HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Pic-Pin

 

PICEA

Picnomon

Picramnia

Picridium

Picris

Picrothamnus

Pictetia

Pieris

Pilea

Pilgerodendron

Piliostigma

Pilosella

Pilostemon

Pimpinella

Pinaropappus

PINUS

 

Picea Spruces Pinaceae

Many of the 38 species of spruce-feeding Cinara have only been found on one or two hosts, but the more widely-distributed and/or commoner species show little evidence of specificity to particular species of Picea, so a single, rather long, key is required, of which couplets 36 onwards deal with this genus; only the apterous viviparae are keyed. Many of the North American Cinara species are inadequately known, and their separation often relies heavily on the original descriptions. C. nepticula Hottes and C. yukona Hottes are only known from the alate morph so cannot be included in the key. Several other separations, especially those involving species not seen by the authors (marked *), are probably unreliable because they are based on too few specimens.

Picea is the primary host for Adelgidae. The taxonomy of adelgids is difficult because of their complex polymorphism (see p.). Identification of adelgids on spruce requires examination of immatures of the fundatrix generation (usually found overwintering in or near the buds) and/or the alate migrant (gallicola) that emerges from the gall the following summer. Even then, species limits are often uncertain (most notably in the laricis group). However, there is some degree of host specificity in Adelgidae, so it should be possible to narrow down the possibilities considerably by using the key in conjunction with the host plant list below and the descriptions of galls, etc., in the text.

The parthenogenetic generations of species in a number of genera of Pemphiginae in the tribe Prociphilini, Pachypappa, Pachypappella, Prociphilus, live in white wax on the roots of Picea spp. as their secondary hosts. The couplets (29-35) separating apterae of Pachypappa and Pachypappella on spruce roots are based on the work of Danielsson (1990). The root-feeding morphs of Prociphilus (subgenus Stagona) cannot at present be satisfactorily keyed to species.

Host plant list:-

Picea abies (= P. excelsa)  Norway Spruce
Adelges abietis, lapponicus, lariciatus, laricis,

nordmannianae, pectinatae, tardoides, tardus, viridis;

[Aulacorthum solani];
Cinara braggii, [confinis], costata, ezoana, fornacula,

[maculipes], [nuda], piceae, piceicola, pilicornis, [pinea],

pruinosa;
Elatobium abietinum; [Gootiella tremulae];

Pachypappa populi, tremulae, vesicalis;

Pachypappella lactea;
Pineus cembrae, konowashiyai, orientalis, pineoides,[pini];
Prociphilus (Stagona) [pini], xylostei;
Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. ajanensis = P. jezoensis

P. alcoquiana Adelges [kitamiensis], laricis

P. asperata Chinese Spruce
Adelges roseigallis;

Cinara alba, costata, piceae, piceicola, pilicornis

P. bicolor = P. alcoquiana

P. brachytyla [Adelges glandulae, tsugae]

P. breweriana Cinara pilicornis

P. crassifolia Adelges roseigallis

P. engelmannii Adelges abietis, cooleyi, viridis;
(incl. var. mexicana) Cinara braggii, coloradensis, [curvipes],
engelmanniensis, fornacula, glehna, hottesi, nimbata,
obscura, pilicornis, pruinosa, saskensis, vandykei;
Elatobium abietinum; Mindarus obliquus;

Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi;
Pineus boycei, engelmanni, pinifoliae;
       Prociphilus (Stagona) xylostei

P. excelsa (Lam.) Link = P. abies

P. glauca White Spruce
Adelges abietis, cooleyi, lariciatus, laricis, nordmannianae,
pectinatae ssp. ishiharai, tardus, viridis;
Cinara acadiana, atripes, ?bonica, ?bonita, braggii,
coloradensis, [confinis], costata, [curvipes], fornacula,

hottesi, jucunda, nigripes, obscura, pallidipes, piceae,

piceicola, pilicornis, pruinosa; saskensis, soplada, thatcheri,

vandykei, [yukona];
Elatobium abietinum; Essigella alyeska; Mindarus obliquus;

Pachypappa rosettei, vesicalis; Pineus pinifoliae;
Prociphilus (Stagona) xylostei;
Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. glehnii Sakhalin Spruce
Adelges pectinatae ssp. ishiharai;
Cinara costata, ezoana, glehna, nopporoensis, piceae,

pilicornis, pruinosa ssp. ezoana;

Elatobium abietinum, piceanum;
Pineus cembrae; Prociphilus (Stagona) konoi

P. hurstii Elatobium abietinum

 

P. jezoensis (= P. ajanensis) Yeddo Spruce
Adelges abietis, japonicus, karafutonis, lapponicus,

pectinatae, pectinatae ssp. ishiharai;
Cinara costata, horii, ?piceae, pruinosa, pruinosa ssp. ezoana,

[Cinara sp. D of Eastop et al. 1998];
Elatobium piceanum; Pineus orientalis;
Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. jezoensis var. hondoensis Adelges isedakii, torii, [tsugae]; Cinara costata, piceae

P. koraiensis Adelges laricis, pectinatae, [roseigallis], viridis;

Cinara piceae, pilicornis, pruinosa; Pineus cembrae;
Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. koyamai Adelges abietis, [kitamiensis], viridis;

Cinara costata, pilicornis

P. likiangensis (incl. var. [Adelges glandulae, tsugae]; Cinara pilicornis;

balfouriana) Pineus [armandicolus], sichunanus

P. mariana Black Spruce
Adelges abietis, cooleyi, lapponicus, lariciatus, laricis, viridis;
Cinara abietis, braggii, costata, fornacula, hottesi, mariana,
nigripes, nimbata, pruinosa, rara;
Elatobium abietinum; Mindarus obliquus;

Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi;
Pineus floccus, pinifoliae, strobi

P. maximowiczii [Adelges kitamiensis]

P. mexicana see P. engelmannii

P. morinda = P. smithiana

P. morrisonicola [Adelges tsugae]; [Prociphilus formosanus]

P.nigra = P. mariana

P. obovata Siberian Spruce
  Adelges abietis, lapponicus, laricis, pectinatae, tardus, viridis;
Cinara costata, obovatae, piceae, piceicola, pilicornis,

pruinosa;

Elatobium abietinum; Pineus cembrae, pineoides, [pini];
Prociphilus [oriens], xylostei

P. omorika Adelges abietis, nordmannianae, prelli, viridis;

Cinara costata, piceae, pilicornis; Elatobium abietinum;

Mindarus obliquus; Pineus orientalis, pineoides

P. orientalis Adelges abietis, laricis, merkeri, nordmannianae,

prelli, viridis;
Cinara costata, piceae, pilicornis, pruinosa;

Elatobium abietinum; Pachypappa tremulae;
          Pineus cembrae, orientalis, [pini]

P. parryana = P. pungens

P. polita = P. torano

P. pungens (incl. vars Colorado Spruce
argentea, kosteriana) Adelges abietis, cooleyi, lapponicus, lariciatus, laricis,

tardus, viridis;
Cinara braggii, coloradensis, costata, [curvipes], fornacula,

glehna, jucunda, piceae, piceicola, pilicornis, pruinosa,

[wanepae];
Elatobium abietinum; Pachypappa ?sacculi, tremulae;
Pineus orientalis, pinifoliae, similis; Protohormaphis piceae;
Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. purpurea  [Adelges glandulae]; Pineus sichunanus

P. retroflexa Adelges laricis ssp. pontaninilaricis

P. rubens Red Spruce
Adelges laricis;

Cinara braggii, [confinis], engelmanniensis, fornacula,

nepticula, pilicornis, pinicola;
Elatobium abietinum; [Essigella pini];

Pineus floccus, pineoides, pinifoliae;
Prociphilus (Stagona) piceaerubensis

P. rubra = P. rubens

P. schrenkiana Adelges abietis, lapponicus, viridis;

Cinara costata, piceae, piceicola, pilicornis, pruinosa;
Elatobium abietinum; Pineus pineoides;

Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

P. sitchensis  Sitka Spruce
Adelges abietis, cooleyi, japonicus, laricis, pectinatae,
pectinatae ssp. ishiharai, tardus, viridis;
Aphis fabae; [Aulacorthum solani];
Cinara braggii, coloradensis. costata, fornacula,

glacialis, nigripes, piceae, piceicola, pilicornis, pinicola,

pruinosa, sitchensis, vandykei;
Elatobium abietinum; Mindarus obliquus;
Neomyzus circumflexus;

Pachypappa rosettei, sacculi, vesicalis;
Pachypappella lactea; Pineus pinifoliae, similis;
Prociphilus (Stagona) xylostei

 

P. smithiana Himalayan Spruce
  Adelges abietis, knucheli, viridis;

Cinara comata, [Cinara sp. (Chowdhuri et al. 1969: 85)];

Elatobium abietinum

P. torano Tigertail Spruce
Adelges [kitamiensis], [tsugae], viridis; Pineus orientalis

Picea sp. Cinara alaskana, caudella, [pruiniviridis];

Mindarus keteleerifoliae;

[Macrosiphoniella piceaphis (as Piceaphis piceaphis)]

Key to spruce-feeding aphids:-

[Adelges kitamiensis, A. glandulae and A. tsugae could not be included because the appropriate morphs for use in this key (immature and adult fundatrices, and immature gallicolae) have not yet been described.]

1 Abdomen of adults with a chitinous ovipositor (parthenogenetic females oviparous). Apterae very small (less than 1.2 mm) with greatly reduced antennae of at most 3 segments. Alatae with short 5-segmented antennae without secondary rhinaria but with a single large rhinarium on each of ANT III, IV and V (Adelgidae) ......2

- No chitinous ovipositor (parthenogenetic females viviparous). Antennae of apterae with at least 4 segments. Alatae (where known) with 5- or 6-segmented antennae with secondary rhinaria at least on ANT III .....19

2 Abdomen (all morphs) with only 4 evident pairs of spiracles, on ABD TERG 2-5 (Pineus)

.....3

- Abdomen (all morphs) with 5 evident pairs of spiracles, on ABD TERG 2-6 (Adelges) .....9

3 Adult aptera very small (BL about 0.8 mm or less), dorsoventrally flattened, free-living all year around on lignified tissue (in cracks of bark, under scales, etc.). Head and prothorax fused into a well-sclerotised shield, with conspicuous wax gland facets (fig. 64A). (Alate morphs unknown) .....Pineus pineoides (or konowashiyai)

- Adult aptera with BL usually over 1 mm, found in or near galls on shoots (usually fundatrices). Head and prothorax only lightly sclerotised, fused or separate .....4

4 Head of alata emerging from gall (gallicola) without wax pore plates .....Pineus pinifoliae

- Head of alate gallicola with wax pore plates .....5

5 (Alate gallicola) dorsal abdominal wax glands comprising separate small groups, each with a few facets, distributed in irregular tranverse rows between narrow crescent-shaped marginal wax pore plates (fig. 64B) .....Pineus boycei*

- (Alate gallicola) dorsal abdominal wax glands where present grouped in spinal, or spinal and pleural, plates forming longitudinal (but often incomplete) rows between the marginal plates, which are oval or broadly crescent-shaped (e.g., fig. 64C) .....6

6 (Alate gallicola) primary rhinarium on ANT V clearly extending more than half-way around segment .....7

- (Alate gallicola) primary rhinarium on ANT V not extending more than half way around segment .....8

7 (Alate gallicola) primary rhinarium on ANT V very large and elongate, occupying more than 0.6 of total length of ANT V (fig.64D) .....Pineus floccus*

- (Alate gallicola) primary rhinarium on ANT V not elongate, not usually occupying more than 0.5 of total length of ANT V (fig. 64E) .....Pineus orientalis

8 Abdomen of overwintering immature "fundatrix" (pseudofundatrix), and of adult aptera from gall (pseudofundatrix or apterous gallicola) almost devoid of spinopleural wax glands posterior to ABD TERG 1, and with only small marginal glands .....Pineus similis

- Abdomen of overwintering immature fundatrix with spinal and pleural wax glands on all tergites, and adult fundatrix with spinopleural glands on ABD TERG 1-3, 1-4 or 1-5, and well-developed marginal glands on ABD TERG 1-7 .....Pineus cembrae (or sichuanus)

9 Wax glands of overwintering immature fundatrix with simple, thin-walled facets secreting solid wax filaments. (Galls like miniature pineapples without needles, hair or waxy bloom)

.....10

- Wax glands of overwintering immature fundatrix (or pseudofundatrix) with double-walled ring-like facets secreting hollow tubes of wax (e.g., figs 64L-N). (Galls usually with groups of needles arising from them, and/or with hairs and/or a waxy bloom) .....14

10 Immature fundatrix with pleural as well as spinal and marginal sclerites of thorax and abdomen bearing wax glands (i.e. 6 longitudinal rows of wax pore plates). Alate gallicola with wax glands on head and prothorax having many distinct facets with clear lumina

.....11

- Immature fundatrix without wax glands on pleural sclerites of thorax and abdomen; i.e. only spinal and marginal wax pore plates on each segment (the spinal wax pore plates being on the inner margins of the sclerites). Alate gallicola with wax glands on head and prothorax of granular appearance, without facets or with a few indistinct facets .....12

 

11 Immature fundatrix with apical hair on antenna much less than half length of ANT III; wax gland facets situated around margins of spinal and pleural sclerites of meso- and metathorax and ABD TERG 1-5 leaving reticulate central areas. Alate gallicola with rhinaria on ANT III, IV and V occupying more than half the length of their respective segments .....Adelges pectinatae

- Immature fundatrix with apical hair on antenna about half of length of ANT III; wax gland facets situated centrally in groups on spinal and pleural sclerites of meso- and metathorax and ABD TERG 1-5. Alate gallicola with rhinaria on ANT III, IV and V occupying less than half the length of their respective segments .....Adelges knucheli

12 Immature fundatrix with wax pore plates on inner margins of meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites containing numerous small, mostly rounded, pits, arranged in 2-4 areas of rather rounded shape (fig. 64I). Total number of pits in the most central areas only (fig. 64H , labelled) of the spinal wax pore plates of the meso- and metathorax plus ABD TERG 1-3 (i.e. a total of 10 central areas) is 64-94 .....Adelges nordmannianae

- Immature fundatrix with wax pore plates on inner margins of meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites divided into 3-4 often rather angular areas, containing relatively large pits of irregular shape (figs 64J,K) Total number of pits in the most central areas only of the spinal wax pore plates of meso- and metathorax plus ABD TERG 1-3 (10 central areas) is 15-56

.....13

13 Immature fundatrix with total number of pits in 10 central areas (as defined in couplet 12) usually more than 40 (range 34-56, mean about 45) (fig. 64J) .....Adelges merkeri

- Immature fundatrix with total number of pits in 10 central areas usually less than 40 (range 15-47, mean about 26) (fig. 64K) .....Adelges prelli

 

14 Overwintering immature fundatrix or pseudofundatrix (where known) with dorsal sclerites bearing single rather large ring-like wax pores, ringed by several small less distinct glands of irregular shape (fig. 64L). Alate gallicola often but not always having ANT IV and V with broad, indistinct basal articulation, 2 or more times wider than basal articular diameter of ANT III (e.g., fig. 64F)   .....Adelges laricis group

(isedakii, japonicus, lapponicus, lariciatus, laricis, pontaninilaricis)

- Overwintering immature fundatrix (or pseudofundatrix) with dorsal sclerites bearing groups of similar-sized ring-like wax pores. Alate gallicola with basal articulation of ANT IV and V distinct and not much broader than that of ANT III (fig. 64G) .....15

15 Immature fundatrix (or pseudofundatrix) with dorsal sclerites bearing groups of 8-30 ring-like wax pores. Wax glands on head and prothorax of alate gallicola with large distinct facets ..... Adelges cooleyi

- Immature fundatrix with dorsal sclerites bearing groups of 2-7 double-walled wax pores (e.g., fig. 64M). Wax glands on head and prothorax of alate gallicola absent or indistinct, without any clear facets .....16

16 Alate gallicola with oblique vein of hind wing very short, almost straight, at right angles to longitudinal vein, and weakly pigmented; rhinarium on ANT V occupying less than 0.5 of total length of segment  .....17

- Alate gallicola with oblique vein of hind wing either curved or bent distally, with or without pigment; rhinarium on ANT V occupying about 0.5 of total length of segment .....18

 

17 Overwintering 1st instar fundatrix ("pseudo-fundatrix") elongate, BL about 2.5 greatest body width, with pleurospinal sclerites of prothorax clearly longer than broad (fig. 64M). Nymph of alate gallicola (in gall) with 0-10 wax pores on each marginal sclerite of mesothorax .....Adelges abietis

- Overwintering first instar fundatrix with BL about 1.7 greatest body width, and with pleurospinal sclerites of prothorax almost square (fig. 64N). Nymph of alate gallicola with 15-30 wax pores on each mesothoracic marginal sclerite

.....Adelges viridis group (including A. roseigallis? - see text)

18 Alate gallicola with oblique vein of hind wing arising at right angles from longitudinal vein and curved outward distally (not heavily pigmented?). BL about 1.5 mm

.....Adelges karafutonis*

- Alate gallicola with oblique vein of hind wing heavily pigmented, arising at an obtuse angle from longitudinal vein and mainly straight, with an angular bend outward distally.

BL 1.8-2.4 mm .....Adelges torii

19 ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular, cauda tongue or finger-like .....20

- ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH on broad pigmented cones, or pore-like, or absent. Cauda short; rounded, triangular or knobbed .....23

20 SIPH and cauda black. Hairs on legs long and fine, and those on antennae more than 0.5 basal diameter of ANT III .....Aphis fabae

- SIPH and cauda pale or dusky. Hairs on legs and antennae short; those on antennae much less than 0.5 basal diameter of ANT III .....21

21 Aptera with a dark horseshoe-shaped dorsal abdominal patch, and alata with a solid dark dorsal abdominal patch .....Neomyzus circumflexus

- Aptera and alata both without dark dorsal abdominal markings .....22

22 ANT PT/BASE no more than 1.6. Hairs on front of head shorter than basal diameter of ANT III .....Elatobium abietinum

- ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5.  Hairs on front of head longer than basal diameter of ANT III

.....Elatobium piceanum

23 SIPH either absent or present as pores, sometimes elevated, but never with broad pigmented conical bases. R V not clearly distinct from R IV, or not elongate .....24

- SIPH as large pores, usually placed on broad pigmented hairy cones (Cinara spp.). R V distinct from R IV and elongate, 2 or more times its basal width .....36

24 Dorsum entirely sclerotised, with head and prothorax fused. Antenna 4- or 5-segmented. Cauda knobbed .....25

- Dorsum mainly membranous, head and prothorax separate or, if fused, then antennae are

6-segmented. Cauda rounded or triangular .....26

25 Body of aptera broadly elliptical, greatly flattened and expanded laterally, divided dorsally into cephalothorax and abdomen of approximately equal size, no other segmentation being visible (fig. 65B).Short legs and 4-segmented antennae hidden under body

.....Tsugaphis sorini ssp. piceicola

- Body of aptera of more normal aphid form (fig. 65A). Antennae 5-segmented

.....Protohormaphis piceae

26 Aptera with compound eyes and elongate, spindle-shaped body, BL more than 2 maximum body width. Wax glands absent .....Essigella alyeska

- Aptera with reduced eyes (3-7 facets), BL usually less than 2 maximum body width. Wax glands well-developed, at least on abdomen of aptera .....27

27 Aptera (on needles) with R IV+V about 0.5 ANT BASE VI or less, and with marginal wax pore plates usually present on ABD TERG 1-7 or 2-7; spinal and pleural wax pore plates reduced or absent except on most posterior tergites. Alata with media of forewing usually once-branched .....28

- Aptera (on roots) with R IV+V about 1.0 ANT BASE VI or longer, and with marginal wax pore plates reduced or absent, at least on ABD TERG 3-7; large spinal and pleural wax pore plates on ABD TERG 4-7. Alata (sexupara) with media of forewing usually unbranched .....29

 

28 Alata with 14-22 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and primary rhinarium on ANT V with a ciliate margin. Aptera with marginal wax pore plates mostly small, only ever well-developed on ABD TERG 6 and 7 .....Mindarus keteleerifoliae*

- Alata with 7-13 (exceptionally up to 15) secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and primary rhinarium on ANT V without a ciliate margin. Apterae with well-developed marginal wax glands on ABD TERG 1-7 .....Mindarus obliquus

 

29 R IV+V without a pale subapical zone. Aptera with thick, spine-like hairs on HT I, similar in size to those at apex of tibia. Alate sexupara with secondary rhinaria on ANT V

.....Prociphilus (Stagona) spp.

- R IV+V with a distinct pale subapical zone. Aptera with hairs on HT I fine or spine-like, if spine-like then often smaller than those at apex of tibia. Alate sexupara without secondary rhinaria on ANT V .....30

30 (Remaining couplets in this part of key refer only to aptera.) Hairs on HT I very small and thin, or if thick basally then with finely-pointed apices .....31

- Hairs on HT I thick and sometimes spine-like, with short or blunt apices .....33

31 Segments I and II of all tarsi distinctly separated from each other. Segment I of fore tarsus

with 2-3 hairs .....32

- Segments I and II of tarsi not distinctly separated. Segment I of fore tarsus with 2 hairs

.....33

32 Hairs on HT I and apical dorsal hairs on HT II very small, 4-8 m long, with abrupt apices. Segment I of fore tarsus usually with 2 hairs; if a third middle hair is present it is longer than the lateral hairs .....Pachypappa rosettei*

- Hairs on HT I and apical dorsal hairs on HT II longer, 10-15 m, with finely-pointed apices. Segment I of fore tarsus almost always with 3 hairs, the middle hair shorter and blunter than the lateral hairs (fig. 66A) .....Pachypappa tremulae

33 ANT PT only 0.015-0.02 mm long. Legs short, with length of hind femur less than 4 its maximum width. All tarsi reduced, with segments I and II not distinctly separated (HT II less than 0.1 mm long). Second tarsal segments with dorsal apical hairs short and spine-like (fig. 66B) .....Pachypappella lactea

- ANT PT more than 0.02 mm long. Legs longer, with hind femur more than 4 its maximum width .....34

34 Antenna usually 6-segmented, with PT finger-like, 0.034-0.05 mm long. Hairs on first tarsal segments spine-like and similar in size to those at apices of tibiae. Hind tibia on dorsal side bearing 2-5 spine-like hairs with short, blunt apices .....Pachypappa populi*

- Antenna usually 5-segmented, with PT less than 0.035 mm long. Hairs on first tarsal segments distinctly shorter than those at apices of tibiae (e.g., fig. 66C). Hind tibia with some hairs on dorsal side with long, pointed apices .....35

35 Hairs arising from dorsal abdominal wax pore plates are more than 25 m long. Each wax gland facet with a dark circle inside a pale outer ring ......Pachypappa vesicalis

- Hairs arising from abdominal wax pore plates are less than 25 m long. Wax gland facets without dark centres .....?Pachypappa sacculi*

36 (Unless stated otherwise, the remaining couplets all refer only to apterous viviparae)

Hairs on outer side of hind tibia short and rather thick (e.g. fig. 67A), only more than 60μm long in very large aphids .....37

- Hairs on outer side of hind tibia more than 60μm long, and and mostly with finely pointed apices .....41

37 Large rotund aphid, BL 3.2-6.7 mm long, but usually more than 4.5 mm. Coxae black. R IV more than 0.30 mm .....Cinara piceae

- BL 2.4-4.2 mm. Coxae (where colour known) light brown. R IV less than 0.25 mm .....38

38 PT less than 0.03 mm .....Cinara jucunda*

- PT more than 0.04 mm .....39

39 R IV only about 0.17 mm (in specimen of BL about 2.5 mm) .....Cinara caudelli*

- R IV more than 0.2 mm .....40

40 HT II about 0.29 mm (in specimen of BL 3.1 mm). Hairs on SIPH cones rather evenly distributed over entire pigmented area .....Cinara soplada*

- HT II 0.33 mm or more. Hairs on SIPH cones concentrated on apical half around pore,

with basal part of pigmented area having only sparse hairs .....Cinara coloradensis

41 Hairs on outer side of middle section of hind tibia all less than 0.12 mm long

(e.g., fig. 67B) . ....42

- All or many of hairs on outer side of middle section of hind tibia of length exceeding

0.12 mm (e.g., fig. 67C) .....54

 

42 Hind tibiae uniformly dark brown to black .....Cinara atripes*

- Hind tibiae with at least the basal or middle section paler .....43

43 SIPH cones pale, almost concolorous with dorsal cuticle .....Cinara fornacula

- SIPH cones pigmented, much darker than rest of dorsal cuticle .....44

44 ABD TERG 7 and 8 both with dark sclerotic cross-bands (sometimes divided in midline or partially fragmented) .....45

- Dark cross-bands absent from ABD TERG 7 and 8 or only present on ABD TERG 8 .....46

45 R IV+V shorter than HT II, with R IV bearing 5-9 accessory hairs .....Cinara piceicola

- R IV+V longer than HT II, with R IV bearing 9-13 accessory hairs .....Cinara pruinosa (part)

46 HT II usually more than 0.32 mm long (if necessary measure several specimens) .....47

- HT II less than 0.32 mm long .....50

47 R IV 0.21-0.27 mm .....48

- R IV 0.27-0.44 mm .....49

48 Hind tibia less than 0.4 BL. R IV about 0.22 mm .....Cinara bonita*

- Hind tibia more than 0.7 BL. R IV 0.21-0.27 mm .. Cinara curvipes

49 R IV 0.27-0.32 mm .....Cinata obovatae*

- R IV 0.40-0.44 mm .....Cinara saskensis*

50 Hind tibia more than 1.65 mm long .....51

- Hind tibia less than 1.65 mm long .....53

51 R IV+V about 0.42 mm .....Cinara acadiana*

- R IV+V 0.36 mm or less .....52

52 R IV+V 0.24 mm or less. ANT III with 1-2 secondary rhinaria distally .....Cinara vandykei

- R IV+V 0.24-0.36 mm. ANT III without secondary rhinaria .....Cinara hottesi

53 ANT VI (including PT) 0.15-0.18 mm, as long as or a little longer than ANT V
.....Cinara sitchensis

- ANT VI (including PT) 0.12-0.14 mm, a little shorter than ANT V

.....Cinara obscura/pallidipes

54 ABD TERG II-VI each with a pair of large dark patches, forming two longitudinal rows on dorsum .....Cinara engelmanniensis

- ABD TERG II-VI without paired dark patches (except around siphunculi)   .....55

55 Hind tibiae uniformly dark brown or black .....56

- Hind tibiae pale, or at least paler basally or medially than at apex .....57

56 SIPH cones large and dark .....Cinara nigripes

- SIPH cones very small and pale .....Cinara horii

57 ANT IV without any rhinaria .....58

- ANT IV with at least one rhinarium .....59

58 Fore tibiae black, contrasting with pale mid and hind tibiae. SIPH cones pale. Hairs on antennae long (up to 160 m), and sparse .....Cinara atroalbipes

- Fore tibiae similarly pigmented to mid and hind tibiae. SIPH cones dark. Hairs on antennae about 120 m long, numerous .....Cinara bonica*

59 HT II longer than maximum diameter of SIPH cones, which are small and often rather pale

.....Cinara pilicornis

- HT II shorter than maximum diameter of SIPH cones .....60

60 Hind femora either wholly pale or with patchy or banded pigmentation. Tibial hairs dark, often with pigmented bases. Dorsal abdominal hairs often arising from small scleroites. (Alata with media of forewing once-branched) .....61

- Hind femora sometimes wholly pale but usually pale basally becoming dark distally. Tibial hairs pale or dusky, usually with unpigmented bases, and dorsal abdominal hairs rarely arising from small scleroites. (Alata with media of forewing twice-branched) .....63

61 R IV+V as long as or longer than HT II. (Alata with forewings marked with fuscous)

.....Cinara costata

- R IV+V shorter than HT II. (Forewings of alata with or without fuscous) .....62

62 Longest hairs on ANT III about one quarter of length of ANT III. (Alata with forewings marked with fuscous) .....Cinara nimbata

- Longest hairs on ANT III about one half of length of ANT III. (Alata with hyaline

forewings) .....Cinara comata

63 R IV+V 1.1-1.5 longer than HT II .....Cinara pruinosa (part)

- R IV+V less than 1.1 times HT II .....64

64 ANT III 3.4-4.1 longer than the longest hair borne upon it. HT II 0.30-0.48 mm long,

1.1-1.4 R IV+V. Coxae, femora and tibiae all rather pale; tibiae only dark at apices

.....Cinara braggii

- ANT III 2.4-3.1 the longest hair borne upon it. HT II 0.28-0.32 mm long, 1.0-1.2

R IV+V. Legs darker, with tibiae dark on about distal third .....65

65 ANT III more than 0.15 BL, bearing hairs up to 160 m long .....Cinara glacialis*

- ANT III 0.08-0.13 BL, with longest hairs 90-130 m long .....Cinara glehna/mariana*

 

Picnomon Compositae

Picnomon acarna Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

Macrosiphoniella tuberculata;

Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Picnomon:-

- Dorsal abdominal hairs borne on rounded tubercles. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.30-0.43 of length. Cauda very long with a narrow, pointed apex

..Macrosiphoniella tuberculata

- Dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from rounded tubercles, and other characters not in that combination .. go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Picramnia Picramniaceae

Picramnia pentandra Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Picridium see Reichardia Compositae

 

Picris (including Helminthotheca) Compositae

Picris divaricata Uroleucon formosanum

P. echioides Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis craccivora, picridis;

(= Helminthotheca echioides) Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis;

Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

Nasonovia ribisnigri; Protaphis terricola;

Trama caudata, maritima, troglodytes;

Uroleucon picridis, sonchi

P. hieracioides (incl. sspp. Aphis fabae, nasturtii, picridis;

longifolia, spinulosa) Aulacorthum palustre; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

Hyperomyzus lactucae, picridis;

Nasonovia [compositellae ssp. nigra], ribisnigri;

Pemphigus bursarius; Protaphis picridicola, terricola;

Trama caudata, troglodytes;

Uroleucon amamianum, cichorii, [cirsii], [grossum],

[jaceae], picridiphagum, picridis, sonchi

P. japonica [Sitobion akebiae]; Uroleucon picridiphagum, picridis

P. kamtshatica Uroleucon fuchuense, kamtshaticum

P. koreana Uroleucon picridis

P. longifolia = P. hieracioides ssp. longifolia

P. nuristanica Uroleucon picridis

P. pauciflora Uroleucon sonchi

P. pyrenaica Uroleucon picridis

P. similis = P. nuristanica

P. spinifera Aphis picridis

P. spinulosa = P. hieracioides ssp. spinulosa

P. sprengeriana Hyperomyzus picridis; Uroleucon picridis

Picris spp. Aphis gossypii; [Aulacorthum rufum];

[Hyperomyzus nigricornis?]

Key to apterae on Picris:-

1 ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent or small and conical ..2

- ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular ..5

2 Body and appendages sparsely hairy. Wax glands evident on ABD TERG 3-7. Hind tarsi of normal length, not much longer than for- or mid-tarsi ..Pemphigus bursarius

- Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs. Wax glands not evident. HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.65 of length of hind tibia ..3

3 SIPH completely absent. Eyes of 3 facets ..Trama troglodytes

- SIPH present as slightly raised small pores. Eyes usually with more than 12 facets ..4

4 ANT III 1.80-2.35 (usually 2.0-2.2 ) ANT IV, and 0.90-1.35 (usually 1.0-1.25 ) ANT V ..Trama caudata

- ANT III 2.1-2.8 (usually 2.4-2.7 ) ANT IV, and 1.35-1.80 (usually 1.5-1.7 ) ANT V ..Trama maritima

5 ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT PT/BASE 0.8-3.7 ..6

- ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-11.4

..9

6 Cauda bluntly triangular, shorter than R IV+V. Distal part of ANT III usually, and ANT IV often, with sec. rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.1 ..7

- Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than R IV+V. ANT III and IV without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). ANT PT/BASE usually more than 2.1 (1.7-3.7) ..8

7 ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.3. SIPH 0.7-0.9 cauda. Dorsum with scattered dark sclerites

..Protaphis terricola

- ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.1. SIPH 0.9-1.3 cauda. Dorsum with more extensive dark sclerotisation, especially on ABD TERG 4-6 ..Protaphis picridicola

8 Rostrum reaching back beyond hind coxae; length (from base of protractor apodeme)

0.35-0.38 BL ..Aphis picridis

- Rostrum not reaching back beyond hind coxae, its length 0.2-0.33 BL

..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

9 SIPH smooth and swollen markedly over distal 0.7 of length to a maximum of 1.3-2.0 their minimum width basad. Head smooth. ANT III with 5-30 rhinaria ..10

- SIPH imbricated, tapering/cylindrical, or if somewhat clavate then head spiculose and ANT III without rhinaria ..11

10 R IV+V 1.5-1.7 HT II, with 8-12 accessory hairs ..Hyperomyzus picridis

- R IV+V 0.9-1.0 HT II, with 6-9 accessory hairs ..Hyperomyzus lactucae

11 SIPH wholly or mainly dark, with polygonal reticulation comprising numerous small cells on distal 0.16-0.43 of length. ANT mainly dark ..12

- SIPH pale or dusky, without polygonal reticulation, or with only a few rows of large polygonal cells on less than 0.2 of length. ANT mainly pale ..19

12 ANT III 1.5-2.0 longer than ANT IV+V together, and with 96-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria ..Uroleucon formosanum

- ANT III less than 1.2 ANT IV+V together, with 9-97 rhinaria ..13

13 Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 not placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.8-0.95 HT II

..14

- Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 all or mostly placed on dusky/dark scleroites. R IV+V

1.0-1.84 HT II ..15

14 Cauda with 14-17 hairs. R IV+V c.0.18 mm long ..Uroleucon picridiphagum

- Cauda with 20-30 hairs. R IV+V 0.143-0.175 mm long .....Uroleucon sonchi

15 Ante-siphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct ..16

- Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present ..18

16 Cauda dark. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.33-0.40

..Uroleucon amanianum

- Cauda pale. R IV+V 1.0-1.25 HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.20-0.30 ..17

17 SIPH 1.4-1.7 cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.26-0.30

..Uroleucon kamtshaticum*

- SIPH less than 1.3 cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.20-0.24. (Ventral side of hind tibia with a row of short, peg-like hairs) ..Uroleucon fuchuense

18 R IV+V 1.45-1.84 HT II. ANT PT 2.9-3.9 R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.3 (-5.8)

..Uroleucon picridis

- R IV+V 1.17-1.33 HT II. ANT PT 4.1-5.4 R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE (5.1-) 5.6-7.2

..Uroleucon cichorii

19 Dorsal abdomen with paired dark intersegmental markings, closer together on ABD TERG 4 and 5 than on more anterior segments. Spiracular apertures on pro-and metathorax much larger than those on abdomen. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. ANT III with 9-42 rhinaria

..Nasonovia ribisnigri

- Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Spiracular apertures on thorax of similar size to those on abdomen. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-6.3. ANT III with 0-3 (-10) rhinaria ..20

20 Head spiculose or nodulose both dorsally and ventrally (or SIPH with at least 4-5 rows of large polygonal cells on distal 0.13-0.20 of length)

..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

- Head without spicules at least on dorsal surface. SIPH with or without 1-3 rows of subapical polygonal reticulation on less than 0.1 of length ..21

21 ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.2. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 HT II. Head with some spicules on ventral surface ..Aulacorthum palustre

- ANT PT/BASE 2.8-3.7. R IV+V 0.75-1.0 HT II. Head without spicules

..Acyrthosiphon ilka

 

Picrothamnus Compositae

Picrothamnus desertorum Epameibaphis sp.; Microsiphoniella oregonensis

(= Artemisia spinescens) (both records A. Jensen, Oregon; aphidtrek.org)

Pictetia Leguminosae

Pictetia aculeata Aphis craccivora

 

Pieris Ericaceae

Pieris. japonica Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Akkaia polygoni;

Aulacorthum pterinigrum, solani;

Illinoia azaleae;

Macrosiphum euphorbiae, opportunisticum;

Pseudomegoura magnoliae; Sinomegoura citricola;

Wahlgreniella nervata

P. ovalifolia = Lyonia ovalifolia

Pieris sp. Illinoia lambersi

Key to apterae on Pieris:-

1 ANT 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE c.0.9. SIPH strongly scabrous, and tapering to a narrow apex. Fundatrices and immatures in spring colonies with strongly spinulose hind tibiae ..Akkaia polygoni

- ANT usually 6-segmented, ANT PT/BASE more than 2. SIPH smooth or normally imbricated ..2

2 SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells) ..3

- SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation ..7

3 Head with minute spicules on ventral side. Abdomen with black marginal sclerites, fused between segments to form broad black marginal stripes

..Aulacorthum pterinigrum

- Head without spicules. Abdomen without broad black marginal stripes ..4

4 R IV+V 1.1-1.9 HT II. First tarsal segments with (4-) 5 hairs ..5

- R IV+V 0.73-1.0 HT II. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs ..6

5 R IV+V less than 0.14 mm long, 1.1-1.45 HT II, and bearing 8-12 accessory hairs.. Second tarsal segments without spinules on the imbrications. HT II more than 1.5 longer than max. diam.of swollen part of SIPH .....Illinoia azaleae

- R IV+V more than 0.14 mm long, 1.4-1.9 HT II, and bearing 15-23 accessory hairs. Second tarsal segments with spinules on the imbrications. HT II less than 1.5 longer than max.diam.of swollen part of SIPH .....Illinoia lambersi

6 Longest hairs on ANT III 10-24 μm, 0.3-0.5(-0.7) BD III. SIPH often slightly swollen proximal to reticulated part. Cauda with rounded apex, and bearing 6-9 hairs. (Al. with paired pleural dark patches and large marginal and post-siphuncular sclerites)

..Macrosiphum opportunisticum

- Longest hairs on ANT III 25-40 μm, 0.6-1.0 BD III. SIPH not swollen. Cauda with a rather pointed apex, and bearing 8-13 hairs. (Al. without dark dorsal abdominal sclerites) ..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

7 SIPH swollen on distal part. Head smooth with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent ..Wahlgreniella nervata

- Without that combination of characters; if SIPH are swollen then head is spiculose and ANT tubercles have inner faces parallel or convergent

..go to key to polyphagous aphids

Pilea Urticaceae

Pilea cadierei [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1972a)]; Myzus persicae

P. grandifolia Myzus persicae

P. hamaoi Myzus pileae, fataunae;

P. macrocarpa [Brachymyzus jasmini]

P. microphylla Aphis gossypii

P. notata [Kaochiaoja pileophaga]; Micromyzodium kuwakusae

P. pubescens Neomyzus circumflexus

P. pumila Pseudasiphonaphis corni

Pilea sp. (?) [Matsumuraja nuditerga]

Key to apterae on Pilea:-

1 Head smooth with weakly-developed ANT tubercles ..2

- Head spiculose with well-developed ANT tubercles ..3

2 SIPH as very small, rimless cones, shorter than their basal widths. ABD TERG 1-7 all with well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu), longer than SIPH. ANT hairs long and fine, 2-3 BD III ..Pseudasiphonaphis corni

- SIPH tubular, cylindrical/tapering, much longer than their basal widths. Only ABD TERG 1 and 7 regularly with MTu. ANT hairs 0.4-0.8 BD III ..Aphis gossypii

3 Dorsal hairs long and thick. R IV+V 1.46-1.54 (-1.7) HT II. Dorsal abdomen with a large dark sclerotic patch ..Micromyzodium kuwakusae

- Dorsal hairs very short. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 HT II. Dorsal abdomen with or without sclerotisation ..4

4 Dorsal cuticle not sclerotic. ABD TERG 7 not extended posteriorly. SIPH normally imbricated, slightly clavate (with narrow section on basal half), 1.9-2.5 cauda, which is not constricted basally. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5 ..Myzus persicae

- Dorsal cuticle sclerotic, with wrinkles or corrugations. ABD TERG 7 extended posteriorly, its posterior margin bluntly conical or rounded. SIPH stout, with coarse denticulate imbrication, 2.2-5 cauda, which has a basal constriction. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.5 ..5

5 ANT 5-segmented. SIPH 3.3-4.5 cauda, which is only a little longer than its basal width

..Myzus fataunae

- ANT 6-segmented. SIPH 2.2-2.8 cauda which is about 2 longer than its basal width

..Myzus pileae

 

Pilgerodendron Cupressaceae

Pilgerodendron uviferum Neophyllaphis michelbacheri

 

 

Piliostigma Leguminosae

Piliostigma reticulata Aphis gossypii

P. thonningii Aphis craccivora, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Pilosella Compositae

Pilosella caespitosa Aphis curtiseta, mohelnensis, pilosellae;

Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

Nasonovia compositellae ssp. nigra, pilosellae, ribisnigri;

Uroleucon obscurum, pilosellae, [Uroleucon sp. (Leonard

1968, 346)]

P. hoppeana Aphis pilosellae

P. lactucella Nasonovia ribisnigri;

Uroleucon obscurum, pseudobscurum

P. macrantha Aphis pilosellae

P. officinarum Aphis gossypii, pilosellae; Aulacorthum solani;

Brachycaudus helichrysi, [mordvilkoi];

Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

Nasonovia compositellae ssp. nigra, pilosellae, ribisnigri;

Pemphigus bursarius; Pleotrichophorus deviatus;

Trama troglodytes;

Uroleucon bielawskii, cichorii, obscurum, [picridis],

pilosellae, pseudobscurum

P. peleteriana Nasonovia compositellae ssp. nigra, ribisnigri

P. piloselloides Aphis curtiseta; Aulacorthum solani

P. rubra Nasonovia ribisnigri; [Uroleucon sp. (Leonard 1968: 346)]

Use key to apterae on Hieracium.

 

 

Pilostemon Compositae

Pilostemon filifolia Macrosiphoniella victoriae

 

Pimpinella Apiaceae

Pimpinella anisoidis Dysaphis anisoidis

P. anisum Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae;

Dysaphis apiifolia; Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi;

Macrosiphum euphorbiae

P. aromatica Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis pimpinellae

P. calycina Semiaphis heraclei

P. diversifolia Cavariella aegopodii, ?konoi

P. hallaisanensis Aphis gossypii; Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi;

[Sitobion sp.]

P. magna Anuraphis catonii; Aphis fabae; Cavariella pastinacae;

Semiaphis anthrisci, pimpinellae

P. major Anuraphis catonii; Aphis subnitida;

Cavariella aegopodii, theobaldi;

Dysaphis apiifolia, foeniculus; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

Semiaphis pimpinellae

P. monoica Aphis gossypii

P. nigra Anuraphis catonii

P. peregrina Anuraphis catonii

P. rhodantha Dysaphis anisoidis ssp. nairi

P. saxifraga Anuraphis catonii;

Aphis fabae, jacetana, subnitida;

Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;

Hyadaphis foeniculi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

Semiaphis anthrisci, pimpinellae

P. thellungiana Aphis subnitida; Cavariella aegopodii

P. tragium Dysaphis anisoidis

P. tripartita Dysaphis anisoidis ssp. nairi

P. umbellata (?) Cavariella ?konoi

P. villosa Aphis subnitida

Key to apterae on Pimpinella:-

1 ANT tubercles well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. ANT 0.9-1.4 BL. SIPH long, unswollen, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation

..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

- ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ANT less than 0.9 BL. SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation ..2

2 ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly-projecting process above cauda ..3

- No supracaudal process ..7

3 SIPH tapering/cylindrical .....Cavariella theobaldi

- SIPH clavate .....4

4 ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3. R IV usually without accessory hairs ..Cavariella aegopodii

- ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.0. R IV usually with 2 accessory hairs ..5

5 ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0 ..Cavariella pastinacae

- ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0 ..6

6 SIPH longer than head width across (and including) eyes. Length of supracaudal process at least 1.6 maximum width of swollen part of SIPH. (Alata with a complete black band on ABD TERG 6) .....Cavariella archangelicae

- SIPH equal to or shorter than head width across eyes. Length of supracaudal process less than 1.5 maximum width of swollen part of SIPH. (Alata with a pair of roundish dark marks on ABD TERG 6) .....Cavariella konoi

7 SIPH very short and flangeless, curved towards midline, 0.3-0.5 cauda

..Semiaphis spp. (pimpinellae, anthrisci, dauci, heraclei; see text)

- SIPH more than 0.6 cauda, and with a flange ..8

8 Cauda helmet-shaped/pentagonal or bluntly conical/triangular, not longer than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 7-8, or on ABD TERG 8 only ..9

- Cauda tongue-shaped or elongate triangular, longer than its basal width. STu absent

..14

9 SIPH with close-set rows of separate blunt spinules/denticles. Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width, with 11-13 hairs ..Anuraphis catonii

- SIPH with normal imbrication. Cauda helmet-shaped, triangular or tongue-shaped; if shorter than its basal width then with 4-6 hairs ..10

10 Cauda helmet-shaped/pentagonal. Arms of mesothoracic furca separated ..11

- Cauda conical/triangular. Arms of mesothoracic furca connected ..13

11 ABD TERG 1-7 with large dark sclerites, forming broad cross-bands on most segments. R IV+V 1.0-1.1 HT II ..Dysaphis pimpinellae

- Dark cross-bands only present on ABD TERG 5-8. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 HT II ..12

12 Longest hairs on ANT III 8-15 μm long, 0.3-0.7 BD III. Marginal tubercles (MTu) often present on ABD TERG 7. SIPH 0.20-0.28 mm ..Dysaphis apiifolia

- Longest hairs on ANT III 18-25 μm long, 0.8-1.2 BD III. MTu rarely present on ABD TERG 7. SIPH 0.10-0.15 mm ..Dysaphis foeniculus

13 Longest hair on ANT III 8-15 μm long, 0.35-0.7 BD III. R IV+V 0.09-0.11 mm long

..Dysaphis anisoidis s. str.

- Longest hair on ANT III 16-35 μm long, 1-2 BD III. R IV+V 0.11-0.13 mm long

..Dysaphis anisoidis ssp. nairi

14 SIPH swollen, 0.6-1.4 cauda; if more than 0.9 cauda then clavate. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu) ..15

- SIPH cylindrical/ tapering, 0.9-2.5 cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu ..16

15 SIPH 0.88-1.4 cauda, 1.7-3.1 R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 longer than their minimum diameter on basal half ..Hyadaphis foeniculi

- SIPH 0.6-0.82 cauda, 0.9-1.6 R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 their minimum diameter on basal half ..Hyadaphis coriandri

16 Secondary rhinaria present on ANT III-V (sometimes absent on III). Well-developed MTu frequently present on ABD TERG 2-6, totalling 2-10, in addition to those on ABD TERG 1 and 7 ..Aphis subnitida

- Secondary rhinaria absent (except in alatiform specimens). MTu absent or irregularly present and small on ABD TERG 2-4, and rarely on ABD TERG 5 or 6 ..17

17 Dorsal abdomen with black bars on ABD TERG 7 and 8 and scattered dark markings anterior to SIPH. Cauda with 11-24 hairs. Femoral hairs long and fine ..Aphis fabae

- Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda with 4-8 hairs. Femoral hairs short

..18

18 ABD TERG 2-4 almost always without MTu. SIPH distinctly darker than cauda

.....Aphis gossypii

- ABD TERG 2-4 with MTu usually present (totalling 3-6). SIPH and cauda with similar pigmentation (or cauda darkest) ..Aphis jacetana

 

 

Pinaropappus Compositae

Pinaropappus roseus Uroleucon pseudoambrosiae

 

 

Pinus Pines Pinaceae

There are about 170 pine-feeding aphids, including more than 100 species of Cinara. A single key including all the Cinara species would be unwieldy and difficult to use. Fortunately there is a fairly well-established subgeneric classification of Pinus to which many (but by no means all) pine-feeding Cinara species conform. We have used this subgeneric structure wherever possible to key together Cinara species that feed on related pines. We have also made use of it for separation of some closely related and morphologically similar species of Essigella, a wholly North American genus of Lachninae recently revised using multivariate techniques by Sorenson (1994).

The main key that follows goes as far as possible with the identification of all pine-feeding aphids to species level, except the genera Cinara and Essigella. In the case of the adelgid genus Pineus, the secondary host morphs (sistens, progrediens) on Pinus are very difficult to identify because of their lack of species-constant characters, and even the partial key provided should be treated very warily.

The separate species of Pinus are then listed with the aphids recorded from them, each followed where necessary by keys to Cinara and/or Essigella. These keys can only be applied to apterous viviparae.

Key to pine-feeding aphids (apterous viviparae only, except where otherwise stated):-

1 Adults without chitinous ovipositor. BL usually more than 1.3 mm. Head and prothorax separate, and antenna of at least 4 segments. (Parthenogenetic adults viviparous) .....2

- Adults with chitinous ovipositor. BL less than 1.2 mm. Head and prothorax fused as a cephalo-prothoracic shield. Antennae greatly reduced, stump-like. (Parthenogenetic forms oviparous) .....31

2 ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular. (Dorsal abdomen with a dark, more-or-less horseshoe-shaped patch) .....Neomyzus circumflexus

- ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH on broad pigmented cones, or pore-like, or absent .....3

3 Rostrum more than 1.5 BL .....Stomaphis pini

- Rostrum less than 1.5 BL .....4

4 Eyes reduced to triommatidia. (On roots) .....5

- Eyes multifacetted .....10

5 Anal plate extended posteriorly as a pigmented  tongue-like process, bearing the bluntly conical cauda, which is longer than its basal width and bears more than 15 hairs (fig. 68A). R IV+V with 6-16 hairs .....6

- Cauda rounded, broader than long, with 2-8 hairs (e.g. fig.68B). R IV+V with 2-8 hairs

.....7

6 Cauda with 40-60 hairs, R IV+V with 10-16 accessory hairs. Alate sexupara with 20-30 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 5-10 on IV and 9-15 on V .....Prociphilus carolinensis

- Cauda with 20-35 hairs, R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs. Alate sexupara with 5-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 1-4 on IV and 0 on V .....Prociphilus piniradicivorus

7 R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs. Alate sexupara with 3-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT

VI BASE, and with pterostigma ending bluntly well before tip of wing .....8

- R IV+V with 2-4 accessory hairs. Alate sexupara with 0-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT

VI BASE, and distal end of pterostigma tapering, curved around tip of wing ..9

8 R IV+V elongate, about 0.2 mm long. Alate sexupara with 3-9 secondary rhinaria on ANT VI BASE .....Prociphilus caryae fitchii

- R IV+V less than 0.2 mm long. Alate sexupara with 9-14 secondary rhinaria on ANT

VI BASE .....Prociphilus himalayensis

9 R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs. Hind tibia thick, with 1-3 short, spine-like hairs near middle on outer side (fig. 68C). (Alate sexupara with 1-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT VI BASE) .....Prociphilus (Stagona) crataegistrobi

- R IV+V with 3-4 accessory hairs. Hind tibia narrower, with several hairs distributed along outer side which are fine-pointed, not distinctly spine-like (fig. 68D). (Alate sexupara without secondary rhinaria on ANT VI BASE) .....Prociphilus (Stagona) pini

10 SIPH as large pores on usually pigmented hair-bearing cones .....11

- SIPH as small pores without associated hairs .....18

11 R V acutely pointed, dagger-shaped, usually twice or more as long as its basal width (e.g., fig. 69A). SIPH cones of aptera often large and with numerous hairs

.....Cinara spp. (see separate keys in Host Plant List)

- R V short, flask-shaped, pointed only at tip, hardly longer than its basal width (e.g., figs 69B, C). SIPH cones always with few hairs, in 1-3 rings around pore .....12

12 Hairs on ventral side of hind femur very short, thick and peg-like (fig. 70A). Hind legs wholly dark except for extreme base of femur, and very elongate; total length about 2 BL

.....Schizolachnus flocculosus

- Hairs on ventral side of hind femur long, not peg-like. Hind legs long but less than 2 BL, with at least basal fifth of femur pale .....13

13 Hind tibia wholly dark bearing long, thick, curved hairs with blunt apices (fig. 70B). Dorsal abdominal hairs thick and spine-like, arising from small sclerites (fig. 70C)

.....Schizolachnus curvispinosus

- Hind tibia pale or dark, bearing mainly long, finely-pointed hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs

also long and fine, not arising from sclerites .....14

14 Hind tibia more than 20 longer than its width at midpoint .....Schizolachnus piniradiatae

- Hind tibia less than 20 longer than its width at midpoint .....15

15 R V very short and stumpy with short tip; less than 46 m long from base to tip and less than 0.45 R IV (e.g. fig. 69B) .....16

- R V with long tip; more than 46 m long and more than 0.45 R IV (e.g. fig.69C) .....17

16 Hind tibia pale or dark, very densely hairy (about 250 hairs per mm). PT very short; ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25 (fig. 70D). (Alata with once-branched media and without secondary rhinaria on ANT IV) .....Schizolachnus pineti

- Hind tibia dark and less densely hairy (about 150 hairs per mm). ANT PT/BASE more than 0.25 (fig. 70E). (Alata with unbranched media and 1 or more secondary rhinaria on ANT IV) .....Schizolachnus parvus

17 Hind tibia pale. (Alata with unbranched media) .....Schizolachnus orientalis

- Hind tibia dark. (Alata with usually once-branched media) .....Schizolachnus obscurus

18 Antenna 6-segmented .....19

- Antenna 5-segmented .....30

19 Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 not arising from sclerites .....20

- Hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 arising from dark sclerites or scleroites (small rounded sclerites)

.....22

20 R IV+V without accessory hairs ..Eulachnus cembrae

- R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs ..21

21 Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 35-48 m long ..Eulachnus pumilae

- Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are only 7-10 m long

..Eulachnus piniarmandifoliae

22 Sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 of irregular shape and often extending between hair bases, forming two transverse rows across each segment

..Eulachnus similialticola*

- Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly arising from separate small rounded scleroites (figs. 71A-F) ..23

23 ANT III less than 0.24 mm long and bearing hairs less than 20 m long. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 short and mostly pointed, 4-25 m long, usually shorter than the diameter of their basal scleroites .....24

- ANT III more than 0.25 mm long and bearing hairs 20-130 m long. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 usually longer than or as long as the minimal width of their basal scleroites; if short and pointed on more anterior tergites, then at least those on ABD TERG 7 are more than 25 m long, dark and with blunt of furcate apices .....25

24 Capitate hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia often longer than width of tibia at midpoint.

Hair-bearing scleroites on ABD TERG 1-5 in a single transverse row on each tergite (fig. 71A) .....Eulachnus nigricola

- Capitate hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia not exceeding width of tibia at midpoint.

Hair-bearing scleroites on ABD TERG 1-5 placed irregularly, not in a single transverse row (fig. 71B) .....Eulachnus brevipilosus

25 Longest hairs on ANT III 20-50 m long, rarely more than one hair over 40 m. ABD TERG 1-3 with longest hairs 15-40 m long, pointed, and hardly pigmented (fig. 71C)

.....Eulachnus tuberculostemmatus

- Several of longest hairs on ANT III more than 40 m long. ABD TERG 1-3 with longest hairs 25-145 m long, but if under 40 m then they are often blunt or slightly capitate and dark like those on ABD TERG 7 .....26

26 Hair-bearing scleroites on ABD TERG 1-5 in two irregular transverse rows on each tergite, the anterior row having more scleroites than the posterior row (fig. 71D). Fore femur dusky or dark and very thick, its length less than 3.5 its maximum width

.....Eulachnus thunbergii

- Hair-bearing scleroites on ABD TERG 1-5 often in two rows, but then the anterior "row" often has very few scleroites (often only 2), and never has more than the posterior row. Fore femur pale or dark, more than 3.5 longer than its maximum width .....27

27 Hind tibiae mostly pale except for dark spots at hair-bases, or darker on about distal 0.25; if dark in middle then longest hairs on ANT III are shorter than 70 m .....28

- Hind tibiae mostly dusky or dark, without distinctly darker spots at hair-bases, or darker on proximal half. Longest hairs on ANT III 70-130 m .....29

28 ANT VI (incl. PT) usually more than 0.5 the length of ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III 65-95 m .....Eulachnus agilis

- ANT VI (incl. PT) usually less than 0.5 the length of ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III

40-70 m .....Eulachnus mediterraneus

29 ANT flagellum (III+IV+V+VI) 1.00-1.15 mm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 70-80 m,

and on dorsal abdomen 80-110 m, with blunt or truncated apices .....Eulachnus tauricus

- ANT flagellum 1.2-1.4 mm long. Longest hairs on ANT III 90-130 m, and on dorsal abdomen 110-150 m, usually with pointed apices (fig. 71E) .....Eulachnus rileyi

30 Claws normal, with simple curved acute apices. ABD TERG 2-7 membranous

.....Pseudessigella brachychaeta

- Claws with modified apices; bifurcate, or double (fig. 73). ABD TERG 2-7 lightly to heavily sclerotised (but not necessarily pigmented)

.....Essigella spp. (see separate keys in Host Plant List)

31 Cephaloprothoracic shield (henceforth CPS) with sutures between head and thorax and along midline. Wax glands on CPS comprising mainly separate, large facets that are distinctly subdivided (fig. 72A) .....Pineus pinifoliae

- CPS entire. Wax glands on CPS consisting mainly of groups of facets that are not individually subdivided .....32

32 Wax glands on anteriodorsal part of CPS (i.e. between eyes) mainly comprising groups of 2-10 facets that are either loosely grouped or at least not closely pressed together, so that all except the largest retain a more-or-less circular shape (e.g. figs 72B, C) .....33

- Wax glands between eyes mainly comprising more extensive groups or networks of 8 to more than 100 closely packed facets, often pressed together so that they tend to be polygonal in shape (e.g. figs 72D, E), or look like overlapping tiles when viewed obliquely

.....36

33 Wax glands between eyes comprising groups of 2-6 large facets that are mostly much larger than the ocelli .....34

- Wax glands between eyes mainly comprising groups of 2-10 smaller facets, the largest of which are not larger than, or only slightly larger than, the ocelli (maximum internal diameter about 10 m) .....35

34 Wax gland facets in groups on CPS contiguous .....Pineus ghanii/wallichianae

- Wax gland facets on CPS in loose groups, not contiguous

.....Pineus harukawai*/cladogenous*

35 Antennae of summer progredientes (i.e. small apterae collected at base of 1-year-old needles) usually reduced to a single segment and fused to CPS, rarely articulated; total antenna length usually less than 58 m. Median wax pore groups often present on two or more abdominal tergites. Minimum diameter of smallest facet in wax plates between eyes usually more than 8 m (fig. 72C) .....Pineus boerneri

- Antennae of summer progredientes (fig. 72B) usually with 2-3 segments, not fused to CPS, usually more than 58 m long. Median wax pore groups usually present on at most one abdominal tergite. Minimum diameter of smallest facet in wax plates between eyes often less than 8 m (fig. 72B) .....Pineus pini (or orientalis)

36 Wax glands on CPS between eyes very extensive; groups closest to the ocelli usually have more than 40 facets (fig. 72D) .....Pineus armandicolus*/cembrae/coloradensis

- Wax glands on CPS between eyes usually with less than 30 facets per group (e.g. fig. 72E)

.....37

37 Wax gland facets between eyes about 2 diameter of the ocelli and up to 2-3 the diameter of facets in the very small groups on the posterior margin of the CPS .....Pineus sylvestris*

- Wax gland facets between eyes mostly similar in size to the ocelli and to the largest facets in the well-developed groups on the posterior margin of the CPS

.....Pineus strobi/matsumurai/hosayai/?cortecicolus*/piniyunnansis*

 

Host Plant List (with keys to apterae of Cinara and Essigella species):-

Pinus albicaulis                                 Whitebark Pine

        Cinara anzai, apini, ferrisi, inscripta, medispinosa,
murrayanae, oregona;
Essigella californica;

Prociphilus caryae ?ssp. arbutifoliae

 

Key to Cinara spp. on P. albicaulis:-

BL more than 4.5 mm. Tibiae wholly black. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove more than 2.4 mm (see fig. 74A) ..ferrisi

- BL less than 4.5 mm. Tibiae with paler section on basal half. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than 2.4 mm .....2

2 Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia only about 0.5 or less of width of tibia at midpoint .....3

- Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia of length similar to width of tibia at midpoint, or longer 

.....4

3 ABD TERG 1-7 each with a pair of irregularly-shaped or broken pigmented areas, of similar extent on all tergites .....inscripta*

- At least ABD TERG 3-6 without pigmented sclerites .....apini

4 SIPH bases rather small (maximum diameter less than 0.35 mm) and very asymmetrical, extending about twice as far anteriorly as posteriorly (fig. 74B) .....anzai

- SIPH bases large and fairly symmetrical; maximum diameter more than 0.4 mm .....5

5 BL 4.0-4.4 mm. R V very short, 0.06 mm or less, only about one third of length of R IV. HT II about 0.4 mm .....oregoni*

- BL 2.6-3.8 mm. R V 0.08-0.10 mm, more than one third of length of R IV. HT II less than 0.3 mm .....medispinosa/murrayanae

(for separation of these species see key under P. contorta)

 

P. aristata Pineus strobi

P. armandii                                        Chinese White Pine                              

Cinara brevisaeta, formosana, orientalis, piniarmandicola,

xylophila;

Eulachnus piniarmandifoliae, [pinisuctus];

Pineus armandicolus

 

Key to Cinara spp. living on P. armandii:-

(This key is based mainly on published descriptions of very few specimens, and needs to be treated very circumspectly.)

1 Primary rhinaria without chitinised rims. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 only about 8 m long.

R IV with 13-18 accessory hairs .....brevisaeta*

- Primary rhinaria with chitinised rims. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 are 20-140 m long, and if less than 50 m long then R IV has only 6 accessory hairs .....2

2 R IV with 6-11 accessory hairs in two rows, one on either side of the stylet grove. ANT V 0.9-1.3 ANT VI (incl. PT) .....3

- R IV with 9-16 accessory hairs, some away from the stylet groove. ANT V 1.3-2.0 ANT VI (incl. PT) .....4

3 Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 with only small scleroites at their bases. ANT II with 7-13 hairs, ANT BASE VI with 7-8 hairs, R IV with 6 accessory hairs, ABD TERG 5 with 14-24 hairs and ABD TERG 8 with 10-16 hairs .....formosana

- ABD TERG 1-7 with large dark paired spinal sclerites. ANT II with c. 17 hairs, ANT BASE VI with 19-23 hairs, R IV with 10 accessory hairs, ABD TERG 5 with c. 52 hairs and ABD TERG 8 with c. 22 hairs .....orientalis

4 ANT II with 11-14 hairs. ABD TERG 5 with about 30 hairs between SIPH bases

.....piniarmandicola*

- ANT II with 21-23 hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 40-50 hairs between SIPH bases

.....xylophila (based on alata)*

 

P. attenuata Knobcone Pine
Cinara essigi; Essigella californica, essigi; Pineus pini

Use key to Cinara spp. on pines of subsect. Oocarpae under P. oocarpa. The two Essigella species are separated in the key under P. ponderosa.

P. australis = P. palustris

P. austriaca = P. nigra

P. banksiana            Jack Pine
Cinara atlantica, banksiana, brevispinosa, canatra, cronartii,

gracilis, nigra, parvicornis, pergandei, pinea, pini,

piniradicis, pinivora, russellae, watsoni;
                   Essigella alyeska; Eulachnus agilis, alticola, rileyi;

Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, havrylenkoi, pini;
                     Schizolachnus pineti, piniradiatae

(For Cinara spp., use key to Pinus subsect. Contortae, under P. contorta)

 

P. brutia (incl. var. eldarica) Turkish Pine

Cinara palaestinensis, pinea, pinimaritimae;

Eulachnus agilis, rileyi, tuberculostemmatus;

Pineus orientalis, pini; Schizolachnus pineti

 

P. bungeana Lacebark Pine

Cinara bungeanae, [ternaria]; Pineus cembrae

 

P. canariensis        Canary Islands Pine
Cinara atlantica, maghrebica, pinimaritimae, ponderosae;
Essigella californica;

Eulachnus rileyi, tuberculostemmatus;

[Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

Pineus boerneri; Schizolachnus pineti

Key to Cinara spp. on P. canariensis:-

1 HT I elongate, 0.16-0.22 mm long, at least 0.5 HT II (fig. 76A). R IV 0.24-0.30 mm long, more than 0.5 ANT III ......pinimaritimae

- HT I less than 0.14 mm long, less than 0.5 HT II. R IV 0.12-0.22 mm long, less than 0.5 ANT III .....2

2 Maximum diameter of SIPH cone 0.21-0.37 mm, less than the length of ANT III 

    .....maghrebica

- Maximum diameter of SIPH cone 0.40-0.83 mm, about equal to or greater than length of

ANT III .....3

3 ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs between SIPH bases, the longest 10-70 m long (fig. 80F) .....ponderosae

- ABD TERG 5 with more than 20 hairs, 60-180 m long, between SIPH bases (fig. 80E)

.....atlantica

P. caribaea                            Caribbean Pitch Pine

Cinara atlantica, melaina, pergandei, pinimaritimae,

ponderosae;

Essigella californica; Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

 

P. cembra                                          Swiss Stone Pine

  Cinara cembrae, mongolica, pini;

Eulachnus agilis, cembrae, pumilae, rileyi;

Pineus cembrae, strobi;

Schizolachnus pineti

Key to Cinara spp. on P. cembra and other pines of subsect. Cembrae (koraiensis, pumila, sibirica):-

1 Hairs on ABD TERG 5 long (maximally 80-180 m) .....2

- Hairs on ABD TERG 5 short (maximally 4-40 m) .....4

2 ANT III longer than ANT IV + V together. ABD TERG 8 with 56-84 hairs

.....pinikoraiensis*

- ANT III shorter than IV + V together. ABD TERG 8 with about 20-30 hairs .....3

3 Head, pronotum and mesonotum dark. Total antennal length about 0.45 BL. ABD

TERG 8 with about 30 hairs .....mongolica

- Head and thorax pale dorsally. Total antennal length about 0.35 BL. ABD TERG 8 with about 20 hairs .....minoripinihabitans*

4 R IV 0.14-0.22 mm long, about 2 R V. Hairs on ANT VI BASE maximally about 1.5 basal diameter of segment .....pini

- R IV 0.21-0.29 mm, more than 2 R V. Hairs on ANT VI BASE maximally about 2 or more basal diameter of segment .....5

5 R IV less than 0.25 mm long, bearing 8-10 accessory hairs .....cembrae

- R IV more than 0.25 mm long, bearing 14-22 accessory hairs .....watanabei

 

P. cembroides (incl. vars Mexican Pinyon Pine

bicolor, quadrifolia) Cinara [ponderosae], tanneri, terminalis, wahtolca;

Essigella hoerneri; Eulachnus rileyi

Key to apterae of Cinara spp. on P. cembroides and other pines of subsect. Cembroides (edulis, monophylla):-

(This key has been fully revised in accordance with the revision of this group of Cinara by Favret & Voegtlin, 2004).

1 R IV more than 0.28 mm long, with 30-116 accessory hairs .....2

- R IV less than 0.27 mm long, with 4-22 accessory hairs .....3

2 R IV 0.5 mm or more long, much longer than ANT III, with 50-116 accessory hairs .....puerca

- R IV 0.4 mm long or less, shorter than ANT III, with 30-40 accessory hairs .....tanneri

3 R IV with 10-22 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 6 without sclerites, although sclerites of various sizes may be present on ABD TERG 7 .....4

- R IV with 4-8 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 6 usually with sclerites, although sometimes

these are very reduced or absent .....5

4 SIPH cones with 10-41 hairs (mean = 24) scattered over surface (fig. 74D), and much longer than those on ABD TERG 5. Hairs on HT II of normal length, and straight

.....edulis

- SIPH cones with 5-15 hairs (mean = 8) located around basal edge of cone, similar in size and shape to those on ABD TERG 5. Hairs on HT II long and curved (fig. 74C) .....atra

5 All or nearly all ABD TERG with large sclerites, including ABD TERG 3. R IV usually with only 4-5 accessory hairs .....caliente

- ABD TERG 3 always without sclerites. R IV usually with 6-8 hairs .....6

6 ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually with hairs arising from small scleroites. Hind tibia with hairs on dorsal side straight, arising at an angle of more than 45 with apices pointing away from leg. Mesosternal tubercle a shallow oval, wider than deep .....terminalis

- ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually each with a pair of pale or dark sclerites encompassing bases of several hairs. Hind tibia with hairs on dorsal side curved, arising at an angle of less than 45 with apices almost parallel to leg. Mesosternal tubercle large, round to oval, deeper than wide .....wahtolca or anelia (see text)

P. clausa                                Alabama Pine, Sand Pine
                             Cinara atlantica, cronartii, pergandei, pinivora, taedae,
     watsoni;

Pineus pini

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Contortae under P. contorta.

 

P. contorta                             Lodgepole Pine, Shore Pine
(incl. vars latifolia Cinara brevispinosa, canatra, contortae, medispinosa,
           murrayana)    murrayanae, nigra, oregonensis, parvicornis,

pergandei, pinea, [pinimaritimae], pinivora;
Essigella braggii, californica, critchfieldi, knowltoni;
Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus coloradensis, havrylenkoi, pini;
Schizolachnus parva, pineti, piniradiatae

Key to Cinara spp. on P. contorta and other pines of subsect. Contortae (banksiana, clausa, virginiana):-

1 Dorsal abdomen almost completely covered by an extensive pigmented area that is fused at least between tergites 4-6 and usually merges with SIPH bases (figs 75A, B) .....2

- Dorsal abdomen with any dark markings divided segmentally and not usually merged with SIPH bases .....5

2 Subgenital plate (of vivipara) with only 6-14 hairs. R IV with only 4-7 hairs. SIPH with only 10-12 short hairs (maximally 40 m) .....russellae

- Subgenital plate with 30-40 hairs. R IV with 8-16 hairs. SIPH with 20-35 longer hairs .....3

3 ANT VI BASE with 10-15 hairs. R IV with 10-16 hairs, including several on side away from stylet groove .....gracilis

- ANT VI BASE with 8-11 hairs. R IV with 7-11 hairs in two rows alongside stylet groove, rarely with 1-2 on opposite side .....4

4 Dorsal cephalic hairs rather sparse, situated mainly alongside dorsal suture and near antennal bases, maximally 60 m long, often shorter than the distances between their bases. SIPH cones shallow with their bases very extensive, often extending over half the length of the abdomen (fig. 75A) .....canatra

- Dorsal cephalic hairs numerous, rather evenly distributed, maximally 70-80 m long, much longer than the distances between their bases. SIPH cones higher, with bases much less extensive (fig. 75B) .....nigra

5 HT I (measured along ventral side) at least 0.5 HT II (e.g. fig. 76B). Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 110-230 m long, 1.5 or more width of tibia at midpoint .....6

- HT I less than 0.5 HT II. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 30-150 m long, rarely up to 1.5 middle width of tibia .....9

6 ABD TERG each with a variably developed but usually large pair of dark sclerites (or diffuse dusky areas) including the bases of several hairs. HT II 0.20-0.28 mm. Eyes sessile, always with a distinct ocular tubercle .....pinivora

- ABD TERG 2-7 with separate small dark hair-bearing sclerites (scleroites). HT II 0.27-0.53 mm. Eyes on short lateral projections of head, usually without any evident ocular tubercle (e.g. fig. 75G) .....7

7 Fore tibia uniformly dark, mid and hind tibia with pale basal sections. First tarsal segments with 2 sense pegs, one behind the other (fig. 75H). Largest scleroites on ABD TERG 2-5 of greatest diameter 25-70 m .....watsoni

- If the fore tibia is uniformly dark, then so are the mid and hind tibiae. First tarsal segments with 1 sense peg (subapically on ventral side). Largest scleroites on ABD TERG 2-5 of greatest diameter 75-300 m .....8

8 All tibiae with pale section on basal half. First tarsal segments usually with 1-2 dorsal hairs, and with the sense peg some distance from the apex. ABD TERG 5 with 28-49 hairs between SIPH bases, most of them on large scleroites (fig. 80C) .....pinea

- Tibiae usually rather uniformly dark (sometimes slightly less so near base). First tarsal segments without dorsal hairs, and with sense peg close to apex. ABD TERG 5 with 50-110 hairs between SIPH bases, a minority of which are on large scleroites (fig. 80D)

.....pergandei

9 Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia near its midpoint mostly less than 60 m in length , the longest 0.3-0.8 diameter of tibia at this point .....10

- Most or all of hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia near its midpoint longer than 60 m, the longest 0.7-1.5 diameter of tibia at this point .....16

10 ABD TERG 4-6 with many scleroites of width more than 50 m, or bars or patches forming part of a more extensive pattern of markings .....11

- ABD TERG 5 and 6, and usually 4 also, without any bars or patches or scleroites more than 4 wider than the hair bases .....13

11 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) 1.55-1.76 mm. Dorsal abdominal markings comprising paired patches of irregular outline on ABD TERG 1-7, sometimes reduced or broken into groups of sclerites on 2-4. All tibiae with pale section on basal half 

.....contortae

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.25-1.54 mm. Dorsal abdomen either with broad transverse bands on all tergites or with paired patches on ABD TERG 1-3 and scattered sclerites on 4-6. Fore and hind tibiae often wholly dark, or with shorter pale section than mid tibia .....12

12 Dorsal abdomen usually (in spring, at least) with a complete pattern of broad transverse bars on all tergites (fig. 75C); if reduced on ABD TERG 4-6 then the sclerites are still arranged in single transverse rows across the midline. Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia short and spine-like, all less than 50 μm long .....brevispinosa

- Dorsal abdomen with well-developed paired patches on ABD TERG 1 and 2 (or 1-3) and 7; only scattered small sclerites on 4-5, and usually none at all on 6 (fig. 75E). Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia variable, but at least some of them are usually more than 50 μm long

.....banksiana

13 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) 1.9 mm or more .....14

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than 1.8 mm .....15

14 PT finger-like, parallel-sided, 0.07-0.09 mm long. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 2.3-3.2 .....piniradicis

- PT tapering, less than 0.06 mm long. Sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.9-2.5 mm long

.....schwartzii

15 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.12-1.37 mm .....parvicornis (part)

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.45-1.65 mm .....taedae

16 Hairs on SIPH cone sparse and very short, the longest about 15 m long (only the sexuales of this species are described) .....parvicornis (part)

- Hairs on SIPH cone more than 50 m long .....17

17 R IV with 15-28 accessory hairs .....18

- R IV with 4-12 accessory hairs .....19

18 Hind tibia wholly dark and markedly bowed, bearing blunt hairs. R IV with 15-21 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 3-6 without sclerites. SIPH cones with less than 40 hairs .....strobi

- Hind tibia with pale section on basal half, and bearing pointed hairs. R IV with 19-28 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 3-6 usually with sclerites. SIPH cones with more than 80 hairs

.....cronartii

19 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 60-80 m. Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark patches of irregular shape on all tergites (fig. 75F; but reduced in midsummer populations, sometimes being entirely absent from ABD TERG 3-4 and reduced to paired groups of broken sclerites on 5-6). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.67-1.92 mm

..... medispinosa

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 80-150 m. Dorsal abdomen with or without sclerites on ABD TERG 3-6, but if present these are not in paired groups .....20

20 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.82-2.13 mm .....oregonensis

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.20-1.68mm .....21

21 Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 maximally 40 m, each usually with a very small circular scleroite at its base (fig. 80G) .....pini

- Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 much longer, either not on sclerites or arising from sclerites or scleroites of varying size and shape .....22

22 ABD TERG 8 usually with a complete transverse band. Longest hairs on front of head and on ABD TERG 3-5 less than 70 m long .....melaina

- ABD TERG 8 usually with paired sclerites not united or only tenuously united across midline. Longest hairs on front of head and on ABD TERG 3-5 more than 70 m long ....23

23 Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia maximally 100-150 m, with finely pointed apices

(fig. 75I) .....murrayanae

- Hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia maximally 80-100 m, bristle-like, with blunt or abruptly pointed apices (fig. 75J) .....atlantica

Key to apterae of Essigella spp. on P. contorta:-

1 ABD TERG 2-4 with 6 spinopleural hairs (rarely 7) in a row across the tergite, and 2 marginal hairs on each side. Dorsal body usually pale, never very dark .....californica

- ABD TERG 2-4 with 8-10 (or rarely up to 12) spinopleural hairs, and 3-4 marginal hairs. Body pale or dark .....2

2 Darkest pigmentation of ANT III-V slightly to considerably lighter than that of ANT I, with ANT III pale except for slight darkening of distal 0.25. Dorsal body, including front of head, uniformly dark brown to black. Longest hair on dorsal side of hind tibia near midpoint less than 30 m, usually less than diameter of tibia .....critchfieldi

- Darkest pigmentation of ANT III-V darker than ANT I, with distal 0.3-0.5 of ANT III dark. Dorsal body pale or dark, if dark then front of head is often paler than dorsal abdomen. Longest hair on dorsal side of hind tibia near midpoint usually more than 30 m, usually longer than diameter of tibia .....3

3 Dorsal body usually moderately to extremely dark, but occasionally pale; if dark, then frons is usually paler than dorsal abdomen. If pale, the ventrolateral borders of abdominal tergites, antero-ventral border of frons, and posterior edge of subgenital plate are well-defined and demarcated from adjacent membranous areas. ABD TERG 8 usually with 6 hairs, rarely up to 8 .....knowltoni

- Dorsal body never very dark, usually pale; if rather dark then front of head is concolorous with dorsal abdomen. Ventrolateral borders of abdominal tergites, anteroventral border of frons and/or posterior edge of subgenital plate often poorly demarcated from adjacent membranous regions. ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 (rarely up to 10) hairs .....braggi

P. cooperi         Mexican Mountain Pine
(= P. arizonica var. omelasii) Cinara schwartzii; Essigella californica

(Use key to Cinara spp. on pines of subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa)

 

P. coulteri            Bigcone Pine
Cinara arizonica, diabola, montanesa, ponderosae,

tujafilina;
Essigella californica, eastopi, fusca;
Schizolachnus piniradiatae

Key to Cinara spp. on P. coulteri and other pines of subsect. Sabinianae (sabiniana, torreyana):-

1 BL less than 4.2 mm .....2

- BL more than 4.2 mm .....4

2 Longest hairs on ANT III 120-200 m, and on hind tibia 140-310 m .....tujafilina*

- Longest hairs on ANT III 30-60 m, and on hind tibia 45-80 m .....3

3 R IV 0.25-0.30 mm. SIPH less than 0.2 mm in diameter, bearing a few, short hairs

.....diabola*

- R IV 0.17-0.22 mm. SIPH more than 0.5 mm in diameter, bearing many (25+) long hairs

.....ponderosae

4 Hairs on dorsal body surface, ANT III-IV and legs all rather sparse, short, thick and slightly capitate. ANT III longer than IV+V together .....arizonica

- Hairs not capitate; those on hind tibia short (about 50 m) and dense. ANT III shorter than IV+V together .....montanesa

Key to Essigella spp. on Pinus coulteri:-

1 ABD TERG 2-4 each with 6 spinopleural hairs (rarely 7) in a transverse row, and 2 marginal hairs on each side .....californica

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with 8-12 spinopleural hairs, and 3-5 marginal hairs on each side

.....2

2 Dorsal body usually darker than tibiae, with a paler, longitudinal spinal stripe on thorax and abdomen. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia near midpoint 23-83 m .....eastopi

- Dorsal body pale or dark, if dark then without a paler spinal stripe. Longest hair on dorsal side of hind tibia near midpoint 50-135 m .....fusca

P. cretacea = P. sylvestris

P. cubensis Cinara atlantica, pergandei

(Use key to Cinara species on P. contorta.)

 

P. densiflora                       Japanese Red Pine
               Cinara etsuhoe, formosana, [pinimaritimae], orientalis,
         [pergandei], pinea, pinidensiflorae, piniformosana;
     Eulachnus agilis, [isensis], thunbergii;
Pineus havrylenkoi, matsumurae, orientalis;

Schizolachnus orientalis; Stomaphis pini, [quercus];

[Watabura nishiyae]

 

Key to Cinara spp. on P. densiflora and other oriental pines of subsect. Sylvestres (massoniana, tabuliformis, taiwanensis, thunbergii). (C. jianglensis could not be included on the basis of the published description. Some other Cinara spp. previously only known from western palaearctic pines are now recorded from east Asia (see G. Zhang et al. 1993c), so if the outcome of using this key is unsatisfactory, try the key to western palaearctic species under P. sylvestris.):-

1 RIV 3.1-4.5 RV and bearing 18-37 accessory hairs ..2

- RIV 1.5-2.7 RV and bearing 4-12 accessory hairs ..4

2 RIV less than 0.4 mm long with 18-20 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 10-20 hairs ..largirostris*

- RIV 0.47-0.57 mm long with 28-37 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 26-35 hairs ..3

3 ANT III 15-18 longer than the longest hairs borne upon it. Hind tibia 50-80 longer than

the longest hair borne upon it ..sorini

- ANT III 5-12 longer than the longest hairs borne upon it. Hind tibia 25-40 longer than the longest hair borne upon it ..etsuhoe

4 HT I elongate, 0.16-0.33 mm long (measured on ventral side), usually 0.5 or more HT II (fig. 76B) .....5

- HT I less than 0.17 mm long, and/or less than 0.5 HT II .....8

5 Hairs on dorsal body and appendages short and thick; longest hairs on ANT III 55-65 m, on ABD TERG 3 20-40 m, on hind tibia 75-85 m. Abdomen without scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs .....formosana

- Hairs much longer; longest on ANT III 70-210 m, on ABD TERG 3 70-210 m, on hind

tibia 90-230 m. Abdomen with scleroites at base of all or most dorsal hairs .....6

6 Tibiae with pale section on basal half. HT I with 1-3 dorsal hairs (fig. 76B) .....pinea

- Tibiae wholly dark, although sometimes slightly less dark near base. HT I usually without dorsal hairs, rarely with 1 .....7

7 R IV 0.29-0.36 mm long, 0.9 or more HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 all arising from small dark circular sclerites of uniform size (20-25 m in diameter) ..schimitscheki

- R IV 0.15-0.21 mm long, 0.4-0.6 HT II. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs not of uniform size (diameter 25-75 m) .....piniformosana

8 ABD TERG 1-2 (or 1-3) with marginal sclerites as well as spinal ones. R IV c. 2.3 HT I (ventral length). ANT BASE VI with 19-23 hairs .....orientalis

- ABD TERG 1-3 without marginal sclerites. R IV 1.4-1.9 HT I. ANT BASE VI with 7-14 hairs .....9

9 R IV less than 0.17 mm long, 1.6-1.9 HT I. HT II less than 0.3 mm long. ABD TERG 1-6 each with a pair of large spinal sclerites (sometimes reduced or absent on 2-3). Hind tibiae pale on basal half, contrastingly dark distally .....pinidensiflorae

- R IV more than 0.18 mm long, 1.4-1.5 HT I. HT II more than 0.3 mm long. ABD TERG 2-6 with only small scleroites. Hind tibiae mainly or wholly dark   .....californica

 

P. devoniana Cinara ponderosae, terminalis; Essigella californica;

Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa.

 

P. discolor = P. cembroides var. bicolor

P. douglasiana                       Douglas Pine
              Cinara atlantica, ponderosae; Essigella californica;

Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on pines of subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa.

P. durangensis                           Durango Pine
         Cinara atlantica; Essigella californica;
        Pineus boerneri; Schizolachnus curvispinosus

P. echinata                  Short Leaf Pine
Cinara atlantica, melaina, pergandei, watsoni;
Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus boerneri;

Prociphilus piniradicivora;

Schizolachnus piniradiatae

 

Key to Cinara spp. on P. echinata and other pines of subsect. Australes (caribaea, elliottii, glabra, occidentalis, palustris, pungens, rigida, serotina, taeda):-

1 HT I (measured on ventral side) at least 0.5 HT II (fig. 76A, B) .....2

- HT I less than 0.5 HT II .....3

2 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 70-130 m, similar to width of tibia at midpoint

  .....pinimaritimae

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 110-230 m, 1.5 or more width of tibia at midpoint .....4 species (pergandei, pinea, pinivora, watsoni)

(these are separated in couplets 6-8 of the key under Pinus contorta)

3 BL 4.3-6.1 mm. Hairs on dorsal body surface, ANT III-IV and legs all short, thick and slightly capitate .....arizonica

- BL up to 4.2 mm. Hairs short or long, not capitate .....4

4 R IV 0.23-0.33 mm long, bearing 19-28 accessory hairs .....5

- R IV 0.16-0.23 mm long, bearing 6-14 accessory hairs .....6

5 ANT VI BASE with 11-16 hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia 80-110 m. Dorsal abdominal hairs long, many of them arising from sclerites of varying size .....cronartii

- ANT VI BASE with 20-23 hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia 50-75 m. Dorsal abdominal hairs short, and at least those on ABD TERG 3-6 not arising from sclerites (bases sometimes encircled by minute scleroites) ......newelli

6 Subgenital plate with only 2-6 hairs (more in fundatrices). First tarsal segments with either 2 or 3 sense pegs (ventrally, near apex; see fig. 75H) .....7

- Subgenital plate with 25-50 hairs. First tarsal segments with only 1 sense peg .....8

7 First tarsal segments with 2 sense pegs (as in fig. 75H) .....westi

- First tarsal segments with 3 sense pegs .....rigidae

8 ANT VI BASE with 5-8 hairs. R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs. Hind tibia darker than fore or mid tibiae. Longest hairs on hind tibia 40-50 m, about 0.5 width of tibia at midpoint

.....taedae

- ANT VI BASE with 8-16 hairs. R IV with 6-10 accessory hairs. Hind tibia sometimes with a shorter pale section than fore and mid tibiae, but not darker overall. Longest hairs on hind tibia 50-100 m, 0.75 or more width of tibia at midpoint .....9

9 ABD TERG 5 with more than 20 hairs, the longest 60-180 m, between SIPH bases

(fig. 80E) .....atlantica

- ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs, maximally 10-80 m, between SIPH bases (e.g. fig. 80F) .....10

10 Longest hairs on ANT III 25-60 m, and on dorsal side of hind tibia 50-70 m. ANT III with 1-3 (non-protruberant) rhinaria near apex .....ponderosae

- Longest hairs on ANT III 50-70 m, and on dorsal side of hind tibia 60-100 m. ANT III with 0-1 rhinaria near apex (if present, the rhinarium is small and protruberant) .....melaina

P. edulis                       Pinyon Pine
Cinara atra, caliente, edulis, puerca, terminalis, wahtolca;
Essigella hoerneri; Pineus coloradensis

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Cembroides under P. cembroides.

 

P. eldarica see P. brutia

P. elliottii     Longleaf Pitch Pine, Slash Pine

Cinara atlantica, cronartii, melaina, newelli, pinimaritimae,

pinivora, taedae, watsoni;
Essigella californica; Eulachnus rileyi;

Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

P. engelmanii     Engelman's Pine
Essigella californica, fusca; Pineus boerneri

Use key to Essigella spp. on pines of subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa.

 

P. excelsa Wall. ex D.Don = P. wallichiana

P. flexilis   Limber Pine
Cinara apini, flexilis, villosa; Essigella californica, kirki;

[Pineus cembrae]

 

Key to Cinara spp. on P. flexilis:-

 

1 HT II 0.33-0.47 mm long, more than 2 R IV and densely clothed with short hairs. R IV with more than 30 accessory hairs .....flexilis

- HT II 0.24-0.29 mm long, less than 1.5 R IV and normally haired. R IV with about 10 accessory hairs .....2

2 Hairs on hind tibia rather spine-like, those on dorsal side less than 55 m long, about 0.5 or less times width of tibia at midpoint .....apini

- Hairs on hind tibia finer and more numerous, up to 65 m long, clearly more than 0.5 width of tibia at midpoint .....villosa

Key to Essigella spp. on Pinus flexilis:-

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with a transverse row of 6 (rarely 7) spinopleural hairs, and 2 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs .....californica

 

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with 10-14 spinopleural hairs in two irregular rows, and 4-6 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 10-14 hairs .....kirki

 

P. funebris = P. densiflora

P. glabra    Spruce Pine

Cinara arizonica, atlantica, melaina, pergandei,

taedae, watsoni;
Eulachnus rileyi; Schizolachnus curvispinosus, parvus

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

P. gregii Cinara atlantica, pinimaritimae, ponderosae

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Oocarpae under P. oocarpa.

 

P. griffithii = P. wallichiana

P. halepensis  Aleppo Pine
Cinara balachowskyi, cronartii, [guadarramae],

[hyperophila], maghrebica, palaestinensis, pinea, pini,

pinimaritimae;
Essigella californica;

Eulachnus agilis,[nigricola], rileyi, tauricus,

tuberculostemmatus;

Neomyzus circumflexus;

Pineus boerneri, havrylenkoi, laevis, pini;

Schizolachnus pineti; [Stomaphis pini]

Key to Cinara spp. on P. halepensis:-

1 HT I 0.16-0.33 mm (measured along ventral side), at least 0.5 HT II or longer (figs 76A, B) .....2

- HT I less than 0.14 mm long, less than 0.5 HT II (e.g. fig. 76C) .....3

2 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 70-130 m, shorter than or about equal to width of tibia at midpoint. HT I 0.16-0.22 mm (fig. 76A) .....pinimaritimae

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 120-230 m, often 1.5 width of tibia at midpoint or longer. HT I 0.22-0.33 mm (fig. 76B) .....pinea

3 Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 less than 50 m long .....4

- Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 more than 50 m long .....6

4 R IV 0.39-0.45 mm long, with about 30 accessory hairs .....balachowskyi

- R IV 0.13-0.22 mm long, with 6-10 accessory hairs .....5

5 Maximum diameter of SIPH cone 0.09-0.25 mm, 0.3-0.5 ANT III .....palaestinensis

- Maximum diameter of SIPH cone 0.16-0.70 mm, 0.4-1.4 ANT III .....pini

6 R IV 0.24-0.29 mm long, with 19-28 accessory hairs. Many of hairs on ABD TERG 2-6

arising from sclerites of various sizes .....cronartii

- R IV 0.13-0.18 mm long, with 6-8 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 2-6 without sclerites

.....maghrebica

P. hamata see P. sylvestris

P. hartwegii Pineus boerneri, pini

P. heldreichii Cinara schimitscheki; Eulachnus agilis, nigricola, rileyi

(Or use key to Cinara spp. on pines of subsect. Sylvestres under P. sylvestris)

P. himekomatsu = P. parviflora

P. insularis = P. kesiya var. langbianensis

P. jeffreyi Cinara arizonica, cronartii, [edulis], ponderosae,

schwartzii;
Essigella californica, fusca, hillerislambersi

Use keys to Cinara and Essigella spp. of Pinus subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa.

P. kesiya Khasya Pine, Philippine Pine
Cinara atrotibialis, pinea; Eulachnus thunbergii;
Neomyzus circumflexus; Pineus pini

Key to Cinara spp. on P.khasya:-

- Fore tibia wholly black, mid and hind tibiae also black or with slightly paler section on basal half. R IV 0.26-0.38 mm long, at least 0.5 ANT III .....atrotibialis

- Fore tibia often darker than mid and hind tibiae, but all tibiae with paler section on basal half. R IV 0.21-0.29 mm long, less than 0.5 ANT III .....pinea

P. khasya = P. kesiya  

P. kochiana = P. sylvestris var. hamata

P. koraiensis Korean Pine
Cinara cembrae, [kochiana]; minoripinihabitans, mongolica,

[nuda], [orientalis], pinikoraiensis,[shinjii], watanabei,

[taeniatoides Mordwilko 1901];
Eulachnus pumilae;

Pineus cembrae, cembrae ssp. pinikoreanus,

cladogenous, cortecicolus, hosoyai

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Cembrae under P. cembra.

 

P. lambertiana  Sugar Pine
Cinara [anelia], hirticula, moketa, saccharinipini;
Essigella californica, kathleeni;

Pineus coloradensis;

Prociphilus caryae ?ssp. arbutifoliae

Key to Cinara spp. on P. lambertiana:-

(Of the three species described by Hottes from P. lambertiana, the available specimens all seem to correspond most closely to moketa; couplet 2 is based solely on the original descriptions.)

1 Longest hairs on ANT III 100-110 m, on dorsal side of hind tibia 100-120 m, and on ABD TERG 5 and SIPH cones 120-150 m .....moketa

- Longest hairs on ANT III 80-90 m, on dorsal side of hind tibia 70-100 m, and on ABD TERG 5 and SIPH cones 90-130 m .....2

2 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia about 100 m. HT I about 0.5 HT II. HT II about 1.3 R IV. R IV about 0.6 maximum diameter of SIPH cone .....saccharinipini*

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia about 70 m. HT I about 0.4 HT II. HT II about 1.8 R IV. R IV about 0.3 maximum diameter of SIPH cone .....hirticula*

 

Key to Essigella spp. on Pinus lambertiana:-

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with a transverse row of 6 spinopleural hairs (rarely 7), and with 2 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs. HT II less than 1.9 HT I

.....californica

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with 11-14 spinopleural hairs, in two irregular rows, and 4-5 marginal hairs on each side. ABD TERG 8 with 7-13 hairs. HT II more than 1.9 HT I

.....kathleenae

P. laricio = P. nigra ssp. laricio

P. leiophylla Cinara terminalis; Essigella californica, fusca;

Pineus pini group

(For separation of the two Essigella species use the key under P. coulteri)

 

P. leucodermis = P. heldreichii

P. longifolia Roxb. = P. roxburghii

P. luchuensis Cinara formosana, pinea, [pini], piniformosana;

Eulachnus thunbergii; Schizolachnus orientalis

Use key to Cinara spp. on P. densiflora.

P. lumholtzii                              Cinara atlantica

P. lutea (?) Pineus pini group

P. maritima Poir = P. pinaster

P. massoniana Chinese Red Pine
Cinara [atratipinivora], formosana,
[ jianglensis], pinea,

pinidensiflorae, piniformosana, schimitscheki, [taiwana];

Eulachnus [alticola], [drakontos], nigricola,

[pinitabulaeformis], rileyi, similiaticola, thunbergii,

tuberculostemmatus;
Pineus pini group; Schizolachnus orientalis

Use key to Cinara spp. on P. densiflora.

 

P. maximinoi Pineus pini group

P. merkusii Eulachnus thunbergii; Pineus pini group

P. michoacana = P. devoniana

P. monophylla Single-leaf Pinyon Pine
     Cinara anelia, atra, caliente, edulis, puerca, tanneri,

terminalis;
Essigella hoerneri; Pineus coloradensis

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Cembroides under P. cembroides.

 

P. montezumae Essigella californica; Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus pini group

P. monticola                                             Western White Pine
Cinara ferrisi, hirsuta, kuchea;

Essigella californica, kathleeni;
Pineus coloradensis, pinifoliae, strobi;

Prociphilus caryae ssp. caryae

(For separation of Essigella spp. see key under P. lambertiana.)

 

Key to Cinara spp. on P. monticola:-

1 BL more than 4.5 mm. Tibiae wholly black. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) more than 2.4 mm .....ferrisi

- BL less than 4.5 mm. Tibiae with paler section on basal half. Length of sclerotised part of

stylet groove less than 2.0 mm .....2

2 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 70-80 m long .....kuchea

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia up to 150 m long .....hirsuta

 

P. mugo (incl. vars mughus,                Mountain Pine
pumilio, ssp. uncinata) Cinara carnica, covassii, guadarramae, hyperophila,

montanicola, neubergi, nuda, pergandei, pinea, pini,

pinihabitans, schimitscheki, setosa;
Eulachnus agilis, [alticola], brevipilosus, [intermedius],

rileyi;
Pineus orientalis, pini;

Prociphilus (Stagona) pini; Schizolachnus pineti

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Sylvestres under P. sylvestris.

 

P. muricata                                               Bishop Pine
  Cinara atlantica; Essigella californica;

Pineus pini group; Schizolachnus piniradiatae

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Oocarpae under P. oocarpa.

 

P. nigra (incl. vars/ssp.                       Austrian Pine, Corsican Pine, Crimean Pine

caramanica, laricio, Cinara acutirostris, atlantica, brauni, [cedri],

pallasiana, salzmannii) [guadarramae], gudaris, laricionis, [maghrebica],

[meridionalis], [montanensis], [nuda], [pilosa], pinea, pini,

pinihabitans, pinimaritimae, ponderosae, schimitscheki;
Eulachnus agilis, brevipilosus, mediterraneus, nigricola,

[pinisuctus], rileyi, tauricus, tuberculostemmatus;
Pineus pini; [Prociphilus bumeliae];

Schizolachnus obscurus, pineti

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Sylvestres, under P. sylvestris.

 

P. occidentalis                             West Indian Pine
                                                   Cinara arizonica, atlantica, ponderosae;
                                                   Essigella californica

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

 

P. oocarpa                                   Ocote Pine
                                                   Cinara atlantica, azteca, pinivora; Pineus boerneri

Key to Cinara spp. on P. oocarpa and other pines of subsect. Oocarpae (attenuata, greggii, muricata, patula, radiata):-

1 R IV 0.23-0.33 mm long, bearing 14-28 accessory hairs .....2

- R IV 0.14-0.29 mm long, bearing 5-10 accessory hairs .....3

2 Longest hairs on ANT III 60-80 m, on hind tibia 50-80 m. (ABD TERG 2-6 without sclerites?) .....essigi*

- Longest hairs on ANT III and hind tibia 80-110 m, all very fine. (ABD TERG 2-6 often with numerous small sclerites) .....cronartii

3 HT I 0.13-0.22 mm long and more than 0.5 HT II (fig. 76A) .....4

- HT I less than 0.14 mm long, less than 0.5 HT II .....5

4 R IV 0.16-0.20 mm ..pinivora

- R IV 0.24-0.30 mm ..pinimaritimae

5 Maximum diameter of SIPH cone 0.3-0.4 mm. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 about 70 long

.....azteca*

- Maximum diameter of SIPH cone usually in range 0.4-0.7 mm. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 mostly either shorter or longer than 70 m .....6

6 SIPH with more than 60 hairs, including many on basal part of cone. ABD TERG 5 with more than 25 hairs, 60-110 m long, between SIPH cones (fig. 80E) ....atlantica

- SIPH with less than 60 hairs, rather sparse on basal part of cone. ABD TERG 5 with 4-15 hairs, 10-60 m long, between SIPH cones (fig. 80F) .....ponderosae

P. pallasiana = nigra ssp. pallasiana

 

P. palustris                               American Pitch Pine, Longleaf Pine
Cinara atlantica, melaina, newelli, watsoni;

Essigella californica;
Eulachnus rileyi

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes, under P. echinata.

 

P. parviflora                                           Japanese White Pine
Cinara [cembrae], shinjii, watanabei; Eulachnus pumilae;
Pineus cembrae, harakawai, havrylenkoi

Key to Cinara spp. on P. parviflora:-

- R IV more than 0.25 mm long, bearing 14-22 accessory hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 less than 70 m long. ABD TERG 2-5 with only small scleroites ringing hair bases

.....watanabei

- R IV less than 0.25 mm long, bearing 6-8 accessory hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 up to

140 m long. ABD TERG 2-5 with larger sclerites .....shinjii

 

P. patula                                              Mexican Weeping Pine

Cinara [acutirostris], atlantica, cronartii, [maculipes],

pinivora, [terminalis];

Essigella californica; Eulachnus rileyi;

Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on pines of subsect. Oocarpae under P. oocarpa.

P. pentaphylla = P. parviflora var. pentaphylla

P. peuce Cinara cembrae; Eulachnus cembrae, rileyi; Pineus strobi

P. pinaster                                      Maritime Pine, Cluster Pine

Cinara acutirostris, guadarramae, hyperophila,

maghrebica, nuda, pinea, pini, [pinihabitans],

pinimaritimae, [taeniata Koch, 1856 (nomen dubium)] ;

Eulachnus agilis, brevipilosus, mediterraneus,

rileyi, tauricus, tuberculostemmatus;

Pineus harakawai; Schizolachnus obscurus, pineti

Use key to Cinara spp. on western palaearctic pines of subsect. Sylvestres, under P. sylvestris.

 

P. pinea Italian Stone Pine
Cinara acutirostris, maghrebica, palaestinensis, pinea, pini,

pinimaritimae, schimitscheki;
Essigella californica;

Eulachnus agilis, mediterraneus, rileyi, tauricus,

tuberculostemmatus;
Pineus boerneri, havrylenkoi, pini, strobi;

Schizolachnus obscurus, pineti

The four Cinara species are separated in the key under P. sylvestris.

 

P. ponderosa (incl. vars                              Ponderosa Pine

arizonica, scopulorum) Cinara arizonica, glabra,

nigrita(?), oregonensis, [orientalis], pinea,
pini, ponderosae, pseudoschwartzii, schwartzii,

solitaria, thatcheri;
Essigella californica, essigi, fusca;

Eulachnus [alticola], rileyi;
Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, pini;
Schizolachnus curvispinosus, flocculosus, pineti,

piniradiatae

Key to apterae on Cinara spp. on P. ponderosa and other pines of subsect. Ponderosae (cooperi, douglasiana, durangensis, jeffreyi, michoacana, pseudostrobus):-

1 BL 4.6-6.0 mm. Hairs on dorsal body surface, ANT III-IV and legs all rather widely spaced, short, thick and slightly capitate .....arizonica

- BL less than 4.6 mm. Hairs sometimes short and thick but not widely spaced and not

capitate .....2

2 HT I 0.15-0.23 mm long, more than 0.5 HT II (fig. 76B). Hairs on hind tibia are 120-230 m long .....pinea

- HT I 0.08-0.15 mm long, less than 0.5 HT II. Hairs on hind tibia 20-120 m long .....3

3 R IV with 11-28 accessory hairs .....4

- R IV with 6-10 accessory hairs .....9

4 Longest hairs on hind tibia 30-60 m, about 0.5 width of tibia at midpoint or shorter. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 mostly short and blunt, less than 30 m long .....5

- Longest hairs on hind tibia 70-120 m, clearly more than 0.5 width of tibia at midpoint. Hairs on ABD TERG 5 with acute apices, the longest at least 70 m in length .....7

5 Dorsum with a large dark sclerite fused across midline and extending across ABD TERG 2-7, but not fused with SIPH bases (fig. 77). ABD TERG 5 with more than 50 hairs between SIPH bases. Ventral surface covered with dense rows of pointed spicules .....glabra

- Dorsum only lightly sclerotised, often with dusky areas on each side of midline. ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs between SIPH bases. Ventral surface only faintly and minutely spiculose .....6

6 R IV 0.20-0.25 mm long, with 15-16 accessory hairs. ANT V about equal in length to ANT IV .....schwartzii

- R IV 0.26-0.30 mm long, with 19-21 accessory hairs. ANT V clearly longer than ANT IV

.....thatcheri

7 ABD TERG 2-6 without distinct sclerites but often with a dusky area on each side of midline. ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs between SIPH bases. R IV 0.22-0.24 mm

long .....pseudoschwartzii

- ABD TERG 2-6 with scattered separate, distinct sclerites. ABD TERG 5 with more than 50 hairs between SIPH bases. R IV 0.24-0.29 mm long .....cronartii

8 SIPH cones with two distinctly different types of hair, one type long (about 70 m) and spine-like, the other small (about 12 m), fine and numerous. R IV 0.22-0.26 mm long. Body rounded, tick-like, tibiae short and black .....solitaria

- SIPH cones with one type of hair. R IV 0.14-0.22. Body oval .....9

9 Longest hairs on hind tibia 80-110 m, and on ABD TERG 5, 60-110 m .....10

- Longest hairs on hind tibia 40-95 m, and on ABD TERG 5, 10-70 m .....11

10 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.8-2.2 mm (see fig. 74A). ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs between the rather small SIPH cones, each bearing 15-20 hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with broad transverse bars .....oregonensis

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.3-1.7 mm. ABD TERG 5 with more than 25 hairs between large SIPH cones each bearing more than 50 hairs (fig. 80E). ABD TERG 7 and 8 with paired sclerites not joined or only tenuously linked across midline .....atlantica

11 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) 1.5-2.0 mm .....ponderosae

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.2-1.4 mm .....pini

Key to Essigella spp. on pines of subsect. Ponderosae:-

1 ABD TERG 2-4 each with a transverse row of 6 (rarely 7) spinopleural hairs, and 2 marginal hairs on each side .....californica

- ABD TERG 2-4 each with 8-12 spinopleural hairs (rarely 7), and 3-5 (rarely 2) marginal

hairs .....2

2 Metathoracic tergite fused with ABD TERG 1, either entirely across dorsum (pale individuals) or at least laterally (dark individuals). All tibiae dusky to dark, concolorous

.....essigi

- Metathoracic tergite not fused to ABD TERG 1, even laterally. Fore and hind tibiae clearly darker than middle tibia .....3

3 BL 2.10-2.64 mm ANT III 0.16-0.23 mm. Hind tibia 1.06-1.56 mm. Dorsal body pale

.....hillerislambersi

- BL 1.79-2.39 mm ANT III 0.12-0.18 mm. Hind tibia 0.76-1.13 mm. Dorsal body pale or

dark .....fusca

P. pseudostrobus                                       False Weymouth Pine

[Cinara terminalis]; Essigella californica;

Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. of Pinus subsect. Ponderosae under P. ponderosa.

 

P. pumila                                Japanese Stone Pine
Cinara cembrae, ?mongolica, [pinihabitans];

Eulachnus pumilae, thunbergii;
Pineus cembrae

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Cembrae under P. cembra.

 

P. pungens  Hickory Pine, Table Mountain Pine
Cinara atlantica, pinea, pinivora, taedae, watsoni;

Pineus boerneri

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

 

P. quadrifolia = P. cembroides var. quadrifolia 

 

P. radiata                                          Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine
Cinara atlantica, [brevispinosa], [costata], pinimaritimae;

Essigella californica, essigi; Eulachnus rileyi;
Pineus boerneri, pini, sylvestris;
Schizolachnus pineti, piniradiatae

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Oocarpae under P. oocarpa.

(The two Essigella species are separated in the key under P. ponderosa.)

 

P. resinosa                               Canadian Red Pine
Cinara atlantica, harmonia, melaina, pinea,

pinivora, strobi;

Essigella californica; Eulachnus agilis, rileyi;

Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, pini
Schizolachnus piniradiatae

Key to Cinara spp. on P. resinosa:-

1 HT I (measured along ventral side) more than 0.5 HT II (e.g. fig. 76B). Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 110-230 m long .....2

- HT I about 0.5 HT II or less. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 60-130 m long

.....3

2 HT I 0.12-0.15 mm, HT II 0.20-0.28 mm. ABD TERG 2-7 each with a variably developed but usually large pair of sclerites (or diffuse dusky areas) including the bases of several hairs .....pinivora

- HT I 0.17-0.33 mm, HT II 0.35-0.53 mm. ABD TERG 2-7 with separate small hair-bearing scleroites (fig. 80C) .....pinea

3 R IV bearing 15-22 accessory hairs. Hind tibia wholly dark and often markedly curved, bearing blunt hairs .....strobi

- R IV bearing 6-10 accessory hairs. Hind tibia with a pale section on basal half and bearing pointed hairs .....4

4 ABD TERG 8 usually with a continuous transverse dark bar. Hairs on front of head maximally 70 m, mostly shorter than or about equal to width of ANT II .....melaina

- ABD TERG 8 usually with transverse bar interrupted in or only tenuously linked across midline. Hairs on front of head maximally 80-120 m, mostly longer than width of ANT II

  .....5

5 ABD TERG 8 with 12-16 hairs. BL 2.2-3.3 mm, 4.5-5.6 maximum width of SIPH cone. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 80-100 m .....atlantica

- ABD TERG 8 with 17-23 hairs. BL 2.9-4.2 mm, 5.7-9.0 maximum width of SIPH cone. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 90-130 m .....harmonia

 

P. rigida                                  Pitch Pine
Cinara atlantica, melaina, pergandei, pinea,

[pinidensiflorae], pinivora, rigidae, taedae,

watsoni;

Essigella californica; Eulachnus agilis, rileyi, thunbergii;

Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, pini;
Prociphilus piniradicivorus; Schizolachnus flocculosus

Use key to Cinara spp. of Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

 

P. rotundata Eulachnus agilis, rileyi

 

P. roxburghii                           Asiatic Longleaf Pine, Cher Pine

Cinara atlantica, atrotibialis, ponderosae;

Essigella californica; Pineus simmondsi;

Schizolachnus curvispinosus

Key to Cinara spp. on P. roxburghii:-

1 Tibiae wholly dark, although sometimes with slightly less dark section on basal half of mid and hind tibiae. HT I 0.20-0.24 mm, more than 0.5 HT II. R IV 0.26-0.38 mm long

  .....atrotibialis

- All tibiae with pale section on basal half. HT I 0.08-0.12 mm long, less than 0.5 HT II. R IV 0.16-0.21 mm long .....2

2 ABD TERG 5 with more than 20 hairs between SIPH bases, the longest 60-80 m (fig. 80E) .....atlantica

- ABD TERG 5 with less than 20 hairs between SIPH bases, the longest 10-60 m long (fig. 80F) .....ponderosae

 

P. rudis = P. hartwegii

 

P. sabiniana                              Digger Pine
Cinara arizonica, ponderosae;

Essigella californica; Pineus boerneri;
Schizolachnus piniradiatae

Use key to Cinara spp. of Pinus subsect. Sabinianae under P. coulteri.

 

P. scopulorum  = P. ponderosa var. scopulorum       

 

P. serotina                                  Pond Pine
Cinara atlantica, cronartii, taedae, watsoni

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata.

 

P. sibirica                               Siberian Stone Pine
Cinara [brauni], cembrae, mongolica, [pinea], pini;

[Elatobium abietinum]; Eulachnus agilis;

Pineus cembrae, strobi

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Cembrae under P. cembra.

 

P. sosnowskyi = P. sylvestris var. hamata                             

P. strobiformis Cinara flexilis; Essigella californica, kirki

Use key to Essigella spp. on P. flexilis.

 

P. strobus                                 Eastern White Pine, Weymouth Pine
Cinara atlantica, pergandei, pinea, strobi;

Essigella californica, pini;
Eulachnus cembrae, pumilae, rileyi;
Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, floccus, harukawai,

pini, pinifoliae, strobi;
Prociphilus caryae ssp. fitchii;
Prociphilus (Stagona) crataegistrobi

For separation of the Cinara species use the key under P. contorta.

Key to Essigella spp. on Pinus strobus:-

- Cauda with a moderately to well-developed apical tubercle, usually as long as its basal width or longer. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia near its midpoint less than 30 m long. R IV+V 0.055-0.075 mm long .....pini

- Cauda with apical tubercle weakly developed (not as long as its basal width). Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia near midpoint variable but usually longer than 30 m. R IV+V 0.070-0.098 mm long .....californica

 

P. sylvestris  Scots Pine
(incl. var. hamata) Cinara [acutirostris], atlantica, brauni, [californica],

formosana, guadarramae, hyperophila, intermedia,

[longirostris], maghrebica, montanicola, nigritergi, nuda,

[oblonga (del Guercio 1909)], pilosa, pinea, pini,

piniformosana, pinihabitans, [pinimaritimae], piniphila,

pinivora, [setosa], [taeniata Koch, 1856 (nomen

dubium)], watanabei, [watsoni];

      Essigella californica;
   Eulachnus agilis, [alticola], brevipilosus, [cretacea],

mediterraneus,[nigricola], rileyi, thunbergii;

      [Pachypappa vesicalis];
Pineus boerneri, coloradensis, orientalis, pini, strobi,

sylvestris;
Prociphilus (Stagona) pini; Schizolachnus [obscurus], pineti

Key to Cinara spp. on P. sylvestris and other western palaearctic pines of subsect. Sylvestres (pinaster, mugo, nigra); also including species on P. pinea. (Cinara spp. on P. halepensis, including var. brutia, are keyed separately under that host plant.):-

1 Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerite encompassing SIPH cones; the lateral extent of the sclerite varies considerably, as does the occurrence of clear areas within it) ..2

- Dorsal abdomen with or without sclerites but these are rarely fused between segments or with SIPH cones (except some specimens of montanicola) ....3

2 Dorsal sclerite extending from mesothorax to ABD TERG 6, with a separate dark band on ABD TERG 7 .....nigritergi*

- Dorsal sclerite extending across ABD TERG 5-7 only, with a separate transverse band on ABD TERG 8 (e.g. fig. 78) .....brauni

3 HT I (measured along ventral side) 0.5 or more HT II (e.g. fig. 76A); but if almost exactly 0.5 then HT I is more than 0.16 mm long .....4

- HT I (measured along ventral side) 0.07-0.17 mm long and less than 0.5 HT II .....17

4 HT I (measured along ventral side) 0.12-0.15 mm, HT II 0.20-0.28 mm .....5

- HT I (measured along ventral side) 0.16-0.32 mm, HT II 0.30-0.53 mm .....6

5 Rostrum much shorter than body. ABD TERG 1-7 each with a pair of variably developed but usually large sclerites (often irregular in outline or fragmented) .....pinivora

- Rostrum long, extending beyond end of abdomen. ABD TERG 2-6 without large sclerites

.....intermedia

6 R IV 0.29-0.36 mm long, 0.9 or more HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 (fig. 79A) all arising from small dark circular scleroites of very uniform size (24-30 m in diameter)

.....schimitscheki

- R IV 0.15-0.32 mm long, 0.8 or less HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 not all arising from circular, uniform-sized scleroites, or scleroites much smaller ..7

 

7 Longest hairs on ABD TERG 5 are 26-42 m long, all arising from very small scleroites (diameter less than 15 m) .....8

- Longest hairs on ABD TERG 5 are 60-230 m long, arising from larger scleroites of varying sizes .....9

8 Maximum diameter of SIPH cones 0.19-0.25 mm. HT I (measured along ventral side)

0.21-0.22 mm, 3.6-4.2 its basal diameter .....gudaris

- Maximum diameter of SIPH cones 0.45-0.49 mm. HT I (measured along ventral side)

0.18-0.21 mm, 2.9-3.4 its basal diameter .....covassii

9 Longest hairs on ABD TERG 5 are 70-80 m long, the lengths of the longest hairs on the largest scleroites not or hardly exceeding the maximum diameter of those scleroites (fig. 79B). Longest hairs on ANT III 60-70 m, on hind tibia 60-90 m .....piniphila

- Longest hairs on ABD TERG 5 are 60-230 m long, those on the largest scleroites usually exceeding the diameter of the scleroites (except when the scleroites join two or more hair bases). Longest hairs on ANT III 60-210 m, on hind tibia 70-230 m .....10

10 Largest scleroites on ABD TERG 2-4 of maximum diameter 70-300 m (if only 70 m then there are several of this diameter). ANT II bearing 5-10 hairs and ANT BASE VI with 2-8 hairs .....11

- Largest scleroites on ABD TERG 2-4 of maximum diameter 25-70 m, but only rarely exceeding 60 m. ANT II bearing 7-14 hairs and ANT BASE VI bearing 6-12 hairs

.....15

11 R IV 1.2-1.5 HT I (ventral length). HT II 1.3-1.6 R IV .....12

- R IV 0.7-1.2 HT I (ventral length). HT II 1.4-2.2 R IV .....13

12 Longest hairs on ANT III 65-90 m long, on hind tibia 70-100 m long, and on ABD TERG 5 60-105 m long. R IV 2.0-2.3 R V. ANT V usually without any secondary rhinaria. HT I with 1-3 hairs on dorsal side ..carnica

- Longest hairs on ANT III 110-150 m long, on hind tibia 150-190 m long, and on ABD TERG 5 140-180 m long. R IV 2.3-2.4 R V. ANT V usually with one secondary rhinarium. HT I without any dorsal hairs ..neubergi

13 Tibiae rather uniformly dark (sometimes less so near bases). First tarsal segments without dorsal hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 50-110 hairs between SIPH cones, a minority of which are on large scleroites (fig. 80D) .....pergandei

- Tibiae usually at least with pale section on basal half. First tarsal segments with 1-7 dorsal and dorsolateral hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 25-49 hairs between SIPH cones, most of them on large scleroites (e.g fig. 80C) .....14

14 First tarsal segments with 4-7 dorsal and dorso-lateral hairs. HT I 0.23-0.32 mm long. ANT V usually without a secondary rhinarium (rarely 1 on one antenna) .....pilosa

- First tarsal segments with 1-3 dorsal hairs (fig.76B). HT I 0.18-0.26 mm long. ANT V usually with 1-2 secondary rhinaria on each antenna, rarely with 0 .....pinea

15 HT II 1.7-2.4 R IV, which is 0.15-0.21 mm long. Tibiae black .....piniformosanus

- HT II 1.1-1.6 R IV, which is 0.24-0.30 mm long. Tibiae with pale basal section .....16

16 ABD TERG 5 with 10-27 hairs between SIPH cones (more in fundatrices). Length of antennal flagellum (ANT III-VI inclusive) 0.45-0.70 BL. HT I 0.19-0.25 mm. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 90-180 m .....laricionis

- ABD TERG 5 with 30-60 hairs between SIPH cones (fig. 80B). Length of antennal flagellum 0.34-0.50 BL. HT I 0.16-0.22 mm. Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 60-130 m .....pinimaritimae

17 R IV more than 0.25 mm long, bearing 14-22 accessory hairs .....watanabei

- R IV less than 0.25 mm long, bearing 4-12 accessory hairs .....18

18 Longest hairs on ANT III 110-150 m, and on hind tibia 170-190 m. R IV with 4-6 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 40-50 hairs, the longest 140-180 m, between SIPH

cones .....pinihabitans

- Longest hairs on ANT III 25-100 m, on hind tibia 40-130 m. R IV with 4-12 accessory

hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 3-44 hairs between SIPH cones, the longest 5-140 m .....19

19 R IV bearing 4-6 accessory hairs, and less than 0.6 HT II, which is 0.27-0.41 mm

.....20

R IV bearing 6-12 hairs, and more than 0.6 HT II, which is 0.19-0.36 mm .....21

20 ANT V 1.2-1.5 ANT VI (incl. PT). Genital plate with 45-55 hairs .....hyperophila

- ANT V 1.6-2.0 ANT VI (incl. PT). Genital plate with 26-35 hairs .....setosa

21 R IV+V 0.29-0.38 mm, 1.2-1.5 HT II. ABD TERG 5 with 4-7 hairs (but up to 18 in fundatrices), 40-110 m long, between SIPH cones .....acutirostris

- R IV+V 0.20-0.34 mm, 0.9-1.2 HT II. ABD TERG 5 with 3-35 hairs between SIPH cones, but if less than 10 then they are usually shorter than 40 m .....22

22 ABD TERG 2-6 with at least some hairs arising from dark, irregular-shaped scleroites of diameter 5 or more times that of the hair bases. ABD TERG 7 as well as 8 usually with dark transverse bars of paired dark patches .....23

- ABD TERG 2-6 without irregular-shaped scleroites, although often with small circles of pigment around hair bases. ABD TERG 7 with or without large sclerites .....24

23 SIPH with more than 60 hairs, including many on basal part of cone. ABD TERG 5 with more than 25 hairs, 60-110 m long, between SIPH cones (fig. 80E) .....atlantica

- SIPH with less than 60 hairs, which are rather sparse on basal part of cone. ABD TERG 5

with 4-15 hairs, 10-60 m long, between SIPH cones (fig. 80F) .....ponderosae

24 Sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) 1.8-2.2 mm long. ANT PT with 4-7 subapical hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 5-6 hairs (up to 18 in fundatrices), which are very short and thin, the longest 13-30 m .....nuda

- Sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.0-1.7 mm long. ANT PT with only 4 subapical hairs. ABD TERG 5 with 3-17 hairs (more in fundatrices), the longest 15-130 m long .....25

25 Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.0-1.2 mm. Diameter of SIPH cone 0.12-0.40 mm. ABD TERG 5 with 12-18 long, fine hairs (more in fundatrices), the longest 60-130 m, between SIPH cones. Longest hairs on hind tibia 60-130 m. ABD TERG 7 as well as 8 usually with a pair of dark patches .....maghrebica

- Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.2-1.7 mm. Diameter of SIPH cone 0.24-0.70 mm. ABD TERG 5 with 3-11 hairs (up to 30 in fundatrices), the longest 15-100 m, between SIPH cones. Longest hairs on hind tibia 40-95 m. ABD TERG 7 usually without any large sclerites .....26

26 ABD TERG 5 with 6-11 hairs, the longest 35-100 m, between SIPH bases (fig. 80H). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.3-1.75 mm .....guadarramae

- ABD TERG 5 with 3-8 hairs (up to 30 in fundatrices), the longest 10-48 m, between SIPH cones (e.g. fig. 80G). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.2-1.5 mm .....27

27 Mesosternal tubercle strongly developed, large and rounded and usually bearing some hairs. R IV 0.155-0.197 mm long. Subgenital plate with 19-57 hairs .....montanicola

- Mesosternal tubercle smaller, less rounded and rather slender, usually without hairs. R IV 0.140-0.167 mm long. Subgenital plate with 10-37 hairs ..... pini

P. tabuliformis Chinese Pine
Cinara californica, formosana, largirostris, orientalis,

pinea, pinidensiflorae, piniformosana, [pinihabitans],

[piniphila], schimitscheki;

Eulachnus nigricola, [pinitabulaeformis];

Pineus boerneri, pini

Use key to Cinara spp. on oriental pines of subsect. Sylvestres under P.densiflora.

P. taeda                                    Loblolly Pine, Carolina Pine

Cinara [acutirostris], atlantica, cronartii, pinimaritimae,

melaina, newelli, pergandei, pinea, pinivora, taedae,

watsoni, westi;

Essigella californica, pini;

Eulachnus rileyi, thunbergii; Pineus boerneri;

Prociphilus carolinensis, piniradicivorus;

Schizolachnus parvus

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Australes under P. echinata. (To separate the two Essigella species use the key under P. strobus.)

P. taiwanensis                           Eulachnus rileyi, thunbergii

(If Cinara spp. are found try key under P. densiflora.)

 

P. tenuifolia Benth. nec Salisb. = P. maximinoi

 

P. teocote Pineus boerneri

 

P. thunbergii    Japanese Black Pine
Cinara etsuhoe, formosana, pinea, [pini], pinidensiflorae,

piniformosana, sorini;
Essigella californica; Eulachnus rileyi, thunbergii;
Pineus matsumurai, orientalis, pini, sylvestris;

[Watabura nishiyae]

Use key to Cinara spp. on oriental pines of subsect. Sylvestres under P. densiflora.

P. torreyana                           Essigella californica

P.tuberculata = P. radiata

P. uncinata see P. mugo

P. virginiana                                                     Virginia Pine

Cinara atlantica, gracilis, melaina, pergandei,

pinea, [piniformosana], pinivora, schwartzii, taedae,

watsoni;

  Essigella californica, pini; Eulachnus rileyi;

Pineus boerneri, pini; Schizolachnus flocculosus, parvus

Use key to Cinara spp. on Pinus subsect. Contortae under P. contorta.

P. wallichiana Himalayan Blue Pine
    Cinara eastopi, lachnirostris, maculipes, pinea,

pinimaritimae;
        [Epipemphigus imaicus]; Essigella californica;

Eulachnus rileyi; Pineus ghanii, pini, strobi, wallichianae;
Prociphilus himalayensis, [Prociphilus sp(p).];
Pseudessigella brachychaeta

Key to Cinara spp. on P. wallichiana:-

1 Hairs on at least ABD TERG 3-6 very short, maximally 40 m or less. SIPH cones small, with maximum diameter equal to or less than length of R IV) .....2

- Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3-6 at least 60 m. Diameter of SIPH cones usually much greater than length of R IV .....3

2 BL 3.7-4.9 mm. Legs conspicuously maculate. ANT VI (incl. PT) shorter than V

.....maculipes

- BL 2.4-2.9 mm. Legs not maculate. ANT VI (incl. PT) longer than V)  .....lachnirostris

3 Dorsal abdomen with paired dark patches or broken groups of sclerites on ABD TERG 1-8 (fig. 80A; sometimes reduced on 2-5). R IV with 8-12 accessory hairs .....eastopi

- Dorsal abdomen with scattered small sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6 (fig. 80B, C), and transverse bars on 7 and 8. R IV with 4-7 accessory hairs) .....4

4 Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 70-130 m, shorter than or about equal to width of tibia at midpoint. HT I 0.16-0.22 mm (fig. 76A) .....pinimaritimae

 

- Longest hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia 120-230 m, often 1.5 width of tibia at midpoint or longer. HT I 0.22-0.33 mm (fig. 76B) .....pinea

P. yunnanensis Cinara [acutirostris], formosana, orientalis, orientalis ssp.

  lijiangensis, pinea;

Eulachnus [alticola], tuberculostemmatus;

Pineus piniyunnanensis

Use key to Cinara spp. on oriental pines of subsect. Sylvestres under P. densiflora.

Pinus spp.

The following aphids were recorded from unidentified species of Pinus