HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Pop-Pru

 

POPULUS

Portulaca

Portulacaria

Potalia

Potamogeton

Potentilla

Poterium

Pothomorphe

Pothos

Poupartia

Pourthiaea

Pouteria

Pouzolzia

Prangos

Prasium

Pratia

Praxelis

Premna

Prenanthes

Primula

Pringlea

Prinsepia

Pritchardia

Priva

Proboscidea

Pronephrium

Prosartes

Prosopidastrum

Prosopis

Prostanthera

Prosthechea

Protasparagus

Proustia

Prunella

PRUNUS

 

 

Populus                                     Poplars                           Salicaceae

There are about 120 poplar-feeding aphid species, in 24 genera. Although some species appear to be host-specific, many others are not, and there are no clear patterns of host specificity related to the subgeneric classification of Populus. Therefore the poplar-feeding aphids are treated as a whole, and two rather long keys are provided, one to the free-living aphids and the other two those that form galls or pseudogalls (e.g. folded leaves or "leaf nests". The gall-formers all belong to subfamily Pemphiginae; of these, only the alatae from the galls are keyed.

Host List:-

       Populus acuminata                                     Lanceleaf Cottonwood
                                                       Aphis maculatae; Chaitophorus populicola;
                                                       Mordwilkoja vagabunda;

                                                              Pemphigus populicaulis, populitransversus

       P. adenopoda                                               Chinese Aspen
                                                       Chaitophorus populeti

       P. alba                                                          White Poplar
                                                       Chaitophorus
[dorocolus ssp. wuweiensis], leucomelas,

                                                                  longisetosus, [manaliensis], melanosiphon,

                                                                  [nassonowi], populeti, populeti ssp. sensoriatus,

                                                                  populialbae, populialbae ssp. yomefuri,

                                                                  [populihabitans], [tremulae];
                                                       Doraphis populi; [Epipoemphigus niisimae];

                                                              Gootiella alba; [Myzus persicae];
                                                       Pachypappa [populi], ?pseudobyrsa, vesicalis,

                                                                  warshavensis (also on roots?; see text);
                                                       [Pemphigus bursarius, immunis, protospirae, vesicarius];
                                                       Phloeomyzus passerinii; Phylloxerina populi;
                                                       Pterocomma [anyangense], dubium, populeum,

                                                                  [sinipopulifoliae], smithiae, yezoense;

                                                              Stomaphis longirostris; Tuberolachnus salignus

       P. alba var. pyramidalis Bunge     Chaitophorus populeti, populialbae, [tremulae];

            (Note: P. pyramidalis Rozier =         Neopemphigus turajevi; [Pemphigus bursarius];
     
P. nigra var. italica)                     Pterocomma kozhuchovae, populeum, yezoense

       P. angulata = P. deltoides               

       P. angustifolia                                             Narrow-Leaf Cottonwood
                                                       Aphis maculatae;
                                                       Chaitophorus populicola, populifolii, stevensis;
                                                       Cornaphis populi; Pachypappa sacculi;
                                                       Pemphigus betae, knowltoni, monophagus, populiglobuli,
                                                           [populitransversus], populivenae;
                                                       Pterocomma populifoliae, pseudopopuleum, smithiae;
                                                       Thecabius populimonilis;
                                                       Thecabius (Parathecabius) gravicornis

       P. balsamifera                                             Tacamahac or Balsam Poplar
                                                       Aphis maculatae;
                                                       Chaitophorus leucomelas, [matsumurai], [nassonowi],

                                                                  populeti, populialbae, populicola, populifolii;
                                                       Clydesmithia canadensis; Epipemphigus niisimae;
                                                       [Pachypappa tremulae, Pachpappa sp.];
                                                       Pemphigus betae, borealis, [bursarius], [matsumurai],

                                                                  monophagus, [phenax], populi, populicaulis,

                                                                  populiglobuli, populinigrae, populiramulorum,

                                                                  populitransversus, populivenae, [protospirae],

                                                                  [spyrothecae];
                                                       Phloeomyzus passerinii; Phylloxerina salicicola;
                                                       Pterocomma bicolor, populeum, populifoliae,[rufipes];
                                                       Thecabius affinis, patchii, populiconduplifolius,

                                                                   populimonilis;
                                                       Thecabius (Parathecabius) gravicornis

       P. beijingensis                               Thecabius beijingensis

       P. berolinensis                             Chaetophorus leucomelas, populeti;

                                                              Pachypappa tremulae;

                                                              Pemphigus borealis, bursarius, passeki, phenax,

                                                                   spyrothecae;

                                                              Pterocomma populeum, [tremulae]; Thecabius affinis

       P. bolleana = P. alba var. pyramidalis

       P. bonatii = P. rotundifolia var. bonatii

       P.canadensis                              Chaitophorus euphraticus, [frigidus], leucomelas,

                                                                  nassonowi, populeti;

                                                              Pachypappa warshavensis;                                                  

                                                              Pemphigus borealis, bursarius, dorocola, immunis,

                                                                  populi, populinigrae, protospirae, spyrothecae;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii; Pterocomma populeum, tremulae;

                                                              Thecabius affinis

       P. candicans = P. balsamifera

       P. canescens                                                Grey Poplar
                                                       Chaitophorus leucomelas, longisetosus, populeti,

                                                                    populialbae, tremulae;
                                                       Pachypappa tremulae, vesicalis, warshavensis (also on

                                                                  roots? – see text);

                                                              [Pachypappella lactea (sexuparae)];

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius; Phylloxerina populi;

                                                              Pterocomma populeum, rufipes

       P. caspica                                      Chaitophorus populialbae; Pterocomma pilosum

       P. cathayana                                 Chaitophorus leucomelas, populeti, populialbae;

                                                              Epipemphigus imaicus, nanjingensis, niisimae,

                                                                  sanpupopuli, [yunnanensis];

                                                              Pachpappa aigeiros;

                                                              Pemphigus borealis, bursarius, immunis, iskanderkuli,

                                                                   matsumurai, [populinigrae], sinobursarius, tibetensis,

                                                                   zhongi;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii (ssp. zhangwuensis);

                                                              Pterocomma [neimongolense], populeum, sanpunum;

                                                              Thecabius affinis, beijingensis,

                                                                  [populisuctus Zhang & Zhong 1995 (sexuparae)]

        P. charkowiensis                           Pemphigus bursarius, immunis, spyrothecae                     

       P. ciliata                                                       Bangikat Poplar
                                                       [Aspidophorodon harvensis];

                                                              Chaitophorus [himalayensis], kapuri, [manaliensis];

                                                              Doraphis populi; Epipemphigus imaicus, marginalis;                                                                  [Ericolophium dubium]; [Lachnus longirostrum];

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius, dorocola, [ignotus], immunis,

                                                                  matsumurai, mordvilkoi, nainitalensis, [napaeus],

                                                                  siphunculatus, spyrothecae, [venosus];

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii; [Pterocomma rufipes]

       P. davidiana                                  [Chaitogenophorus yuzhongensis Zhang, Qiao & Chen];

                                                              Chaitophorus dorocolus, inouyei, leucomelas, populeti,

                                                                   populialbae, tremulae;

                                                              Doraphis populi; Pachypappa populi, tremulae;

                                                              [Pachypappella lactea]; Pemphigus circellatus;

                                                              [Thecabius populisuctus]

 

       P. deltoides ssp. deltoides                             Eastern Cottonwood
                                                       Chaitophorus leucomelas, [nassonowi], neglectus, populeti,

                                                                   [populialbae], populicola, populicola ssp. patchae,

                                                                   populifolii, stevensis;

                                                              Mordwilkoja vagabunda; Pachypappa pseudobyrsa;
                                                       Pemphigus bursarius, [immunis], longicornus, nortonii,

                                                                  obesinymphae, [populi], populicaulis, [populinigrae],

                                                                  populitransversus, populivenae, protospirae,

                                                                  spyrothecae, tartareus;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii;

                                                              Pterocomma populeum, smithiae, tremulae;

                                                              Thecabius affinis, populiconduplifolius

 

       P. deltoides var. occidentalis                       Plains Cottonwood
   
(= P. monilifera, P. sargentii)            Chaitophorus populicola, populicola ssp. patchae,

                                                                   populifolii, stevensis;
                                                       Mordwilkoja vagabunda; Pachypappa pseudobyrsa;
                                                       Pemphigus betae, bursarius, junctisensoriatus, nortonii,
                                                           obesinymphae, populicaulis, populiramulorum,                                                            populitransversus;
                                                       Phloeomyzus passerinii;

                                                              Phylloxerina popularia, prolifera;
                                                       Pterocomma pseudopopuleum, smithiae, yezoense;
                                                       Thecabius populiconduplifolius

        P. deltoides var. wislizeni              Tuberolachnus salignus

       P. densa = P. talassica

       P. dilatata = P. nigra var. italica       

       P. diversifolia = P. euphratica

       P. eugenei                                      Phloeomyzus passerinii

       P. euphratica                                 Chaitophorus [diversifolii], euphraticus, populeti,

                                                                  populicola, pruinosae, [xinjiangalbus];

                                                              Lambersaphis pruinosa; Pachypappa warshavensis;
                                                       Pemphigus immunis, napaeus, sinobursarius;

                                                              Pterocomma populeum

       P. euramericana = P. canadensis

       P. fastigiata = P. nigra var. italica    

       P. fremontii                                                  Fremont Cottonwood
                                                       Chaitophorus populicola, populifolii;

                                                              Pachypappa ?pseudobyrsa;
                                                       Pemphigus ?canadensis, obesinymphae, populicaulis,                                                                        populiramulorum, populitransversus, populivenae;
                                                       Phylloxerina popularia; Thecabius populimonilis

        P. generosa                                 [Pemphigus sp.]; Pterocomma dubium, populeum

       P. gileadensis                              Chaitophorus leucomelas; [Pterocommma rufipes]

       P. gracilis                                      Chaitophorus leucomelas, tremulae;

                                                             Pemphigus bursarius, populi, protospirae, spyrothecae,

                                                                 vesicarius;

                                                             Pterocomma populeum; Thecabius affinis

                                                             

       P. grandidentata                                         Bigtooth Aspen
(= P. tremula ssp. grandidentata)          Chaitophorus neglectus, populialbae, stevensis;
                                                      Pterocomma populifolii, smithiae

 

       P. heterophylla                                            Swamp Cottonwood
                                                       No aphids recorded

       P. hybrida                                    Pachypappa warshavensis

       P. hickeliana = P. alba

       P. komarovii                                  Pterocomma yezoense; Thecabius affinis

       P. koreana                                     [Aphis gossypii];                                                                 

                                                              Chaitophorus dorocolus, inouyei, leucomelas, variegatus;

                                                              Epipemphigus niisimae;
                                                       Pemphigus borealis, dorocola, matsumurai;
                                                       Pterocomma yezoense; Thecabius affinis, beijingensis;

                                                              Thecabius (Parathecabius) latisensorius

       P. laurifolia                                   Chaitophorus leucomelas, populeti, populialbae,

                                                                  tremulae, tremulae ssp. sorini;
                                                       Pachypappa marsupialis ssp. lambersi, shaposhnikovi;
                                                       Pemphigus [birimatus], borealis, bursarius, immunis,

                                                                   laurifolia, matsumurai, mongolicus, montanus,

                                                                   plicatus, [populi], populinigrae, protospirae,

                                                                   sp. near iskanderkuli;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii;

                                                              Pterocomma dubium, populeum, sanpunum;

                                                              Thecabius affinis; Thecabius (Parathecabius) latisensorius

       P. litwinowiana = P. euphratica      

       P. longifolia                                   Chaitophorus populeti; Pemphigus borealis, bursarius

       P. macropoda (?)                           Pemphigus populi

       P. maximowiczii                                          Doro-no-ki
                                                       Chaitophorus dorocolus, inouyei, leucomelas, populeti,
                                                            tremulae ssp. shantungensis;
                                                       Doraphis populi; Epipemphigus niisimae;
                                                       Pachypappa marsupialis ssp. lambersi;

                                                              [Pachypappella orientalis Mordvilko ex Shaposhnikov

                                                                   1955];
                                                       Pemphigus borealis, dorocola, matsumurai, microsetosus,
                                                            [semenovi];

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii;
                                                       Pterocomma populeum, yezoense; Thecabius affinis;

                                                              Thecabius (Parathecabius) latisensorius

       P. monilifera = P. deltoides var. occidentalis

       P. ืmoskoviensis                           Pemphigus borealis

 

       P. nigra (incl. var. italica)                                Black Poplar, Lombardy Poplar
                                                       Aphis [galiae], maculatae; Aulacorthum solani;
                                                       Chaitophorus euphraticus, [floris], leucomelas,

                                                                   longisetosus, [manaliensis], nassonowi, neglectus,

                                                                   populeti, populialbae, populicola, pruinosae,

                                                                   [tremulae];

                                                              Epipemphigus marginalis; [Mordwilkoja vagabunda];
                                                       Pachypappa marsupialis, [vesicalis];
                                                       Pemphigus borealis, bursarius, dorocola, gairi, immunis,

                                                                   matsumurai, [mordvilkoi], napaeus, passeki, phenax,

                                                                   plicatus, populi, populinigrae, protospirae,

                                                                   spyrothecae, vesicarius,

                                                                   Pemphigus sp. (Kazakhstan; Kadyrbekov, 2005b) ;
                                                       Phloeomyzus passerinii; Phylloxerina populi;
                                                       Pterocomma [anyangense], atuberculatum, bhutanense,

                                                                  bicolor, [pilosum], populeum, [sinipopulifoliae],

                                                                  tremulae, yezoense;
                                                       Stomaphis sp. nr graffii, longirostris; Thecabius affinis;
                                                       Thecabius (Parathecabius) lysimachiae;
                                                       Tuberolachnus salignus

       P. nivea                                          Thecabius affinis

       P. occidentalis = P. deltoides var. occidentalis   

       P. petrowskiana                         Pemphigus spyrothecae

       P. pilosa                                         Thecabius affinis

       P. pruinosa                                    Chaitophorus populialbae, pruinosae;

                                                              Lambersaphis pruinosa; Pachpappa warshavensis

       P. pseudosimonii                           [Chaitophorus nigripallidus Zhang, Qiao & Chen, in

                                                                  G. Zhang 1999];

                                                              [Epipemphigus brachychaetus (Zhang & Qiao) in G. Zhang

                                                                  et al. 1995 (sexuparae)];

       P. purdomii                                   Chaitophorus [saliniger], [wuduensis];

                                                              Pemphigus turritus, wuduensis;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii (ssp. zhangwuensis);

                                                              [Pterocomma neimongolense]

       P. pyramidalis = P. nigra var. italica

       P. ืrasumowskiana                      Pemphigus bursarius, ?populinigrae

       P. robusta = P. canadensis

       P. rotundifolia var. bonatii           [Epipemphigus yunnanensis]

       P. sargentii = P. deltoides var. occidentalis

       P. sieboldii                                     Chaitophorus dorocolus, populeti,
                                                           populialbae ssp. yomefuri, tremulae;
                                                       Doraphis populi; Pachypappa tremulae

       P. simonii                                      Chaitophorus clarus, leucomelas, populeti, populialbae,
                                                           tremulae ssp. shantungensis;
                                                       [Epipemphigus sequelus];

                                                              Pemphigus borealis, dorocola, immunis, matsumurai,

                                                                   napaeus, sinobursarius;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii, [passerinii ssp. zhangwuensis];
                                                       Pterocomma [kormion], [neimongolense], populeum,

                                                                   sanpunum, [sinipopulifoliae], yezoense;

                                                              Thecabius affinis

       P. sosnowskyi = P. nigra                 

       P. suaveolens                                 Chaitophorus dorocolus, inouyi, leucomelas, populeti,

                                                                    tremulae;

                                                              Epipemphigus niisimae; Gootiella tremulae;

                                                              Pachypappa [orientalis Mordvilko ex Shaposhnikov 1955],

                                                                 tremulae;
                                                       Pemphigus borealis, dorocola, matsumurai, [semenovi],

                                                                    vesicarius;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii; Pterocomma populeum, yezoense;
                                                       Thecabius affinis

       P. tajikistanica                               Chaitophorus leucomelas, populeti;

       (= P. afghanica var. tajikistanica)         Pemphigus bursarius, matsumurai, populi, populinigrae,

                                                                   protospirae, vesicarius;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii

       P. talassica                                     Chaitophorus leucomelas; Pachypappa shaposhnikovi;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius, immunis, laurifolia, matsumurai,

                                                                   populi, populinigrae, protospirae;

                                                              Phloeomyzus passerinii; Pterocomma sanpunum;

                                                              Thecabius affinis, [luppovae]

       P. tianschanica                              Chaitophorus leucomelas; Pemphigus protospirae

       P. tomentosa                                  Chaitophorus populeti, populialbae, [populihabitans]

 

       P. tremula (incl. var. villosa)                           European Aspen
                                                       [Aphis fabae];

                                                              Chaitophorus leucomelas, longisetosus, nassonowi,

                                                                   populeti, populialbae, tremulae, tremulae ssp. sorini;
                                                       Doraphis populi, populi ssp. tremulae; Gootiella tremulae;
                                                       Pachypappa marsupialis, populi, tremulae;

                                                              Pachypappella lactea; Phloeomyzus passerinii;

                                                              Phylloxerina populi; Pterocomma populeum, tremulae;

                                                              Stomaphis longirostris

 

       P. tremuloides                                              Quaking Aspen
                                                       Aphis maculatae;
                                                       Chaitophorus neglectus, nudus, populicola,
                                                            populicola ssp. patchae, stevensis;
                                                       Fullawaya ontarioensis;

                                                              Pachypappa pseudobyrsa, rosettei, sacculi;
                                                       Pemphigus populicaulis, populitransversus;
                                                       Pseudopterocomma canadensis, hughi;
                                                       Pterocomma beulahensis, bicolor, populifoliae, smithiae,

                                                                  tremulae

 

       P. trichocarpa                                              Black Cottonwood, Western Balsam Poplar
                                                       Chaitophorus populifolii; Clydesmithia canadensis;
                                                       [Pachypappa sp.];
                                                       Pemphigus betae, borealis, monophagus, populicaulis,

                                                                  populiglobuli, populivenae, spyrothecae;
                                                       Phylloxerina popularia; Pterocomma populeum, smithiae;
                                                       Thecabius populiconduplifolius, populimonilis

       P. tristis                                          Pterocomma populeum

       P. wislizeni = P. deltoides var. wislizeni            

       P. yunnanensis                              Chaitophorus leucomelas, [populiyunnanensis];

                                                               [Epipemphigus yunnanensis]; Pemphigus yangcola

 

       Populus sp. (unidentified)            Ceratoglyphina populisucta Zhang & Zhong 1985
                                                            (= Doraphis populi?);
                                                       Chaitophorus [dabanchengus], hillerislambersi, indicus,

                                                                   miyazakii, nodulosus, [tremulae ssp. lanzhouensis];
                                                        [Epipemphigus chomoensis]; Longistigma caryae;

                                                              Neopterocomma populivorum;

                                                              [Pachypappa pilosa]; [Pachypappella aliquipila];
                                                       Pemphigus [cylindricus], [mangkamensis], popularius,

                                                                   similis;

                                                              [Prociphilus populi Tao 1970];
                                                       Pterocomma alpinum, bailangense, medium,

                                                                   lhasapopuleum

KEY 1 - Aphids free-living on stems or leaves:-
(applies only to adult apterous viviparae unless otherwise stated)

 

1    Body either aleyrodiform (dark, flattened, almost circular, with a complete, crenulate margin of wax glands). Head of immature alata with a pair of prominent frontal horns

                                                                                                                           .....Doraphis populi

 -    Body not aleyrodiform and head of immature alata without a pair of frontal horns          .....2

2    Body small, pear-shaped (broadest anteriorly), with facetted wax pore plates on all tergites. Antennae 3-segmented                                                                               .....Phylloxerina spp.

-     Body not broadest anteriorly, without wax glands or with wax glands on ABD TERG 7. Antennae 5- or 6-segmented                                                                                                .....3

3    Eyes with only 3 facets. ABD TERG 7 with a pair of large wax pore plates. Antennae with spinules in a reticulate pattern                                                           .....Phloeomyzus passerinii

-     Eyes multifacetted. Abdomen without wax glands. Antennae not ornamented with a reticulate pattern of spinules                                                                                                .....4

4    Cauda tongue- or finger-like, tapering, much longer than its basal width                           .....5

-     Cauda knobbed, rounded or triangular                                                                                .....7

5    Antennal tubercles undeveloped. SIPH and cauda black. ANT III with 15-22 secondary rhinaria over distal 0.8 of length. Tibiae with numerous long, fine hairs    .....Aphis maculatae

-     Antennal tubercles well developed. SIPH and cauda mainly pale. ANT III with 1-9 secondary rhinaria on basal 0.4. Tibiae with short hairs                                                      .....6

6    Antennal tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel (fig. 42J). ANT III with a single rhinarium near base. SIPH without an apical zone of polygonal reticulation

                                                                                                                      .....Aulacorthum solani

-     Antennal tubercles with inner faces clearly divergent (fig. 42K). ANT III with 2-10 rhinaria. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                  .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

7    Very large aphid with ANT PT/BASE 0.6 or less. SIPH pores placed on broad dark hairy cones                                                                                                                                    .....8

-     Small or large aphid with ANT PT/BASE clearly more than 0.6. SIPH truncate conical (with reticulate sculpturing) or tubular, or merely pores, or absent                                            .....11

8    Rostrum much longer than body, which is elongate oval. ANT PT/BASE about 0.1, with PT broad and rounded                                                                             .....Stomaphis longirostris

-     Rostrum much shorter than body, which is broadly oval. ANT PT/BASE 0.3-0.5, with PT tapering                                                                                                                                .....9

9    Dorsal abdomen with a large dark spinal tubercle. BL usually less than 5.5 mm

                                                                                                                .....Tuberolachnus salignus

-     Dorsal abdomen without a tubercle. BL usually more than 5.5 mm                              .....10

10    HT II less than 2.2 ื HT I. ANT III with longest hairs much longer than diameter of

        segment                                                                                                 .....Longistigma caryae

-       HT II more than 2.2 ื HT I. ANT III with longest hairs shorter than diameter of segment
                                                                                                     .....Longistigma xizangensis*

11    SIPH in form of small truncate cones or short cylinders (usually at least 0.5 ื basal width),

         with reticulate sculpturing at least distally. Cauda knobbed or rounded                        .....12

-       SIPH without reticulate sculpturing; either in form of flat cones (less than 0.5 ื basal width), or tubular, or pore-like, or absent. Cauda rounded                                                          .....39

12    Hind tibia with 1-22 scattered small scent plaques ("pseudorhinaria"; fig. 82A)            .....13

-       Hind tibia of without any scent plaques (except in oviparae)                                          .....15

13    ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.4. Cauda variable but often nearly triangular, with a rounded apex and almost without any constriction (fig. 82B                                  .....Chaitophorus nassonowi

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.1. Cauda always with a distinctly knobbed apical part               .....14

14    Antennal hairs with finely pointed apices. (Alata with secondary rhinaria not in a row, distributed III 10-32, IV 0-8, V 0-2)                                                .....Chaitophorus populeti

-       Antennal hairs rather stiff, mostly with blunt or bifurcate apices. (Alata with secondary rhinaria more-or-less in a row, distributed III 10-20, IV 0-4, V 0-1)  

                                                                                        .....Chaitophorus populeti ssp. sensoriatus

15    Cauda rounded, without any trace of a constriction (e.g. fig.82C)                                .....16

-       Cauda with a constriction delimiting an apical knob (fig. 82D)                                     .....20

16    ABD TERG 1-7 usually all free, with separate spino-pleural and marginal sclerites. Tibiae

        with pale middle sections                                                              .....Chaitophorus miyazaki*

-       ABD TERG 2-7 wholly sclerotised, fused into a solid tergum. Tibiae wholly dark       .....17

17    ABD TERG 2-7 each with only 3-5 spinal hairs (plus marginals), the pleural regions being devoid of hairs                                                                                     .....Chaitophorus nudus

-       ABD TERG 2-7 each with pleural as well as spinal and marginal hairs                          .....18

18    Abdominal tergum evenly spinulose or nodulose                          .....Chaitophorus nodulosus

-       Dorsal cuticle without evident spinules or nodules                                                         .....19

19    Many of dorsal abdominal hairs blunt or with square or furcate apices

                                                                                                              .....Chaitophorus populicola

-       All dorsal abdominal hairs long, fine and acute       .....Chaitophorus populicola ssp. patchae

20    First tarsal segments usually with 5 hairs (e.g. fig. 82E; rarely 6 or more on some tarsi)

                                                                                                                                                  .....21

-       First tarsal segments usually with 7 hairs (e.g. fig. 82F; rarely 6 on some tarsi)             .....27

21    ABD TERG 1-6 fused, wholly dark, distinctly ornamented with minute spinules, and with numerous smaller pointed hairs between the very long spinal, pleural and marginal hairs on each segment, which usually have pointed but sometimes blunt or bifurcate apices

         (fig. 83A)                                                                                   .....Chaitophorus longisetosus

-       Dorsal abdomen pale, or with separate dark segmental bands; more-or-less smooth or ornamented with blunt nodules or spinules, or polygonal reticulation                            .....22

22    ANT PT/BASE 1.5 or less (fundatrix has ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.9)

                                                                                                               .....Chaitophorus pruinosae

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.7 or more (1.3 or more in fundatrix)                                                  .....23

23    R IV+V shorter than HT II, with 2 accessory hairs                                                         .....24

-       R IV+V as long as or a little longer than HT II, with 2-4 accessory hairs                       .....26

24    Spinopleural hairs on ABD TERG 2-7 very short, maximally about 20 ตm

                                                                                                                     .....Chaitophorus clarus

-       Spinopleural hairs long, maximally 100-150 ตm                                                             .....25

25    ABD TERG 2-6 with weakly spinulose ornamentation, and long thick hairs maximally 150 ตm. ANT III with 3-9 hairs, the longest 1.7-2.2 ื basal diameter of segment
                                                                              .....Chaitophorus populialbae ssp. yomefuri

-     ABD TERG 2-6 with weakly to strongly nodulose ornamentation, and thinner hairs up to 120 ตm long (fig. 83F). ANT III with 6-13 hairs, the longest 0.8-1.7 ื basal diameter of segment

                                                                                                            .....Chaitophorus euphraticus

26    ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.2. SIPH dark                                        .....Chaitophorus melanosiphon

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.2. SIPH pale                                            .....Chaitophorus populialbae

27    Empodial hairs enlarged and flattened, with expanded apices. Abdominal tergum pale, with long, pointed or spine-like spinal, pleural and marginal hairs interspersed with smaller hairs, some of which are less than half the length of the longest                                             .....28

-       Empodial hairs setaceous, if somewhat flattened then the abdominal tergum is dark and/or the spinopleural hairs are often blunt or furcate and/or their variation in size is much less

                                                                                                                                                  .....30

28    ABD TERG 2-6 with smallest (accessory) hairs mainly thick and spine-like, and very numerous (30-40 per segment; fig. 83B)                                            .....Chaitophorus inouyei

-       ABD TERG 2-6 with accessory hairs finer and less numerous (less than 25 per segment,

        e.g. fig. 83C)                                                                                                                    .....29

29    Longest hairs on ANT III 3.5-4.9 ื basal diameter of segment. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.5. ABD TERG 1-7 mostly smooth, without ornamentation             .....Chaitophorus variegatus

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 1.7-2.5 ื basal diameter of segment. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.4. ABD TERG 1-7 with weak squamous or nodulose ornamentation

.....Chaitophorus indicus

30    ABD TERG 1 frequently fused with ABD TERG 2-6 (examine several specimens)     .....31

-       ABD TERG 1 almost always free from ABD TERG 2-6                                              .....37

31    R IV+V 0.17-0.20 mm, 1.2-1.4 ื HT II. Abdominal tergum smooth, bearing long hairs

        with mostly bifurcate apices (fig. 83D)                                .....Chaitophorus hillerislambersi

-       R IV+V 0.07-0.14 mm, 0.7-1.2 ื HT II. Abdominal tergum usually ornamented with spicules or nodules                                                                                                           .....32

32    Dorsal ornamentation consisting of close, irregular rows of posteriorly-directed, bluntish spinules, often united basally to form partial transverse rows                                         .....33

-       Dorsal ornamentation consisting of rather evenly distributed separate roundish nodules

         (e.g. fig. 83E; sometimes weakly developed)                                                                 .....35

33    Dorsum pale. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4                            .....Chaitophorus tremulae ssp. sorini

-       Dorsum usually deeply pigmented, sometimes dark only on head and ABD TERG 8.
ANT PT/BASE 2.2-3.2                                                                                                    .....34

34    Longest hairs on ANT III 1.7-3.2 ื basal diameter of segment                                              

                                                                                                       .....Chaitophorus tremulae s. str.

-       Longest hairs on ANT III with wavy, attenuate apices, 3.0-4.5 ื basal diameter

        of segment                                                         .....Chaitophorus tremulae ssp. shantungensis

35    Hairs on each of ABD TERG 1-7 very variable in size and form, arranged more-or-less in a single row (fig. 83G; sometimes with 1-2 smaller hairs out of line). ABD TERG 8 with 7-12 hairs. (Alata with SIPH dark)                                                         .....Chaitophorus stevensis

-       Hairs on each of ABD TERG 1-7 arranged in two irregular rows, the anterior row consisting of smaller hairs which are sometimes absent in spinal region (e.g. fig. 83H). ABD TERG 8 usually with more than 12 hairs                                                                                        .....36

36    Head and ANT I-II often dark, and tergum often with a pair of dark longitudinal pleural stripes. Most of long spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 with pointed or blunt apices, with a minority expanded or bifurcate apically (fig. 83H). (Alata with SIPH dark)

                                                                                                                .....Chaitophorus neglectus

-       Head, ANT I-II and tergum usually pale. If with dark pigmentation then there are rarely complete pleural stripes, and the long spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 mostly have expanded or bifurcate apices. (Alata with SIPH pale)         .....Chaitophorus populifolii

37    ABD TERG 1-6 with largest spinal and pleural hairs apically bifurcate or blunt, marginal hairs pointed. R IV+V 0.7-0.8 ื HT II (tentative characters for aptera, which has not been seen by authors)                                                                             .....Chaitophorus dorocolus

-       ABD TERG 1-6 with largest spinal and pleural hairs usually pointed. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 ื HT II                                                                                                                                       .....38

38    Dorsal cuticle mainly dark, leaving a narrow pale spinal stripe           .....Chaitophorus kapuri

-       Dorsal cuticle either pale or with dark pleural longitudinal stripes leaving broad pale    spinal and marginal areas                                                                       .....Chaitophorus leucomelas

39    SIPH as pores or small flat cones, or absent                                                                    .....40

-       SIPH tubular, longer than basal width, often swollen                                                     .....44

40    ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0; PT without hairs except those at apex. SIPH as small cones or craters                                                                                                                               .....41

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0; PT bearing hairs along length. R IV with 6-17 accessory hairs. SIPH pore-like or absent                                                                                         .....42

41    Body sparsely hairy, without spinal or marginal tubercles. R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs
                                                                                                        .....Lambersaphis pruinosa

-       Body densely hairy, with numerous spinal and marginal tubercles. R IV with 22-26 accessory hairs                                                                      .....Neopterocomma populivorum

42    Body densely covered in fine hairs. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. Well-developed marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 2-7. SIPH absent                                   .....Fullawaya ontarioensis

-       Body hairs sparse, especially dorsally. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Marginal abdominal tubercles absent. SIPH as pores                                                                                       .....43

43    ABD TERG 1-6 all fused together and fully pigmented. Body hairs not spine-like
                                                                                           .....Pseudopterocomma canadensis

-       ABD TERG 1-6 not or hardly pigmented, or with only narrow transverse intersegmental bars. Body hairs spine-like                                                          .....Pseudopterocomma hughi

44    SIPH of most specimens vasiform (swollen on basal half; fig. 84A)                                       

                                                                                                                   .....Pterocomma smithiae

-       SIPH either almost cylindrical or swollen distally                                                          .....45

45    ANT II with 8-12 hairs. ANT III (aptera) with 4-79 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV with 0-9

                                                                                                                  .....Pterocomma tremulae

-       ANT II with 4-6 hairs. ANT III with 0-26 secondary rhinaria, ANT IV never with any

                                                                                                                                                 .....46

46    ANT VI BASE with 4-10 long fine hairs (plus 0-3 short ones)                                      .....47

-       ANT VI BASE with 1-3 long fine hairs (plus 2-6 short ones)                                        .....52

47    ANT III (aptera) with 14-26 secondary rhinaria                       .....Pterocomma kozhuchovae

-       ANT III (aptera) without secondary rhinaria (or with only 1)                                         .....48

48    Longest hairs on ANT III 50-70 ตm, on hind tibia 60-80 ตm.  ABD TERG 1-7 without markings or with only lightly pigmented patches on 6-7 plus scattered small sclerites

        on 1-5                                                                                   .....Pterocomma pseudopopuleum

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 100-160 ตm, on hind tibia 100-200 ตm. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark sclerites or cross-bands at least on ABD TERG 6 and 7 and often with paired sclerites on more anterior tergites                                                                                    …..49

49    SIPH distinctly clavate, and more than 2 ื HT II. ABD TERG 1-5 with only scattered small sclerites                                                                                            .....Pterocomma alpinum*

-       SIPH with hardly any swelling, almost cylindrical, and 1.1-1.7 ื HT II. ABD TERG 1-7 each often with a pair of large dark quadrate patches (sometimes reduced or absent on 1-3, 1-4 or 1-5)                                                                                                                         .....50

50    Marginal tubercles absent. ANT VI BASE with 4-8 hairs                …..Pterocomma dubium

-       Well-developed marginal tubercles usually present on ABD TERG 1-6(-7). ANT VI BASE with 5-13 hairs                                                                                                                 …..51

51    ABD TERG 5 with a pair of large quadrate dark patches like those on ABD TERG 6

…..Pterocomma populeum

-       ABD TERG 5 without a pair of large dark quadrate patches   …..Pterocomma bhutanense*

52    ANT PT/BASE of most specimens less than 1.4 (N.B. not applicable to fundatrices)   .....53

-       ANT PT/BASE usually more than 1.4                                                                             .....54

53    ANT I with 13-17 hairs. Cauda with 49-55 hairs, anal plate with 85-98 hairs. SIPH

        cylindrical                                                                                       .....Pterocomma sanpunum

-       ANT I with 8-13 hairs. Cauda with 24-38 hairs, anal plate with 25-64 hairs. SIPH usually swollen on distal half                                                                        .....Pterocomma yezoense

54    Cauda with more than 50 hairs                                             .....Pterocomma lhasapopuleum*

-       Cauda with 20-36 hairs                                                                                                    .....55

55    ABD TERG 1 with a single pair of large sclerites, or a band interrupted in mid-line
                                                                                                     .....Pterocomma bailangense

-       ABD TERG 1 at most with scattered or paired groups of smaller sclerites                   .....56

56    ANT III (aptera) with 0 (rarely) - 25 secondary rhinaria. ANT PT 0.15-0.28 mm. (Alata with 35-50 secondary rhinaria on ANT III and 0-7 on IV)                 .....Pterocomma populifoliae

-       ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT 0.22-0.36 mm. (Alata with 12-26 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 0-2 on IV)                                                                                                         .....57

57    SIPH usually almost cylindrical (fig. 84C), 0.21-0.28 mm long, 0.8-1.0 ื PT. Cauda almost black, usually clearly darker than anal plate                                .....Pterocomma beulahensis

-       SIPH usually distinctly swollen (e.g. fig. 84B), 0.29-0.50 mm long, 1.1-1.6 ื PT. Cauda brown, concolorous with anal plate                                                                                  .....58

58    Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) usually present on ABD TERG 1-6(-7). Longest hairs on ANT III are 85-115 μm, 2.2-3.3 ื BD III                            …..Pterocomma bicolor

-       MTu absent.  Longest hairs on ANT III are 137-156 μm, 3.4-3.8 ื BD III

        …..Pterocomma atuberculatum*

 

KEY 2 - Aphids forming galls or pseudogalls (e.g. "leaf nests") on poplars:-

The main key below can be applied only to adult alatae produced in galls or pseudogalls on Populus. Usually alatae are produced in large numbers in galls in late spring or early summer to fly to secondary host plants. These alatae are variously termed spring migrants, emigrants, alate fundatrigeniae or fundatrispuriae. A few species (Cornaphis populi and 4 species of Pemphigus) are monoecious (without host alternation). In these the galls mature in late summer/autumn and contain numerous alate sexuparae, easily recognised in cleared microscope preparations by the absence of mouthparts from their embryos. The key includes the sexuparae of these species, as they are produced within the galls, but not the sexuparae of heteroecious species, as these are produced on the secondary host.

Separation of the species of Pemphigus is difficult, and that part of the key is rather tentative. However, many specimens are usually available from each gall, so that individual variation in the sample can be assessed, and tentative identifications can be checked against the descriptions of galls in the systematic section of the book. Most Pemphigus appear to be less specific in their choice of Populus species as primary host than in their secondary host plant associations. It is likely that there are many still unrecognised species, as well as synonymies among the names in current use.

Sometimes aphids that are not gall formers may be found in old galls. Phylloxerina populariae, for example, regularly inhabits old galls of Thecabius populiconduplifolius.

In three species of Pemphiginae, Clydesmithia canadensis, Gootiella alba and Pemphigus siphunculatus, no alatae have been found even in apparently mature galls. The complete life cycle of these species is not yet known. The apterae (apterous fundatrigeniae, not fundatrices) from the galls key as follows:-

1    Abdomen without wax glands                                                       .....Clydesmithia canadensis

-     Abdomen with large wax glands                                                                                         .....2

2    BL 3.3-4.3 mm. Legs pale. HT II short and thick, less than twice as long as claws

                                                                                                                               .....Gootiella alba

-     BL 1.9-3.4 mm. Legs dark. HT II normal, more than twice as long as claws
                                                                                                       .....Pemphigus siphunculatus

Key to alatae from galls:-

1    Forewing with media usually once-branched. If unbranched then there are 3-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 1-3 on IV, 0-2 on V and 0 on VI BASE and R IV+V is more than

      0.6 ื HT II                                                                                                                           .....2

-     Forewing with media unbranched. Antenna with more rhinaria, and/or R IV+V less than 0.6 ื HT II                                                                                                                               .....14

2    Primary rhinaria on ANT V and VI enlarged and of irregular shape (fig. 85A); that on VI elongate, more than 50 ตm long. Embryos with enlarged claws on hind legs                           

                                                                                                                        .....Gootiella tremulae

-     Primary rhinaria on ANT V and VI rounded or oval, that on VI not longer than wide. Hind legs of embryos with normal claws                                                                                      .....3

3    SIPH pores very large, with diameter much greater than that of hind tibia at midpoint, and with a completely pigmented rim (fig. 85B)                                        .....Pachypappella lactea

-     SIPH pores absent or small and inconspicuous, with diameter less than that of hind tibia at midpoint, and with pigmented rim partial (e.g. fig. 85C) or absent                                   .....4

4    ABD TERG 8 with a single large wax pore plate foming a broad band across the tergite

.....Pachypappa aigeiros*

-     ABD TERG 8 with wax pore plates either paired or absent, or with only small groups of facets                                                                                                                                    .....5

5    BL c.5mm                                                                                   .....Pachypappa shaposhnikovi

-     BL less than 4.5 mm                                                                                                            .....6

6    Membrane of forewing with hairs (fig. 85D). Genital plate with more than 10 hairs on anterior half. ABD TERG 8 usually without wax pore plates, or with only small groups of facets

                                                                                                                                                   .....7

-     Membrane of forewing without hairs. Genital plate with 6-12 hairs on anterior half. ABD TERG 8 usually with a pair of well-developed wax pore plates                                        .....9

7    ABD TERG 1-7 with well-defined marginal wax pore plates. (SIPH pores present, Cauda with 15-30 hairs, and secondary rhinaria on ANT III 10-11, on IV 2-4)

                                                                                                                   .....Pachypappa vesicalis

-     ABD TERG 1-7 without marginal wax pore plates or if present they are ill-defined         .....8

8    Cauda with more than 40 hairs. SIPH pores present. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 8-13, on IV 2-4                                                                                                      .....Pachypappa populi

-     Cauda with less than 30 hairs. SIPH pores absent. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 5-10,

      on IV 0-3                                                                                                .....Pachypappa sacculi

9    R IV+V 0.60-0.75 ื HT II. Media sometimes unbranched                                              .....10

-     R IV+V 0.45-0.55 ื HT II. Media always once-branched                                              .....11

10 ANT PT/BASE 0.08-0.11. ANT III with 4-6 secondary rhinaria with thick sclerotic rims, often confined to distal half of segment (fig. 85E)                    .....Pachypappa warshavensis

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.17-0.21. ANT III with 5-8 secondary rhinaria with narrow sclerotic rims, extending onto proximal half of segment (fig. 85F)                     .....Pachypappa pseudobyrsa

11    ABD TERG 8 with 14-25 hairs. Cauda with only 3-6 hairs                                           .....12

-       ABD TERG 8 with 5-11 hairs. Cauda with 8-25 hairs                                                   .....13

12    R IV+V without accessory hairs                                         .....Pachypappa marsupialis s. str.

-       R IV+V with 2-4 accessory hairs                            .....Pachypappa marsupialis ssp. lambersi

13    R IV+V usually without any accessory hairs. ANT II with 9-14 hairs                                                                                                                                                .....Pachypappa tremulae

-       R IV+V with usually 1-4 accessory hairs. ANT II with 5-11 hairs     .....Pachypappa rosettei

14    ANT PT/BASE greater than 1, with PT bearing 2-3 clear spots, each with a small,

        dagger-like stipule (fig. 85H)                                                        .....Mordwilkoja vagabunda

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                                                               .....15

15    Head with median ocellus mounted on a distinct frontal prominence (fig. 85G). (Secondary rhinaria small and oval; on ANT III 3-5, on IV 0-2 near apex. Embryos without mouthparts)

                                                                                                                          .....Cornaphis populi

 -      Head with median ocellus not mounted on a distinct frontal prominence. (Sensoriation of antennae not as above, embryos with or without mouthparts)                                        .....16

16    Secondary rhinaria with ciliated (or "dotted") rims                                                        .....17

-       Secondary rhinaria without ciliated rims                                                                          .....22

17    ANT III and IV each with a single subapical secondary rhinarium, like the primary rhinaria on V and VI                                                                                    .....Neopemphigus turajevi

-       ANT III with 4 or more secondary rhinaria, IV with 2 or more and V with 0-1             .....18

18    Secondary rhinaria broadly oval, almost circular. ANT PT finger-like, ANT PT/BASE more than 0.4, with PT bearing 4 apical hairs                                  .....Epipemphigus nanjingensis*

-       Secondary rhinaria narrowly and transversely elongate. PT/BASE less than 0.35, and PT bearing 5 or more hairs                                                                                                     .....19

19    SIPH present as small pores with partly sclerotised, dark semi-circular rims                  .....20

-       SIPH pores absent, or hardly discernible because they lack partly sclerotised rims        .....21

20    ANT PT about as wide as basal articulation of VI, and bearing 5 hairs near apex  (fig. 85I)

                                                                                                                .....Epipemphigus niisimae

-       ANT PT greatly enlarged, much broader than basal articulation of VI, bearing c. 20-30 hairs (fig. 85J)                                                                                   …..Epipemphigus sanpupopuli

21    ABD TERG 7 with 4 hairs. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 2.3-3.0 ื basal diameter of ANT III, and longest hair on ANT III 0.6-0.8 ื its basal diameter. ANT III equal to or slightly longer than ANT IV+V together                                        ..... Epipemphigus imaicus

 -      ABD TERG 7 with 8-13 hairs. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 1.0-1.5 ื basal diameter of ANT III, and longest hair on ANT III 0.4-0.5 ื its basal diameter. ANT III 0.7-0.9 ื longer than ANT IV+V together                                                          .....Epipemphigus marginalis*

22    Secondary rhinaria broad and strap-like, often almost encircling antenna and with gaps in between rhinaria mostly much narrower than the rhinaria themselves, so that more than 50% of total surface area of antenna is sensoriated (e.g. fig. 86A)                                          .....23

-       Secondary rhinaria narrower (e.g. fig. 86B) or, if they are broader than gaps in between them (e.g. fig. 86C), then they do not almost completely encircle antenna (thus always leaving more than 50% of total surface area of antenna unsensoriated)                                               .....25

23    ANT BASE VI usually without secondary rhinaria. (ANT III with 15-26, IV with 8-11, V with 9-11, VI with 0-1)                                          .....Thecabius (Parathecabius) gravicornis

-       ANT BASE VI with 6-14 secondary rhinaria                                                                 .....24

24    Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 20-41 (fig. 86A), IV 10-13, V 10-14, BASE VI 9-14
                                                                              .....Thecabius (Parathecabius) latisensorius

-       Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 13-21, IV 4-10, V 5-9 and BASE VI 6-12
                                                                               .....Thecabius (Parathecabius) lysimachiae

25    R IV with usually 1-6 small accessory hairs (rarely with none) and first tarsal segments with 2-6 hairs (usually at least 3 on most tarsi). Secondary rhinaria very narrow, slit-like

        (fig. 86B), with 0-10 (rarely less than 3) on ANT BASE VI                                           .....26

-       R IV usually without accessory hairs, sometimes with 1-4 (but one of the 3 apical pairs is sometimes displaced to a more proximal position). First tarsal segments usually with 3 hairs on fore tarsus and 2 hairs on mid and hind tarsi. If more, then ANT BASE VI is without

        secondary rhinaria                                                                                                            .....27

26    Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15-30, IV 4-9, V 4-11, BASE VI (0-)2-7(-9)

…..Thecabius affinis/populiconduplifolius

 -      Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 22-31, IV 8-10, V 10-12, BASE VI 7-10                                                                                                                        …..Thecabius beijingensis*

27    SIPH pores absent and embryos with mouthparts (the curled stylets are especially evident through wall of abdomen)                                                                                                .....28

-       Either SIPH present as small pores or embryos without mouthparts                              .....34

28    R IV+V broadly triangular, less than 2ื its basal width. (Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 5-19, IV 3-7, V 3-4)                                                     .....Thecabius populimonilis (fundatrigeniae)

-       R IV+V acute, more than 2ื its basal width                                                                   .....29

29    Secondary rhinaria present on ANT VI. (On III 10-18, IV 4-7, V 3-7, BASE VI 3-7)
                                                                                       .....Pemphigus napaeus / iskanderkuli

-       Secondary rhinaria absent from ANT BASE VI                                                             .....30

30    Secondary rhinaria strap-like (e.g. fig. 86C), many of them extending more than half way around antenna. ABD TERG 8 with one large wax pore plate extending about half way or more across tergite, and including (2-)4 hairs                                                                  .....31

-       Secondary rhinaria either elongate oval or narrowly transverse, not extending more than half way around antenna. ABD TERG 8 either with a pair of wax pore plates or a single median wax pore plate, including only 2 hairs                                                                              .....32

 

31    Secondary rhinaria distributed III 8-13, IV 2-5, V 2-5. R IV without accessory hairs

                                                                                                                .....Pemphigus matsumurai

-       Secondary rhinaria distributed III 13-19, IV 6-8, V 6-9. R IV with 0-4 (-6?) accessory hairs

                                                                                                                      .....Pemphigus zhongi*

 

32    Secondary rhinaria narrowly transverse, parallel-sided, with about 6 on ANT V (III c.12, IV c.6, V c.6)                                                                                            …..Pemphigus turritus*

-       Secondary rhinaria oval or elongate oval, not parallel-sided, with 0-2 on ANT V         …..33

33    First tarsal segments almost always with 2 hairs, rarely with 3. HT II 0.17-0.21 mm long.
Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 3-9, on IV 1-3, V 0-2 (fig. 86D)           .....Pemphigus populi

-       First tarsal segments usually with 3-4 hairs on at least some tarsi. HT II 0.20-0.25 mm long. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 6-11, IV 1-4, V 0-2                         .....Pemphigus vesicarius

34    Embryos without mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria always absent from ANT V and VI. SIPH pores absent. (Sexuparae of monoecious species, produced in the gall)                          .....35

-       Embryos with mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria often present on ANT V, or V and VI. SIPH present as small pores                                                                                                       .....38

35    First tarsal segments usually all with 3-5 hairs, rarely with only 2, Spinal wax pore plates

        often present on all abdominal tergites                                                                            .....36

-       First tarsal segments most commonly with 3 (-4) hairs on fore tarsus and 2 (-3) hairs on mid and hind tarsi. Spinal wax pore plates usually absent from ABD TERG 4-7. (Secondary rhinaria distributed III 3-6, IV 1-3)                                                                                 .....37

36    R IV+V about 0.08 mm long, slightly shorter than ANT V. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 4-7, on IV 1-4                                                                                .....Thecabius populimonilis

-       R IV+V 0.09-0.11 mm long, as long as or slightly longer than ANT V. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 6-10, on IV 2-5                                                                 .....Pemphigus mongolicus

37    R IV+V usually without accessory hairs. Cauda with 4-6 hairs  .....Pemphigus monophagus

-       R IV+V usually with 1-4 accessory hairs, rarely with none. Cauda with 2-4 hairs
                                                                                                        .....Pemphigus spyrothecae

38    ANT BASE VI usually without secondary rhinaria (rarely with 1, in which case there are usually none on V)                                                                                                          .....39

-       ANT BASE VI usually with 2 or more secondary rhinaria (rarely with 1, in which case

        there is usually 1 or more on V)                                                                                       .....46

39    ANT VI with an enlarged primary rhinarium, with islands, like that on V                     .....40

-       ANT VI with primary rhinarium of normal size, not longer than wide                           .....42

40    ANT VI with primary rhinarium 0.07-0.10 mm long, occupying more than half of length of BASE VI (fig. 87E), or with a separate secondary rhinarium immediately adjacent to it. Secondary rhinaria on III 3-9, IV 1-3, V 0(-1) and BASE VI 0(-1) .....Pemphigus knowltoni

-       ANT VI with primary rhinarium less than 0.05-0.08 mm long, occupying less than half of length of BASE VI (fig. 87F). Secondary rhinaria on III 2-7, IV 0-1, V 0(-1), BASE VI 0 

                                                                                                                                                 .....41

41    Embryos within emigrant alatae have tip of rostrum extending beyond first segment of fore tarsi                                                                                             .....Pemphigus obesinymphae

-       Embryos within emigrant alatae have tip of rostrum not extending beyond first segment of fore tarsi                                                                                 .....Pemphigus populitransversus

42    ANT V with primary rhinarium very large, more than 0.04 mm long and more than half encircling segment, often with small round islands (fig. 87G). (Secondary rhinaria on III 7-9, IV 2-4, V 0-1, BASE VI 0)                                                                 .....Pemphigus immunis

-       ANT V with primary rhinarium either like that on VI or, if enlarged, broader than its axial length which is less than 0.03 mm                                                                                    .....43

43    R IV with a pair of accessory hairs. First tarsal segments, at least of fore tarsi, with 5 (?) hairs                                                                                                 .....Pemphigus wuduensis*

-       R IV without accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3-4 hairs                                  .....44

44    First tarsal segments with two spine-like hairs between the 2 long apical hairs. ABD TERG 8 usually without a wax pore plate. ANT PT more than 2ื its basal width. (Secondary rhinaria on III 10-14, IV 2-3, V 0-1, BASE VI 0)                                    .....Pemphigus microsetosus

-       First tarsal segments with 0-1 spine-like hairs between the two long apical hairs. ABD TERG 8 usually with wax pore plates. ANT PT less than 2ื its basal width                                .....45

45    R IV+V about 0.1 mm, more than 0.55 ื HT II. Rhinaria on ANT III 9-13, IV 3-6, V 0-1,
BASE VI 0                                                                                      .....Pemphigus circellatus*

-       R IV+V 0.07-0.085 mm, less than 0.55 ื HT II. Rhinaria on ANT III 5-11, IV 1-4, V 0-3, BASE VI 0(-1)                                                                                          .....Pemphigus betae

46    Total antennal length 0.9 mm or more, about 0.5 ื BL                                                   .....47

-       Total antennal length less than 0.9 mm, less than 0.45 ื BL                                           .....48

47    Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 19-27, on IV 6-7, V 9-12, VI BASE 10-12
                                                                                                        .....Pemphigus longicornus

-       Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 15, IV 4, V 4, VI 5 (one specimen only)
                                                                                                     .....Pemphigus nainitalensis*

48    R IV+V 0.10-0.12 mm long, usually more than 0.55 ื HT II, with R IV straight-sided (fig. 87A)                                                                                                                                 .....49

-       R IV+V 0.07-0.11 mm long, usually less than 0.55 ื HT II, with R IV having sides slightly convex (fig. 87B)                                                                                                             .....50

 

49    Secondary rhinaria narrow, slit-like, averaging 8 ตm or less in width, extending almost to base of ANT III, with most proximal rhinarium usually basad to the small tooth on inner side of III near base (fig. 87C); III 12-18, IV 3-7, V 4-7, VI BASE 4-7

                                                                                                              .....Pemphigus populinigrae

-       Secondary rhinaria broader, averaging more than 10 ตm in width, with most proximal rhinarium on ANT III distal to tooth (fig. 87D); III 9-14, IV 2-5, V 2-4, VI BASE 2-8

                                                                                                                .....Pemphigus protospirae

 

50    Primary rhinarium on ANT V usually much enlarged, its axial length 35 ตm or more, with small islands (fig. 87H). Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 6-12, IV 2-3, V 0-3, VI BASE 2-5

                                                                                                                       .....Pemphigus phenax

-       If primary rhinarium of ANT V is enlarged then its axial length is less than 35 ตm and the antennal sensoriation is different                                                                                     .....51

 

51    Total number of secondary rhinaria on ANT V + VI BASE (both antennae) 24 or more .....52

-       Total number of secondary rhinaria on ANT V + VI BASE (both antennae) 23 or less

                                                                                                                                                 .....55

52    ANT VI BASE slightly shorter than HT II. (Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 11-19, IV 4-8,
V 4-10, VI BASE 6-11)                                                                      .....Pemphigus trehernei

-       ANT VI BASE slightly longer than HT II                                                                      .....53

53    ABD TERG 8 with 2-3 hairs. (Secondary rhinaria on III 13-19, IV 4-5, V 6-9, VI BASE

        6-10)                                                                                                      .....Pemphigus borealis

-       ABD TERG 8 usually with 3-5 hairs                                                                               .....54

54    Secondary rhinaria on III 9-16, on IV 3-6, V 3-8, VI BASE 5-11      .....Pemphigus nortonii

-       Secondary rhinaria on III 16-20, on IV 4-5, V 5-6, VI BASE 5-9    .....Pemphigus yangcola

55    ANT III shorter than ANT IV + V together in most specimens                                      .....56

-       ANT III usually about the same length as, or longer than, ANT IV + V together          .....57

56    ANT PT finger-like, 2 or more ื its basal width. R IV+V 0.09-0.10 mm long. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 8-12, on IV 3-4, V 1-4, VI BASE 3-5                 .....Pemphigus plicatus

-       ANT PT stubby, less than 1.5 ื its basal width. R IV+V 0.07-0.09 mm long. Secondary rhinaria on ANT III 7-12, IV 3-6, V 1-4, VI BASE 1-7                           .....Pemphigus gairi

57    ANT III 0.22-0.38 mm, but if less than 0.23 mm (small bursarius) then ANT PT is short and stubby, less than 1.5 ื its basal width                                                                              .....58

-       ANT III 0.15-0.25 mm, but if more than 0.22 mm then ANT PT is more than 1.5 ื its basal width                                                                                                                                .....63

58    Primary rhinarium on ANT VI much larger than adjacent secondary rhinaria and forming a broad band that extends over half way around antenna (fig. 87I)                                  .....59

-       Primary rhinarium on ANT VI normal or irregular in shape but not extending more than

        half way around antenna                                                                                                  .....61

59    ANT VI BASE with 6-8 secondary rhinaria. (III 12-16, IV 3-5, V 4-6, VI BASE 6-8)
                                                                                                               .....Pemphigus passeki

-       ANT VI BASE with 3-6 secondary rhinaria                                                                    .....60

60    ANT PT 0.03-0.04 mm. (Secondary rhinaria on III 10-15, IV 4-5, V 2-4, VI BASE 3-5)     

                                                                                                                  .....Pemphigus tartareus*

-       ANT PT 0.02-0.03 mm. (Secondary rhinaria on III 12-16, IV 4-6, V 3-5, VI BASE 3-6)     

                                                                                                                  .....Pemphigus dorocola*

61    Tooth on inner side of ANT III often very close to base of segment, usually without a rhinarium basad to it (fig. 87J). (Secondary rhinaria on III 8-13, IV 2-5, V 2-5, VI BASE

        3-7)                                                                                                 .....Pemphigus populicaulis

-       Tooth on inner side of ANT III almost always with 1-2 secondary rhinaria basad to it .....62

62    Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-17, IV 2-8, V 2-6, VI BASE 3-8. PT usually less than 1.5 ื basal width                                                                        .....Pemphigus bursarius

-       Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-13, IV 3-5, V 3-5, VI BASE 3-5. PT usually more than 1.5 ื basal width                                                                      .....Pemphigus mordvilkoi

63    Tooth on inner side of ANT III usually more than 0.07 mm from base of segment, with always 1, and sometimes 2-3, secondary rhinaria basad to it (fig. 87K). (Secondary rhinaria on III 9-12, IV 2-4, V 2-4, VI BASE 3-5)                                       .....Pemphigus laurifoliae

-       Tooth on inner side of ANT III usually less than 0.06 mm from base of segment, with 0-1
secondary rhinaria basad to it)                                                                                         .....64

64    BL 2.1-2.5 mm. ANT V 0.8-1.0 ื ANT IV, and more often than not also bearing fewer
secondary rhinaria than IV (examine several specimens; secondary rhinaria distributed III

        9-11, IV 0-5, V 0-4, VI 0-5)                                                  .....Pemphigus populiramulorum

-       BL 1.1-2.3 mm.(only P. populiglobuli more than 2.0 mm). ANT V 1.0-1.2 ื ANT IV, and usually with at least as many rhinaria as IV                                                                     .....65

65    ANT PT short, maximally c.0.03 mm and usually less than 1.5 ื its basal width. Tooth on
ANT III usually without a rhinarium basad to it. (Secondary rhinaria on III 8-13, IV 2-5, V 2-5, VI BASE 3-7)                                                                         .....Pemphigus populicaulis

-       ANT PT usually longer than 0.03 mm and more than 1.5 ื its basal width. Tooth on ANT III often with a rhinarium basad to it                                                                                    .....66

66    Secondary rhinaria distributed III 5-13, IV 2-4, V 0-4, VI BASE 1-7

                                                                                                              .....Pemphigus populiglobuli

-       Secondary rhinaria distributed III  7-12, IV 1-5, V 2-5, VI BASE 3-7
                                                                                                        .....Pemphigus populivenae

Portulaca                                                     Portulacaceae

      Portulaca clavatus (?)                   Neotoxoptera oliveri

        P. grandiflora                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Neotoxoptera oliveri;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        P. oleracea                                    Aphis albella, craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii,

                                                                  nasturtii, [portulacae Shinji (nomen dubium)],

                                                                  spiraecola, [triglochinis],

                                                                  [varians of Pashchenko 1988a)];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachyunguis harmalae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus certus, ornatus, persicae, [portulacae Macchiati

                                                                   (nomen dubium)], [Myzus sp. (Ossiannilsson 1964)];

                                                              Pemphigus sp.; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        P. quadrifida                                 Aphis gossypii

Key to apterae on Portulaca:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed                                                           …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed                                                                                          …..5

2      ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.9. SIPH about as long as their basal widths, 0.2-0.6 ื cauda

                                                                                                             …..Brachycaudus harmalae

-       ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.5 or more than 1.5. SIPH if present at all then more than 0.8 ื cauda                                                                                                                        …..3

3      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu) and SIPH pale, or only dusky at apices

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

-       Without that combination of characters, i.e. if ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu then wholly dark SIPH are present                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

4      SIPH 2.2-2.9 ื cauda                                                                                   …..Aphis albella*

-       SIPH 0.9-1.6 ื cauda                                                                                   …..Aphis nasturtii

5      Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length                                                          …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or apically convergent. SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                          …..6

6      SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                  …..7

-       SIPH slightly to moderately clavate                                                                                 …..8

7    BL 1.0-1.7 mm. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmantal markings. SIPH coarsely imbricated, and with a slight S-curve

                                                                                                                             …..Myzus ornatus

-     BL 1.8-3.0 mm. ANT III usually with 1-2 rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. SIPH with normal imbrication, not curved

                                                                                                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

8      SIPH 0.12-0.17 ื BL. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 ื HT II. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins)

                                                                                                                    …..Neotoxoptera oliveri

-       SIPH 0.18-0.28 ื BL. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II. (Al. with wing veins not dark-bordered)

                                                                                                                                                   …..9

9     R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus persicae

-      R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                  …..Myzus certus

 

Portulacaria                                                Portulacaceae

      Portulacaria afra                          Myzus persicae

 

Potalia                                                         Gentianaceae

      Potalia sp(p).                                Aphis gossypii, odinae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Potamogeton                                               Potamogetonaceae

      Potamogeton crispus                    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        P. fluitans                                      Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        P. natans                                       Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        P. richardi                                     Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Use key to apterae on Nymphaea.

 

Potentilla (including Callionia,                                             Rosaceae

                         Dasiphora, Drymocallis)

        Potentilla acaulis                          Aphis mongolica, tormentillae; Macropodaphis paradoxa

        P. alchimilloides                           [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      P. alpestris = P. crantzii                  

      P. anglica                                      Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae

      P. anserina                                    Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae; Anthracosiphon hertae;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, nasturtii, roepkei, subviridis,

                                                                 tormentillae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Chaetosiphon alpestre, fragaefolii, potentillae, thomasi;

                                                              Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, potentillae; Myzaphis rosarum;

                                                              Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Nearctaphis argentinaeradicis; Pemphigus ?populi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus [heikinheimoi], latysiphon

        P. argentea                                    Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae ssp. potha;

                                                              Aphis potentillae, roepkei, subviridis, tormentillae,

                                                                  Aphis sp. (Sweden, BMNH collection);

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon alpestre;

                                                              Macrosiphum rosae; Maculolachnus submacula;

                                                              Sitobion fragariae

        P. arguta (= Drymocallis arguta)       Nasonovia williamsi

        P. argyrophylla                             Macrosiphum pachysiphon; Metopolophium dirhodum

        P. asiatica = P. chrysantha              

        P. atrosanguinea                          Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pachysiphon

        P. aurea                                        Acyrthosiphon boreale

      P. bakeri                                        Macrosiphum potentillicaulis

        P. bifurca = Sibbaldianthe. bifurca    Aphis comari, potentillae, tianschanica;

                                                              Macropodaphis rechingeri

      P. blaschkeana                             Acyrthosiphon boreale; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      P. canadensis                                Anthracosiphon crystleae; Aulacorthum solani;

                 (= Callionia canadensis)            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. canescens = P.inclinata

        P. caucasica                                  Chaetosiphon alpestre

        P. caulescens                                Chaetosiphon alpinum; Myzus ornatus

        P. chinensis                                   Aphis mongolica, potentillae, roepkei;                               

                                                              Neotoxoptera oliveri, [violae]

        P. chrysantha                                Acyrthosiphon boreale; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Brachycaudus cerasicola]; Chaetosiphon alpestre;

                                                              Macropodaphis alexandri; Macrosiphum rosae                 

        P. cinerea                                      Aphis breviseta; Chaetosiphon alpestre

        P. clusiana                                    Chaetosiphon alpinum

        P. collina                                       Acyrthosiphon boreale; Chaetosiphon alpestre;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        P. crantzii (incl. alpestris)                 Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae; Aphis breviseta;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon alpinum, potentillae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

        P. crinita                                       Aulacorthum solani

        P. cryptotaeniae                            Aphis frangulae

        P. desertorum                               Acyrthosiphon malvae

        P. dickinsii                                    Aphis potentillae

        P. doerfleri                                    [Chaetosiphon sp. (Serbia; Petrović 1998)]

        P. erecta (incl. tormentilla)                Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae; Aphis tormentillae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus; [Sitobion avenae]

        P. farreri ?                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. fruticosa                                    Acyrthosiphon assiniboinensis, [ignotum],

                                                                  malvae ssp. pentaphylloides, malvae ssp. rogersii,

                                                                  scalare, wasintae;

                                                              Aphis dasiphorae, fabae, spiraecola;

                                                              Aspidophorodon vera; Chaetosiphon alpestre;

                                                              Macropodaphis primigenius;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Myzaphis canadensis, rosarum; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              [Ossiannilsonia oelandica]; Sitobion fragariae

        P. fusca                                         Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (?)

        P. gelida = P. crantzii

        P. glandulosa                                Acyrthosiphon vandenboschi; Chaetosiphon hottesi;

               (= Drymocallis glandulosa)          Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia williamsi

        P. gracilis (incl. nutallii)                   [Abstrusomyzus leucocrini];

                                                              Acyrthosiphon malvae (s.lat.), wasintae;

                                                              [Aphis sp., Oregon (see aphidtrek.org)];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon hottesi, thomasi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus

        P. grandiflora                               Aulacorthum solani

        P. heptaphylla                               Chaetosiphon alpestre

        P. hirta                                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        P. hispanica                                  Acyrthosiphon boreale

        P. hybrida                                     Sitobion fragariae            

        P. hyparctica                                 Acyrthosiphon boreale

        P. impolita                                     Aphis roepkei; Acyrthosiphon boreale

        P. inclinata                                    Aphis subviridis; Aulacorthum solani

        P. intermedia                                Aphis tormentillae; Chaetosiphon alpestre

        P. japonicus                                  Paramyzus longirostris

        P. longifolia                                  Holmania chaetosiphon

        P. megalantha                              Acyrthosiphon malvae (s. lat.); Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Chaetosiphon alpestre ssp. airolense;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

        P. micrantha                                 Myzus ascalonicus

        P. monspeliensis = P. norvegica

        P. mooniana                                 [Tricaudatus polygoni];

                                                              [Trichosiphonaphis gerberae, polygoni]

        P. nepalensis                                 Acyrthosiphon rubifoliae

        P. neumanniana                           Aphis breviseta; Chaetosiphon potentillae

        P. norvegica                                  Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae ssp. potha;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon thomasi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. nuttallii see P. gracilis

        P. orientalis = Sibbaldianthe bifurca ssp. orientalis

        P. ornithopodioides                       Acyrthosiphon boreale; Myzus ornatus

        P. pacifica (?)                                Chaetosiphon thomasi

        P. palustris = Comarum palustre      

        P. parviflora                                  Macropodaphis dzhungarica; Myzaphis rosarum

        P. parvifolia                                  Aphis dasiphorae

        P. patula                                        Acyrthosiphon boreale; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

        P. pedata (incl. transcaspia)              Acyrthosiphon boreale; [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

        P. pensylvanica (incl. sibirica,         Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon alpestre, potentillae;

                                          strigosa)        Holmania chaetosiphon; Myzus ascalonicus

        P. phyllocalyx (?)                          Myzaphis rosarum

        P. pimpinelloides                          Myzus ornatus

        P. puberula (incl. pusilla)                Acyrthosiphon boreale; Aphis breviseta;

                                                              Chaetosiphon alpestre, alpestre ssp. airolense

        P. pusilla                                       Aphis breviseta

        P. recta (incl. warrenii)                     Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae ssp. potha;

                                                              Aphis tormentillae; [Brachycaudus cerasicola];                   

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        P. repens                                       Aphis roepkei

        P. reptans                                      Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae ssp. potha;

                                                              Aphis breviseta, potentillae, roepkei, solanella,

                                                                  tormentillae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Chaetosiphon alpestre ssp. airolense;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus galeopsidis]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus; Pemphigus ?populi

        P. rubricaulus                               Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus

        P. rupestris                                    Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

        P. ืrusselliana                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. sericea                                       Acyrthosiphon boreale

        P. sibirica see P. pensylvanica          

        P. speciosa                                    Chaetosiphon muelleri

        P. sterilis                                        Acyrthosiphon malvae; Chaetosiphon potentillae

        P. stolonifera                                 Paramyzus longirostris

        P. supina                                       Acyrthosiphon boreale; Aphis diluta, gossypii;

                                                              Chaetosiphon alpestre sspp. airolense, orientale;

                                                              Macropodaphis alexandri; [Macrosiphum stellariae]

        P. tabernaemontani = P. neumanniana

        P. tanacetifolia                              Aphis mongolica

        P. tephroleuca                               Acyrthosiphon boreale; Chaetosiphon alpestre

        P. tormentilla see P. erecta             

        P. transcaspia see P. pedata           

        P. tridentata =  Sibbaldia tridentata

        P. verna (?)                                   Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Chaetosiphon alpestre, alpestre ssp. airolense;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus           

        Potentilla spp.                               Acyrthosiphon pseudodirhodum; Aspidophorodon indica;

                                                              Chaetosiphon jacobi;

                                                              Macrosiphum agrimoniellum, pallidum, [valerianae];

                                                              [Sitobion beiquei]; [Uroleucon martini]

Key to apterae on Potentilla (also Comarum and Sibbaldianthe):-

1     Fore femora greatly enlarged, about twice as thick as mid femora, and fore tibiae with strengthened bases. Dorsum adorned with numerous tubercular processes, most of which bear hairs and wax glands. Cauda knobbed                                                                       .....2

-       Fore femora not enlarged. Dorsum with or without tubercular processes. Cauda variable

                                                                                                                                                  …..6

2     ABD TERG 1-5 with both mammariform and digitiform processes, each bearing a single hair; mammariform processes have a thick blunt or slightly capitate apical hair, whereas digitiform processes have a small apical wax disc with a very small hair on the rim                          …..3

-       ABD TERG 1-5 with mammariform or quadrate processes, each bearing 1-3 hairs; the processes vary in size and shape but all bear hairs of similar length                                 ..…4

3      Total number of dorsal hairs on thorax and ABD TERG 1-7 (including the minute ones on digitiform processes) is 210-270; ABD TERG 3-5 usually each with less than 28 hairs

                                                                                                           …..Macropodaphis paradoxa

-       Total number of dorsal hairs on thorax and ABD TERG 1-7 (including the minute ones on digitiform processes) is 310-352; ABD TERG 3-5 usually each with more than 30 hairs

                                                                                                           …..Macropodaphis alexandri

4      Head pale, weakly sclerotic, not much contrasting with pigmentation of pronotum. Fore femore pale or mottled, knob of cauda pale. Largest dorsal processes are quadrate or mammariform in shape, sometimes bifid or tripartite due to tuberculate bases of hairs. Longest dorsal hairs are 30-45 μm long                                  …..Macropodaphis rechingeri*

-       Head dark, distinctly contrasting with pale pronotum. Fore femora black, knob of cauda dusky to dark. Largest dorsal processes are rounded hillocks, with longest hairs 60-75 μm long                                                                                                                                    …..5

5      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.7 (-1.9)                                              …..Macropodaphis dzhungarica*

-       ANT PT/BASE (1.7-)2.0-2.3                                                  …..Macropodaphis primigenius

6      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                                                                             …..7

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6                                                                                          …..8

7      SIPH absent. Dorsal abdomen with wax pore plates

        …..Pemphigus sp.(?populi – Zw๖lfer 1958)

-       SIPH present as dark cones with many hairs. Dorsal abdomen without wax pore plates

        …..Maculolachnus submacula

8      Dorsal body hairs thick and markedly capitate, and arising from prominent tuberculate bases that are often higher than their basal widths. First tarsal segments all with 5 hairs          …..9

-       Dorsal body hairs not thick and capitate, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without prominent tubercular bases (always shorter than their basal widths). First tarsal segments with 2-6 hairs                                                                                                                   …..19

9      SIPH with a distinct subapical zone of polygonal reticulation     …..Holmania chaetosiphon

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                               …..10

10    SIPH with 1-12 thick capitate hairs on proximal part                                                     …..11

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                          …..13

11    SIPH 0.23-0.25 ื BL, with 9-12 capitate hairs       …..Chaetosiphon alpestre ssp. orientale*

-       SIPH 0.14-0.20 ื BL, with 1-6 capitate hairs                                                                …..12

12    SIPH 0.17-0.20 ื BL, with 4-6 capitate hairs                        …..Chaetosiphon alpestre s.str.

-       SIPH 0.14-0.17 ื BL, with 1-4 capitate hairs          …..Chaetosiphon alpestre ssp. airolense

13    SIPH 1.2-2.0 ื cauda                                                                                                      …..14

-       SIPH 2.1-3.5 ื cauda                                                                                                      …..15

14    R IV+V very long and narrow, 2.4-2.8 ื HT II. Dorsal hairs very numerous (20-30 per segment), varying in length but maximally c.130 μm long             …..Chaetosiphon muelleri

-       R IV+V triangular, similar in length to HT II. Dorsal hairs much fewer and shorter. (Only imm. known)                                                                                  …..Chaetosiphon alpinum

15    Cuticle of head smooth. R IV+V with 10-15 accessory hairs           …..Chaetosiphon hottesi

-       Cuticle of head spiculose. R IV+V with 3-6 accessory hairs                                          …..16

16    ANT III with 9-12 capitate hairs                                                 …..Chaetosiphon potentillae

-       ANT III with 2-7 capitate hairs                                                                                      …..17

17    Dorsal abdomen with dark pigmentation                                           …..Chaetosiphon jacobi

-       Dorsal abdomen pale                                                                                                       …..18

18    Rostrum not reaching hind coxae. R IV+V 0.06-0.08 ื BL           …..Chaetosiphon thomasi

-       Rostrum reaching to or beyond hind coxae. R IV+V 0.08-0.11 ื BL

                                                                                                             …..Chaetosiphon fragaefolii

19    SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed, polygonal cells)

                                                                                                                                                 …..20

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation (sometimes with a few interconnected subapical striae)

                                                                                                                                                 …..30

20    SIPH dark and with a greatly inflated, balloon-like middle section

                                                                                                     …..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

-       SIPH pale or dark, not inflated                                                                                       …..21

21    Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation. Ventral side of head ornamented with spicules                                                                                                                            …..22

-       Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark sclerotisation. Head without spicules             …..23

22    Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 ื BD III. Cauda finger-like, at least 2 ื longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                      …..Anthracosiphon crystleae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.4 ื BD III. Cauda triangular, less than 1.5 ื longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                              …..Anthracosiphon hertae

23    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 ื BD III. ANT III with 1-4 very small rhinaria. ANT tubercles rather low, and median frontal tubercle distinctly developed

                                                                                                                        …..Sitobion fragariae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.3 ื BD III. ANT III with 1-35 rhinaria of various sizes. ANT tubercles well developed, median frontal tubercle undeveloped                                    …..24

24    SIPH pale or dusky only towards apices                                                                        …..25

-       SIPH dark, or pale only at bases                                                                                     …..27

25    Cauda 1.8-2.0 ื R IV+V. SIPH 2.2-2.5 ื cauda                        …..Macrosiphum potentillae

-       Cauda 2.3-3.7 ื R IV+V. SIPH 1.6-2.3 ื cauda                                                           …..26

26  R IV+V 1.1-1.3 ื HT II. ANT III with 15-20 rhinaria extending over more than 0.7 of its length                                                                                      .....Macrosiphum agrimoniellum

-     R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria confined to basal half

                                                                                                            .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

27    SIPH wholly jet black, and rather thick; 5-7 ื as long as their width at midlength. ANT III pale except at apex                                                                   …..Macrosiphum pachysiphon

-       SIPH wholly dark, or paler at base, and more than 10ื longer than their width at midlength. ANT III dark at least on sensoriated part                                                                       …..28

28    Head, ANT I and ANT II as dark as SIPH, which are wholly dark. ANT III with 4-25 rhinaria 77% with 11 or more. (ANT III of al. with 31-71 rhinaria)  …..Macrosiphum rosae

-       Head, ANT I and ANT II much paler than distal part of SIPH, which may be paler at base. ANT III with 2-10 rhinaria. (ANT III of al. with 13-22 rhinaria)                                 …..29

29    SIPH 1.9-2.2 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.8-0.95 ื HT II               .....Macrosiphum potentillicaulis*

-       SIPH 1.2-1.7 (-1.8) ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.15 ื HT II                …..Macrosiphum pallidum

30    Front of head with median tubercle very well developed as a rugose, quadrate (sometimes bilobed) process, projecting forward beyond ANT tubercles                                         …..31

-       Median frontal tubercle undeveloped or less well developed, not quadrate or bilobed …..33

31    ANT tubercles undeveloped, inner apex of ANT I without projection. ANT 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.6. SIPH with flange and normal aperture. Dorsal cuticle strongly pitted. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                               …..Myzaphis rosarum

-       ANT tubercles evident (although lower than median tubercle), ANT I with projection at inner apex. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3. SIPH flangeless, with very small aperture. Dorsal cuticle wrinkled. First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs                           …..32

32    ABD TERG 7 and 8 each with a medial process bearing 2 hairs. Subgenital plate with 3-8 hairs on anterior part. HT I usually with only 2 hairs                       …..Aspidophorodon vera

-       ABD TERG 7, and usually also ABD TERG 8, without any distinct hair-bearing processes. Subgenital plate with 2 hairs on anterior part. HT I with 3 hairs (median sense peg present)

                                                                                                               …..Aspidophorodon indica

33    ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                              …..34

-       ANT tubercles well developed, so that there is a frontal sinus. ABD TERG 1 and 7 never with MTu                                                                                                                         …..52

34    ABD TERG 7 without MTu                                                                                           …..35

-       ABD TERG 7 with MTu                                                                                                …..38

35    Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 0.67-1.3. SIPH either much shorter or much longer than cauda                                                                        …..36

-       Cauda helmet-shaped, as short as or shorter than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-3.2. SIPH similar in length to cauda                                                                                      …..37

36    SIPH very short, c.0.3 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.3. First tarsal segments with 6 hairs

                                                                                                                …..Longicaudus trirhodus

-       SIPH long and thin, nearly 3 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.67-1.0. First tarsal segments with 2 hairs                                                                                                  …..Myzaphis canadensis*

37    SIPH with close-spaced spiculose imbrication. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.7. ANT III (distally) and IV usually with rhinaria. ANT with long fine hairs much longer than BD III. ABD TERG 1-5(-6) usually with MTu. Dorsal abdomen with dark spots and patches                    

                                                                                                    …..Nearctaphis argentinaeradicis

-       SIPH with smooth surface. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT hairs shorter than BD III. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings     …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

38    R IV+V 1.6-2.3 ื HT II, and bearing 4-16 accessory hairs                                            …..39

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.4 ื HT II, with 2(-3) accessory hairs                                                       …..40

39    SIPH dark. ANT usually 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.35-1.72. R IV+V with 12-14 accessory hairs                                                                                         ….. Aphis mongolica

-       SIPH pale. ANT usually 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.9. R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs                                                                                                  …..Aphis diluta

40    Hairs on ANT III pointed, the longest of them more than 0.65 ื longer than BD III   …..41

-       Hairs on ANT III blunt or pointed, the longest 0.3-0.6 (-0.7) ื BD III                         …..43

41    ANT PT/BASE 1.25-1.65. SIPH 0.55-0.85 ื cauda                              …..Aphis dasiphorae

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.9. SIPH 0.8-1.8 ื cauda                                                              …..42

42    Cauda paler than SIPH, without a constriction, and bearing 4-11 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually with dusky cross-bands. R IV+V 1.15-1.4 ื HT II                          …..Aphis comari

-       Cauda as dark as SIPH, and bearing (7-)8-24  hairs (but if with 7-11 then it has a midway constriction and ABD TERG 7 and 8 are without cross-bands). R IV+V 0.85-1.2 (-1.3) ื HT II                                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 33

43    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield centred on ABD TERG 4-5

                                                                                                                         …..Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsum without an extensive solid black shield                                                             …..44

44    Marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on most or all of ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                                …..45

-       MTu only occur irregularly or inconsistently on ABD TERG 2-4                                  …..49

45    SIPH entirely blackish. Tergum with dark sclerotic bars on thorax and posterior abdomen

                                                                                                                                                 .....46

-       SIPH usually paler basally and darker at apex. Tergum without dark sclerotisation       .....47

46    R IV+V 1.6-1.8 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE c. 2.4-2.5                              …..Aphis potentillae*

-       R IV+V 1.1-1.2 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE c.1.9-2.0                           …..Aphis tianschanica*

47    SIPH 0.9-1.1 ื cauda, which is tongue-shaped to triangular                    …..Aphis subviridis

-       SIPH 1.3-2.2 ื cauda which is finger-like                                                                      …..48

48    ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.1. SIPH 1.3-1.4 ื cauda, which bears long curved hairs

                                                                                                                               …..Aphis roepkei

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1. SIPH 1.6-2.2 ื cauda, which bears hairs shorter than ANT BD III

                                                                                                                            …..Aphis breviseta

49    SIPH and cauda both similarly dark                                                                               …..50

-       SIPH dark or pale with dark apices, cauda pale or dusky                                              …..51

50    SIPH 0.64-1.0 ื cauda, which bears 5-9 hairs                                       …..Aphis tormentillae

-       SIPH 1.2-1.3 ื cauda, which bears 4 hairs

                                                              …..Aphis sp. on P. argentea (Sweden, BMNH collection)

51    SIPH uniformly dark. Hairs on hind femur all shorter than diameter of femur at its base

                                                                                                                               .....Aphis gossypii

-       SIPH usually rather pale, darker at apex. Hairs on hind femur mainly longer, some of them about as long as, or longer than, diameter of femur at its base                     .....Aphis nasturtii

52    Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep, almost parallel or apically convergent. ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria                                                                            …..53

-       Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with (0-)1-56 rhinaria

                                                                                                                                                …..58

53   SIPH clavate, i.e. slightly to considerably swollen on distal 0.5-0.7 of length               …..54

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering, without swollen distal part                                               …..57

54    ANT III with 1-4 secondary rhinaria on slightly swollen section of basal half. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 ื HT II                                                                                               …..Paramyzus longirostris

-       ANT III without secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 0.9-1.5 ื HT II                                      …..55

55    SIPH 0.9-1.34 ื ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.1(-1.2) ื HT II                         …..Myzus persicae

-       SIPH 0.50-0.81 ื ANT III. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 ื HT II                                                    …..56

56    SIPH with narrowest part of stem as thin as or thinner than hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V with 7-15 accessory hairs. (Al. with forewing veins not black-bordered)

                                                                                                                       …..Myzus ascalonicus

-       SIPH with narrowest part of stem thicker than hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V with 4-7 accessory hairs. (Al. with black-bordered forewing veins)                 …..Neotoxoptera oliveri

57    SIPH coarsely imbricated, with a slight S-curve. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.5. BL 1.0-1.75 mm           …..Myzus ornatus

-       SIPH not curved, not coarsely imbricated. Dorsal abdomen without dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.3. BL 1.8-3.0 mm                                             …..Aulacorthum solani

58    ANT with numerous protruberant sec. rhinaria; 23-56 on III, 0-22 on IV, 0-1 on V. ANT hairs 1-2 ื BD III. Thoracic spiracles large and rounded, much larger than abdominal ones. R IV+V 1.6-1.9 ื HT II                                                                     …..Nasonovia williamsi

-       ANT with 0-32 non-protruberant sec. rhinaria, confined to ANT III. ANT hairs all shorter than BD III. Thoracic spiracles not much larger than abdominal ones. R IV+V 0.6-1.6 ื HT II                                                                                                                                      …..59

59    Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 thick and with blunt or slightly expanded apices, 25-52 μm long, longer than diameter of ANT III at midlength. SIPH long and thin, 1.65-2.9 ื cauda                                                                                                                               …..60

-       Longest hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 are 10-20 μm long, shorter than midlength diameter of ANT III. SIPH 0.8-2.5 ื cauda                                                                                      …..61

60    Dorsal abdominal cuticle strongly sclerotised and corrugated in a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern. R IV+V 1.0-1.25 ื HT II and bearing 4-8 accessory hairs. Cauda with 7-12 hairs. ANT III with 1-4 (-32) rhinaria. BL less than 2.5 mm                                           …..Acyrthosiphon scalare

-       Dorsal abdominal cuticle smooth. R IV+V 1.5-1.6 ื HT II and bearing c.40 accessory hairs. Cauda with 16-19 hairs. ANT III without rhinaria. BL more than 3 mm

                                                                                                       …..Acyrthosiphon vandenboschi

61    SIPH 0.8-1.2 ื cauda. ANT PT 2.25-3.25 ื SIPH      …..Acyrthosiphon pseudodirhodum

-       SIPH 1.4-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT less than 2 ื SIPH                                                       …..62

62    R IV+V 0.6-0.8 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.4                    …..Metopolophium dirhodum

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.5 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-9.0                                                          …..63

63    SIPH 1.4-1.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.2. ANT III with 8-20 rhinaria

                                                                                                     …..Acyrthosiphon assiniboinensis

-       SIPH 1.5-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-9.0, but if less than 4.3 then SIPH 1.6-1.8 ื cauda and ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria                                                                              …..64

64    ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.3. SIPH 1.6-1.8 ื cauda. ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria near base

                                                                                                              …..Acyrthosiphon wasintae

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.4-9.0. SIPH 1.8-2.6 ื cauda. ANT III with 1-24 rhinaria                 …..65

65    ANT PT/BASE 7.1-9.0. SIPH dark except at bases                    …..Acyrthosiphon rubifoliae

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.4-6.3. SIPH pale             …..Acyrthosiphon malvae group, incl. A. boreale

 

Poterium  see Sanguisorba                                              Rosaceae

 

Pothomorphe  see Piper                                        Piperaceae

       Pothomorphe peltata = Piper peltatum

       P. umbellata = Piper umbellatum

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pothos                                                          Araceae

      Pothos chinensis                           Cerataphis lataniae

      P. hermaphroditus = P. scandens

      P. longifolius = P. scandens

      P. repens                               Cerataphis lataniae

      P. roxburghii                                Cerataphis pothophila

        P. scandens                                   Cerataphis freycinetiae; [Greenidea ficicola]

        P. seemannii = P. chinensis

Key to apterae on Pothos:-

(Both species have a flattened aleyrodiform body with an encircling fringe of wax glands, a pair of small frontal horns, 3-faceted eyes and poriform SIPH.)                                               

1      Ventral side of head with 1-2 pairs of thick dagger-like hairs arising from enlarged sockets. Cauda with 6-9 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 11-16 hairs                  …..Cerataphis freycinetiae

-       Ventral side of head without any dagger-like hairs. Cauda with 11-14 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 8-10 hairs                                                                                                                   …..2

2      R IV+V 0.71-0.85 ื HT II. Longest marginal hair dorsal to row of wax glands is 6-15 μm long, and hairs around SIPH are maximally only 2-7 μm. Dorsal and marginal hairs usually with rounded apices                                                                              .....Cerataphis lataniae

-       R IV+V 0.57-0.65 ื HT II. Longest marginal hair dorsal to row of wax glands is 20-30 μm long, and hairs around SIPH are 12-20 μm. Dorsal and marginal hairs with pointed apices

        .....Cerataphis pothophila

 

Poupartia                                                     Anacardiaceae

      Poupartia caffra = Sclerocarya birrea ssp. caffra

 

Pourthiaea  see Photinia                                                 Rosaceae

      Pourthiaea laevis = Photinia villosa var. laevis

        P. zollingeri = Photinia villosa var. zollingeri

 

Pouteria (=Malacantha)                                                      Sapotaceae

        Pouteria alnifolia                          Aphis gossypii

        P. caimito                                      Aphis gossypii; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        P. ramiflora                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Pouzolzia                                                     Urticaceae

      Pouzolzia hirta = Gonostegia hirta  

        P. indica = P. zeylanica                   

        P. zeylanica                                   Aphis gossypii

        Pouzolzia sp.                                 [Subovatomyzus leucosceptri]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Prangos                                                       Apiaceae

      Prangos asperula                        Swirskiaphis polychaeta

        P. bucharica                               Dysaphis crataegi, papillata; Hyadaphis passerinii

        P. ornata                                     Hyadaphis coriandri

        P. pabularia                                Anuraphis subterranea; Aphis craccivora;

                                                            Dysaphis papillata; Hyadaphis passerinii                            

Key to apterae on Prangos:-

1     SIPH clavate or barrel-shaped. Cauda finger-shaped, longer than its basal width            …..2

-      SIPH tapering or truncate, cauda shorter than or only about as long as its basal width    …..3

2     SIPH  clavate, 0.88-1.4 ื cauda, 1.7-3.1 ื R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 ื longer than their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                         …..Hyadaphis passerinii

-      SIPH barrel-shaped, 0.6-0.82 ื cauda, 0.9-1.6 ื R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 ื their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                         …..Hyadaphis coriandri 

3     Dorsal body hairs very long (more than 100 mm), thick and numerous. SIPH about equal in length to cauda. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent                              …..Swirskiaphis polychaeta

-      Dorsal body hairs less than 50 mm. SIPH at least 1.5 ื cauda. Head and some of abdominal segments  with paired STu                                                                                                 …..4

4     SIPH ornamented with blunt spinules, arranged in closely-spaced transverse rows. Cauda with c.11-12 hairs                                                                            …..Anuraphis subterranea

-      SIPH with normal imbrication. Cauda with 5-8 hairs                                                        …..5

5     Longest hairs on ANT III as long as or longer than BD III. ANT PT/BASE c.2.3

                                                                                                                     …..Dysaphis papillata*

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.8 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-4.1    …..Dysaphis crataegi

 

Prasium                                                       Lamiaceae

      Prasium majus                             Aphis sp. (Italy; Cocuzza et al. 2014)                                

                                                              Cryptomyzus sp. near korschelti (Israel; Swirski &

                                                                  Amitai 2001: 73)

 

Pratia                                                           Campanulaceae

      Pratia nummularia                       Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

 

Praxelis                                                       Compositae

      Praxelis basifolia                          Aphis spiraecola

        P. pauciflora                                 Aphis spiraecola

       

Premna                                                                    Verbenaceae

      Premna cavalerei                          [Myzus varians]

      P. odorata                                     Mesotrichosiphum uichancoi

      Premna sp.                                   [Greenideoida noonadanae]

 

Prenanthes                                                  Compositae

      Prenanthes alba                            Hyperomyzus nabali; Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

        P. altissima                                    Hyperomyzus nabali

        P. autumnalis                               Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

        P. brunoniana                              Uroleucon longisetosum

        P. purpurea                                   Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum prenanthidis

        P. tanakae                                     Hyperomyzus carduellinus

        P. tatarinowii                                Aphis fabae, Aphis sp. near viburni (Holman 1987)

        P. trifoliata                                    Uroleucon ambrosiae

        P. violaefolia                                 Uroleucon longisetosum

Key to apterae on Prenanthes:-

1      SIPH clavate                                                                                                                     …..2

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical for most of length                                                                …..3

2      SIPH 1.1-1.5 ื cauda, with maximum diameter of swollen part 1.05-1.45 ื minimum diameter of  basal part. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 4.4-6.0

                                                                                                          …..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-       SIPH 1.4-1.8 ื cauda, with maximum diameter of swollen part 1.8-3.1 ื minimum diameter of  basal part. R IV+V 1.05-1.3 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 8.5-13.5  …..Hyperomyzus nabali

3      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles well developed. ANT III with rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                            …..4

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                          …..7

4      SIPH 2.0-2.5 ื cauda and mainly pale, sometimes dark on distal reticulated part, which extends for less than 0.2 of total length                                   …..Macrosiphum prenanthidis

-       SIPH 1.1-1.5 ื cauda and wholly dark, with distal reticulation extending more than 0.25 of length                                                                                                                                 …..5

5      Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH short and thick, 0.14-0.15 ื BL. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 ื HT II                                                                  …..Uroleucon longisetosum

-       No antesiphuncular sclerites. SIPH more than 0.2 ื BL. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 ื HT II         …..6

6      HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more ื longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 ื R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-       HT II less than 5 ื its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 ื R IV+V

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

7      ABD TERG 2-6 as well as 1 and 7 usually bearing prominent MTu. R IV+V 1.23-1.53 ื HT II                                                                              …..Aphis sp. near viburni (Holman 1987)

-       ABD TERG 2-6 rarely with small MTu. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 ื HT II        ..…Aphis fabae group

     

Primula                                                        Primulaceae

      Primula acaulis                            Acyrthosiphon primulae

        P. allionii                                       Thecabius (Parathecabius) auriculae

        P. alpicola                                     Myzus ornatus

        P. ืauricula                                  Acyrthosiphon auriculae, primulae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Thecabius (Parathecabius) auriculae

        P. denticulata                                Aulacorthum solani

        P. elatior                                        Acyrthosiphon primulae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

        P. floribunda                                 Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. forbesii                                      Myzus persicae

      P. glaucescens                              [Acyrthosiphon auriculae (excised leaves)]

      P. japonica                                    Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

        P. juliae                                         Aulacorthum solani

        P. ืkewensis                                 Acyrthosiphon primulae; Myzus persicae

        P. macrophylla                             Cavariella aquatica

        P. malacoides                                Myzus ornatus, persicae

      P. marginata                                 [Acyrthosiphon auriculae (excised leaves)]

        P. obconica                                   [Acyrthosiphon malvae]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. officinalis see P. veris

        P. palinuri                                     [Acyrthosiphon auriculae (excised leaves)]

      P. parryi                                        Amphorophora pawtincae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      P. pedemontana                            Thecabius (Parathecabius) auriculae

      P. polyantha                                  Myzus ornatus

      P. sieboldii                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. sikkimensis                               Acyrthosiphon primulae; Aulacorthum solani

      P. sinensis                                     Acyrthosiphon primulae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Nasonovia dasyphylli]

        P. veris (incl. ssp. canescens)           Acyrthosiphon primulae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. vialii                                          Aulacorthum solani

        P. vulgaris                                     Acyrthosiphon primulae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus cymbalariae, persicae

        Primula spp.                                 [Eutrichosiphum pseudopasaniae]; Neomyzus primulus;

                                                              [Rhodobium porosum]; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              [Roepkea marchali]; Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              [Wahlgreniella nervata]

Key to apterae on Primula:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH as inconspicuous pores. Cauda broadly rounded, not evident. Dorsal abdomen with wax glands (4 on each of ABD TERG 3-6, 2 on ABD TERG 7)                                                               …..Thecabius (Parathecabius) auriculae

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular. Cauda helmet-, tongue- or finger-shaped. No discrete wax glands                                                                                                           …..2

2      ANT 0.3-0.4 ื BL, with ANT PT/BASE 0.75-1.25. SIPH flangeless and with reduced aperture. ABD TERG 8 with a triangular supracaudal process           …..Cavariella aquatica

-       ANT more than 0.4 ื BL, with ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5.  SIPH with flange and normal aperture. ABD TERG 8 without a supracaudal process                                       …..3

3      SIPH tapering or cylindrical with distal polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)                                                                                                                                 …..4

-       SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation (except when black with balloon-like swelling of  distal part)                                                                                                                         …..5

4      SIPH wholly dark, 1.4-1.9 ื cauda. ANT tubercles rather weakly developed                       

                                                                                                                       …..Sitobion miscanthi

-       SIPH mainly pale, 1.7-2.2 ื cauda. ANT tubercles well developed                                       

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

5      Cuticle of head smooth with ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces smooth and divergent. ANT 0.9-1.4 ื BL                                                                                           …..6

-       Cuticle of head densely spiculose, or if smooth then ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed and ANT less than 0.9 ื BL                                                                           …..8

6      SIPH clavate. ANT PT/BASE more than 6 (estimated from al.; apt. undescribed)

                                                                                                           …..Amphorophora pawtincae

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ANT PT/BASE less than 6                                                     …..7

7      R IV+V 1.25-1.35 ื HT II and bearing 25-31 accessory hairs. Cauda with 10-13 hairs

                                                                                                             …..Acyrthosiphon auriculae

-       R IV+V 1.0-1.25 ื HT II and bearing 8-12 accessory hairs. Cauda with 6-8 hairs

                                                                                                              …..Acyrthosiphon primulae

8      Cuticle of head densely spiculose, abdomen with dark dorsal markings and SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                             .....9

-       Without that combination of characters                          ..... go to key to polyphagous aphids

9      SIPH 1.8-2.3 ื cauda, 0.17-0.23 ื BL. R IV+V 1.2-1.7 ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 with a roughly horseshoe-shaped patch                                                     .....Neomyzus circumflexus

-       SIPH c.3 ื cauda, 0.23-0.25 ื BL. R IV+V 1.1-1.2 ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 with variably developed cross-bands or roughly quadrate patch                              .....Neomyzus primulus*

 

Pringlea                                                       Brassicaceae

      Pringlea antiscorbutica                Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Prinsepia                                                     Rosaceae

      Prinsepia sinensis                       Aphidura mordvilkoi, prinsepiae

      P. utilis                                        [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Aphis gossypii;

                                                            Tricaudatus polygoni

Key to apterae on Prinsepia:-

-       Dorsum membranous. SIPH markedly swollen over distal 0.75 of length. ABD TERG 7 and 8 each with an unpaired rounded medial process                              …..Tricaudatus polygoni

-       Dorsum extensively sclerotised. SIPH tapering. ABD TERG 7 and 8 without processes

                                                                            …..Aphidura mordvilkoi (or prinsepiae - see text)

(If neither combination of characters wholly applies then go to key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Pritchardia                                                                            Arecaceae

        Pritchardia sp.                              Cerataphis lataniae
 

Priva                                                            Verbenaceae

      Priva lappulacea                           Aphis gossypii, nerii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Proboscidea                                                 Martyniaceae

      Proboscidea louisiana                  Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pronephrium                                               Thelypteridaceae

     Pronephrium penangianum          Macromyzus maculatus

 

Prosartes                                                      Liliaceae

      Prosartes hookeri                          Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum wilsoni                        

         P. smithii                                        Macrosiphum wilsoni

       Prosartes sp.                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Prosartes:-

1     SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles with steep-sided, approximately parallel, inner faces, and head densely spiculose at least on underside

                                                                                                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

-      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles with divergent inner faces, and head smooth or with only sparse, minute spinules                                            …..2

2     SIPH 2.3-3.4 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 ื HT II, which is 0.11-0.14 mm long

                                                                                                                  …..Macrosiphum wilsoni

-      SIPH 1.7-2.2  ื cauda.  R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II, which is 0.13-0.19 mm long

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Prosopidastrum                                           Leguminosae

     Prosopidastrum globosum         Aphis craccivora

 

Prosopis                                                       Leguminosae

      Prosopis farcta                              Aphis craccivora

      P. glandulosa                                Macrosiphum ?euphorbiae

        P. juliflora                                     Aphis craccivora; Brachyunguis harmalae

        P. stephaniana = P. farcta

          Prosopis sp.                                   Aphis gossypii

-     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH pale, much shorter than cauda …..Brachyunguis harmalae

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH pale or dark, longer than cauda

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Prostanthera                                                Lamiaceae

      Prostanthera nivea                       Myzus persicae

 

Prosthechea                                                 Orchidaceae

        Prosthechea campylostalix           Sitobion luteum

        P. cochleata                                  Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion luteum

      P. fragrans                                    Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion luteum                    

      P. vespa                                         Sitobion luteum

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Protasparagus  see  Asparagus                                   Asparagaceae

 

 

Proustia                                                                 Compositae

      Proustia cuneifolia                   [Aphis craccivora]; Uroleucon macolai

 

 

Prunella (including Brunella)                                       Lamiaceae

        Prunella asiatica = P. vulgarus ssp. asiatica                               

        P. grandiflora                               Aphis brunellae; Aulacorthum solani

        P. orientalis                                   Aphis brunellae

        P. vulgaris                                     Aphis brunellae, gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

        P. vulgarus ssp. asiatica               Cryptomyzus taoi

Key to apterae on Prunella:-

1      Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, many or all of them having knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. SIPH swollen on distal part                                                                     …..Cryptomyzus taoi

-       Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-7.7. SIPH swollen, tapering or cylindrical                                                                                                        …..2

2      ANT PT/BASE 5.6-7.7. SIPH pale, cylindrical or slightly clavate, without any subapical polygonal reticulation (Fig.50e), and 2.2-3.1 ื cauda, which has a distinctly constricted base

                                                                                                             …..Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-6.2, but if more than 5.3 then SIPH have subapical polygonal reticulation. SIPH pale, dusky or dark, tapering, 0.8-2.5 ื cauda which is not constricted at base                                                                                                                                    …..3

3      R IV+V 1.2-1.7 ื HT II. ANT tubercles weakly developed. Only ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda pale                                                       …..Aphis brunellae

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Prunus                                                                                      Rosaceae

The genus Prunus is used here in a broad sense to include Amygdalopsis, Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus, Laurocerasus, Padus and Persica, although several of these are now often regarded as separate genera.  Prunus is the primary host genus for most species of the aphidine genera Brachycaudus, Hyalopterus, Rhopalosiphum, Myzus and Tuberocephalus. Although some Prunus-feeding aphids are rather specific in their choice of primary host, many colonise more than species, and there seems to be remarkably little concordance between host choice and the major subdivisions of the genus. Therefore a single key to aphids on Prunus of the world seems most useful. Except where otherwise indicated, the key refers to apterous viviparae (including fundatrices).

Host Plant List:-

        Prunus africana                                    Red Stinkwood, Bitter-Almond
                                                     Aphis spiraecola

        P. americana                                         American Wild Plum, River Plum
                                                    Aphis minima, pomi; Hyalopterus pruni; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        P. amygdalopersica = P. persicoides

        P. amygdalus                                         Almond
                                                    Aphis
aurantii, [citricidus], [craccivora],  fabae, gossypii,

                                                                 spiraecola;

                                                            Brachycaudus amygdalinus, [cardui], helichrysi, persicae,

                                                                 prunicola, [schwartzi];
                                                    [Capitophorus prunifoliae Shinji, 1924];
                                                    Hyalopterus amygdali, [pruni];

                                                            Myzus amygdalinus, [ascalonicus], cerasi, persicae;
                                                    Pterochloro