi;

Protaphis sp. (Corsica, BMNH collection)

 

P. sicula Ovatus inulae; Uroleucon inulae

P. undulata Hyperomyzus lactucae

P. vulgaris Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon pulicariae

Pulicaria sp. Pemphigus bursarius

Key to apterae on Pulicaria:-

1 SIPH dusky or dark over at least half of length, with a distal zone of reticulation comprising many (more than 100) small polygonal cells ..2

- SIPH pale or dark without polygonal reticulation, or pale with distal reticulation comprising fewer, larger cells ..4

2 R IV+V 1.8-2.8 HT II. SIPH dusky with paler basal part ..Uroleucon inulae

- R IV+V 1.1-1.4 HT II. SIPH wholly dark ..3

3 Cauda black like SIPH. Tibiae mainly dark, with middle section sometimes somewhat paler ..Uroleucon siculum

- Cauda pale. Tibiae mainly pale, dark only at base and apex ..Uroleucon pulicariae

4 Dorsal hairs long and thick, with distinctly capitate apices and tuberculate bases. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 12-14 capitate hairs, the longest 2-3 ANT BD III ..Capitophorus inulae

- Dorsal hairs blunt, pointed or only slightly expanded apically, with or without tuberculate bases, and usually shorter. ABD TERG 1-4 each with fewer hairs ..5

5 R IV+V 2.3-3.0 HT II, and bearing 17-26 accessory hairs. Head with a well-developed rather scabrous median frontal tubercle, and also with rounded scabrous forwardly directed processes on ANT tubercles ..Ovatus inulae

- R IV+V 0.8-1.7 HT II, and bearing less than 10 accessory hairs. Head without a well-

developed scabrous median frontal process ..6

6 SIPH markedly clavate, and 1.4-1.7 cauda. ANT III with 5-29 rhinaria. Head smooth, ANT tubercles moderately well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces

..Hyperomyzus lactucae

- SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate, but if clavate then more than 1.7 cauda, and other characters also do not apply ..7

7 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3 or more than 1.5. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu, but if with then SIPH are longer than R IV+V ..8

- ANT PT/BASE 0.4-1.2. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu. SIPH shorter than R IV+V ..11

8 Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures large and rounded ..9

- Cauda either undeveloped, or tongue- or finger-shaped and distinctly longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures small and reniform ..go to key to polyphagous aphids

9 SIPH and cauda pale. Dorsum without dark markings ..Brachycaudus helichrysi

- SIPH and cauda dark. Dorsum with a solid dark shield or with variably developed dusky markings, and dark intersegmental muscle plates ..10

10 Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. SIPH 2.1-3.4 cauda. R IV+V

1.5-2.0 HT II. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes

..Brachycaudus cardui

- Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dusky segmental markings, and dark intersegmental muscle plates. SIPH 1.0-1.4 cauda. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 HT II. Mesosternum without mammariform processes ..Brachycaudus salicinae

11 ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.2. ANT without sec. rhinaria. R IV+V 1.4-1.6 HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 are 10-18 μm long. SIPH c.2 longer than their basal widths. Cauda about as long as its basal width in dorsal view .. Protaphis sp. (Corsica, BMNH collection)

- ANT PT/BASE 0.4-0.6. ANT III or III-IV with rhinaria. R IV+V 1.15-1.25 HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 are 35-45 μm long, with tuberculate bases. SIPH only about as long as their basal widths, and cauda much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view

..Brachyunguis/Xerobion sp. (North Yemen, BMNH collection)

 

Pulmonaria Boraginaceae

Pulmonaria angustifolia Brachycaudus helichrysi

P. longifolia Amphorosiphon pulmonariae

P. mollissima [Amphorophora ampullata]; Brachycaudus helichrysi

P. officinalis Amphorosiphon pulmonariae;

Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii;

Aulacorthum langei, solani;

Brachycaudus cardui, jacobi, helichrysi;

Macrosiphum gei; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

Ovatomyzus boraginacearum; [Uroleucon jaceae]

P. rubra Aulacorthum langei

P. saccharata Aphis nasturtii, symphyti; Aulacorthum solani;

Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

Key to apterae on Pulmonaria:-

(Macrosiphum euphorbiae is also included as it is can probably feed on Pulmonaria and is likely to be confused with M. gei.)

1 Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view ..2

- Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, distinctly longer than its basal width ..4

2 Dorsum pale, membranous. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 cauda

......Brachycaudus helichrysi

- Dorsum with an extensive black sclerotic shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.6 cauda

..3

3 ANT III with 4-11 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.135-0.175 mm. Dorsal shield with a distinct pattern of spinulose imbrications ..Brachycaudus jacobi

- ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). R IV+V (0.175-) 0.18-0.24 mm. Dorsal shield almost smooth or with indistinct imbrications ..Brachycaudus cardui

4 SIPH dark and markedly clavate. Dark ante- and postsiphuncular sclerites present, the latter usually joined by a bridge across ABD TERG 7. ANT III with more than 30 rhinaria. R IV+V with more than 40 accessory hairs ..Amphorosiphon pulmonariae

- SIPH if dark then not clavate. No ante- nor post-siphuncular sclerites. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria. R IV+V with 2-15 accessory hairs ..5

5 SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells) ..6

- SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation ..7

6 Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 38-63 μm, 0.6-1.4 ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate usually (77%) with only 2 hairs (18% with 3, 5% with 4-6 hairs)

..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

- Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 66-106 μm, 1.4-2.0 ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-11 hairs, usually (77%) with 4-8 hairs ..Macrosiphum gei

7 SIPH pale, broad at base and cylindrical/tapering on distal part, 0.20-0.25 BL. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5 ..8

- Without that combination of characters ..9

8 ANT III almost always (98%) without rhinaria. (ANT III of al. with 0-3 rhinaria). R IV+V with 8-10 accessory hairs ..Aulacorthum langei

- ANT III almost always (98%) with 1-2 (-3) small rhinaria near base. (ANT III of al. with 5-26 rhinaria). R IV+V with 5-7 (-8) accessory hairs ..Aulacorthum solani

9 ANT tubercles well-developed, steep-sided but not convergent apically, and not spiculose or scabrous. SIPH pale, slightly swollen on distal half ..Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

- Without that combination of characters .. go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Pulsatilla Ranunculaceae

Pulsatilla cernua Aphis gossypii, montanicola

P. coronaria see Anemone coronaria

P. dahurica Aphis gossypii, montanicola

P. flavescens = Anemone flavescens

P. grandis Aphis pulsatillicola; Aulacorthum solani

P. halleri ssp. styriaca Aphis montanicola

P. koreana = P. cernua

P. montana = Anemone montana

P. multifida Aphis pulsatillicola

P. nigricans Aphis pulsatillicola

P. patens Aphis montanicola

P. pratensis = Anemone pratensis

P. pratensis ssp. nigricans = P. nigricans

P. slavica = Anemone slavica

P. turczaninovii Aphis montanicola, pulsatillaephaga

P. vulgaris = Anemone pulsatilla

Pulsatilla sp. Macrosiphum euphorbiae

See key to apterae on Anemone and Pulsatilla, under Anemone.

 

Punica Lythraceae

Punica granatum Aphis achyranthi, aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

punicae, spiraecola;

Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

[Hysteroneura setariae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

[Micromyzodium filicium]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Punica:-

1 ANT tubercles weakly developed and cauda tongue-shaped and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu) (all these conditions must apply) ..2

- Either ANT tubercles well-developed or cauda helmet-shaped and not longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu ..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2 Cauda pale, or dusky but paler than SIPH .....3

- Cauda and SIPH both very dark .....4

3 SIPH often paler at base, and 1.1-1.5 cauda, which has 7-9 hairs. (Alata often with 1 or more rhinaria on ANT IV) ..Aphis punicae

- SIPH uniformly dark, and usually more than 1.5 cauda (range 1.2-2.5 ), which has 4-7(-8) hairs. (Alata without rhinaria on ANT IV) ..Aphis gossypii

4 Many of hairs on hind femur and dorsal side of hind tibia with finely pointed apices, longer than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 7-24 hairs .....5

- Hairs on hind femur and dorsal side of hind tibia shorter than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 4-9 hairs ..7

5 Stridulatory apparatus present, cosisting of a conspicuous pattern of ridges on ventro-lateral areas of abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and a row of short, peg-like hairs on the hind tibia

.....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

- Stridulatory apparatus not present .....6

6 SIPH 0.75-1.1 ANT III and 1.8-2.7 ANT BASE VI. ANT PT 0.27-0.46 mm, and ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.8 (mostly 2.4-3.6). Cauda hardly constricted near midlength and bearing 11-24 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark bands and dark dorsal markings also anterior to SIPH. (Al. with 10-23 rhinaria on ANT III) .....Aphis fabae

- SIPH 1.1-1.45 ANT III and 2.8-3.4 ANT BASE VI. ANT PT 0.22-0.29 mm, and ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.6. Cauda usually clearly constricted near midlength and bearing 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs. Abdomen without any dark markings. (Al. with 4-12 rhinaria on ANT III) ..Aphis spiraecola

7 Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic patch. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. SIPH more than 3 their basal widths. Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 3-8 only) ...Aphis craccivora

- Dorsum without an extensive dark sclerotic patch. ABD TERG 8 with 5-6 hairs. SIPH less than 3 their basal widths. Longest hairs of ANT III longer than BD III. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 16-20, IV 6-12, V 3-7) ......Aphis achyranthi

 

Purshia Rosaceae

Purshia tridentata Acyrthosiphon malvae, purshiae

Couplet for separating these two species:-

- Appendages mainly dark. R IV+V less than 0.9 HT II ...Acyrthosiphon purshiae

- Appendages mainly pale. R IV+V more than 0.9 HT II ...Acyrthosiphon malvae

 

Pycnanthemum Lamiaceae

Pycnanthemum sp. Aphis gossypii

 

Pycnocomon Dipsacaceae

Pycnocomon rutifolium Aphis thomasi

(or use key to apterae on Scabiosa)

 

Pycreus Cyperaceae

Pycreus mundtii Aphis gossypii

 

Pyracantha Rosaceae

Pyracantha angustifolia Aphis pomi, spiraecola

P. coccinea (incl. var. lalandi) Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii, pomi, spiraecola;

Eriosoma lanigerum: Myzus persicae

P. crenatoserrata = P. fortuneana

P. crenulata Aphis pomi, spiraecola

P. fortuneana Aphis gossypii, pomi, spiraecola

P. koidzumii Aphis citricidus, gossypii, spiraecola; Eriosoma lanigerum

Pyracantha spp. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Eriosoma crataegi

Key to apterae on Pyracantha:-

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH as pores with sclerotised rims. Wax glands present, each usually consisting of a ring of large facets around an undivided or partially divided central area ..2

- ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular, Wax glands not evident ..3

2 Maximum diameter of SIPH pore 80-160 μm. ANT III usually more than 1.25 ANT

IV+V together ..Eriosoma crataegi

- Maximum diameter of SIPH pore less than 60 μm. ANT III usually less than 1.25 ANT IV+V together ..Eriosoma lanigerum

3 SIPH and cauda both black. Cauda finger-like, usually with a midway constriction. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings, and no stridulatory apparatus present ..4

- SIPH and cauda pale or dark, but if both are black then cauda is tongue-like without a constriction, and either dorsal abdomen has dark markings, or a stridulatory apparatus is present ..go to key to polyphagous aphids

4 Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13). R IV+V more than 130μm long ...Aphis pomi

- MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V

less than 120μm long ......Aphis spiraecola

 

Pyrethrum Compositae

Pyrethrum cinerariifolium = Tanacetum cinerariifolium

P. clusii = Tanacetum corymbosum ssp. subcorymbosum

P. corymbosum = Tanacetum corymbosum

P. fruticulosum Fenzl ex Boiss. = Tanacetum armenum

P. inodorum = Tripleurospermum inodorum

P. leptophyllum = Tanacetum leptophyllum

P. macrophyllum = Tanacetum macrophyllum

P. millefoliatum = Tanacetum millefolium

P. parthenifolium Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

P. tanacetoides = Tanacetum tanacetoides

Pyrethrum sp. Brachycaudus cardui;

Macrosiphoniella caucasica, tanacetaria ssp. bonariensis

See Tanacetum for a combined key to apterae on Pyrethrum and Tanacetum.

 

Pyrola Ericaceae

Pyrola chlorantha Aulacorthum pirolacearum

P. elliptica [Macrosiphum pechumani]

P. rotundifolia Aulacorthum pirolacearum

 

Pyrostegia Bignoniaceae

Pyrostegia ignea = P. venusta

P. venusta Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pyrrhopappus Compositae

Pyrrhopappus carolinianus Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

 

Pyrrosia (including Cyclophorus, Drymoglossum) Polypodiaceae

Pyrrosia lanceolata Micromyzus vandergooti

P. lingua [Macromyzus woodwardiae]

P. nummularifolia Micromyzus vandergooti

P. piloselloides Micromyzus vandergooti

Pyrrosia sp. Macrosiphini gen. and sp. n. (Taiwan, BMNH collection)

Key to separate apterae of these two species:-

(Both have SIPH swollen in middle)

- SIPH black, cauda pale. Head pale with rather low ANT tubercles. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation ..Micromyzus vandergooti

- SIPH pale, cauda dark. Head dark with very well-developed ANT tubercles. ANT III with 3-4 rhinaria in a row on basal part. Dorsal abdomen with a dark central patch, and dark marginal, pre- and post-siphuncular sclerites

.. Macrosiphini gen. and sp. n. (Taiwan, BMNH collection, leg. S.E. Halbert)

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

 

Pyrularia Santalaceae

Pyrularia pubera Aulacorthum solani

 

Pyrus Pears Rosaceae

A key to the common aphids on cultivated pear (P. communis) is provided in Blackman & Eastop (2000). The key is here extended to include all aphids recorded from the genus Pyrus. (Aphids on crab-apples, often included in Pyrus, are treated under Malus.)

Host List:-

Pyrus amygdaliformis Aphis pomi; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

Dysaphis pyri, reaumuri; Melanaphis pyraria

P. betulifolia Aphis spiraecola; Melanaphis siphonella

P. boissieriana Dysaphis reaumuri

P. bondoensis (?) Sappaphis piri

P. bretschneideri Aphis pomi; Schizaphis piricola;

[Siciunguis novena Zhang & Hu 1999 (= alate sexuparae of

Eriosoma lanigerum?)]

P. calleryana Aphis pomi; Schizaphis piricola

 

P. communis  Common Pear
(incl. sspp. caucasica, Anuraphis catonii, farfarae, ferulae, pyrilaseri, subterranea;
pyraster) Aphanostigma piri;
Aphis
aurantii, citricidus, craccivora, eugeniae, fabae,

gossypii, odinae, pomi, solanella, spiraecola;

[Aploneura ampelina]; Aulacorthum solani;
Brachycaudus [almatinus], cardui, helichrysi, persicae;
Brachysiphoniella montana;
Dysaphis [multisetosa], plantaginea, pyri, reaumuri,
    tschildarensis;
Eriosoma americana, flavum, lanigerum, lanuginosum,
    pyricola;

  [Eutrichosiphum pyri]; Ericaphis gentneri;
Longistigma caryae, xizangensis;

Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;
Melanaphis pahanensis, pyraria, siphonella;
Myzus ornatus, persicae; Nearctaphis bakeri;
Nippolachnus bengalensis, piri;
Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Prociphilus kuwanai;
Pterochloroides persicae; Pyrolachnus pyri;
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, oxyacanthae, padi;

Sappaphis piri; Schizaphis pyri, rotundiventris;

[Uroleucon compositae]

P. elaeagnifolia Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola; Dysaphis pyri;

Macrosiphum euphorbiae

P. georgica Dysaphis reaumuri

P. granulosa = Sorbus corymbifera

P. insularis Nippolachnus piri

P. khasiana = Sorbus khasiana

P. korshinskyi Dysaphis pyraria, reaumuri

P. kumaoni = P. pashia

P. lanata see Sorbus lanata

P. macrostipes Brachysiphoniella montana

P. mamorensis Aphis craccivora; Dysaphis plantaginea;

Eriosoma lanigerum; Macrosiphum rosae

P. montana Aphis spiraecola; Brachysiphoniella montana;
Melanaphis siphonella; Sappaphis piri

P. nivalis Dysaphis pyri

P. pashia Aphis gossypii, pomi, spiraecola; Dysaphis pyri, sharmai;

Melanaphis [arundinariae], pahanensis;

Nippolachnus bengalensis; Pyrolachnus pyri;

Schizaphis rotundiventris

P. polycarpa = Sorbus polycarpa

P. pulcherrima Aphis gossypii

P. pyraster see P. communis

P. pyrifolia (incl. var. culta) Dolbae, Chinese or Japanese Pear
Anuraphis farfarae; Aphanostigma iaksuiense;
Aphis
citricidus, gossypii, odinae, pomi, spiraecola;
Brachycaudus helichrysi; Longistigma caryae;

Melanaphis [pyrisucta], siphonella; Myzus persicae;

Nippolachnus piri; Ovatus crataegarius;

Prociphilus kuwanai, oriens; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

[Pseudotoxoptera pyrisucta Qiao & Zhang in G. Zhang et al.

1999d]
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, oxyacanthae, padi,

rufiabdominale;
Sappaphis piri; Schizaphis piricola

P. regelii Anuraphis subterranea; Dysaphis pyri, reaumuri;

Eriosoma lanuginosum

P. salicifolia Anuraphis subterranea; Dysaphis reaumuri

P. sargentii (= Malus sargentii) Dysaphis pyri

P. serrulata Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

P. syriaca Aphanostigma piri; Aphis spiraecola; Dysaphis reaumuri

P. ussuriensis Anuraphis farfarae, subterranea; Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

Brachysiphoniella montana; Dysaphis pyri;
  Prociphilus kuwanai;

Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, rufiabdominale;

Sappaphis piri; Schizaphis piricola

P. vestita = Sorbus cuspidata

P. xerophila [Allocotaphis minensis]; [Sorbaphis chaetosiphon (alata)]

Pyrus spp. Aphis chetansapa; [Dysaphis affinis];

[?Hyperomyzus yulongshanensis G. Zhang et al. 1992c

(host uncertain)];

            [Melanaphis pyrisucta Zhang & Qiao 1999];
            Sappaphis
[dipirivora], [montana], [sinipiricola];

Sinomegoura pyri

 

Key to aphids on Pyrus (apterous viviparae, excluding fundatrices, except where otherwise stated):-

1 Antenna 3-segmented. Body very small (BL 0.8-1.0 mm), pyriform, broadest anteriorly. All females oviparous .....Aphanostigma iaksuiense / piri

- Antenna 5- or 6-segmented. Body usually longer than 1 mm, not broadest anteriorly. Parthenogenetic females viviparous .....2

2 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.8; if more than 0.6 then PT bears some long fine hairs. Cauda broadly rounded, usually shorter than width at base .....3

- ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6, PT without any long fine hairs. Cauda semicircular, helmet-shaped, tongue- or finger-shaped, about as long as its basal width or longer ....15

 

3 Conspicuous wax pore plates present. SIPH either absent or present as pores with a surrounding ring of hairs .....4

- Wax pore plates absent. SIPH as large pores on broad cones with numerous hairs .....10

4 SIPH present as large pores with surrounding hairs. Wax pore plates comprising rings or groups of circular or polygonal facets enclosing one or more clear central areas (on stems or roots) .....5

- SIPH absent or inconspicuous. Wax pore plates honeycomb-like without any clear central areas (in leaf-nest galls) .....9

5 All wax pore plates consisting of a ring of facets around a single, more-or-less circular

central clear area .....6

- Largest wax pore plates each consisting of a group of facets enclosing either a very narrow

or subdivided central clear area or several clear areas .....8

 

6 BL 2.0-2.7 mm. R IV+V 0.20-0.25 mm. (Cauda with 2-4 hairs) .....Eriosoma lanuginosum

- BL 1.0-1.9 mm. R IV+V 0.10-0.18 mm .....7

7 R IV+V 0.10-0.12 mm. Cauda with 2-4 hairs .....Eriosoma flavum

- R IV+V 0.12-0.18 mm. Cauda with 5 or more hairs .....Eriosoma pyricola

8 ANT III similar in length to R IV+V. Wax pore plates with narrow, mostly interconnecting central areas .....Eriosoma lanigerum

- ANT III less than 0.5 R IV+V. Wax pore plates with separate, circular or polygonal clear central areas .....Eriosoma americanum

9 BL of spring migrant alata from leaf-nest gall (s.m.a.) 4 mm or more. R IV+V more than 0.2 mm long and bearing 7 or more accessory hairs .....Prociphilus oriens

- BL of s.m.a. less than 4 mm. R IV+V less than 0.16 mm long and bearing 2-5 accessory hairs

. .....Prociphilus kuwanai

10 Body elongate, 2 or more longer than wide. Antennae and legs pale except for black tibial apices and hind tarsi. (Alata with a black quadrate dorsal abdominal patch) .....11

- Body broadly oval, less than 2 longer than wide. Antennae and legs mainly dark .....12

11 ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.35, without any long fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V 0.14-0.18 mm long, 0.62-0.75 HT II, and bearing 9-16 accessory hairs

.....Nippolachnus bengalensis

- ANT PT/BASE 0.45-0.75, with some long fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V 0.17-0.22 mm long, 0.7-1.0 HT II, and bearing more than 20 accessory hairs

.....Nippolachnus piri

12 Abdomen with paired, pigmented spinal tubercles on each tergite. (Alata with maculate forewings and a short pterostigma) .....Pterochloroides persicae

- Abdomen without spinal tubercles. Forewings of alata not maculate, with a long pterostigma

.....13

13 HT I (measured on ventral side) less than 2 its basal diameter, less than 0.35 HT II. Forewing of alata with pterostigma almost straight, not extending around tip of wing

.....Pyrolachnus pyri

- HT I more than 2 its basal diameter, more than 0.35 HT II. Forewing of alata with pterostigma curved distally, extending around wing-tip .....14

14 HT II 1.8-2.3 HT I .....Longistigma caryae

- HT II about 2.6 HT I .....Longistigma xizangensis*

15 SIPH shorter than cauda .....16

- SIPH as long as or longer than cauda .....20

16 Abdomen without any dorsal markings ......17

- Abdomen with dark dorsal markings .....18

17 Cauda dark, rounded at apex. Stridulatory ridges present on abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and a row of short, peg-like hairs on each hind tibia .....Aphis odinae

- Cauda pale or dusky, long and tapering. No stridulatory ridges, nor peg-like hairs on hind tibiae .....Brachysiphoniella montana

18 SIPH very short, conical, shorter than basal width and about 0.2 cauda. Dorsal abdomen with interrupted markings .....Melanaphis siphonella

- SIPH more than 0.7 cauda. Dorsal abdomen with an almost solid dark shield, or with

dark tranverse sclerites .....19

19 Dorsal abdomen usually with an almost solid dark sclerotic shield. Hairs on antenna and dorsal body minute, less than 0.5 diameter of ANT III. SIPH about 2 basal width

.....Melanaphis pyraria

- Dorsal abdomen with separate transverse sclerites. Hairs on antenna and dorsal body long and fine, much longer than diameter of ANT III. SIPH less than 1.5 basal width

.....Melanaphis pahanensis

20 SIPH with closely-spaced rows of densely-packed spinules or nodules .....21

- SIPH often imbricated but without densely-packed spinules or nodules .....26

21 Abdomen of aptera and alata without spinal tubercles. Alata with dark dorsal patch centred on ABD TERG 3-6. Marginal tubercles if present somewhat protruberant, and always absent from ABD TERG 7 .....Nearctaphis bakeri

- Abdomen of alata with rather flat round spinal and marginal tubercles on most tergites (present or absent on 7), and with dark patch centred on ABD TERG 4-6 or 5-6 (ABD TERG 3 unpigmented). (Forming pseudogalls inhabited by fundatrices and alate spring migrants only) .....22

22 Fundatrix with ANT PT/BASE greater than 1, and with well-developed marginal sclerites that are mostly more than 2 diameter of any tubercles present. Alata with spinal

and marginal tubercles usually on ABD TERG 1-7 .....23

- Fundatrix (where known) with ANT PT/BASE less than 1, and with marginal tubercles on small sclerites mostly less than 2 diameter of tubercles. Alata with spinal and marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 1-5 only .....24

23 Fundatrix without spinal or marginal tubercles. SIPH of alata with 18-27 rows of spinules

.....Anuraphis catonii

- Fundatrix with large marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 1-7, and often also with spinal tubercles. SIPH of alata with 25-35 rows of spinules .....Anuraphis subterranea

24 Alata with 29-43 secondary rhinaria on ANT III. (Fundatrix undescribed)

.....Anuraphis ferulae

- Alata with 70-105 secondary rhinaria on ANT III .....25

 

25 Fundatrix usually with a marginal tubercle on ABD TERG 6. Alata with ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.5 .....Anuraphis farfarae

- Fundatrix without a marginal tubercle on ABD TERG 6. Alata with ANT PT/BASE more than 5.0 .....Anuraphis pyrilaseri

26 Dorsal cuticle sclerotic and strongly corrugated. R IV+V 1.68-1.90 HT II and bearing 2
accessory hairs .....Eumyzus eastopi

- Dorsal cuticle not strongly corrugated. R IV+V either less than 1.5 HT II or with more than 2 accessory hairs .....27

27 Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width in dorsal view .....28

- Cauda helmet-shaped, triangular or rounded in dorsal view, not clearly longer than its basal width .....44

28 Head capsule spinulose or nodulose. Antennal tubercles well-developed with inner faces spinulose or scabrous and parallel or convergent in dorsal view .....29

- Head capsule smooth. Antennal tubercles either small or undeveloped or with inner faces smooth and divergent in dorsal view .....33

29 Inner faces of antennal tubercles approximately parallel, and spinulose. ANT III with one or more small rhinaria near base .....30

- Inner faces of antennal tubercles convergent and scabrous. ANT III without rhinaria .....31

30 Head, antennae and legs mainly dark. Siphunculi slightly swollen on distal half

.....Pseudomegoura magnoliae

- Head, antennae and legs mainly pale. Siphunculi tapering/cylindrical

.....Aulacorthum solani

31 SIPH moderately swollen on distal half .....Myzus persicae

- SIPH cylindrical or tapering on distal half .....32

32 Spring migrant alata (s.m.a.) with 60-83 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 36-52 on ANT IV and 13-22 on ANT V .....Ovatus insitus

- S.m.a. with 22-49 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 5-20 on IV and 0-10 on V

.....Ovatus crataegarius

33 SIPH and cauda pale, mainly concolorous with dorsal cuticle. Antennal tubercles well
developed .....34

- SIPH, and usually cauda also, mainly darker than dorsal abdomen (except when tergum is black). Antennal tubercles poorly developed .....37

34 SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation .....35

- SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation .....36

35 Front of head pale or dusky. SIPH of aptera pale at least on basal half, sometimes dusky towards apex .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

- Front of head black. SIPH wholly black .....Macrosiphum rosae

36 ANT III with a single rhinarium near base and bearing minute hairs less than 0.3 basal diameter of segment. Cauda with a slight mid-way constriction and blunt apex, and usually bearing 6 hairs .....Ericaphis gentneri

- ANT III with 2 rhinaria near base and hairs 0.5-0.7 basal diameter of segment. Cauda long and pointed, with 11-12 hairs .....Sinomegoura pyri*

37 Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posteriodorsal to spiracle; these tubercles not usually of larger basal diameter than the spiracular opening .....38

- Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed just posterior to spiracle and slightly ventral to an anterio-posterior line drawn through the spiracle; these tubercles usually larger than the spiracular opening .....43

38 SIPH tapering gradually from base to apex, not constricted subapically and with flange only moderately developed  .....39

- SIPH approximately cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically, and constricted just proximad to the well-developed flange .....41

39 Anterior part of head dark. SIPH uniformly black. Alata without any secondary rhinaria on ANT V (III with 8-11, IV with 1-5) .....Schizaphis rotundiventris

- Head wholly pale or dusky. SIPH either uniformly dark, or pale/dusky with black apices. Alata with 1-6 secondary rhinaria on ANT V (rarely 0 on one side) .....40

40 Antennae shorter than body, reaching to base of siphunculi. SIPH uniformly dark. Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 14-19, IV 5-9, V 0-5  .....Schizaphis pyri

- Antennae about as long as body. SIPH pale or dusky, black only at apices. Alata with
secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 24-32, IV 14-16, V 4-6 .....Schizaphis piricola

41 Tibiae evenly pigmented. SIPH more than 0.3 mm long and clavate proximad to subapical constriction (except fundatrix). (Fundatrix with ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0)
  .....Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

- Tibiae mainly pale, dark distally. SIPH less than 0.3 mm long, with only a slight swelling proximad to subapical constriction .....42

42 ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 all more than 40 m long with pointed apices. (Fundatrix with ANT PT/BASE equal to or less than 2.0)

.....Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

- ABD TERG 8 with 2 (-3) hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 often with blunt apices and less than 40 m long. (Fundatrices with ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0)

.....Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

43 Stridulatory ridges present on ventral abdomen .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus
(for separation see key to polyphagous aphids)

- Stridulatory ridges absent

.....Aphis craccivora, eugeniae, fabae, gossypii, pomi, spiraecola
(for separation see couplets 23-27 of key to aphids on Malus)

44 First tarsal segments all with only 2 hairs. Marginal tubercles well developed on ABD TERG 1 and 7 .....Aphis chetansapa

- First tarsal segments with 3 hairs at least on fore and mid-legs. Marginal tubercles if well developed then on ABD TERG 2-5 (or 2-6) as well as on 1 and 7 .....45

45 Antenna with numerous long very fine hairs, the longest more than 2 basal diameter of ANT III. (Alata with separate transverse bars on dorsal abdomen) .....46

Longest hairs on ANT III less than 1.8 basal diameter of segment. (Alata with an almost solid dark patch on dorsal abdomen) .....47

46 SIPH 2 or more basal width, and sometimes bearing one or more hairs. Cauda rounded, much shorter than its basal width .....Sappaphis piri

- SIPH less than 1.5 basal width, without hairs. Cauda bluntly pointed, about as long as its basal width .....Melanaphis pahanensis

47 Spiracular openings large and rounded .....48

- Spiracular openings small and reniform .....50

48 SIPH less than 2 cauda. Dorsal abdomen dusky or pale. Mesosternum without any mammariform processes .....Brachycaudus almatinus/ helichrysi

- SIPH more than 2 cauda. Dorsal abdomen usually dark. Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of mammariform processes .....49

49 R IV+V more than 0.17 mm, more than 0.6 SIPH. Dorsal abdomen and SIPH pale or dark. (Al. with secondary rhinaria only on ANT III) ..... Brachycaudus cardui

- R IV+V less than 0.17 mm, about 0.5 SIPH or less. Dorsal abdomen always extensively
sclerotised, black, and SIPH black. (Al. with secondary rhinaria on ANT III and IV, or III, IV and V .....Brachycaudus persicae

50 Antennae at least as long as distance from frons to SIPH bases (in alata about as long as body). SIPH more than 0.3 mm long, black .....Dysaphis plantaginea

- Antennae shorter than distance from frons to SIPH bases (in alata less than BL). SIPH pale or dark, less than 0.3 mm long .....51

51 R IV+V 0.186-0.210 mm, 1.46-1.48 HT II. Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-5 and 7. Spring migrant alata (s.m.a.) with 13-22 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-5 on IV, 0 on V ....Dysaphis tschildarensis

- R IV+V 0.123-0.163 mm, 0.85-1.25 HT II. Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-5 or 1-7. S.m.a. where known with 23-64 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-27 on IV and 0-7 on V .....52

52 SIPH 0.10-0.13 mm, 0.78-0.94 R IV+V. S.m.a. with strongly protruberant secondary rhinaria .....Dysaphis sharmai

- SIPH 0.16-0.29 mm, 1.2-2.0 R IV+V. S.m.a. (where known) with secondary rhinaria weakly protruberant .....53

53 Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-7 (sometimes missing on one side on 6); flattened, only slightly convex, the largest 55-60 m in diameter. Longest hairs on ANT III 12-18 m, 0.5-0.8 basal diameter of segment .....Dysaphis pyraria*

- Marginal tubercles usually present only on ABD TERG 1-5 (very rarely on 7 on one side); hemispherical, papilliform or conical, the largest 21-47 m in basal diameter. Longest hairs on ANT III 13-50 m, 0.5-1.8 basal diameter of segment .....54

54 SIPH black, 3.4-4.1 their diameter at midpoint. Marginal tubercles hemispherical. S.m.a. with 23-36 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-10 on IV and 0-1 on V .....Dysaphis pyri

- SIPH pale, sometimes dusky at apices, 4.1-5.0 their diameter at midpoint. Marginal tubercles papilliform or conical. S.m.a. with 32-64 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 8-27 on IV and 0-7 on V .....Dysaphis reaumuri