HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Pas-Phy

 

Pasania

Pascalia

Pascopyrum

Paspalidium

Paspalum

Passiflora
Pastinaca

Patrinia

Paullinia

Paulownia

Pavetta

Pavonia

Paxistima

Pecluma

Pectis

Pedicularis

Pedilanthus

Peganum

Peiranisia

Peireskia

Peireskiopsis

Pelargonium

Pellaea

Peltandra

Peltaria

Peltophorum

Pennisetum

Penstemon

Pentacalia

Pentaglottis

Pentalinon

Pentanema

Pentaphylloides

Pentapterygium

Pentarhizidium

Pentarrhinum

Pentas

Pentaschistis

Pentzia

Peperomia

Pepo

Pereskia

Pereskiopsis

Perezia

Pergularia

Pericallis

Perideridia

Perilepta

Perilla

Periploca

Pernettya

Perotis

Perovskia

Persea

Persicaria

Persimmon

Perymenium

Petasites

Petiveria

Petrea

Petrocoptis

Petrorhagia

Petroselinum

Petrosimonia

Petteria

Petunia

Peucedanum

Phaca

Phacelia

Phacelurus

Phaeomeria

Phagnalon

Phaius

Phalacroloma

Phalaenopsis

Phalaris

Phania

Pharbitis

Phaseolus

Phaulopsis

Phedimus

Phegopteris

Phellodendron

Phenax

Philadelphus

Phillyrea

Philodendron

Philonotis

Philotria

Phlebodium

Phleum

Phlogacanthus

Phlojodicarpus

Phlomis

Phlox

Phoebe

Phoenix

Phormium

Photinia

Phragmanthera

Phragmipedium

Phragmites

Phryma

Phuopsis

Phygelius

Phyla

Phyllanthus

Phyllitis

Phyllocactus

Phyllodoce

Phyllostachys

Phyllostylon

Phymatosorus

Physalis

Physianthus

Physocarpus

Physocaulis

Physostegia

Phyteuma

Phytolacca

 

Pasania = Lithocarpus                                            Fagaceae

 

Pascalia                                                       Compositae

      Pascalia glauca                            Uroleucon sp. near macolai (Argentina; BMNH collection)

 

Pascopyrum  see Elymus                                 Poaceae

      Pascopyrum smithii = Elymus smithii

     

Paspalidium                                                Poaceae

      Paspalidium flavidum                  Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae

 

Paspalum                                                     Poaceae

      Paspalum alainii = P. caespitosum

          P. arundinaceum                         Hysteroneura setariae; Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. auriculatum = P. scrobiculatum

        P. blodgettii                                   Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. boscianum = P. scrobiculatum

        P. caespitosum                             Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. commersonii = P. scrobiculatum

        P. commutatum = P. scrobiculatum

        P. conjugatum                              Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Ceratovacuna panici;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis hypersiphonata (? – as graminum); Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, avenae, lambersi, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura basui, fusiformis

      P. dilatatum                                  Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum, hypersiphonata (? – as graminum);

                                                              Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae, graminis, miscanthi,

                                                                  [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis, yezoensis                                         

        P. distichum                                 Hysteroneura setariae; Melanaphis sacchari;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Sipha glyceriae;

                                                              Sitobion avenae

        P. fasciculatum                            Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. fimbriatum                               Hysteroneura setariae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. laxum                                       Hysteroneura setariae

        P. longifolium                              Hysteroneura setariae

        P. melanospermum                      Sipha flava

        P. notatum                                    Hysteroneura setariae

        P. orbiculare = P. scrobiculatum

        P. paniculatum                             Hysteroneura setariae; Sipha flava

        P. paspaloides = P. distichum

        P. scrobiculatum                          Aphis gossypii; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sitobion graminis, indicum;

                                                              Tetraneura basui, fusiformis

        P. secans = P. arundinaceum

        P. thunbergii                                Sitobion akebiae

        P. urvillei                                      Hysteroneura setariae

        P. vaginatum                                Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

        P. virgatum                                   Rhopalosiphum maidis

        Paspalum sp.                                Forda marginata; Myzus obtusirostris

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Passiflora                                                    Passifloraceae

      Passiflora caerulea                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      P. edulis                                        Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        P. foetida                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

        P. ligularis                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Passiflora spp.                              Aphis spiraecola; [Myzakkaia verbasci];

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pastinaca                                                     Apiaceae

      Pastinaca armena                         Aphis fabae

        P. hirsuta                                      Aphis fabae; Cavariella theobaldi

        P. pimpinellifolia                          Anuraphis subterranea; Dysaphis crataegi ssp. kunzei

        P. sativa                                         Anuraphis [catonii],  subterranea;

                                                              Aphis asclepiadis, brohmeri, decepta, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                 spiraecola;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia, bonomii, crataegi, crataegi ssp. kunzei,

                                                                  lauberti, [microsiphon];

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Semiaphis [dauci], pastinacae

        P. sylvestris                                    Anuraphis subterranea;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, angelicae, japonica, konoi,

                                                                  theobaldi;

                                                              Hyadaphis passerinii

        P. umbrosa                                   Anuraphis subterranea

Key to apterae on Pastinaca:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped or only weakly developed, not projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view                                                                                           …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward far beyond middle of head, so there is deep frontal sinus                                                                                                            …..23

2      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda                                    …..3

-       No supracaudal process                                                                                                     …..9

3      SIPH cylindrical /tapering, not clavate, or with only slight subapical or basal swelling

…..4

-       SIPH clavate, or at least somewhat swollen on distal part                                               …..6

4      ANT PT/BASE less than 2. Supracaudal process usually shorter than ANT II (Fig.10h)

 …..Cavariella japonica

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 2. Supracaudal process usually longer than ANT II              …..5

5      ANT 6-segmented                                                                              ..... Cavariella theobaldi

-       ANT 5-segmented                                                                               .....Cavariella angelicae

6      SIPH short and thick, less than 5 Χ their maximum width (Fig.10a) …..Cavariella salicicola

-       SIPH clavate (with narrow region on basal half), more than 5 Χ their maximum width (e.g. Fig.10b)                                                                                                                            …..7

7      ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 (-1.1) Χ HT II, without accessory hairs                  

                                                                                                                   …..Cavariella aegopodii

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.0. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II, with 2 accessory hairs                       …..8

8      ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0. SIPH smooth on basal part. Cauda with 6-8 hairs

                                                                                                                   .....Cavariella pastinacae

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH imbricated throughout. Cauda with 4-6 hairs

                                                                                                                           .....Cavariella konoi

9      SIPH very small, thin and flangeless, about 0.5 Χ cauda, with aperture slanted towards midline                                                                                              …..Semiaphis pastinacae

-       SIPH more than 0.75 Χ cauda, with a distinct flange                                                     …..10

10    Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Head and ABD TERG 8 or 7-8 usually with spinal tubercles (STu)                                                         …..11

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or triangular but longer than or as long as its basal width. Head without, and ABD TERG 7-8 usually without, Stu                                               ….15

11    SIPH less than 2 Χ their basal diameters, with close-set rows of  fine spinules. Cauda bearing 9-16 hairs. R IV+V 0.24-0.37 mm, 1.3-1.8 Χ SIPH                       …..Anuraphis subterranea

-       SIPH more than 2 Χ longer than their bsal diameters, with normal imbrication. Cauda bearing 4-8 hairs. R IV+V 0.13-0.19 mm, 0.5-1.0 Χ SIPH                                                          …..12

12    Longest hairs on ANT III fine-pointed, 30-63 μm, 1.2-1.7 Χ BD III    …..Dysaphis lauberti

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 6-23 μm, 0.4-1.0 Χ BD III                                                    …..13

13    SIPH 4 or more Χ longer than their basal diameters. Dorsal abdomen often with complete dark cross-bands on many or all of ABD TERG 1-8                             …..Dysaphis bonomii

-       SIPH less than 3.5 Χ longer than their basal diameters. Dorsal abdominal pigmentation never in form of complete cross-bands on ABD TERG 1-5                                                     …..14

14    Ventral hair on hind trochanter 0.24-0.56 Χ (rarely more than 0.5 Χ) width of trochantro-femoral suture (see Fig. 1). Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm long (rarely more than 30 μm). ABD TERG 7 frequently with marginal tubercles (MTu)     …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-       Ventral hair on hind trochanter 0.42-1.00 Χ (rarely less than 0.5Χ) width of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 25-80 μm long (rarely shorter than 30 μm). ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu                                 …..Dysaphis crataegi (incl. ssp. kunzei)

15    SIPH clavate. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                         …..16

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with Mtu                                             …..17

16    Prothorax with ventral sclerite 1.3-2.6 Χ wider than long, with posterior margin often convex. SIPH 1.05-1.4 Χ cauda. (Alata often with secondary rhinaria on ANT V)                

                                                                                                                     …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-       Prothorax with ventral sclerite 2.2-3.6 Χ wider than long, with straight posterior margin. SIPH 0.85-1.2 Χ cauda (Alata rarely with secondary rhinaria on ANT V)

                                                                                                                   …..Hyadaphis passerinii

17    Cauda bluntly triangular, hardly longer than its basal width. SIPH less than 0.1 Χ BL, shorter than or as short as R IV+V. ANT III and IV often with secondary rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE less than 2                                                                                          …..Protaphis middletonii

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width. SIPH 0.1-0.25 Χ BL, longer than R IV+V. No secondary rhinaria (except when alatiform). ANT PT/BASE usually more than 2                                                                                                                      …..18

18    Cauda pale or dusky, distinctly paler than SIPH, and bearing 4-8 hairs      …..Aphis gossypii

-       Cauda dark, as dark or nearly as dark as SIPH, and bearing 7-31 hairs                         …..19

19    ANT III 0.9-1.23 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, and usually no dark cross-band. Cauda usually with a distinct midlength constriction, and bearing 7-15 (mostly 8-12) hairs

                                                                                                                          …..Aphis spiraecola

-       ANT III 1.25-2.8 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with (2-)3-11 hairs, usually on or just posterior to a dark cross-band. Cauda usually without a constriction, and bearing 10-31 hairs        …..20

20    R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II.  MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 only. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2(-3) hairs. (ANT III of al. with 35-67 rather tuberculate rhinaria)

…..Aphis decepta

-       R IV+V 0.8-1.4 Χ HT II, but if more than 1.1 Χ HT II then there are at least some MTu on ABD TERG 2-4. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-14 hairs. (ANT III of al. with 7-33 rhinaria)                                                                                                                          …..21

21    HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). ANT I dark, but ANT II pale or dusky, concolorous with basal half of III. Dorsal abdomen usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH (except for dark intersegmental muscle sclerites). ANT III 1.05-1.95 Χ PT, (1.6-) 2.0-4.0 (-5.0) Χ R IV+V, and 1.5-2.9(-2.8) Χ cauda. SIPH 1.5-2.9 Χ cauda. (Al. with 14-40 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                           ..... Aphis asclepiadis

-       HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). ANT I and II both dark, contrasting with III. Dorsal abdomen usually with some dark markings anterior to SIPH (in addition to dark intersegmental muscle sclerites). ANT III 0.65-1.3 Χ PT, 1.2-2.6 (-3.0) Χ R IV+V and 1.2-1.6 (-1.9) Χ cauda. SIPH 0.7-1.6 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5(-7) hairs. (Al. with 10-23 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                         .....22

22    ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 0-3 small MTu. Cauda with 11-24 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5(-7) hairs                                                                                              …..Aphis fabae

-       ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 5-9 often rather large MTu. Cauda with 20-31 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 5-12 hairs                                                                             …..Aphis brohmeri

23    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cuticle of head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria on basal half

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Head without subapical reticulation. Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and apically convergent. ANT III without rhinaria                                          …..24

24    SIPH slightly clavate.  ANT PT/BASE (2.8-)3.1-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark inter-segmental markings                                                                                      .....Myzus persicae

-       SIPH tapering with a slight “S”-curve.  ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings                                                      …..Myzus ornatus

        

Patrinia                                                       Caprifoliaceae

      Patrinia intermedia                       Aphis patrinicola, patriniphila, patvaliphaga, spiraephaga

      P. rupestris                                    Aphis patriniae, patriniphila

      P. scabiosifolia                              Aphis patriniae, patrinicola, patvaliphaga, spiraecola;

                                                              [Uroleucon amamianum]

        P. sibirica                                      Aphis patvaliphaga

        P. villosa                                        Aphis patriniae

Key to apterae on Patrinia:-

1      Marginal tubercles (MTu) only constantly present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7. R IV+V 0.6-1.24 Χ HT II                                                                                                     …..2

-       Large dome-like MTu present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5), as well as on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7. R IV+V 1.38-1.68 Χ HT II                                                                      …..5

2      SIPH and cauda mainly pale. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II. Cauda with 3-6 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III                                                             …..Aphis patvaliphaga*

-       SIPH and cauda dark. R IV+V 0.7-1.24 Χ HT II. Cauda with 7-17 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.7 Χ BD III                                                                                                  .....3

3      R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. Hind femora mainly dark. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed sclerotic dark markings                                                        …..Aphis spiraephaga

-       R IV+V 0.95-1.24 Χ HT II. Hind femora mainly pale. Dorsal abdomen never with dark sclerotic markings                                                                                                              …..4

4      R IV+V 0.95-1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH usually shorter than (0.66-1.02 Χ) cauda

                                                                                                                      …..Aphis patriniphila*

-       R IV+V 1.01-1.24 Χ HT II. SIPH usually longer than (0.86-1.71 Χ) cauda

                                                                                                                           .....Aphis spiraecola

5      Longest hairs on ANT III 12-18 μm long, 0.7-1.0 Χ BD III. Femoral hairs long and fine, up to c. 50 μm long, 2.5-3 Χ BD III and longer than basal diameter of hind femur. Cauda with 6-10 hairs                                                                                                     …..Aphis patriniae

-       Longest hairs on ANT III and on femora 6-8 μm long, 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III and much shorter than basal diameter of hind femur.  Cauda with 4-6 hairs                     …..Aphis patrinicola*

 

Paullinia                                                      Sapindaceae

      Paullinia pinnata                          Aphis spiraecola

        Paullinia sp.                                  Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Paulownia                                                              Scrophulariaceae

     Paulownia coreana                        Aulacorthum solani

     P. imperialis                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

     P. tomentosa                                   Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

     Paulownia spp.                              Aphis craccivora; [Cervaphis echinata]

 

Use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Pavetta                                                         Rubiaceae

      Pavetta sp.                                     Sitobion africanum

     

Pavonia                                                       Malvaceae

      Pavonia candida                           Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani

      P. fruticosa                                    Aphis craccivora

        P. grandiflora                               Myzus persicae

        P. hastata                                      Myzus persicae

        P. multiflora                                  Myzus persicae

        P. paludicola                                 Macrosiphum cuscutae

        P. spicata = P. paludicola

Key to apterae on Pavonia:-

-      Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with 1-2 (-4) rhinaria. ANT III-VI, tibiae and SIPH wholly dark, contrasting with pale cauda.  SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.11-0.16 of length                       …..Macrosiphum cuscutae

-      Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 

 

Paxistima                                                     Celastraceae

      Paxistima myrsinites                    Macrosiphum opportunisticum;

                                                              Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

Couplet to separate these two species:-

-       SIPH cylindrical or only very slightly swollen on distal half, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. R IV+V 0.88-0.97 ΧHT II             …..Macrosiphum opportunisticum

-       SIPH with distinct swelling of distal half, and without a zone of polygonal reticulation. R IV+V 1.33-1.51 ΧHT II                                                 …..Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

 

Pecluma                                                       Polypodiaceae

      Pecluma pectinata                        Idiopterus nephrelepidis

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

                                                           

Pectis                                                           Compositae

      Pectis elongata var. floribunda        Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Pedicularis                                                  Orobanchaceae

      Pedicularis achilleifolia                Brachycaudus cerasicola

      P.  brachyodonta                          Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi

      P. bracteosa                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia alpina

      P. canadensis                                Aulacorthum solani; Ericaphis wakibae

        P. densiflora                                  ?Myzus sp. (California; BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille

                                                                  Ris Lambers)

        P. dolichorrhiza                            Brachycaudus cerasicola

        P. elongata                                    Myzus cymbalariae

      P. gracilis                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Dysaphis microsiphon

        P. grandiflora                               Aphis gossypii

        P. groenlandica                            Macrosiphum valerianae; [Nearctaphis bakeri]

        P. hirsuta                                      Sitobion calvulum

        P. lasiostachys                               Brachycaudus cerasicola

        P. macrochila                               Brachycaudus cerasicola

        P. oederi                                        Brachycaudus cerasicola

        P. olgae                                         Brachycaudus cerasicola; Dysaphis emicis; Myzus persicae

        P. palustris                                    Aphis nasturtii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Ericaphis wakibae

      P. pycnantha                                 Brachycaudus cerasicola

      P. racemosa                                  Nasonovia alpina

        P. resupinata                                 Aphis fabae,  frangulae, gossypii, pediculariphaga,

                                                                  septentrionalis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani ;

                                                              Myzus padellus (as Cyrtomyzus pedicularis)

        P. sceptrum-carolinum                 Myzus cerasi

        P. sudetica                                     Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Macrosiphum chukotense];

                                                              Metopolophium pedicularis

        P. verticillata                                 Hyperomyzus rhinanthi; Myzus padellus

        P. violascens                                 Brachycaudus cerasicola

        Pedicularis spp.                            Aphis asclepiadis; Hyperomyzus luteus, zirnitsi;

                                                              [Illinoia sp. (Washington, USA; aphidtrek.org)];                                                       Macrosiphum constrictum; Nearctaphis yohoensis

Key to apterae on Pedicularis:-

1      Cauda short and broad, bluntly triangular or helmet-shaped, shorter than or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                    …..2

-       Cauda tongue-shaped and longer than its basal width or, if short and triangular, then tapering to apex and often with a slight midlength constriction                                       …..8

2      Dorsal cuticle of head densely spiculose. SIPH pale with rows of spicules

                                                                                                                 …..Nearctaphis yohoensis

-       Dorsal cuticle of head without spicules. SIPH pale or dark, smooth or with normal imbrication                                                                                                                         …..3

3      SIPH smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. Spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) not usually present                                   …..4

-       SIPH imbricated, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures small and reniform. Some STu and/or MTu always present                                                              …..5

4      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.33 Χ BD III

                                                                                                             …..Brachycaudus cerasicola

-       Dorsum pale. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.7 Χ BD III          …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

5      Head with a pair of large STu. Well-developed MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5, or 1-7

…..6

-       Head without STu. MTu present on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7, or 1 and 7                          …..7

6      STu present on head only. SIPH less than 1.3 Χ cauda, and less than half width of cauda at base                                                                                                  …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-       STu on all or most segments. SIPH more than 1.5 Χ cauda, and more than half as thick as cauda at base                                                                                             …..Dysaphis emicis

7      Longest hairs on ANT III 2.2-2.3 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 5-7 hairs, Cauda with 7-11 hairs. MTu present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) as well as 1 and 7

        …..Aphis pediculariphaga*

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.0 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 2-3 hairs, Cauda with 4-8 hairs. MTu usually only present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                …..Aphis septentrionalis*

8      Head spiculose, with scabrous, rounded ANT tubercles                                                  …..9

-       Head smooth or with a few spicules ventrally. ANT tubercles either weakly developed or smooth and divergent                                                                                                      …..12

9      ANT longer than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.1. R IV with 8-12 accessory hairs. Tergum with variable dusky/dark sclerotisation                                                 …..Ericaphis wakibae

-       ANT 0.6-0.95 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.2 (-3.5).  R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs. Tergum either pale or with an extensive dark sclerotic patch                                         …..10

10    SIPH pale, 8-11 Χ longer than their diameter at midlength, 0.65-0.85 Χ ANT III, normally imbricated, and slightly swollen on distal half. ANT 0.8-0.95 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 2.7-3.5. (Imm. with smooth hind tibiae)                              .....Myzus sp. on P. densiflorus, California

-       SIPH dusky or dark, 3-9 Χ longer than their midlength diameters, 1-2 Χ ANT III, coarsely imbricated, and not at all swollen distally. ANT 0.6-0.8 Χ BL with PT/BASE 1.8-3.3. (Imm. with outer apices of hind tibiae spinulose)                                                                       .....11

11    Tergum pale.  SIPH slightly swollen on basal part, 2.2-2.7 Χ cauda, and less than 5 Χ longer than their width at midlength                                                                     …..Myzus padellus

-       Tergum with an extensive dark sclerotic patch. SIPH cylindrical, 2.7-3.3 Χ cauda, more than 6 Χ longer than their width at midlength                                                           …..Myzus cerasi

12    ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 30

-       ANT III usually with 1 or more rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                …..13

13    SIPH smooth and markedly inflated over distal c.0.75, with maximum width of swollen

        part 1.6 or more Χ minimum width of basal part                                                             …..14

-       SIPH imbricated and tapering/ cylindrical                                                                      …..16

14    Dorsal abdomen with a large black central patch                          …..Hyperomyzus rhinanthi

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black patch                                                                           …..15

15    Maximum diameter of swollen part of SIPH less than R IV+V or ANT VI BASE

                                                                                                                   …..Hyperomyzus zirnitsi

-       Maximum diameter of swollen part of SIPH greater than R IV+V or ANT VI BASE

                                                                                                                  …..Hyperomyzus luteus*

16    ANT BASE VI 0.20-0.22 mm long. Distal 0.06 of SIPH with a band of polygonal reticulation                                                                               …..Macrosiphum constrictum*

-       ANT BASE VI 0.11-0.19 mm. SIPH either without polygonal reticulation, or with polygonal reticulation extending over at least distal 0.12 of length                               …..17

17    SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.12-0.29 of length                                     …..18

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..19

18    SIPH pale, or only gradually darker towards apices. No presiphuncular sclerites

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base. Small presiphuncular sclerites usually present

…..Macrosiphum valerianae

19    R IV+V 1.6-2.1 Χ HT II, with 12-18 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.5 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 5.8-6.8                                                              …..Nasonovia alpina

-       R IV+V 0.67-1.10 Χ HT II, with 4-9 accessory hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-3.9                                                                                      …..20

20    ANT III with 0-1 rhinaria near base. ANT and dorsal hairs with pointed apices. R IV+V 0.10-0.11 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.9                                            …..Sitobion calvulum

-       ANT III with 5-15 rhinaria extending onto distal half of segment. ANT and dorsal hairs with blunt apices. R IV+V 0.67-0.8 Χ HT II.  ANT PT/BASE 3.5-3.8                                                                                                                                     …..Metopolophium pedicularis

 

Pedilanthus see Euphorbia                                   Euphorbiaceae

      Pedilanthus tithymaloides = Euphorbia tithymaloides

 

Peganum                                                     Zygophyllaceae

      Peganum harmala                     Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [pisum];

                                                            Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [umbrella];

                                                            Brachyunguis [flavidus], harmalae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Peganum:-

1.    SIPH pale, very long and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, 0.33-0.45 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                           …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter                                                                …..2

2.   ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH pale or dark, longer than cauda

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH pale, much shorter than cauda …..Brachyunguis harmalae

 

Peiranisia                                                    Leguminosae

     Peiranisia benitoensis = Senna benitoensis

     

Peireskia see Pereskia                                                        Cactaceae

 

Peireskiopsis see Pereskiopsis                               Cactaceae

 

Pelargonium                                                Geraniaceae

        Pelargonium crithmifolium         Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. denticulatum                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi

        P. Χ domesticum                           Acyrthosiphon malvae

      P. grandiflorum                            Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aulacorthum solani

        P. graveolens                                Acyrthosiphon malvae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. hederaefolium                          Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        P. hortorum                                  Aphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. inquinans                                 [Cryptomyzus ribis]

      P. odoratissimum                          Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae

        P. peltatum                                    Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

        P. quercifolium                             Acyrthosiphon malvae

        P. radula                                       Acyrthosiphon malvae

        P. violareum                                 Acyrthosiphon malvae

        P. zonale                                       Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        Pelargonium spp.                         Aphis aurantii, [extranea Walker (nomen dubium)],

                                                                   spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, [targionii del Guercio (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Pentalonia nigronervosa]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pellaea                                                         Adiantaceae

      Pellaea calomelanos                     Micromyzella sleonensis

        P. glabella (?)                                Macrosiphum adianti, walkeri; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. hastata = P. viridis

        P. ovata                                         Shinjia orientalis

        P. viridis                                        Idiopterus nephrelepidis

        Pellaea sp.                                     Macrosiphum woodsiae

Use key to apterae of fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Peltandra                                                     Araceae

      Peltandra virginica                       Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Peltaria                                                        Brassicaceae

      Peltaria alliacea                            Brevicoryne brassicae

        P. turkmena                                  Brevicoryne brassicae    

 

Peltophorum                                                          Leguminosae

      Peltophorum africanum               Myzus persicae

      P. ferrugineum = P. pterocarpum

      P. pterocarpum                             Aphis gossypii; Tinocallis himalayensis

 

-       SIPH in form of short, truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed
                                                                                    .....Tinocallis himalayensis

-       SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire    .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

       

 

Pennisetum                                                  Poaceae

      Pennisetum alopecuroides           Brachysiphoniella montana;

                                                              [Melanaphis sp. (Japan - Moritsu 1983)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis aurea; Tetraneura fusiformis, yezoensis

        P. cenchroides = Cenchrus ciliaris

        P. ciliare = Cenchrus ciliaris         

      P. clandestinum                            Hysteroneura setariae; Kugegania ageni;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Schizaphis rotundiventris;

                                                              Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion pauliani, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis, yezoensis

        P. flaccidum                                  Sitobion avenae, miscanthi

        P. giganticum (?)                          Rhopalosiphum maidis

        P. glaucum                                   Anoecia corni, cornicola, fulviabdominalis, vagans;

                                                              Aphis gossypii; [Dysaphis microsiphon];

                                                              Forda hirsuta, orientalis; Geoica utricularia;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Melanaphis sacchari;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, leelamaniae, miscanthi, pauliani;

                                                              [Slavum lentiscoides];

                                                              Tetraneura africana, basui, fusiformis,

                                                                  radicicola/yezoensis

        P. japonicum = P. alopecuroides

        P. macrourum                              Rhopalosiphum maidis

        P. mezianum                                 Rhopalosiphum maidis

        P. orientale                                    Sipha flava; Sitobion avenae

        P. pedicillare (?)                            Rhopalosiphum padi

        P. pedicellatum                             Aphis gossypii

        P. polystachion (incl. ssp.                     Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                   atrichum)              Sitobion africanum, indicum, pauliani

        P. pseudotrichoides                       Sitobion africanum

        P. purpureum                               Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Melanaphis sacchari; Pseudaphis sijui;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion bamendae, leelamaniae, papillatum, pauliani,

                                                                  yakini, [Sitobion spp.(Essig 1958, van Harten 1972a)]

                                                  Tetraneura fusiformis

        P. setaceum                                   Pseudaphis arabica; Sitobion africanum, fragariae

        P. setosum = P. polystachyon

        P. trachyphyllum                          Hysteroneura setariae; Pseudaphis sijui; Sitobion yakini

        P. typhoides = P. glaucum                Forda orientalis; Melanaphis sacchari;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sitobion leelamaniae, miscanthi

        P. typhoideum = P. glaucum           

        Pennisetum sp.                             Tetraneura kalimpongensis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Penstemon                                                   Plantaginaceae

      Penstemon cordifolius = Keckiella cordifolia

        P. diffusus                                     [Aphis ramona]

        P. fruticosus (incl. var. scouleri)          Aphis sierra

        P. glaber                                        Aphis asclepiadis

        P. gloxinioides                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        P. laevigatus                                  Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        P. newberryi                                  Aphis sierra

        P. speciosus                                   Aphis pentstemonicola

        P. spectabilis                                 Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        P. vireus                                        Aphis pentstemonicola

        Penstemon spp.                            [Aphis solitaria]; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Hyadaphis foeniculi]; [Macrosiphum valerianae];

                                                              [Nasonovia alpina]; [Nearctaphis bakeri];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

Key to apterae on Penstemon:-

1      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well developed marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda bluntly triangular, shorter than or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-6 hairs. Often with large dark postsiphuncular sclerites and dark cross bands on ABD TERG 6, 7 and 8 (broadest on 6)                                                            …..2

-       Without that combination of characters; i.e., if ANT tubercles are weakly developed and ABD TERG 1 and 7 have well-developed MTu then cauda is either tongue-shaped and clearly longer than its basal width, or bears more than 10 hairs

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      ANT III-V usually with numerous secondary rhinaria. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 20-43, IV 12-20, V 5-9)                                 …..Aphis pentstemonicola

-       ANT usually without secondary rhinaria. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-18, IV 0-2, V 0)                                                                                              …..Aphis sierra

 

Pentacalia                                                   Compositae

     Pentacalia amplexicaulis               Illinoia davidsoni

 

Pentaglottis                                                 Boraginaceae

     Pentaglottis sempervirens               Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helchrysi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

      Pentaglottis sp.                               [Ovatomyzus chamaedrys]

Use key to apterae on Anchusa.

 

Pentalinon  (including Urechtites)                               Apocynaceae

      Pentalinon luteum                        Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pentanema  (including Vicoa)                                    Compositae

      Pentanema leptoclada = P. indicum

        P. indicum                                    Aphis gossypii

 

Pentaphylloides  see Potentilla                                   Rosaceae

      P. Χfriedrichsenii                          Myzaphis rosarum

        P. fruticosa = Potentilla fruticosa

        P. parvifolia see Potentilla parvifolia                                        

 

Pentapterygium see Agapetes                                      Ericaceae

      Pentapterygium serpens = Agapetes serpens

 

 

Pentarhizidium                                                                 Woodsiaceae

      Pentarhizidium intermedium = Matteuccia intermedia

 

Pentarrhinum                                              Apocynaceae

      Pentarrhinum insipidum              Aphis nerii

 

Pentas                                                          Rubiaceae

      Pentas lanceolata                          Aphis gossypii

        Pentas sp.                                      Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pentaschistis                                               Poaceae

      Pentaschistis minor = P. pictigluma var. minor

        P. pictigluma var. minor              [Pterasthenia shiraensis]

 

Pentzia                                                         Compositae

     Pentzia incana                                Coloradoa rufomaculata

      P. pilulifera = Oncosiphon piluliferum

Key to apterae on Pentzia:-

-     Dorsal hairs spatulate or club-shaped (widening from base to rounded apex). R IV+V with a pointed apex and concave lateral margins. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.0                                …..Coloradoa rufomaculata

-     Dorsal hairs with pointed, blunt or slightly expanded apices. R IV+V with straight or convex lateral margins, and other characters not in that combination

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Peperomia                                                   Piperaceae

      Peperomia pellucida                     Aphis gossypii

      P. tenella                                       Aphis gossypii

        Peperomia sp.                               Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pepo  see Curcubita                                                              Cucurbitaceae

 

Pereskia                                                       Cactaceae

     Pereskia aculeata                           Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, nerii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Pereskiopsis                                                 Cactaceae

      Pereskiopsis diguetii                     Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        P. spathulata = P. diguetii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Perezia                                                         Compositae

      Perezia multiflora                         Aphis fabae

 

Pergularia (including Daemia)                                   Apocynaceae

      Pergularia daemia                        Aphis asclepiadis, aurantii, gossypii, nerii

        P. extensa = P. daemia

        P. tomentosa = Daemia tomentosa

Use key to apterae on Asclepias.

 

Pericallis                                                     Compositae

     Pericallis cruenta see Cineraria cruenta

      P. Χ hybrida see Cineraria cruenta

      P. lanata                                                       Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

Perideridia                                                  Apiaceae

     Perideridia parishii                         Hyadaphis foeniculi

 

Perilepta  see Strobilanthes                                             Acanthaceae

 

Perilla                                                          Lamiaceae

      Perilla frutescens (incl.vars             Aphis egomae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                   argua, crispa, japonica)           Aulacorthum perillae, [siniperillae];

                                                              Macrosiphum perillae; Micromyzodium nipponicum

        P. nankinensis = P. frutescens var. crispa

        P. ocymoides = P. frutescens

        P. sikokiana (=P. frutescens?)           Aulacorthum perillae       

        Perilla spp.                                    [Myzus siegesbeckicola];

                                                              Sitobion aulacorthoides, plectranthi

Key to apterae on Perilla:-

1      ANT tubercles weakly developed, ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu  .....2

-       ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu         …..4

2      SIPH pale or only dark at apices                                                                  …..Aphis nasturtii

-       SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                            …..3

3      ANT 5-segmented                                                                                       .....Aphis egomae*

-       ANT 6-segmented (except in hot-weather dwarfs)                                     …..Aphis gossypii

4      SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells). Head smooth, or with minute spinules only on ventral surface. Abdomen with or without dark markings, but these not forming an extensive dorsal sclerotic shield                               …..5

-       SIPH without a distinct subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head usually spiculose both dorsally and ventrally. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dusky/dark sclerotic shield   …..7

5      Abdomen with continuous broad dark marginal stripes, united by a dark band across ABD TERG 6                                                                                            …..Macrosiphum perillae

-       Abdomen without extensive dark markings                                                                     …..6

6      ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria on basal half , ANT IV with 0. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-6.4

                                                                                                               …..Sitobion aulacorthoides

-       ANT III with 4-15 rhinaria distributed over whole length, and ANT IV with 0-4. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-5.5                                                                                 …..Sitobion plectranthi

7      ANT shorter than BL. ANT III without rhinaria                  …..Micromyzodium nipponicum

-       ANT longer than BL. ANT III with rhinaria                                    …..Aulacorthum perillae

 

Periploca                                                     Apocynaceae

      Periploca glabra (?)                      [Aphis sp. (Bozhko 1976a: 72)]

        P. graeca                                       Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii; Myzus persicae

        P. laevigata (incl. ssp.                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

                            angustifolia)

        P. linearifolia                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        P. sepium                                      [Aphis periplocophila]

Use key to polyphagous aphids, but note that there are Aphis spp. on Periploca, recorded from Ukraine and China, that could not be included in a key on the basis of available information (Aphis periplocophila would probably key to Aphis gossypii).

 

Pernettya  see Gaultheria                                                 Ericaceae

      Pernettya mucronata = Gaultheria mucronata var. microphylla

 

Perotis                                                         Poaceae

      Perotis vaginata                            Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion graminis, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

 

Perovskia                                                     Lamiaceae

     P. abrotanoides                               Brachycaudus cerasicola

      P. atriplicifolia                                Aphis solanella

     P. scrophulariifolia                         Aphis craccivora

Key to apterae on Perovskia:-

-       Cauda semicircular to helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH shorter than R IV+V. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black sclerotic shield                                                                                                        …..Brachycaudus cerasicola

-       Cauda not helmet-shaped, spiracular apertures reniform and other characters not in that combination                                                                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Persea                                                                                       Lauraceae

        Persea americana                         Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Sinomegoura citricola

        P. bombycina = Machilus gamblei

        P. bournei = Phoebe bournei

        P. breviflora = Machilus parabreviflora

        P. chekiangensis = Machilus chekiangensis

        P. chinensis = Machilus chiensis

        P. gamblei = Machilus gamblei

        P. longipaniculata = Machilus zuihoensis

        P. odoratissima                             Aiceona manipurensis, pseudosugii;

                                                              Machilaphis machili; Schizoneuraphis himalayensis

        P. oreophila = Machilus oreophila

        P. thunbergii = Machilus thunbergii

        P. villosa = Machilus glaucescens

        P. wangchiana                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        P. yunnanensis = Machilus yunnanensis

        P. zuihoensis                                 Sinomegoura citricola

        Persea sp.                                      Aiceona osugii (?)

 

See combined key to aphids on Machilus and Persea spp. under Machilus.

 

Persicaria                                                    Polygonaceae

      Persicaria acuminata                   [Anoecia cornicola]

      P. alpina                                        Brachycaudus brevirostratus;

                                                              Capitophorus essigi, hippophaes;

                                                              Macchiatella rhamni (incl ssp. turani?)

       P. amphibia                                  Aphis fabae, middeltonii, nasturtii, solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Capitophorus hippophaes;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

       P. amplexicaulis                           Aphis odinae; Tricaudatus polygoni

       P. attenuata                                   Capitophorus hippophaes

       P. bistorta                                      Acyrthosiphon bistorti;

                                                              Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis (?), solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus amygdalinus;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes

       P. blumei = Polygonum longisetum

       P. capitata                                     Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              Myzus brevisiphon, formosanus; Sitobion miscanthi

       P. chinensis                                   Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              [Greenidea bucktonis]; [Myzakkaia verbasci];

                                                              Myzus formosanus, ornatus; Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              Tricaudatus polygoni; Trichosiphonaphis polygoni

       P. dubia                                         Capitophorus hippophaes

       P. glabra                                       Akkaia bengalensis;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes, hippophaes ssp. javanicus,

                                                                  mitegoni;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       P. hydropiper                                [Anoecia cornicola];

                                                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                             Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Capitophorus [elaeagni], hippophaes, hippophaes ssp.

                                                                  javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, ribis]; Kaltenbachiella nirecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii; Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                             Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni, polygonifoliae,

                                                                  polygoniformosana

       P. hydropiperoides                        Protaphis middletonii

        P. lapathifolia  (incl.                       Aphis fabae, nasturtii, [sambuci], spiraecola;

                          nodosa, pallida)              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes, hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, ribis]; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

        P. longiseta                                   Capitophorus [elaeagni], hippophaes ssp. javanicus,

                                                                  mitegoni;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni, polygonifoliae

        P. maculosa                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii, polygonata;

                                                              Aspidaphis adjuvans; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus amygdalinus, rumexicolens;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes, hippophaes sspp. dubius,

                                                                 javanicus;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus ribis]; [Hyperomyzus nigricornis];

                                                              Macchjiatella rhamni ssp. tarani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, [certus], persicae;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

        P. minor                                        Aphis nasturtii; Capitophorus hippophaes, mitegoni

        P. mollis = Polygonum molle

        P. nepalensis                                 Akkaia bengalensis, polygoni;

                                                              Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola, [verbasci];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;  Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              Epipemphigus imaicus; [Melanaphis arundinariae];

                                                              Myzakkia polygonicola, verbasci;

                                                              Myzus brevisiphon, ornatus, persicae;                                

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygoni; [Vesiculaphis polygonii]

        P. orientalis                                              Akkaia neopolygoni; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              Kaltenbachiella nirecola; Pemphigus sp.

        P. pensylvanica                             Capitophorus hippophaes; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

        P. perfoliata                                  Akkaia bengalensis; Aphis nasturtii; [Aulacorthum sp.];

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus, mitegoni;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis gerberae, polygoni, polygoniformosana

        P. pulchra                                     Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes; Myzus ornatus

        P. sagittata                                    Trichosiphonaphis polygoni, polygoniformosana

        P. senegalensis (incl. var.                Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus hippophaes, mitegoni

                             albotometosum)

        P. senticosa = Polygonum senticosum

        P. serrulata                                   Akkaia neopolygoni; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus;

                                                              [Matsumuraja capitophoroides]; Myzakkaia verbasci;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Tricaudatus polygoni;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis gerberae, polygoni, polygoniformosana

        P. tinctoria                                    Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus

        P. vivipara                                     Acyrthosiphon bistorti, [malvae], [sp. aff. knechteli];

                                                              Brachycaudus acaudatus;

                                                              Macchiatiella rhamni ssp. tarani;

                                                              [Macrosiphum chukotense]; Tricaudatus polygoni

        P. wallichii                                    Dysaphis microsiphon; Tricaudatus polygoni

        Persicaria sp.                                [Aphis rumicis]

Use key to apterae on Polygonum, in which all Persicaria-feeding aphids have been  included.

 

Persimmon see Diospyros                                                    Ebenaceae

 

Perymenium                                                                        Compositae

     Perymenium sp.                      Uroleucon astronomus, mexicanum

Key to apterae on Perymenium:-

(Both species have dark SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation.)

-    Coxae pale like trochanters. Tibiae dark basally and apically with middle parts contrastingly pale                                                                                                    .....Uroleucon astronomus

-    Coxae dusky and at least partly darker than trochanters. Tibiae uniformaly pigmented

.....Uroleucon mexicanum*

 

 

Petasites                                                      Compositae

      Petasites albus                               Anuraphis farfarae; Aphis nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Capitophorus [elaeagni], similis; Dysaphis lappae;

                                                              Uroleucon tussilaginis

        P. amplus = P. japonicus ssp. giganteus

        P. fragrans                                    Aulacorthum solani; Capitophorus similis;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae  

        P. frigidus (incl. var. palmatus)          Aphis torquens; Aulacorthum solani; Cedoaphis maxsoni;

                                                              Macrosiphum chukotense

        P. georgicus = P. hybridus                   

        P. hybridus                                    Anuraphis farfarae; Aphis torquens;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus similis; Uroleucon tussilaginis

        P. japonicus (incl. ssp.                     Aphis fukii, gossypii, odinae; Capitophorus similis;

                                 giganteus)                     Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphoniella grandicauda;

                                                              [Macrosiphum petasitis Matusumura (nomen dubium)];

                                                              Myzus persicae, [varians]

        P. kablikianus                               Aphis torquens; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Uroleucon tussilaginis 

        P. niveus = P. paradoxus

        P. officinalis = P. hybridus              

        P. palmatus = P. frigidus var. palmatus

        P. paradoxus                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus similis

        P. spurius                                      Anuraphis farfarae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus similis; Chomaphis mira

        P. tatewakianus                            Aphis fukii, torquens

        P. tomentosus                               Chomaphis mira

        P. tricholobus                                Aphis fukii; Aulacorthum cirsicola;

                                                              Capitophorus takahashii; Myzus persicae

        P. vulgaris                                     Brachycaudus helichrysi

        Petasites spp.                                Aulacorthum kerriae; Myzus ascalonicus

Key to apterae on Petasites:-

1      Dorsal hairs long and thick with knobbed apices                                                              …..2

-       Dorsal hairs not thick, if long then with fine apices                                                          …..3

2      ANT III with 1-4 (-5) thick capitate hairs, c. 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III         …..Capitophorus similis

-       ANT III with c. 6 thick capitate hairs, longer than BD III        …..Capitophorus takahashii*

3      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed                                                           …..4

-       ANT tubercles well developed, so that there is a deep frontal sinus                              …..14

4      Cauda semicircular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view           …..5

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-like, longer than its basal width in dorsal view                       …..10

5      Prothorax with a pair of very large marginal tubercles (MTu), up to twice the diameter of the compound eye, and ABD TERG 1-5 also with very large MTu. SIPH long and flangeless, more than 7 Χ cauda, and bearing some small pointed hairs                    …..Chomaphis mira

-       Prothorax if with MTu then these are smaller than compound eyes. ABD TERG 1-5 with or without MTu. SIPH less than 5 Χ cauda, and without hairs                                             …..6

6      Cuticle of head densely spinulose. ANT III with 12-30 secondary rhinaria distributed over most of length, and ANT IV with 0-16                                               …..Cedoaphis maxsoni

-       Cuticle of head without spinules. ANT III and IV without rhinaria, or if with rhinaria on ANT III then they are restricted to basal half                                                                   …..7

7      Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head, prothorax and some of ABD TERG 1-8.

        Well-developed MTu present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5                                    …..8

-       STu and MTu absent, or rarely present on 1-2 segments                                                  …..9

8      ANT III with 6-19 rhinaria clustered near base. ABD TERG 8 without STu. SIPH with very close-set rows of fine spinules. SIPH 2.0-2.4 Χ cauda, which bears c.15 hairs

                                                                                                                      …..Anuraphis farfarae

-       ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 7 and 8 both usually with STu. SIPH with normal inbrication. SIPH 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda, which bears 5-7 hairs                        …..Dysaphis lappae

9      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                  ......Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

10    SIPH much shorter than (0.4-0.6 Χ) cauda                                                      .....Aphis odinae

-       SIPH at least 0.8 Χ cauda, and usually much longer                                                        .....11

11    Cauda pale or dusky. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.8 Χ BD III                                 …..12

-       Cauda dark. Hairs on ANT III long and fine, the longest 1.6-2.7 Χ BD III                  …..13

12   SIPH uniformly dark. Hairs on hind femur all shorter than diameter of femur at its base

                                                                                                                               .....Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH usually rather pale, darker at apex. Hairs on hind femur mainly longer, some of them about as long as, or longer than, diameter of femur at its base                      .....Aphis nasturtii

13   SIPH 0.8-1.4 Χ cauda, which bears 16-21 hairs. Well-developed conical or hemispherical MTu present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) as well as 1 and 7. (Al. with 7-20 sec. rhinaria on ANT III, 0-4 on IV, 0 on V)                                                                                …..Aphis torquens

-      SIPH 1.7-2.1 Χ cauda, which bears 10-16 hairs. MTu only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. (Al. with 20-32 sec. rhinaria on ANT III, 5-11 on IV and 0-7 on V)

…..Aphis fukii

14   Cuticle of head smooth. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.08-0.60 of length

…..15

-      Cuticle of head spiculose, at least ventrally. SIPH without polygonal reticulation         …..17

15    SIPH 1.5-1.8 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.5-0.6 of length. R IV+V acutely pointed, 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II, and bearing very long accessory hairs, much longer than the 3 subapical pairs                                                                                    …..Macrosiphoniella grandicauda

-       SIPH 1.5-2.6 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.08-0.15 of length. R IV+V 0.8-1.5 Χ HT II,  with accessory hairs of normal length                                                                       …..16

16    SIPH dark at both base and apex, paler in middle, 2.1-2.6 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen with crescent-shaped presiphuncular and large postsiphuncular dark sclerites                                                                                                         …..Uroleucon tussilaginis

-       SIPH pale, or pale at base and gradally darkening distally, 1.5-2.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 Χ HT II.  Pre- and postsiphuncular sclerites absent                    …..Macrosiphum chukotense

(or possibly Macrosiphum euphorbiae? - see text)

17    Dorsum mainly dark and sclerotic, leaving only a large pale central abdominal region and small pale areas anterior to bases of SIPH. Cauda dark                     …..Aulacorthum kerriae

-       Dorsum pale or with less extensive dark markings. Cauda pale                                     …..18

18    ANT 1.6-1.7 Χ BL, which is 2.7-4.1 mm. Hind tibiae very long, 0.9-1.5 Χ BL. ANT III with 3-12 rhinaria in a row on basal half                                                  …..Aulacorthum cirsicola

-       ANT 0.5-1.5 Χ BL, which is 1.0-3.0 mm. Hind tibia 0.4-0.8 Χ BL. ANT III without rhinaria or with 1-3 rhinaria near base        ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

 

Petiveria                                                      Phytolaccaceae

      Petiveria alliacea                           Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; [Microparsus olivei]

 

Petrea                                                          Verbenaceae

      Petrea volubilis                             Aphis aurantii, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Petrocoptis                                                  Caryophyllaceae

      Petrocoptis pyrenaica = Silene glaucifolia

 

Petrorhagia                                                 Caryophyllaceae

      Petrorhagia saxifraga                   Aphis ?craccivora, sambuci; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to apterae on Silene.

 

Petroselinum                                               Apiaceae

      Petroselinum crispum                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, pastinacae,

                                                                  salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia, apiifolia ssp. petroselini, [tulipae];

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei; Uroleucon compositae

        P. hortense = P. crispum                 

        P. sativum = P. crispum

        Petroselinum sp.                           Semiaphis sp. (Turkey; BMNH collection, leg. N. Tuatay)

Key to apterae on Petroselinum:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backward-pointing process above the cauda

…..Cavariella, 5 spp.; use couplets 2-14 of key to apterae on Angelica

-       No supracaudal process                                                                                                     …..2

2      SIPH very short, dark, slightly swollen and flangeless; 0.33-0.53 Χ cauda, shorter than R IV+V                                                                                                                                 …..3

-       SIPH pale or dark, 0.8-3.4 Χ cauda, longer than R IV+V                                                 .....4

3      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 about 16μm. SIPH 0.45-0.53 Χ cauda

                                                                                  .....Semiaphis sp. (Turkey, BMNH collection)

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 31-41μm. SIPH 0.33-0.49 Χ cauda               ….. Semiaphis heraclei

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                              …..5

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, distinctly longer than its basal width                           …..6

5      Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually with paired spinal tubercles (STu). Spiracles small and reniform. SIPH c.2 Χ cauda                                 …..Dysaphis apiifolia (incl. ssp. petroselini)

-       Head and ABD TERG 7-8 usually without STu. Spiracles large and rounded. SIPH truncate, c.1.1-1.3 Χ cauda                                                            .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

6      ANT less than 0.5 Χ BL. SIPH  slightly swollen distally, with a constriction proximal to the flange, and 0.6-1.4 Χ cauda                                                                                              …..7

-       ANT 0.5-1.5 Χ BL. SIPH 0.8-3.4 Χ cauda, but if less than 1.6 Χ cauda then not swollen distally                                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

7      SIPH  clavate, 0.88-1.4 Χ cauda, 1.7-3.1 Χ R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 Χ longer than their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                          …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-       SIPH barrel-shaped, 0.6-0.82 Χ cauda, 0.9-1.6 Χ R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 Χ their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                        …..Hyadaphis coriandri 

 

Petrosimonia                                               Amaranthaceae

      Petrosimonia brachiata                Brachyunguis salsolacearum

        P. brachyptera                              Aphis craccivora

Key to apterae on Petrosimonia:-

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.7. SIPH very short, 0.5-0.7 Χ the short conical cauda. Clypeus globose

                                                                                                    ..... Brachyunguis salsolacearum*

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8. SIPH more than 0.8 Χ cauda. Clypeus normal

                                                                                                 ..... go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Petteria                                                        Leguminosae

      Petteria ramentacea                      Aphis cytisorum

 

Petunia                                                        Solanaceae

      Petunia Χalba                               Aphis craccivora; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];

                                                              Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

      P. Χatkinsiana                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      P. axillaris (incl. P. Χhybrida)            Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

      P. integrifolia                                [Anoecia corni, himalayensis]; Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Brevicoryne brassicae];

                                                              [Eutrichosiphum khasyanum]; Myzus persicae

        P. violacea = P. integrifolia

        Petunia spp.                                  Acyrthosiphon malvae; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              [Paracletus cimiciformis]; [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

(The sticky hairs of Petunia may act as a trap for many aphids, resulting in spurious host records.)

Key to apterae on Petunia:-

-       Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                                                                     …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Without that combination of characters                         ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Peucedanum                                                Apiaceae

      Peucedanum aculeolatum = Afroligusticum aculeolatum

        P. aegopoidiodes                           Cavariella theobaldi

        P. alsaticum                                  Aphis fabae, grosmannae, schilderi, umbelliferarum;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Dysaphis [crataegi], peucedani, uralensis;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi; Semiaphis horvathi

        P. arenarium                                Cavariella aegopodii

        P. austriacum                               Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella aegopodii

        P. baicalense                                 Aphis fabae

        P. carvifolia                                   Aphis peucedanicarvifoliae

        P. cervaria                                     Aphis fabae, schilderi; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Dysaphis apifoliia;

                                                              Semiaphis cervariae, horvathi, sphondylii

        P. deltoideum = P. terebinthiaceum var. deltoideum

        P. fraxinifolium = Steganotaenia araliacea

        P. graveolens = Anethum graveolens

        P. kerstenii = Afrosciadium kerstenii

        P. japonicum                                Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani

        P. lubimenkoanum = P. alsaticum

        P. morisonii                                  Aphis grossmanae; Semiaphis horvathi

        P. officinale                                   Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. peucedani;

                                                              Aphis fabae, peucedani, schilderi; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii; Defractosiphon franzi;

                                                              Semiaphis horvathi

        P. oreoselinum                              Aphis fabae, grosmannae, schilderi;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia, oreoselini, peucedani;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii;

                                                              Semiaphis anthrisci, cervariae

        P. ostruthium                                Aphis fabae, [Aphis sp., Sweden (Ossiannilsson, 1964a)];

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae; Dysaphis apiifolia;

                                                              Semiaphis sphondylii

        P. palustre                                     Aphis fabae, grosmannae; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                              Semiaphis anthrisci

        P. pseudoreoselinum                    Brachyunguis peucedani

        P. ruthenicum                               Acyrthosiphon [gossypii], nigripes ssp. peucedani;

                                                              Aphis umbelliferarum; Defractosiphon franzi;

                                                              [Semiaphis dauci, pastinacae]

        P. sativum = Pastinaca sativa

        P. terebinthaceum                        Cavariella japonica, konoi; Dysaphis deltoidei

                (incl. var. deltoideum)

        P. typherr (?)                                 Aphis fabae

        Peucedanum sp.                           Cavariella archangelicae; [Dysaphis taisetsusana (?)];

                                                              [Semiaphis coryspermi], [Semiaphis sp. (Bozhko

                                                                  1976: 70)]

Key to apterae on Peucedanum:-

1      SIPH less than 0.9 Χ cauda                                                                                               …..2

-       SIPH at least 0.9 Χ cauda                                                                                                …..10

2      ANT PT/BASE c. 0.6, PT being similar in length to SIPH       …..Brachyunguis peucedani*

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5, and PT much longer than SIPH                                      …..3

3      Cauda broadly conical or triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view,

        with 4-6 hairs                                                                                                                     …..4

-       Cauda tapering, tongue- or finger-like, distinctly longer than its basal width, and often with more than 6 hairs                                                                                                               …..5

4      Flat dome-shaped marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 1-5 and 7

                                                                                                                  …..Aphis umbelliferarum

-       MTu absent or inconspicuous, or not consistently present on any ABD TERG

                                                                                                       …..Aphis peucedanicarvifoliae*

5      SIPH more than 0.6 Χ cauda, with or without a flange                                                    …..6

-       SIPH less than 0.6 Χ cauda, flangeless, and usually curved towards midline                  …..7

6      SIPH tapering almost to a point, with a narrow, rounded, flangeless apex (Fig.41a). ANT III with 0-6 rhinaria on distal part, and IV with 1-7 (1-11 on III + IV if fused)

                                                                                                                  …..Defractosiphon franzi

-       SIPH slightly swollen, with an apical flange (Fig.41b). ANT III and IV without rhinaria

                                                                                                                   …..Hyadaphis coriandri

7      SIPH very short and broad-based, 0.4-0.6 Χ as long as their basal widths (Fig.41c). R IV+V only 0.5-0.6 Χ HT II                                                                            …..Semiaphis cervariae

-       SIPH more than 0.8 Χ as long as their basal widths (e.g. Fig.41d). R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II                                                                                                                                           …..8

8      ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.5. Well-developed flat marginal tubercles (MTu) usually present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-5, mostly much larger than spiracular apertures, and spinal tubercles (STu) usually present on ABD TERG 5-7                             …..Semiaphis horvathi

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.5. MTu and STu irregularly present, MTu rarely larger than the spiracular apertures, except on ABD TERG 5                                                                  …..9

9      Longest hairs on ANT III 15-20 μm, 0.6-0.8 Χ BD III. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-50 μm, 1.0-1.7 Χ BD III                                                                         …..Semiaphis sphondylii

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 10-13 μm, 0.4-0.5 Χ BD III. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 12-30 μm, 0.5-1.2 Χ BD III                                                                            …..Semiaphis anthrisci

10    ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-projecting process, sometimes reduced but always bearing a pair of hairs

        …..Cavariella (6 species; use couplets 2-14 of key to apterae on Angelica)

-       No supracaudal process. SIPH cylindrical or tapering                                                    …..11

11    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and usually bearing 5 hairs. Head and often also ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8, with spinal tubercles (STu)       …..12

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, much longer than its basal width. STu absent from head and rarely present on ABD TERG                                                                                  …..16

12    Longest hair on ANT III 40-50 μm long, 2.3-2.7 Χ BD III. Pronotum with a pair of pleural hairs (lateral to the spinal pair)                                                              …..Dysaphis deltoidei

-       Longest hair on ANT III 4-15 μm long, 0.2-0.8 Χ BD III. Pronotum without pleural hairs

…..13

13    SIPH 0.19-0.34 mm, 1.9-3.2 Χ cauda                                                                             …..14

-       SIPH 0.15-0.19 mm, 1.6-2.1 Χ cauda                                                                             …..15

14    SIPH 2.7-3.2 Χ cauda                                                                        …..Dysaphis peucedani*

-       SIPH 1.9-2.5 Χ cauda                                                                             …..Dysaphis apiifolia

15    All apterae to some extent alatiform with ANT III-IV (-V) swollen and bearing numerous secondary rhinaria. Arms of mesothoracic furca separate

…..Dysaphis uralensis

-       Apterae without secondary rhinaria. Arms of mesothoracic furca united at bases

                                                                                                                     …..Dysaphis oreoselini

16    Head, ANT, tibiae, SIPH and cauda all entirely black. (Large, spindle-shaped aphid)

                                                                                       …..Acyrthosiphon nigripes ssp. peucedani

-       At least ANT and tibiae have pale sections                                                                   …...17

17    ANT tubercles weakly developed, head without spicules. SIPH dark                            .....18

-       ANT tubercles well developed, head with or without spicules. SIPH pale or dusky              

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

18    ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH clavate, 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda

…..19

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu. SIPH cylindrical/tapering, 1-3 Χ cauda           …..20

19    Prosternal sclerite 1.36-2.6 Χ wider than long, often convex posteriorly. SIPH 1.05-1.4 Χ cauda. (Al. often with sec. rhinaria on ANT V)                                 …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-       Prosternal sclerite 2.2-3.6 Χ wider than long, with posterior margin often straight. SIPH 0.85-1.2 Χ cauda. (Al. rarely with sec. rhinaria on ANT V)              …..Hyadaphis passerinii

20    Cauda with 11-19 hairs                                                                                                   …..21

-       Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                                                                       …..22

21    ABD TERG 2-4, as well as 1 and 7, with well-developed MTu. Longest hair on ANT III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III. Cauda with 12-15 hairs                                             …..Aphis grosmannae

-       ABD TERG 2-4 only irregularly with small MTu. Longest hair on ANT III 0.80-2.2 Χ BD III. Cauda with 11-19 hairs                                                                              …..Aphis fabae

22    Cauda paler than SIPH, with 4-8 hairs. Longest hair on ANT III 0.4-0.8 Χ BD III. MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 small, less than half diameter of SIPH at midlength  …..Aphis gossypii

-       Cauda as dark as SIPH. Longest hair on ANT III 0.2-0.5 Χ BD III. MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7  large, more than 0.5 Χ diameter of  SIPH at midlength                                       …..23

23    ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7 regularly with MTu. SIPH 1.7-3.0 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                          …..Aphis peucedani

-       ABD TERG 2-4 without or only irregularly with MTu. SIPH 1.0-1.7 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                             …..Aphis schilderi

 

Phaca see Astragalus                                                           Leguminosae

     Phaca frigida = Astragalus frigidus

 

Phacelia                                                      Hydrophyllaceae

      Phacelia circinata = Ph. secunda

        Ph. hastata                                    Pleotrichophorus amsinckii

        Ph. heterophylla                           Aphis phaceliae; Myzus ascalonicus

        Ph. nemoralis                               Abstrusomyzus phloxae;

                                                              [Amphorophora sp., Oregon (see aphidtrek.org)];

                                                              Aphis phaceliae; Myzus ornatus

        Ph. secunda                                  Nectarophora” sp. (Cockerell 1903, 17)]

        Ph. sericea                                    Brachycaudus helichrysi

        Ph. tanacetifolia                            Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        Phacelia spp.                                [Ericaphis sp., Idaho (see aphidtrek.org)];

                                                              Illinoia phacelia; Macrosiphum euphorbiae                        

Key to apterae on Phacelia:-

1     Dorsal body (including front of head and ANT I –II) bearing numerous hairs with fan-shaped or capitate apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. R IV+V extremely long, thin and tapering, 1.75-2.0 Χ HT II                                                        ......Pleotrichophorus amsinckii

-      Dorsal body hairs not  fan-shaped or capitate, R IV+V not very long and thin                .....2

2     Spindle-shaped aphid with ANT much longer than BL, and ANT PT/BASE more than 7. SIPH pale, c.2.5 Χ cauda, cylindrical or slightly swollen on distal part, with some indistinct subapical reticulation. R IV+V 1.6-1.8 Χ HT II and bearing 23-32 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                           …..Illinoia phacelia

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

3      ANT tubercles weakly developed, and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). R IV+V 1.5-1.6 Χ HT II, longer than cauda and bearing 4-5 hairs

…..Aphis phaceliae

-       Without that combination of characters; i.e. if ANT tubercles are weakly developed and ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu then R IV+V is relatively shorter and bears only 2 accessory hairs                                                                                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Phacelurus                                                  Poaceae

      Phacelurus speciosus                   Sipha elegans, maydis

Use key to apterae on Poaceae under Digitaria.

 

Phaeomeria see Etlingera                                                    Zingiberaceae

     Phaeomeria speciosa = Etlingera elatior

 

Phagnalon                                                   Compositae

      Phagnalon rupestre                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        Ph. saxatile                                   Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        Ph. sordidum                                Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Macrosiphoniella helichrysi]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

     

Phaius (or Phajus)                                                  Orchidaceae

      Phaius albus = Thunia alba

      Ph. grandifolius = Ph. tankervilleae

        Ph. tankervilleae                           Aphis fabae group (Brazil);

                                                              Cerataphis orchidearum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Phalacroloma see Erigeron                                           Compositae

     Phalacroloma septentrionale = Erigeron strigosus var. septentrionalis

 

 

Phalaenopsis                                               Orchidaceae

      Phalaenopsis sp.                           Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Phalaris  (including Phalaroides)                                  Poaceae

      Phalaris amethystina                    Metopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion avenae

        Ph. aquatica                                  Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi; Schizaphis hypersiphonata;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        Ph. arundinacea                           Anoecia major; Atheroides serrulatus; Diuraphis noxia;

                        (incl. var. picta)                 Forda formicaria; Geoica lucifuga, setulosa;

                                                              Hyalopterus pruni; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, poae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis jaroslavi, longicaudata, graminum;

                                                              Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maidis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae, graminearum;

                                                              Tetraneura ulmi

        Ph. brachystachys                         Israelaphis lambersi; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobon avenae, fragariae

        Ph. canariensis                             Diuraphis noxia; Israelaphis lambersi;

                                                              Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum, longicaudata; Sitobion avenae

        Ph. coerulescens                           Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi

        Ph. minor                                      Hysteroneura setariae; Metopolophium dirhodum;                                                       Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, miscanthi

        Ph. nodosa = Ph. aquatica

        Ph. paradoxa                                Israelaphis lambersi; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Sitobon avenae, fragariae

        Ph. stenoptera = Ph. aquatica

          Ph. truncata                                  Schizaphis graminum

        Ph. tuberosa = Ph. aquatica

        Phalaris sp.                                   Aphis craccivora; Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.        

 

Phania                                                         Compositae

      Phania matricarioides                  Aphis gossypii

 

Pharbitis see Ipomoea                                                       Convolvulaceae

 

Phaseolus                                                    Leguminosae

      Phaseolus adenanthus = Vigna adenantha                               

        Ph. angularis = Vigna angularis     

        Ph. atropurpureus = Macroptilium atropurpureum

        Ph. aureus = Vigna radiata

        Ph. coccineus                                Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                              Amphorophora ampullata” of Zirnits 1927];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, glycines, gossypii ;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Smynthurodes betae

        Ph. limensis = P. lunatus                 Aphis fabae

        Ph. lunatus                                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Microparsus brasiliensis; Smynthurodes betae

        Ph. multiflorus = P. coccineus

        Ph. mungo = Vigna mungo

        Ph. nanus = P. vulgaris

        Ph. nipponensis = Vigna angularis var. nipponensis

        Ph. radiatus = Vigna radiata

        Ph. sublobatus = Vigna radiata var. sublobata

        Ph. trilobus = Vigna lobata (?)

        Ph. vulgaris                                   Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                              Aphis [citricidus], craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                   lhasaensis, nasturtii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Capitophorus elaeagni];

                                                              [Hyalopterus pruni]; Macrosiphum creelii, euphorbiae;

                                                              [Megoura viciae]; Microparsus brasiliensis, vignaphilus;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; Therioaphis trifolii

        Phaseolus spp.                              Acyrthosiphon phaseoli; Aphis glycines;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon; [Semiaphis heraclei]

Key to apterae on Phaseolus and Vigna:-

(See Blackman & Eastop 2000, for an illustrated key to common aphids on cultivated Phaseolus.)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs                                                                                                     …..Smynthurodes betae

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH present. Body and appendages not so hairy         …..2

2      SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs with expanded apices. ABD TERG 8 with hair-bearing backwardly directed processes. Cauda broad with a median stylus

                                                                                                        …..Anomalosiphum indigoferae

-       SIPH without hairs. ABD TERG 8 without processes. Cauda helmet-shaped, tongue- or finger-like                                                                                                                          …..3

3      Cauda with a constriction and a knob-like apex. Anal plate bilobed. Dorsal hairs arising from pigmented bases (if apterae then these hairs are mostly long and capitate). Fore coxae greatly enlarged. ANT PT/BASE about 1                                                         …..Therioaphis trifolii

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, rounded or triangular in dorsal view. Anal plate entire. Body hairs are blunt or pointed, with or without pigmented bases. Fore coxae normal. ANT PT/BASE much more than 1                                                                                                                        …..4

4      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu) …..5

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                …..9

5      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. Cauda with 4-9 hairs                   …..6

-       Dorsal abdomen without an extensive solid black shield, and if with any dark markings then cauda has 10 or more hairs                                                                                               …..7

6      ABD TERG 2-4 usually without MTu                                                     …..Aphis craccivora

-       Well-developed MTu consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7

                                                                                                                          …..Aphis lhasaensis

7      Hind femur with all hairs shorter