(in alphabetical order)




































































































Piper                                                            Piperaceae

      Piper aduncum                            Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Sinomegoura citricola

        P. betle                                          Aphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. futokadsura = P. kadsura

        P. guineense                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        P. hispidum                                  Aphis gossypii

        P. kadsura                                    Aulacorthum solani; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae


        P. longum                                     Sinomegoura citricola

        P. nigrum                                     Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

       P. peltatum                                   Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                             Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon ambrosiae

       P. tuberculatum                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       P. umbellatum                              Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       Piper sp.                                       [Aphis piperis (invalid name)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Piperia                                                         Orchidaceae

      Piperia dilatata                             Aulacorthum solani

(or use key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)


Piptantherum  see Oryzopsis                                 Poaceae


Piptanthus                                                   Fabaceae

      Piptanthus tomentosus                 Aphis cytisorum ssp. sarothamni,  fabae

Key to apterae on Piptanthus:-

-      Dorsum with an extensive black shield (fragmented in small individuals). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.7 ื BD III. Cauda with 7-11 hairs          ….. Aphis cytisorum ssp. sarothamni

-      Dorsum with only scattered small sclerites anterior to SIPH. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.2 ื BD III. Cauda with 11-24 hairs                                                                    …..Aphis fabae


Piptocarpha                                                 Asteraceae

      Piptocarpha rotundifolia              Aphis gossypii


Piqueria                                                       Asteraceae

      Piqueria trinervia                         Myzus persicae


Pirola see Pyrola                                                                   Ericaceae


Piscidia                                                        Fabaceae

      Piscidia piscipula                          Aphis craccivora


Pisonia                                                         Nyctaginaceae

      Pisonia aculeata                           Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

      P. fragrans = Guapira fragrans

      P. grandis                                      Aphis spiraecola

      P. sechellarum                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Pistacia                                                                   Anacardiaceae

Pistacia spp. are the primary hosts of many species of Fordini (Eriosomatinae, which produce a wide variety of galls, sometimes very large and elaborate. The only other aphids recorded from this genus are Brachunguis nevskyi (Kreutzberg), and the polyphagous Aphis gossypii. Following the host plant list, two keys to Fordini are provided, both taking the genus Pistacia as a whole. The first key is to the emigrant alatae produced in the galls, which usually open in autumn, and the second is to the alate sexuparae, which may be collected on the trunks when they return to Pistacia in spring. Confirmation of identity will often be possible from the descriptions and illustrations of galls given in the systematic section of the book.

Host Plant List:-

      Pistacia aculeata (?)                      [Chaetogeoica ulmidrupa – see text]

      P. aethiopica                                 Aloephagus myersi

      P. atlantica (incl. var. cabulica)         [Aphis gossypii]; [Aploneura lentisci]; Baizongia pistaciae;
                                                      Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, riccobonii;
                                                      Geoica harpazi, mimeuri, rungsi; Inbaria swirskii;
                                                      Slavum lentiscoides, wertheimae; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                              Tramaforda koachi, wooli

      P. chinensis                                   Asiphoniella dactylonii; Baizongia pistaciae;
                                                      Chaetogeoica foliodentata, [ovagalla], [sensucopia]


                                                              Forda marginata, sichangensis;
                                                      Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; [Stomaphis pistacicola]

      P. integerrima                               Baizongia pistaciae; Forda marginata, riccobonii;

                                                              Geoica utricularia

      P. khinjuk                                     Asiphoniella cynodonti; Baizongia pistaciae;
                                                      Forda formicaria, kaussarii, sp. near sichangensis;
                                                      Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, [utricularia];

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis; Rectinaphis buxtoni;

                                                              Slavum lentiscoides, wertheimae

      P. lentiscus                                    Aploneura lentisci; Baizongia pistaciae; Forda marginata;
                                                      [Geoica utricularia]

      P. mexicana (incl. texana)               Geopemphigus blackmani, morral, torsus,

                                                                   Geopemphigus sp. “A” of Mu๑oz Viveros &

                                                                   Remaudi่re 1999   

      P. mutica (= P. atlantica?)                Forda formicaria, hirsuta, ?riccobonii;
                                                      Geoica muticae;
                                                      Slavum esfandiarii, lentiscoides, wertheimae;
                                                      Smynthurodes betae

      P. palaestina                                 [Aphis gossypii]; Asiphoniella dactylonii;
                                                      Baizongia pistaciae; Forda formicaria, marginata;
                                                      Geoica wertheimae; Paracletus cimiciformis;
                                                      Rectinasus buxtoni

      P. sinensis see P. chinensis

      P. terebinthus                                [Aploneura lentisci]; [Aulacorthum solani];

                                                              Baizongia pistaciae;
                                                      Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, [riccobonii];
                                                      Geoica mimeuri, utricularia;
                                                      Paracletus cimiciformis, donisthorpei;
                                                      Smynthurodes betae

      P. texana = P. mexicana                  

      P. vera                                                         Pistachio
                                                      [Aphis gossypii]; [Baizongia pistaciae];

                                                              [Brachyunguis nevskyi];
                                                      Forda hirsuta, marginata, ?riccobonii;
                                                      Geoica utricularia; [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

                                                            [Myzus persicae]; Paracletus cimiciformis;
                                                      Slavum lentiscoides, mordvilkoi;
                                                      Smynthurodes betae

      P. weinmanniifolia                       Chaetogeoica foliodentata

Key to alatae from galls on Pistacia:-


1      ANT III and IV each usually with only a single subapical secondary rhinarium resembling the primary rhinaria on V and VI (sometimes absent on IV, or rarely one additional small rhinarium is present on III                                                                                                  .....2

-       ANT III always with at least two secondary rhinaria, and usually with 3 or more           .....7

2      Rhinaria on each of ANT III-VI very large, occupying more than half of circumference of a segment and 0.4-0.8 of its length                                                                .....Inbaria swirskii

-       Rhinaria on ANT III-VI much smaller (figs. 81A, B)                                                      …..3

3      Primary rhinarium on ANT VI elongate, 2 or more ื longer than broad (fig. 81A)

                                                                                                                         .....Aploneura lentisci

-       Primary rhinarium on ANT VI oval, like that on V (e.g. fig. 81B)                                    .....4

4      R IV+V 0.05-0.08 mm long, less than 0.5 ื HT II                              .....Slavum lentiscoides

-       R IV+V 0.08-0.13 mm long, more than 0.5 ื HT II                                                         .....5

5      Wax pore plates pigmented and of granular appearance. Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b separated at their bases. HT II 0.20-0.25 mm long                                 .....Slavum esfandiarii

-       Wax pore plates unpigmented. Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b joined at their bases. HT II less than 0.18 mm long                                                                                                              .....6

6      Head without any distinct median suture. HT II with 4-8 hairs (as well as the 6 subapical

        ones).  Embryos without mouthparts                                                    .....Slavum wertheimae

-       Head normal, with a distinct median suture. HT II with 14-17 hairs (+ 6 subapical). Embryos with mouthparts                                                                                      .....Slavum mordvilkoi

7    All antennal segments very thick, with hundreds of small (5-6 ตm diameter) circular secondary rhinaria (fig. 81C). R IV+V long and narrow, about 4 ื its basal width, with 20 or more accessory hairs arranged in 4 rows                                                           .....Rectinasus buxtoni

-     Secondary rhinaria much fewer and usually larger. R IV+V less than 3 ื its basal width and with fewer hairs                                                                                                                   .....8

8    ANT III with 2-5 small to very small, round or oval secondary rhinaria (fig. 81D). Marginal wax glands on ABD TERG 1-5 often reduced or indistinct            .....Asiphoniella cynodonti

-     If ANT III has fewer than 6 secondary rhinaria then these are large, occupying at least half of width of segment. ABD TERG 1-5 with or without marginal wax glands                        .....9

9    ABD TERG 1-5 usually with marginal wax glands                                                          .....10

-     ABD TERG 1-5 without marginal wax glands                                                                 .....24

10    Secondary rhinaria with conspicuously ciliated rims                                                       .....11

-       Secondary rhinaria not ciliated                                                                                         .....18

11    ANT PT/BASE 0.4 or more                                                                                             .....12

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4                                                                                            .....15

12    ANT III a little longer than ANT VI (incl. PT), with 5-12 secondary rhinaria arranged in a row. Abdominal wax glands with closely adpressed facets forming cohesive groups

                                                                                                                 .....Asiphoniella dactylonii

-       ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT), with 5-16 secondary rhinaria distributed irregularly, never in a row (e.g. fig. 81E). Abdominal wax glands with facets loosely grouped, often not touching                                                                                             .....13

13    ANT PT with 7-9 hairs                                                             .....Chaetogeoica yunlongensis

-       ANT PT with 4-5 hairs                                                                                                     .....14

14    Embryos inside alata bearing spinal and marginal hairs with finely-pointed apices

                                                                                                            .....Chaetogeoica foliodentata

-       Embryos inside alata bearing spinal and marginal hairs with truncate apices

                                                                                                                 .....Chaetogeoica ovagalla

15    ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing 3-5 rounded or broadly oval secondary rhinaria (fig. 81F). Dorsal abdomen unpigmented or with only faint narrow

        cross-bands                                                                                             .....Aloephagus myersi

-       ANT III much longer than ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing 7-20 transversely oval or narrow elongate secondary rhinaria. Abdomen with broad dark transverse bands on ABD TERG

        3-6                                                                                                                                    .....16

16    ANT III with 13-32 narrowly elongate secondary rhinaria mostly extending around about half its circumference, IV with 3-9, V with 2-7 and BASE VI with 1-5

                                                                                                            .....Geopemphigus blackmani

-       ANT III with 7-17 transversely oval secondary rhinaria, IV with 1-4, V and BASE VI usually without any                                                                                                          .....17

17    Secondary rhinaria distributed III 7-13 (usually 8-11), IV 1(-2). ANT III 1.3-1.6 ื ANT IV+V together                                                                                  .....Geopemphigus morral

-       Secondary rhinaria distributed III 9-17 (usually 10-15), IV 1-3(-5). ANT III 0.9-1.3 ื ANT IV+V together                 .....Geopemphigus sp. “A” of Mu๑oz Viveros & Remaudi่re 1999

18    First tarsal segments usually with 2 sense pegs between the 2 long hairs. ANT III a little shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT); PT about 3 ื its basal width (fig. 81G)

                                                                                                                      .....Baizongia pistaciae

-       First tarsal segments with 0-1 sense pegs between the 2 long hairs. ANT III longer than VI. ANT PT shorter; less than 2 ื its basal width                                                                  .....19

19    ABD TERG 2-8 (or 3-8) each with a broad dusky or dark transverse band. Anal plate not joined to cauda                                                                                                                 .....20

-       At least ABD TERG 2-4 without any distinct dark transverse bands. Anal plate extending dorso-laterally, the extremities joined with the cauda to form a perianal ring                 .....21

20    Embryos with mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria subannular, mostly extending more than half-way around circumference of segment; III 18-30, IV 3-8, V 2-6, VI BASE 1-5

                                                                                                                   .....Geopemphigus torsus

-       Embryos without mouthparts. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 5-10, IV 1-4, V 0-1, VI BASE 0                                                                                                      .....Geoica mimeuri

21    ANT III with only 3-7 large secondary rhinaria, usually in a single row (fig. 81I). ANT IV with 1-2 and V with 0-1 secondary rhinaria (when antennae 6-segmented). Embryos with

        spatulate dorsal hairs                                                                                                        .....22

-       ANT III with at least 8 secondary rhinaria, not in a single row, and IV with at least 3 rhinaria (when antennae 6-segmented, e.g. fig. 81H). Embryos with dorsal hairs pointed or (rarely) spatulate                                                                                                              .....23

22    ABD sternite 7 with a narrow, dark, transverse band separate from and anterior to subgenital plate. ANT III with at least 4 hairs, 8-15 ตm long. Embryos of BL less than 0.7 mm, with a transverse row of 6-8 spatulate hairs between the long marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7

                                                                                                                  .....Geoica lucifuga group

-       ABD sternite 7 without a transverse band. ANT III with 0-2 hairs, 4-9 ตm long. Embryos with BL more than 0.8 mm, and with a transverse row of at least 12 spatulate hairs between the long marginals on each of ABD TERG 1-7                                          .....Geoica setulosa

23    Embryos with 14-30 long very finely pointed spinopleural hairs between similar marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7, and 35-64 similar hairs on anal plate. Hind tibiae short, usually

        less than 0.25 ื BL. ANT III with 6-23 secondary rhinaria                       .....Geoica harpazi

     Embryos with 6-17 long but acuminate hairs between similar marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-7, and 16-50 similar hairs on anal plate. Hind tibiae often more than 0.25 ื BL.

        ANT III with 7-39 secondary rhinaria                                          .....Geoica utricularia group

24    Antennae 5-segmented. Embryos with elongate hind tarsi                                              .....25

-       Antennae 6-segmented. Embryos with hind tarsi only slightly longer than for and mid-tarsi


25    BL 1.62-2.02 mm. Hind tibia length 0.41-0.45 mm                              .....Tramaforda koachi

-       BL 2.14-2.78 mm. Hind tibia length 0.49-0.55 mm                                .....Tramaforda wooli

26    ANT VI longer than ANT III, with a very large elongate primary rhinarium occupying almost the whole segment (fig. 81J)                                                         .....Forda formicaria

-       ANT VI not longer than ANT III, with primary rhinarium not especially large              .....27

27    Secondary rhinaria numerous, small, subcircular. ANT PT reduced to a very short, almost
non-existent stump, much shorter than its basal width (fig. 81N)

                                                                                                                .....Paracletus cimiciformis

-       Secondary rhinaria variable but usually transversely oval or quadrate, with long axis occupying more than half width of segment. ANT PT as long as or longer than its basal width                                                                                                                                .....28

28    All rhinaria with broad sclerotised rims. ANT III hardly longer than ANT VI, and bearing 3-6 mainly large secondary rhinaria                                                            .....Smynthurodes betae

-       Rhinaria without broad sclerotised rims. ANT III 1.5 or more ื ANT VI, and often with more than 6 secondary rhinaria                                                                                        .....29

29    HT II with 4-8 dorsal and 2-7 ventral hairs (as well as 6 subapical hairs)                       .....30

-       HT II with 1-4 dorsal and 0-3 ventral hairs (+ 6 subapical)                                            .....32

30    Antennae short, of total length only about 1.5 ื head width across (and including) eyes or less, with ANT III 1.1-1.2 ื HT II. Hairs on ANT III maximally 15-20 ตm, at least as long as diameter of constricted base of segment. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 6-14, IV 2-4, V 0-3, VI BASE 0-2                                                                      .....Forda sichangensis

-       Antennae about 2 ื longer than head width across eyes, with ANT III 1.4-1.9 ื HT II. Hairs on ANT III maximally about 10 ตm or less, much shorter than diameter of constricted base of segment. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 15-30, IV 6-12, V 4-12, VI BASE 3-10 (e.g. fig. 81K)                                                                                                           .....31

31    Longest hairs on ventral side of hind tibia 60-80 ตm long. First segment of middle tarsus with two sense pegs                                                                                    .....Forda kaussarii

-       Longest hairs on ventral side of hind tibia 25-35 ตm. First segment of middle tarsus with only one sense peg                                                                                    .....Forda marginata

32    Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-27, IV 5-10, V 2-6 and VI 1-5; mostly transversely oval, not extending half-way around segment (fig. 81L). Embryos with short hairs (about 10 ตm long) on ABD TERG 1-5                                           .....Forda riccobonii

-       Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-15, IV 2-6, V 1-4, VI 0-2; mostly narrow transversely elongate, often extending more than half-way around segment (fig. 81M).

        Embryos with hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 more than 20 ตm long                    .....Forda hirsuta

Partial key to alate sexuparae on trunks of Pistacia (embryos without mouthparts):-

1      Secondary rhinaria with ciliated rims                                                                                 .....2

-       Secondary rhinaria with plain rims                                                                                     .....5

2      Antenna 6-segmented, with ANT III, IV and V all similar to one another, each with a single large rhinarium near apex (sometimes III also bears another smaller, rhinarium)

                                                                                               .....Aploneura lentisci and Slavum sp.

-       Antenna 5- or 6-segmented, ANT III clearly longer than IV and bearing 10-20 rhinaria


3      Antennae 5-segmented, secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-11, IV 0-1. ABD TERG 1-6 bearing marginal  tubercles (MTu). ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs         .....Aloephagus myersi

-       Antenna 6-segmented, secondary rhinaria distributed III 10-20, IV 1-3. Abdomen without MTu. ABD TERG 8 with 2-3 hairs                                                                                    .....4

4      R IV+V only 0.06-0.07 mm long, less than 0.4 ื HT II which is 0.18-0.20 mm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 10-13, IV 1-3. Only dorsal wax glands present

                                                                                                                  .....Asiphonella cynodonti


-       R IV+V 0.09-0.13 mm long, at least 0.6 ื HT II which is 0.13-0.18 mm long. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 13-20, IV 1-12. Abdominal sternites with paired wax glands

                                                                                                                        .....Geopemphigus sp.

5      Primary rhinaria with ciliated rims                                                                                    .....6

-       Primary rhinaria with plain rims; only the small accessory rhinaria on ANT VI sometimes ciliated                                                                                                                              .....10

6      ANT II bearing 5-7 hairs, and ANT BASE VI with 4-6 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.35-0.45.
Mesothorax often with a pair of wax pore plates; abdomen with large marginal and small spinal wax pore plates. R IV+V only 0.6-0.7 ื HT II and bearing only 2 (rarely 3 or 4) accessory hairs. Anal plate with a longitudinal double row of 4 or 5 pairs of long thick hairs in addition to a group of shorter hairs. First tarsal segments respectively with 4, 4 and 3 hairs

                                                                                                                      .....Baizongia pistaciae

-       ANT II bearing 6-50 hairs, and ANT BASE VI (or BASE V if antenna 5-segmented) with 9-40 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 0.17-0.30. Mesothorax without wax pore plates; abdomen without marginal wax pore plates, sometimes with small groups of pores dorsally on the unpigmented area or posteriorly on the pigmented parts of the tergites. R IV+V as long as or longer than HT II and bearing 4-10 accessory hairs. Anal plate either bearing numerous hairs of similar length or, if with a double row of larger hairs then there are 6 or 7 pairs. First tarsal segments respectively with 3, 3 and 2-3 hairs                                                                                    .....7

7      ABD TERG 8 with numerous (60+) scattered hairs similar to those on anal plate

                                                                                                                             .....Geoica harpazi

-       ABD TERG 8 with 7-20 hairs more or less in a transverse row                                        .....8

8      Anal plate with numerous scattered hairs                                               .....Geoica utricularia

     Anal plate with 6-7 pairs of long stout hairs in a longitudinal double row in addition to a group of shorter hairs                                                                                                         .....9

9      ABD TERG 5 and 6 bearing scattered hairs like ABD TERG 2-4. Wax pores present only
between ABD TERG 1-3 except in very large specimens. Longest hair on marginal abdominal sclerites 2-4 is 25-40 ตm long                                                                     .....Geoica setulosa

-       ABD TERG 5 and 6 each with only a transverse row of hairs similar to those on ABD TERG 7 and 8. Wax pores commonly present between ABD TERG 4-7 as well as 1-3. Longest hair on marginal abdominal sclerites 2-4 is c.60 ตm long                                  .....Geoica lucifuga

10    R IV+V 0.7-1.0 mm long, about 3 ื HT II. First tarsal segments respectively with 3, 3 and 2 hairs                                                                                                        .....Rectinasus buxtoni

-       R IV+V 0.13-0.60 mm long, 0.6-1.4 ื HT II. First tarsal segments respectively with

        5-12, 5-12 and 4-8 hairs                                                                                                   .....11

11    HT II very long, 0.70-0.95 mm. R IV+V 0.45-0.60 mm                        .....Tramaforda wooli

-       HT II 0.14-0.47 mm. R IV+V 0.14-0.31 mm                                                                  .....12

12    Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                      ......Forda spp.

-       Antennae 5-segmented                                                                                                      ....13

13    Hind tibia 0.69 – 1.25 mm long. R IV+V 0.70-0.95 ื HT II              .....Smynthurodes betae

-       Hind tibiae 1.5 – 2.3 mm long. R IV+V 0.40-0.70 ื HT II                                           …..14

14    ANT III 1.4-1.9 ื ANT IV. R IV+V 0.55-0.70 ื HT II, which is 0.30-0.32 mm long

                                                                                                                .....Paracletus cimiciformis

-       ANT III 0.7-0.8 ื ANT IV. R IV+V 0.40-0.55 ื HT II, which is 0.37-0.47 mm long

                                                                                                                .....Paracletus donisthorpei


Pistia                                                            Araceae

     Pistia stratiotes                                Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, rufiabdominale

Key to separate apterae of these two species:-

(Both have weakly developed ANT tubercles and tergum with a reticulate pattern of spicules.)

-       SIPH clavate. ANT and body hairs short. ANT 6-segmented

                                                                                                       ….. Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH cylindrical. ANT and body hairs long. ANT 5-segmented

                                                                                                 ….. Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale


Pisum                                                           Fabaceae

      Pisum abyssinicum                       Acyrthosiphon pisum

      P. arvense = P. sativum

          P. elatius = P. sativum ssp. elatius

        P. sativum (incl. ssp. elatius)             Acyrthosiphon gossypii, kondoi, [moltshanovi],

                                                                  pisivorum,  pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum creelii, euphorbiae; Megoura crassicauda;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon; Sitobion nigrinectarium;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        Pisum spp.                                    Megoura viciae

Key to apterae on Pisum:-

(See Blackman & Eastop, 2000, for an illustrated key to common aphids on Pisum sativum.)

1     ANT tubercles well developed with smooth, divergent inner faces                                  …..2

-      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if well developed then with steep-sided, spiculose or scabrous inner faces                                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2     SIPH black                                                                                                                         …..3

-      SIPH mainly pale, sometimes darker distally                                                                    …..5

3     SIPH tapering/cylindrical, with subapical polygonal reticulation, at least 1.5 ื cauda which is contrastingly pale                                                                            …..Sitobion nigrinectarium

-      SIPH cigar-shaped, without polygonal reticulation, similar in length to cauda, which is black


4    ANT III with 5-26 (usually 10-18) rhinaria, not in a row, on basal 0.75 of segment (ANT IV of alata with 0-7 rhinaria)                                                                            …..Megoura viciae

-     ANT III with  (15-) 21-50 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.75-0.90 of segment. (ANT IV of alata with more than 17 rhinaria)                                                        …..Megoura crassicauda

5.    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                       …..6

-      SIPH without subapical reticulation                                                                                  …..7

6     ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.3 ื R IV+V                                             …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      ANT VI BASE 1.4-2.0 ื R IV+V                                                       …..Macrosphum creeli

7    SIPH long and attenuate distally, 0.42-0.50 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda

                                                                                                                …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH 0.22-0.38 ื BL, and 1.2-2.3 ื cauda                                                                        …..8

8    ANT VI BASE 0.25-0.4 mm long, 1.8-2.3 ื R IV+V                       …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-     ANT VI BASE less than 0.2 mm long, 1.0-1.5 ื longer than R IV+V                             …..9

9    ANT PT/BASE c.3. (Alata wih 13-19 secondary rhinaria along whole length of ANT III)

                                                                                                           …..Acyrthosiphon pisivorum*

-     ANT PT/BASE  4.7-6.0. (Alata with 7-9 secondary rhinaria confined to basal half of ANT III)

                                                                                                                  …..Acyrthosiphon kondoi


Pitcairnia                                                    Bromeliaceae

      Pitcairnia hybrida (?)                    Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Pithecellobium (= Pithecolobium)                         Fabaceae

      Pithecellobium dulce                    Aphis craccivora

      P. histrix                                        Aphis craccivora

      P. lucidum                                    Anomalosiphum pithecolobii

             (= Archidendron lucidum)

      P. saman                                       Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus


-       End of abdomen with backwardly directed hair-bearing processes. SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs. Antennae 5-segmented with ANT PT/BASE less than 1. R IV+V nearly 2ื longer than HT II                                                                   ..... Anomalosiphum pithecolobii

-       End of abdomen without backwardly directed hair-bearing processes, SIPH without hairs, antennae usually 6-segmented with ANT PT/BASE more than 1, and R IV+V usually much less than 2ื HT II                                                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

Pitraea                                                         Verbenaceae

      Pitraea cuneato-ovata                   Aphis gossypii; Eucarazzia elegans


Pittosporum                                                                          Pittosporaceae

        Pittosporum coccineum                Aphis spiraecola

        P. crassifolium                              Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        P. eugenioides                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. floribundum = P. napaulense

        P. formosanum (see P. pentandrum)

        P. heterophyllum                          Aphis aurantii, craccivora

        P. mayi = P. tenuifolium

        P. napaulense                               [Greenidea (Trichosiphum) anonae]

        P. pentandrum (var. formosanum)    [Semiaphis heraclei]

        P. tenuifolium                               Aphis spiraecola

        P. tobira                                        Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae,


                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        P. undulatum                                Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphum tonantzin

        P. viridiflorum                              [Sitobion sp. (Millar, 1991]

       Pittosporum sp(p).                        Myzus antirrhinii

Key to apterae on Pittosporum:-

-      Dorsum pale, appendages pale or dusky only at apices. Antennal tubercles well-developed, with divergent inner faces, smooth except for a few spicules ventrally. SIPH with only 2-4 indistinct rows of polygonal reticulation. R IV+V long, 1.18-1.32 ื HT II, with 22-29 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 4-6 hairs                       .....Macrosiphum tonantzin

-      Without that combination of characters .....go to key to polyphagous aphids.


Pituranthos                                                  Apiaceae

      Pituranthos chloranthus            Hyadaphis coriandri

      P. tortuosus                                 Hyadaphis coriandri

      Pituranthos sp.                           Brachyunguis harmalae

Key to apterae on Pituranthos:-

(Both species have SIPH shorter than cauda.)

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH very short, not swollen (Fig.36h), cauda triangular. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                             …..Brachyunguis harmalae

-       ANT PT/BASE at least 1.5. SIPH slightly swollen (Fig.41b), cauda finger-like. No MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                          …..Hyadaphis coriandri


Pityrogramma (incl. Pentagramma)                           Adiantaceae

      Pityrogramma calomelanos         Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Micromyzus niger

        P. chrysophylla                             Micromyzodium filicium

        P. tartarea                                     Aulacorthum solani; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;

                                                              Micromyzella filicis

        P. triangularis                               Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Plagianthus                                                                          Malvaceae

        Plagianthus regius                        Paradoxaphis plagianthi


 Plagiochloa see Tribolium                                             Poaceae


Plagiogyria                                                  Plagiogyriaceae

      Plagiogyria japonica                     Macromyzus spinosus; Vietaphis aliquanti

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Plagiomnium                                                              Plagiomniaceae

      Plagiomnium affine                     Muscaphis escherichi

      P. maximoviczii                            [Schlechtendalia chinensis]

      P. rostratum                                  Muscaphis escherichi

      P. undulatum                                Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi, musci

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Plagiothecium                                             Plagiotheciaceae

      Plagiothecium laetum                  Muscaphis escherichi ssp. irae


Planera                                                                    Ulmaceae

      Planera aquatica                          Tetraneura ulmi


Plantago                                                      Plantaginaceae

      Plantago alpina = P. neumannii

        P. altissima                                    Aphis plantaginis

        P. aristata = P. patagonica var. aristata

        P. asiatica                                      Aphis gossypii; Dysaphis plantagifoliae, plantaginea;

                                                              [Eriosoma harunire]; [Pemphigus dorocola]

        P. camtschatica                             Aphis fabae;

                                                              [Nectarosiphon obako Shinji 1922 (nomen dubium)]

        P. carinata                                    Aphis longirostris

        P. cornuti                                      Aphis plantaginis

        P. coronopus                                 Aphis longirostris; Dysaphis maritima, plantaginea

        P. depressa                                    Aphis fabae, gossypii, plantaginis;

                                                              Brachycaudus plantaginis

      P. lagopus                                     Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        P. lanceolata                                 Aphis fabae, gossypi, longirostris, [montanicola],

                                                                  nasturtii, plantaginis, solanella, [Aphis sp. (Sweden;

                                                                  Ossiannilsson 1964a)];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, lucifugus;

                                                              Dysaphis aucupariae, maritima, plantaginea, plantaginis,


                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera oliveri; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]

        P. longifolia (?)                             Aphis plantaginis

      P. major                                        Abstrusomyzus phloxae; [Acyrthosiphon gossypii];

                                                              Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                  plantaginis, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, plantaginis;

                                                              Dysaphis aucupariae, plantaginea, plantaginis, pulverina;

                                                              [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, [cerasi], cymbalariae, ornatus,


                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum maidis, nymphaeae];

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        P. maritima                                   Aphis longirostris, plantaginis; Dysaphis maritima;

                                                              [Geoica utricularia]; [Myzus cerasi]

        P. media                                        Aphis fabae, longirostris, nasturtii, plantaginis;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Dysaphis aucupariae, plantaginea, plantaginis,


                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae

        P. neumannii                                Aphis plantaginis             

        P. orbignyana                               Aphis craccivora

        P. ovata = P. orbignyana

        P. palmata                                     Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. patagonica var. aristata           Brachycaudus helichrysi; Protaphis middletonii             

        P. psyllium                                    Dysaphis plantaginea; Myzus ascalonicus

        P. radicata                                     Dysaphis plantaginea; Myzus persicae

        P. rugelii                                       Dysaphis plantaginea; Protaphis middletonii

        P. sempervirens                            [Brachycaudus cardui]

        P. stepposa = P. urvillei

          P. subulata                                    Myzus persicae

          P. urvillei                                       Aphis longirostris, plantaginis

        P. virginica                                    Aphis gossypii

        Plantago spp.                                Dysaphis pavlovskyana, shaposhnikovi;

                                                              [Sitobion akebiae, avenae]

Key to apterae on Plantago:-

1      ABD TERG 1-5 (-6) and 7 all with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu), those on ABD TERG 7 being as large as or larger than the adjacent spiracular plates                             …..2

-       MTu either absent or present, but not as above; in particular, if there are large MTu on ABD TERG 7 then they are similarly large on ABD TERG 1 only, and not consistently present on any intervening segments                                                                                                  …..4

2      ANT and legs dark except for femoral bases. SIPH 2.2-3.5 ื cauda which is black and bears 10-20 hairs                                                                                                    …..Aphis sambuci

-       ANT and legs mainly pale, darker distally. SIPH 0.9-2.4 ื cauda which is paler than SIPH and bears 6-9(-12) hairs                                                                                                     …..3

3      R IV+V 1.24-1.41 ื HT II. SIPH 1.62-2.4 ื cauda                               …..Aphis plantaginis

-       R IV+V (1.29-)1.45-1.63 ื HT II (only below 1.45 ื in specimens with BL less than 1.2 mm). SIPH 0.94-1.64 ื cauda                                                                …..Aphis longirostris

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, pentagonal or triangular in dorsal view, not longer than 1.2 ื its basal width, and bearing 4-6 (usually 5) hairs                                                                            …..5

-       Cauda (if at all evident) tongue-shaped, finger-shaped or bluntly triangular, but if less than 1.2 ื its basal width then with more than 8 hairs           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

(but note that grass-feeding aphids may sometimes also occur on Plantago)

5      Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield, sometimes incomplete but usually extending from metanotum to ABD TERG 6                                                                                   …..6

-       Dorsum with or without scattered or segmentally divided dark sclerites                         …..8

6      SIPH swollen on distal half, strongly imbricated. Spiracular apertures reniform

…..Dysaphis pavlovskyana

-       SIPH not swollen on distal half, smooth or weakly imbricated. Spiraclar apertures large and rounded                                                                                                                             …..7

7      ANT hairs short, longest on ANT III only c.0.2 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-7.5. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                             …..Brachycaudus lucifugus

-       ANT hairs long, those on ANT III 2.0-2.5 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.5. ANT III with

        6-16 rhinaria                                                                             …..Brachycaudus plantaginis*

8      SIPH 0.8-2.0 ื cauda                                                                                                        …..9

-       SIPH 2.6-c.5 ื cauda                                                                                                      …..10

9      SIPH pale and smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. MTu frequently absent                                                 …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       SIPH dusky to dark, imbricated. Dorsal abdomen with small dark scleroites at bases of hairs on ABD TERG 1-6, and dark cross-bands on 7 and 8. Well-developed MTu regularly present, on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5                                         …..Dysaphis pulverina

10    ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.1                                                                                                   …..11

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.2-c.5                                                                                                   …..12

11    Dorsal cuticle rather pale and not distinctly reticulate. Spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) if present not much larger than adjacent hair-bases          …..Dysaphis aucupariae

-       Dorsal cuticle usually smoky and distinctly reticulate. STu and MTu when present up to 2 ื diameter of adjacent hair-bases, MTu often appearing smoky             …..Dysaphis maritima

12    ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.0. STu usually present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8, and MTu usually on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-4 (-5)                         …..Dysaphis shaposhnikovi*

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.0-c.5. STu on ABD TERG 8 only or absent; MTu usually absent     …..13

13    SIPH 3.0-3.4 ื cauda, which is longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-4.5

                                                                    …..Dysaphis plantaginea (or plantagifoliae – see text)

-       SIPH c.5 ื cauda, which is not longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE c.5

                                                                                                                 …..Dysaphis plantaginis*


Platanthera                                                 Orchidaceae

      Platanthera bifolia                        Aphis fabae, [grossulariae]

(or use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium)


Platanus                              Planes                       Platanaceae

      Platanus occidentalis                    [Aphis coreopsidis]; Aulacorthum solani

      P. orientalis                                   [Chaitophorus murreensis]                                       

      Platanus spp.                                Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Longistigma caryae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; [Sitobion akebiae]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Platostoma                                                   Lamiaceae

      Platostoma africanum                Aphis gossypii

        P. montanum                              Aphis fabae, gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Platycarya                                                                             Juglandaceae

        Platycarya strobilacea                   [Cervaphis quercus];

                                                              Kurisakia [onigurumii], sinoplatycaryae;

                                                              Mesocallis platycaryae

Key to apterae on Platycarya:-

-       Dorsal body hairs very long and thick, with knobbed apices; those on ABD TERG 8 much longer than HT II                                                                          …..Mesocallis platycaryae*

-       Dorsal body hairs without knobbed apices, and all much shorter than HT II

.....Kurisakia sinoplatycaryae*



Platycelyphium                                           Fabaceae

      Platycelyphium voense                 Aphis craccivora


Platycerium                                                 Polypodiaceae

      Platycerium alcicorne                   Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      Platycerium coronarium              Micromyzus platycerii

      Platycerium sp.                             Micromyzus katoi

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.                     


Platycladus                                                            Cupressaceae

      Platycladus orientalis                    Cinara cupressi, [juniperi], lousianensis, tujafilina         

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.



Platycodon                                                  Campanulaceae

      Platycodon glaucus = P. grandiflorus

        P. grandiflorus                              Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Megouroleucon codonopsicola;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; [Sitobion akebiae];

                                                              Uroleucon kikioense, neocampanulae, [rudbeckiae]

Key to apterae on Platycodon:-

1      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. Head smooth or spiculose, if smooth then ANT tubercles not well developed              .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth, ANT tubercles well developed with smooth divergent inner faces                                                                  …..2

2      Dorsal abdomen with large marginal and pre- and postsiphuncular sclerites but without scleroites at bases of spinal and pleural hairs. Dorsal hairs all shorter than ANT BD III.

        First tarsal segments with 4 hairs (2 sense pegs, 2 laterals)

                                                                                                    .....Megouroleucon codonopsicola

-       Dorsal abdomen with small marginal sclerites and scleroites at bases of spinal and pleural hairs. Dorsal hairs all much longer than ANT BD III. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs (1 medial sense peg, 4 laterals                                                                                                .....3

3      Cauda pale. R IV+V c.0.7 ื HT II                                                  …..Uroleucon kikioense*

-       Cauda dark. R IV+V c.1.4-1.5 ื HT II                                   …..Uroleucon neocampanulae


Platylobium                                                 Fabaceae

      Platylobium formosum                 Aphis platylobii


Platysace                                                     Apiaceae

      Platysace lanceolata                     Aphis gossypii


Plectranthus (including Coleus)                                 Lamiaceae

        Plectranthus albus = P. laxiflorus

          P. amboinicus                               Ovatus minutus

        P. barbatus                                    Sitobion colei

        P. blumei = P. scutellarioides          

        P. coetsa = Isodon coetsa

        P. inflexus = Isodon inflexus

        P. japonicus = Isodon japonicus

          P. laxiflorus                                  Sitobion autriquei

        P. longitubus = Isodon longitubus

          P. monostachyos                           Aphis gossypii

        P. rugosus = Isodon rugosus

        P. scutellarioides                           Aphis affinis, gossypii; Eucarazzia elegans;

                                                              Macrosiphum mesosphaeri;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; [Ovatomyzus boraginacearum];

                                                              Sitobion colei

        P. shirensis                                    Myzus ornatus

        P. striatus  = Isodon lophanthoides var. graciliflorus

        P. trichocarpus = Isodon trichocarpus

        Plectranthus sp.                            [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

See under Isodon for combined key to apterae on Isodon and Plectranthus.


Pleioblastus                                                 Poaceae

      Pleioblastus amarus                     Cerataphis bambusifoliae; Ceratovacuna hoffmanni;

                                                              Glyphinaphis bambusae

      P. argenteostriatus                         Ceratovacuna japonica; Takecallis arundicolens

      P. fortunei                                     Melanaphis bambusae; Paracolopha morrisoni

      P. pygmaeus = P. fortunei

       P. simonii                                       Ceratovacuna japonica; Glyphinaphis bambusae

      Pleioblastus sp.                              [Ceratovacuna longifila]

Use keys to aphids on Arundinaria and Bambusa.



Pleione                                                        Orchidaceae

      Pleione formosana                       Aulacorthum solani

        Pleione spp.                                  Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

Use key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.


Pleodendron                                                Canellaceae

      Pleodendron fallax (?)                  Myzus ornatus


Pleopeltis                                                     Polypodiaceae

        Pleopeltis excavata                        Micromyzella pterisoides

(or use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)


Pleurophyllum                                            Asteraceae

      Pleurophyllum sp.                        [Jacksonia papillata]


Pleuropterus                                                Polygonaceae

      Pleuropterus multiflorus = Fallopia multiflora

          P. zuccarinii                                  Aphis nasturtii


Pleurospermum                                           Apiaceae

      Pleurospermum uralense             Aphis fabae, pleurospermi

Key to apterae on Pleurospermum:-

-       R IV+V 1.4-1.5 ื HT II and bearing 11-12 accessory hairs. Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7. ANT and tibiae mainly dark. Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH                                              …..Aphis pleurospermi

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II and bearing 2 accessory hairs. MTu only regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. ANT and tibiae with extensive pale regions. Dorsal abdomen usually with some dark markings anterior to SIPH                                                              …..Aphis fabae


Pleurothallis                                                Orchidaceae

      Pleurothallis corniculata = Specklinia corniculata

        P. cubensis = Acianthera rubroviridis

        P. ruscifolia                                   Sitobion luteum

        P. velaticaulis = Stelis velaticaulis

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.


Pleurozium                                                  Hylocomiaceae

      Pleurozium schreberi                   Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi;

                                                              Myzodium modestum; [Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi];

                                                              Pseudacaudella rubida

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Plicosepalus                                                Loranthaceae

      Plicosepalus acaciae                     Brachyunguis harmalae

(See key to apterae on Loranthus.)


Plinia                                                           Myrtaceae

      Plinia cauliflora                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                              Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

Use key to apterae on Psidium.


Pluchea                                                       Asteraceae

      Pluchea absinthoides                    Aphis spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Uroleucon tessariae

        P. adnata = P. salicifolia

        P. carolinensis (= P. odorata)          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        P. dioscoridis                                 Protaphis delottoi, pseudocardui

        P. indica                                        Aphis gossypii

      P. odorata auctt. = P. carolinensis   

      P. purpurascens                            Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        P. rosea                                         Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

        P. salicifolia                                  Uroleucon ambrosiae      

Key to apterae on Pluchea:-

1      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. SIPH without polygonal reticulation         …..2

-       ANT tubercles moderately or well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. SIPH with distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                 …..5

2      ANT PT/BASE 0.75-1.1. SIPH and cauda both shorter than R IV+V. Cauda bluntly triangular with 13-20 hairs. ANT III often with rhinaria on distal part. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings                                                                                                                    …..3

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.2. SIPH and cauda both longer than R IV+V. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped with 4-12(-15) hairs. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                                                                            …..4

3      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-38 μm, 1.5-2.0 ื ANT BD III. ANT PT/BASE 0.75-0.93

                                                                                                                        …..Protaphis delottoi

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 12-25 μm, 0.6-1.2 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE  (0.8-)1.0-1.2 (-1.4)

…..Protaphis pseudocardui

4      SIPH clearly darker than cauda, which has no constriction and bears 4-8 hairs. Femoral hairs all short                                                                                                         ......Aphis gossypii

-       SIPH and cauda both very dark. Cauda usually has an evident constriction between basal and distal part, and bears 7-15 hairs. Femora with some long fine hairs   .....Aphis spiraecola

5      SIPH 1.1-1.35 ื cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.30-0.35 of length

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-       SIPH 1.7-2.2 ื cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.13-0.28 of length                             …..6

6      SIPH reticulated over distal 0.22-0.28 of length. ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria. Cauda with pointed apex                                                                                       …...Uroleucon tessariae

-       SIPH reticulated over subapical 0.13-0.20 of length. ANT III with 1-8(-10) rhinaria. Cauda with rounded apex                                                                     …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae 


Plumbago                                                    Plumbaginaceae

      Plumbago auriculata                    Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [punicae],


      P. capensis = P. auriculata              

        P. ceylonica (?)                             Myzus persicae

        P. pulchella                                   Aphis spiraecola

        P. scandens = P. zeylanica

        P. zeylanica                                   Aphis craccivora, spiraecola; [Hysteroneura setariae];

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Plumeria                                                      Apocynaceae

      Plumeria rubra                             Aphis fabae, gossypii

        P. tricolor = P. rubra

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Poa                                                               Poaceae

      Poa acroleuca                               Sitobion akebiae

        P. alopecurus                                Pentamyzus tenuis

        P. alpina                                        [Acyrthosiphon loti]; Forda pawlowae;

                                                              Metopolophium alpinum, montanum; Schizaphis werderi;

                                                              Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                              [Nasonovia brevipes]

        P. alsodes                                      Sitobion avenae

        P. ampla = P. juncifolia

        P. angustifolia                               Atheroides serrulatus;

                                                              Forda formicaria, hirsuta, marginata, pawlowae;

                                                              Geoica utricularia; Paracletus bykovi, cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus poae; Sipha maydis, tauricus;

                                                              Sitobion avenae

        P. annua                                       Anoecia corni, furcata, haupti, vagans; [Aphis sambuci];

                                                              Aploneura lentisci; Atheroides serrulatus;

                                                              Baizongia pistaciae; [Brachycaudus helichrysi];

                                                              [Cavariella aegopodii]; [Colopha compressa];

                                                              Diuraphis noxia; Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; Hyalopterus pruni;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Jacksonia papillata;

                                                              [Matsumuraja capitophoroides]; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                              Metopolophium chandrani, dirhodum;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus grabhami, lonicerae, poae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis agrostis, graminum, [holci], palustris;

                                                              Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, alopecuri, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, fusiformis, fusiformis ssp.

                                                                  bispina,  [poae (Thomas 1879 - nomen dubium)], ulmi;

                                                              Utamphorophora humboldti

        P. aquatica = Glyceria maxima

        P. arctica                                       Sitobion calvulum

        P. arvensis                                     Forda marginata

        P. botryoides (?)                            Anoecia vagans

        P. bulbosa                                     Anoecia corni; Aploneura lentisci; Baizongia pistaciae;

                                                              Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;

                                                              Geoica [anchusae], utricularia;

                                                              Melanaphis pyraria; Paracletus cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae; [Slavum lentiscoides]

        P. chaixii                                       Anoecia furcata; Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

        P. compressa                                 Atheroides serrulata; Forda marginata;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Schizaphis agrostis, graminum;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        P. cookii                                        Rhopalosiphum padi

        P. exilis = P. infirma

        P. flabellata                                   Pentamyzus falklandicus; Sipha glyceriae

        P. foliosa                                       Jacksonia papillata

        P. glauca                                       Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae; Utamphorophora humboldti

        P. infirma                                      Sitobion fragariae

        P. juncifolia                                  Forda marginata

        P. laxa                                           [Acyrthosiphon loti]; Pemphigus similis

        P. maritima = Puccinellia maritima  

        P. molineri                                    Sitobion avenae

        P. nemoralis                                  Anoecia corni, furcata; Diuraphis holci, noxia;

                                                              Forda formicaria, marginata; Geoica utricularia;

                                                              Jacksonia papillata; 

                                                              Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum, Metopolophium sp.

                                                                  (Switzerland - BMNH, leg. K. de Rico);

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae

        P. novae-zelandiae                        Sitobion miscanthi

        P. palustris                                    Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae

        P. pratensis                                   Anoecia corni, cornicola, furcata; Aploneura lentisci;

                                                              Atheroides hirtellus, serrulatus; Baizongia pistaciae;

                                                              Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                              Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Jacksonia papillata;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae, frisicum;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus, cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi, padiformis;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum, muhlenbergiae;

                                                              Sipha flava, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi, scoticum;

                                                              [Slavum lentiscoides]; Tetraneura ulmi, yezoensis

        P. remota                                      Rhopalosiphum padi

        P. sachalinensis                            Rhopalosiphum padi

        P. schimperiana                            Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion graminis, yakini

        P. sphondylodes = P. versicolor

        P. sylvicola = P. trivialis

        P. trivialis                                      Anoecia corni, furcata; Aploneura lentisci;

                                                              Atheroides serrulatus; [Colopha compressa];

                                                              Cryptaphis poae; Forda marginata;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae,

                                                                  festucae ssp. cerealium, frisicum;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum [nigrum], oxyacanthae, padi,


                                                              Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae, miscanthi, scoticum;

                                                              Tetraneura ulmi; Utamphorophora humboldti

        P. versicolor                                  Sitobion akebiae

        Poa spp.                                        Aphis craccivora; [Cerataphis lataniae];

                                                              Chaetosiphella berlesei; Geoica setulosa;

                                                              Glabromyzus howardii; Laingia psammae;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi; [Pemphigus bursarius]; Sipha uvarovi;

                                                              Sitobion graminearum, [Sitobion sp.(Chowdhuri et al,


                                                              [Subiziphya clauseni Quednau 1990]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        


Podocarpus                                                                           Podocarpaceae

        Podocarpus acutifolius                 Neophyllaphis totarae

        P. alpinus                                      Neophyllaphis gingerensis

        P. chinensis                                   Neophyllaphis brimblecombei, podocarpi, varicolor

        P. cunninghamii                           Neophyllaphis totarae                                                        

        P. elatus                                        Neophyllaphis brimblecombei, fransseni

        P. falcatus = Afrocarpus falcatus

        P. glomeratus                                Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) cuschensis

        P. gracilior = Afrocarpus gracilior

        P. hallii = P. cunninghamii

        P. henkelii                                     Neophyllaphis podocarpi

        P. lambertii                                   Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) propinqua

        P. latifolius                                    Neophyllaphis grobleri

        P. lawrencei                                  Neophyllaphis gingerensis

        P. macrophyllus                            Neophyllaphis brimblecombei, burostris, podocarpi,


        P. macrophyllus var. maki = P. chinensis

        P. milanjianus                              Neophyllaphis grobleri

        P. nageia = Nageia nagi

        P. neriifolius                                 Neophyllaphis podocarpi

        P. nivalis                                       [Neophyllaphis sp. (New Zealand; Teulon et al. 2013)]

        P. nubigenus                                 Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) michelbacheri

        P. parlatorei                                  Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) iuiuyensis

        P. rumphii                                     Neophyllaphis fransseni

        P. salignus                                    Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) podocarpini

        P. spinulosus                                 Neophyllaphis lanata

        P. totara                                        Neophyllaphis totarae

        P. usumbarensis = Afrocarpus usumbarensis

        Podocarpus sp.                             Neophyllaphis (Chileaphis) pueblohondensis

Key to Neophyllaphis spp. on Podocarpus and related genera (Afrocarpus, Nageia):-

This key cannot be applied to oviparae (which are usually alate), except where stated.


1      Knob of cauda globose, about as wide as long                                                                  .....2

-       Knob of cauda elliptical or elongate, much longer than its maximum width                     .....9

2      Aptera with eye of 3 facets only. Knob of cauda with 4-16 hairs (with 0-1 dorsal). SIPH cone with 2 small hairs, or ring-like                                                                                           …..3

-       Aptera with compound eyes. Knob of cauda with 16-43 hairs (of which 0-10 dorsal). SIPH cone with a ring of 6-19 hairs                                                                                             .....4

3      Knob of cauda with 10-16 hairs. HT II more than 2 ื R IV+V                             .....grobleri

-       Knob of cauda with 4-6 hairs. HT II less than 2 ื R IV+V                                 …..burostris

4      HT II 0.22-0.32 mm, more than 2.5 ื R IV+V                                                                 .....5

-       HT II 0.16-0.25 mm, 2.5 ื R IV+V or less                                                                       .....6

5      Cauda of aptera with membranous distal part of knob very small, contrasting little with rest of knob. Alate morphs without dorsal hairs on first tarsal segments (although present in

        apterae)                                                                                                               .....iuiuyensis*

-       Cauda of aptera with almost half of knob membranous and differentiated clearly from more sclerotic basal part. Alate morphs with a pair of dorsal hairs on each first tarsal segment


6      Length of ANT III of aptera only about 0.3 mm, c. 0.5 ื head width across eyes. Alate morphs with a pair of dorsal hairs on each first tarsal segment                     .....michelbacheri

-       Length of ANT III of aptera at least 0.35 mm, c. 0.6-1.0 ื head width across eyes. Alate morphs (where known) without dorsal hairs on first tarsal segments (although they may be present in apterae)                                                                                                              .....7

7      Dorsal abdomen of aptera with dark spinopleural cross-bands each bearing 9-20 hairs. Head capsule with pale area around eyes. (Alata unknown)                             .....pueblohondensis*

-       Dorsal abdomen of aptera with separate small sclerites/scleroites mostly bearing one hair each. Head capsule without pale area around eyes                                                            .....8

8      Mesonotum of aptera with a pair of large spinopleural sclerites, and metanotum and ABD TERG 1-7 each with a single transverse row of hairs, the spinopleural ones arising from small scleroites. Alata with ANT III bearing 47-70 secondary rhinaria                       .....propinqua

-       Meso- and metanota and ABD TERG 1-7 with numerous scattered hairs all arising from dark scleroites. Alata with ANT III bearing 31-50 secondary rhinaria             .....cuschensis*

9      Knob of cauda with 16-25 hairs                                                                                 .....viridis

-       Knob of cauda with 9 or fewer hairs                                                                               .....10

10    ANT III of aptera more than 2.6 ื ANT IV (that of alata 3.0-5.5 ื ANT IV)               .....11


-       ANT III of aptera less than 2.6 ื ANT IV (that of alata 1.7-3.3 ื ANT IV)                 .....12

11    ANT III of alata at least 1.5 ื ANT IV-VI combined. ANT III of aptera about equal in length to ANT IV-VI combined. Rostrum not reaching to hind coxae.                .....fransseni

-       ANT III of alata less than 1.1 ื ANT IV-VI combined. ANT III of aptera shorter than ANT IV-VI combined. Rostrum extending backward well beyond hind coxae          …..varicolor

12    ANT III of aptera less than 0.26 mm long, less than 0.8 of length of fore tibia. ANT III of alata less than 0.4 mm long, bearing 10-25 secondary rhinaria                                        .....13

-       ANT III of aptera more than 0.26 mm long, more than 0.8 of length of fore tibia. ANT III of alata more than 0.4 mm long, bearing 30-58 secondary rhinaria                                      .....14

13    Aptera with many dorsal abdominal hairs arising from pigmented scleroites of varying size and shape. Pigmented areas of head without a reticulate pattern and localised, the dorsal and lateral areas being well separated, with a clear area posteriolaterad to antennal base. Alata with 10-22 seconday rhinaria on ANT III, usually not extending to apex of segment, and ANT IV without rhinaria                                                                                   .....gingerensis

-       Aptera with dorsal abdominal hairs not based on pigmented scleroites. Pigmented areas of head with a reticulate pattern, the dorsal and lateral areas being contiguous, and the lateral pigmentation extending forward from triommatidium to antennal base. Alata with 20-25 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, distributed over whole length of segment, and ANT IV often with a few rhinaria                                                                                           .....totarae

14    Aptera with ANT III 0.35-0.62 mm long; ANT III and ABD TERG 3-5 with longest hairs 9-18 ตm long. Alata with ANT III a little longer than IV+V+VI together, bearing 39-58 secondary rhinaria, and knob of cauda pale and without spinules on proximal half of dorsal

        surface                                                                                              .....brimblecombei/ lanata

-       Aptera with ANT III 0.25-0.38 mm long; ANT III and ABD TERG 3-5 with longest hairs 20-30 ตm long. Alata with ANT III usually a little shorter than IV+V+VI together, bearing 30-44 rhinaria, and knob of cauda entirely pigmented and spinulose                .....podocarpi


Podospermum see Scorzonera                                      Asteraceae

      Podospermum canum see Scorzonera cana

      P. purpureum see Scorzonera purpurea

      P. laciniatum see Scorzonera laciniata


Podranea                                                     Bignoniaceae

      Podranea brycei                            Aphis gossypii

        P. ricasoliana                                Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Pogonarthria                                               Poaceae

      Pogonarthria squarrosa               [Sitobion sp. (van Harten 1972)]


Pogonatherum                                             Poaceae

      Pogonatherum paniceum            Tetraneura basui, fusiformis, radicola/yezoensis group

        P. saccharoideum = P. paniceum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        


Pogonatum                                                  Polytrichaceae

        Pogonatum dentatum                   Myzodium modestum

        P. urnigerum                                Myzodium modestum

Use key to aphids on mosses under Polytrichum.


Pogostemon (including Dysophylla)                            Lamiaceae

      Pogostemon amaranthoides         Aphis gossypii

        P. benghalensis                             Aphis gossypii

      P. elstozia (?elsholtzioides)           Subovatomyzus leucosceptri

        Pogostemon sp.                            Aphis nasturtii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Pogostemon:-

-      Head smooth with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles. Antennal and body hairs short, with somewhat capitate apices.  SIPH pale, almost smooth, slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.9

                                                                                                        …..Subovatomyzus leucosceptri

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Pohlia                                                          Bryaceae

      Pohlia gracilis = P. filum                

        P. filum                                         Muscaphis escherichi; [Rhopalomyzus poae]

        Pohlia sp.                                      Myzodium modestum; [Prociphilus xylostei]

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Poikilospermum                                          Cecropiaceae

      Poikilospermum sp.                      Cerataphis freycinetiae(?)


Poinciana see Caesalpinia                                     Fabaceae

      Poinciana pulcherrima = Caesalpimia pulcherrima

       (in error as Poincianella pulcherrima?)


Poitea                                                          Fabaceae

      Poitea punicea                              Aphis craccivora


Polanisia                                                     Cleomaceae

      Polanisia duodecandra               [Aphis polanisiae (nomen dubium), polanisagraveolens


                                                            Myzus persicae

        P. graveolens = P. duodecandra    


Polemonium                                                Polemoniaceae

      Polemonium boreale                  Aulacorthum solani; Nasonovia dzhetisuensis

        P. caeruleum                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia dzhetisuensis;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        P. caeruleum var. ?multiflorum     [Macrosiphum chukotense]

        P. carneum                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. caucasicum                            Nasonovia dzhetisuensis

        P. foliosissimum                         Nasonovia muesbecki ssp. montana, polemonii

        P. himalayanum                         Aulacorthum solani

        P. mellitum                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        P. racemosum                             Aphis polemoniradicis

        P. speciosum                               Nasonovia polemonii

        Polemonium sp.                         Nasonovia hottesi

Key to apterae on Polemonium:-

(Only alatae of Nasonovia hottesi are known; some characters of apterae of this species are inferred from alatae).

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped. Large hemispherical or flattened marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7. SIPH short and dark, 1.2-1.5 ื cauda, which is about as long as its basal width and bears 10-16 hairs      ..…Aphis polemoniradicis

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. ANT III with numerous rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. (Sec. rhin. in al. III 40-86, IV 0-22, V 0-3)                         …..3

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria. First tarsal segments with (2-)3 hairs. (Sec. rhin. in al. III less than 30, IV 0-5)

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3      R IV+V 2.4-3.0 ื HT II, and bearing more than 20 accessory hairs                                 .....4

-       R IV+V 1.4-2.3 ื HT II, with 10-15 accessory hairs                                                       …..5

4      SIPH 1.3-1.44 ื cauda                                              .....Nasonovia muesbecki ssp. montana*

-       SIPH more than 3 ื cauda                                                                …..Nasonovia polemonii

5      SIPH 0.85-0.95 ื cauda. R IV+V 2.0-2.3 ื HT II, with 13-15 accessory hairs

…..Nasonovia dzhetisuensis*

-       SIPH longer than cauda (1.2-1.5 ื longer in al.). R IV+V c.1.4 ื HT II, with c.10-11 accessory hairs (data for al.)                                                                  …..Nasonovia hottesi*


Polianthes                                                   Asparagaceae

      Polianthes tuberosa                      Aphis fabae, [polyanthis (nomen dubium)]; Myzus persicae

        Polianthes sp.                               Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Poliomintha                                                 Lamiaceae

      Poliomintha incana                      [Pleotrichophorus stroudi]


Pollia                                                           Commelinaceae

      Pollia japonica                              Aulacorthum takahashii


Pollinia                                                                  Poaceae

      Pollinia ciliata = Microstegium  ciliatum

      P. gryllus = Chrysopogon gryllus


Polyalthia                                                    Annonaceae

      Polyalthia longifolia                   Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        Polyalthia sp.                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Greenidea anonae

Use key to apterae on Annona.



Polyandrococos see Allagoptera                      Arecaceae

      Polyandrococos caudescens = Allagoptera caudescens



Polyanthes  see  Polianthes                                             Asparagaceae


Polycarpaea                                                Caryophyllaceae

      Polycarpaea carnosa                    Aphis gossypii

        P. repens                                       Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Polycarpon                                                  Caryophyllaceae

      Polycarpon prostratum                 Aphis gossypii

        P. tetraphyllum                             Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzys persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Polycodium                                                 Ericaceae

      Polycodium stamineum                Illinoia azaleae, pepperi

Use key to apterae on Vaccinium.     


Polygala                                                      Polygalaceae

      Polygala anatolica                        [Aphis sp. near craccivora]

      P. arenaria                                    Aphis gossypii

        P. butyracea                                  Aphis craccivora

        P. lancifolia                                   Aphis craccivora

        P. senega                                       [Aphis polygalasenega (invalid)]

        P. virgata = P. lancifolia

        Polygala sp.                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

Key to apterae on Polygala:-

-       Thoracic spiracles greatly enlarged, rounded, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. ANT III with 14-36 rhinaria

                                                                                                                    …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE less than 6. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria                                                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Polygonatum                                               Asparagaceae

        Polygonatum biflorum                 Macrosiphum insularis

        P. caniculatum                             Catamergus kickapoo

        P. commutatum = P. biflorum

        P. falcatum                                   Aulacorthum solani; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        P. multiflorum                              Aulacorthum speyeri; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

        P. officinale                                   Aulacorthum speyeri

        P. pubescens                                 Catamergus kickapoo

        Polygonatum sp.                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Polygonatum:-

1      Head smooth, ANT tubercles well-developed with their inner faces divergent               …..2

-       Head densely spiculose, at least ventrally, and ANT tubercles with inner faces steep-sided or apically convergent                                                                                                            …..5

2     SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Median frontal tubercle developed, so that front of head has W-shaped outline in dorsal view                                …..Metopolophium dirhodum

-      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (several rows of closed cells). Median frontal tubercle not developed, so that head has U- or V-shaped frontal sinus in dorsal view


3      SIPH 0.28-0.32 mm long, 0.13-0.19 ื BL and 1.9-2.6 ื HT II      …..Catamergus kickapoo

-       SIPH 0.55-1.15 mm long, 0.21-0.35 ื BL and 3.0-6.5 ื HT II                                       …..4

4      ANT BASE VI 1.9-2.3 ื R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-4.9. Cauda thick, c.2 ื longer than its midpoint width in dorsal view                                                   …..Macrosiphum insularis

-       ANT BAsE VI 0.9-1.3 ื R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. Cauda c.3 ื longer than its midpoint width in dorsal view                                                   …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

5      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation across ABD TERG 2-4, fused with marginal sclerites. SIPH dark basally and apically, cauda dark         …..Aulacorthum speyeri

-       Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH pale, or dark only apically, cauda pale/dusky                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5


Polygonum                                                  Polygonaceae

      Polygonum alatum = Persicaria nepalensis

        P. alpinum = Persicaria alpina        

        P. amphibium = Persicaria amphibia                                        

        P. amplexicaule = Persicaria amplexicaulis                               

      P. angustifolium                           Aphis elegantula; Brachycaudus brevirostratus;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              Macchiatiella rhamni (ssp. tarani?)

        P. arenarium                                Aphis polygonata

        P. argyrocoleon                            Aphis polygonata; Aspidaphis adjuvans

        P. aviculare                                   Acyrthosiphon bistorti;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, poygonata;

                                                              Aspidaphis adjuvans; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus amygdalinus, rumexicolens;

                                                              Brachyunguis shaposhnikovi;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes;  Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus certus, persicae; Pemphigus sp.; Sitobion avenae;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoniformosana

        P. barbatum                                  Akkaia bengalensis; Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus formosanus;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

        P. bistorta = Persicaria bistorta

        P. bistortoides = Bistorta bistortoides

        P. blumei = Polygonum longisetum

        P. bucharicum = Polygonum coriarium

        P. cespitosum = Polygonum posumbu

        P. capitatum = Persicaria capitata

        P. carneum                                   Aphis fabae; Sitobion avenae

        P. chinense = Persicaria chinensis

        P. cognatum                                 Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

        P. conspicuum = Polygonum japonicum var. conspicuum

        P. convolvulus = Fallopia convolvulus

        P. coriarium                                  Capitophorus eniwanus, hippophaes; [Dysaphis emicis];

                                                              Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani; Tricaudatus polygoni

        P. cristatum = Fallopia scandens

        P. cuspidatum = Fallopia japonica

        P. divaricatum                              Brachycaudus brevirostratus;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              Macchiatella itadori

        P. diversifolium (?)                       Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. douglasii                                   Macchiatiella rhamni

        P. dubium = Persicaria dubia

          P. ellipticum                                  Acyrthosiphon bistorti; Brachycaudus amygdalinus;

                                                              Sitobion avenae,[fragariae]; Tricaudatus polygoni

        P. equisetifolium (?)                      Aphis polygonata

        P. equisetiforme                            Aphis craccivora, nasturtii, polygonata;

                                                              Aspidaphis adjuvans; Blackmania eastopi;

                                                              Brachycaudus amygdalinus, sedi

        P. erectum = Persicaria acuminata

        P. fagopyron = Fagopyron esculentum

        P. flaccidum = Polygonum pubescens

        P. glabrum = Persicaria glabra       

        P. hydropiper = Persicaria hydropiper                                       

        P. hydropiperoides = Persicaria hydropiperoides

        P. incarnatum = Persicaria lapathifolia

        P. japonicum var. conspicuum     Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. jurii                                           Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. lapathifolium = Persicaria lapathifolia

        P. laxiflorum                                 Capitophorus hippophaes

        P. longisetum = Persicaria longiseta

        P. maritimum                               Aphis polygonata

        P. minus = Persicaria minor

        P. molle                                         Akkaia bengalensis, neopolygoni;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              Tricaudatus polygoni; Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

        P. montanum = Polygonum douglasii

        P. muhlenbergii = Persicaria amphibia

        P. multiflorum = Persicaria multiflora

        P. nepalense = Persicaria nepalensis

        P. newberryi = Aconogonon davisiae

        P. nitens = Polygonum ellipticum

        P. nodosum = Persicaria lapathifolia

          P. odoratum                                  Aulacorthum solani

        P. orientale = Persicaria orientalis

        P. paronychia                               Abstrusomyzus phloxae

        P. patulum                                    Capitophorus hippophaes

        P. pensylvanicum = Persicaria pensylvanica

        P. perfoliatum = Persicaria perfoliata

        P. persicaria = Persicaria maculosa

          P. phytolaccifolium = Aconogonon phytolaccifolium

        P. plebeium                                   Myzus formosanus

        P. polymorphum                           Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani

        P. polystachyum = Persicaria wallichii

        P. portoricense = Persicaria glabra

        P. posumbu                                   Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

        P. proliferum                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. pubescens                                 Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. pulchrum = Persicaria pulchra

        P. punctatum                                Capitophorus hippophaes; [Hyalomyzus jussiaeae];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        P. reynoutria = Fallopia japonica

        P. riparium                                   Brachycaudus brevirostratus; Capitophorus eniwanus

        P. roseoviride                                Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. runcinatum                              Akkaia bengalensis; Aphis gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                              Myzakkaia polygonicola, verbasci; Myzus formosanus;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

        P. sachalinense = Fallopia sachalinensis

        P. sagittatum = Persicaria sagittata

          P. salicifolium = Persicaria serrulata

        P. scabrum = Persicaria lapathifolia

        P. scandens = Fallopia scandens

        P. senegalense = Persicaria senegalensis

        P. senticosum                                Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni, polygonifoliae

        P. serrulatum = Persicaria serrulata

        P. setaceum = Persicaria hydropiperoides                                  

        P. sieboldii = Persicaria sagittata

        P. sinense = Persicaria chinensis

          P. songaricum                              Aphis polygonata; Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani

        P. sphaerocephalum                     Akkaia bengalensis

        P. tenuicaule                                 Aphis nasturtii; Capitophorus hippophaes;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. thunbergii                                 Akkaia neopolygoni, odaiensis, polygoni, taiwana;

                                                              Aphis polygonacea; Aspidophorodon salicis

                                                              Myzus kawatabiensis;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis cornuta, lijiangensis, lonicerae,

                                                                  polygoni, polygonifoliae, polygoniformosana, tade

        P. tinctorium = Persicaria tinctoria

        P. tomentosum = Persicaria lapathifolia

        P. tripterocarpum                         Brachycaudus brevirostratus

        P. undulatum                                Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani

        P. viscosum                                   [Capitophorus elaeagni];

                                                              [Myzus polygoniyonai Shinji (nomen dubium)]

        P. viviparum = Persicaria vivipara

        P. vulgare                                      Aphis gossypii

        P. weyrichii                                   Capitophorus eniwanus; Tricaudatus polygoni

        P. zuccarinii = Pleuropterus zuccarinii

        Polygonum spp.                           Akkaia pseudopolygoni; [Aphis longisetosa, rumicis];

                                                              Aspidophorodon longituberculatus;

                                                              Capitophorus [formosartemisiae], himachali;

                                                              [Cavariella aegopodii]; Dysaphis microsiphon;

                                                              [Idiopterus nephrelepidis]; [Liosomaphis atra];

                                                              [Macrosiphum pseudogeranii];

                                                              [Micromyzodium sp.]; Myzakkaia niitakaensis;

                                                              Myzosiphum ryukyuense; [Myzus dycei];

                                                              Pemphigus [brevicornis], tibetapolygoni;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis; [Pseudoregma nipponica];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sinomegoura citricola;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Polygonum, Persicaria and Aconogonon:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                                                       .....2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present                                                                    .....7

2      Body and appendages densely clothed with fine hairs. ANT II elongate, longer than IV. Anus and anal plate displaced dorsally. No wax pore plates               .....Smynthurodes betae

-       Body and appendages sparsely hairy. ANT II much shorter than IV. Anus not displaced dorsally. Wax pore plates present                                                                                       .....3

3      Wax pore plates comprising rings of bead-like facets surrounding clear central areas, the marginal ones being transversely elongate                                    .....Kaltenbachiella nirecola

-       Wax pore plates comprising numerous small pores without a clear central area, each gland bearing a single hair near its centre                                                                                     .....4

4     Wax pore plates present on head, thorax and abdomen, especially well developed marginally on abdomen. R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark, rounded posterior projection of the abdomen                                                

                                                                                                             .....Prociphilus erigeronensis

-      Wax pore plates absent from head and margins of abdomen, spinal and pleural plates present on thorax and abdomen, or on ABD TERG 3-7 only. R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, with 0-2 accessory hairs. Cauda and anal plate not produced posteriorly                                        .....5

5      Wax pore plates present on thorax and ABD TERG 1-7. ANT PT/BASE c.0.35. R IV+V with a pair of accessory hairs                                                    .....Pemphigus tibetapolygoni*

-       Wax pore plates only on ABD TERG 3-7 (or 4-7). ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3. R IV+V without accessory hairs                                                                                                      .....6

6      R IV+V 0.55-0.66 ื HT II