(in alphabetical order)





























































































































Maackia                                                                                    Fabaceae

        Maackia amurensis                      Aphis craccivora

        M. chinensis = M. hupehensis

        M. hupehensis                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Macadamia                                                  Proteaceae

        Macadamia ternifolia                   Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        M. tetraphylla                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        Macadamia sp.                             Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Macaranga                                                                          Euphorbiaceae

        Macaranga tanarius                     Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Machaeranthera                                         Asteraceae

        Machaeranthera canescens = Dieteria canescens

        M. tanacetifolia                             [Uroleucon sp. – Leonard 1968: 292 (as Dactynotus)]

      M. viscosa= Dieteria canescens

        Machaeranthera sp.                     Uroleucon erigeronense


Machilus                                                                Lauraceae

(Following The Plant List, some species placed in the genus Persea in Blackman & Eastop 1994 have now been returned to Machilus.)                                       

       Machilus breviflora                       Machilaphis machili

       M. chekiangensis                          [Aiceona robustiseta]

       M. chinensis                                  Machilaphis machili

       M. gamblei                                    Aiceona retipennis, [robustiseta];

                                                              Schizoneuraphis himalayensis

        M. glaucescens                             Aiceona pallida

        M. japonica                                   Nipponaphis loochooensis, machilicola

       M. longipaniculata = M. zuihoensis

       M. odoratissimus = Persea odoratissima

       M. oreophila                                  Machilaphis machili

       M. parabreviflora                          Machilaphis machili

        M. thunbergii                                         Pao-hua, Tabu, Tamagusa
                                                      Machilaphis machili, pseudomachili (?);

                                                              Nipponaphis loochooensis, machilicola;

                                                              Schizoneuraphis machiliphaga; Sinomegoura citricola

        M. yunnanensis                            Euthoracaphis oligostricha; [Nipponaphis manoji]

       M. zuihoensis                                Machilaphis machili; Sinomegoura citricola

        Machilus sp(p).                             Nipponaphis machili;

                                                                    Sinonipponaphis formosana, [monzeni of A.K. Ghosh


Key to aphid species on Machilus and Persea:-

1      Aptera of normal aphid form, with well-developed legs and 6-segmented antennae. Alata with circular secondary rhinaria                                                                                         .....2

-       Aptera aleyrodiform with reduced legs, very short 3- or 4-segmented antennae and variably fused head, thorax and anterior abdominal tergites (= prosoma). Antenna of alata with annular secondary rhinaria                                                                                                .....11

2      SIPH tubular, longer than basal width                             .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH on flat hairy cones or merely as pores                                                                      .....3

3      Body elongate oval or elongate pear-shaped. Hairs very sparse and mainly very short; those on antenna much less than half basal diameter of ANT III.   SIPH are merely small pores, not surrounded by hairs. Posterior abdomen with extensive wax gland pore plates         .....4

-       Body oval. Hairs long and dense; those on antennae longer than basal diameter of ANT III. SIPH pores large, on hairy cones. No extensive wax pore plates                                      .....5

4      Wax pore plates on posterior abdomen mostly comprising circles of minute wax pores like small pearl necklaces, supplemented with fields of similar-sized ring-shaped elements; wax pore plate on ABD TERG 8 has entirely such circles of minute pores, except for a narrow median zone with a few ring-shaped elements. R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs. Alata with 0-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                                   .....Machilaphis machili

-       Wax pore plates on posterior abdomen including that on ABD TERG 8 consisting entirely of ring-shaped elements. R IV+V with 3-4 accessory hairs. Alata with 7-11 secondary rhinaria on ANT III                                                                                    .....Machilaphis pseudomachili

5      BL more than 6 mm. Eyes multifacetted. Forewing of alata with pterostigma extending almost to wing-tip                                                                          .....Longistigma xizangensis

-       BL less than 4 mm. Eyes of aptera 3-facetted. Forewing of alata with a normal pterostigma


6      Aptera with ANT PT/BASE 0.30-0.45. R IV+V 0.54-0.65 ื HT II. Wings of alata with dark reticulate pigmentation                                                                           .....Aiceona retipennis

-       Aptera with ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.7. R IV+V 0.7-1.0 ื HT II. Wings of alata pale or dusky, without dark reticulate pigmentation                                                                                 .....7

7      Aptera with dorsal abdominal hairs arising from dusky sclerotic bases. Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III 50-66, IV 16-25, V 6-14                                        .....Aiceona pallida

-       Aptera without dusky sclerotic bases to dorsal abdominal hairs.   Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III 31-58, IV 8-25, V 2-12                                                                 .....8

8      Aptera usually with one short thick spine-like hair between the fine hairs on the 8th abdominal sternite.  R IV+V with blunt apex                                .....Aiceona manipurensis*

-       Aptera with only fine hairs on 8th abdominal sternite. R IV+V with rather pointed apex


9      Aptera with ANT VI (BASE + PT) similar in length to ANT V.   SIPH cones small, ringed by a few long hairs. Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III c.58, IV c. 25, V 5-12

…..Aiceona osugii

-       Aptera with ANT VI (BASE + PT) shorter than (0.7-0.9 ื) ANT V.  SIPH cones large, ringed by about 4 whorls of hairs. Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III 30-46, IV 8-18,

        V 2-7                                                                                                                               …..10

10    Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III 43-46, IV 13-18, V 3-5

…..Aiceona pseudosugii

-       Alata with secondary rhinaria distributed III 30-38, IV 8-11, V 2-7 …..Aiceona robustiseta

11    Dorsal cuticle of aptera smooth, densely covered with short, thorn-like, broad-based, hair-like processes                                                                               .....Sinonipponaphis formosana*

-       Dorsal cuticle of aptera either smooth or with densely pustulate ornamentation; hairs of variable length, no thorn-like processes                                                                            .....12

12    Spinal and submarginal hairs of aptera not exceeding length of antennae                      .....13 

                                                               .....Nipponaphis spp. (loochooensis, machili, machilicola)

-       Spinal and submarginal hairs of aptera mostly long and thick, the longest exceeding the length of the antennae                                                                                                      .....15

13    Pustules along frontal margin all with pointed apices. BL 1.6-1.9 mm

        .....Nipponaphis machilicola

-       Pustules along frontal margin mostly with rounded apices. BL 1.0-1.7 mm                   .....14

14    Many of dorsal hairs long and bristle-like, the longest exceeding the length of the hind tarsi

.....Nipponaphis machili*

-       Dorsal hairs short and fine, all shorter than hind tarsi                .....Nipponaphis loochooensis

15    Dorsal cuticle of prosoma divided by narrow pale sutures into four regions; one anterior, one median, and two lateral.  Abdominal plate (fused ABD TERG 2-7) with all 6 pairs of submarginal hairs long and thick                                              …..Euthoracaphis oligostricha

-       Dorsal cuticle of prosoma undivided. Abdominal plate with at least the 4th and 5th pairs of submarginal hairs much smaller than the first 3 pairs                                                       .....16

16    Aptera with abdominal plate (fused ABD TERG 2-7) with first 3 pairs of submarginal hairs very stout and dark, much longer and thicker than the posterior 3 pairs (fig. 58D). Dorsal hairs of prosoma (i.e., fused head, thorax and ABD TERG 1) often include some short, fine hairs as well as the paired, stout spinal and submarginal hairs

..... Schizoneuraphis himalayensis

-       Aptera with abdominal plate with only the penultimate 2 pairs of submarginal hairs (the 4th and 5th pairs) small, the 6th submarginal pair being almost as large as the first 3 pairs (e.g. as in fig. 58F). Dorsal region of prosoma without any short fine hairs

.....Schizoneuraphis machiliphaga


Macleania                                                   Ericaceae

      Macleania cordifolia                     Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      M. punctata = M. cordifolia


Macleaya                                                     Papaveraceae

      Macleaya cordata                          Aulacorthum solani


Maclura                                                                  Moraceae

      Maclura cochinchinensis             Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

      M. javanensis (?javanica)             Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

      M. pomifera                                  Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae; [Wahlgreniella nervata]

      M. tricuspidata                              Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; [Matsumuraja rubi]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Macrocarpium                                                      Cornaceae

      Macrocarpium officinale see Cornus officinalis


“Macrophyllum” = Lactuca macrophylla?                      Asteraceae                  

     “Macrophyllum sp.”                      Uroleucon sonchi


Macroptilium                                              Fabaceae

      Macroptilium atropurpureum      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      M. lathyroides                               Aphis craccivora

Use key to apterae on Phaseolus.


Macrosolen                                                 Loranthaceae

      Macrosolen cochinchinensis        Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Tuberaphis macrosoleni

           (incl. Elytranthe globosa)

Key to apterae on Macrosolen:-

-     Eyes of 3 facets. Head fused to prothorax, and bearing short, spine-like hairs. SIPH as pores surrounded by hairs. Cauda shorter than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3

.....Tuberaphis macrosoleni

-     Eyes multifaceted. Head not fused to prothorax, hairs not spine-like. SIPH tubular. Cauda long than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Macrotyloma                                               Fabaceae

      Macrotyloma stenophyllum          Aphis gossypii


Madia                                                          Asteraceae

      Madia chilensis                             Uroleucon eumadiae

      M. elegans                                     Uroleucon madia

      M. minima = Hemizonella minima    

      M. sativa                                        Uroleucon madia, eumadiae, [rudbeckiae]

Key to apterae on Madia:-

(Both species have siphunculi with distal polygonal reticulation, a long thin hairy R IV, and first tarsal segments with 5 hairs.)

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.65-4.0. SIPH 1.28-1.56 ื cauda                           …..Uroleucon eumadiae

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.5-6.1. SIPH 1.80-2.25 ื cauda                                  …..Uroleucon madia


Maesa                                                                                        Primulaceae

        Maesa angustifolia  = M. lanceolata

        M. chisia                                       Aphis gossypii, odinae;

                                                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Greenidea heeri;

                                                              [Takecallis arundinariae]

        M. indica                                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;
                                                      [Capitophorus formosartemisiae];
                                                      Eutrichosiphum pasaniae, pseudopasaniae;
                                                      Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus

        M. japonica                                   Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        M. lanceolata (incl. rufescens)          Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Myzus persicae

        M. macrophylla (?megaphylla)        Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        M. rufescens = M. lanceolata var. rufescens

        M. tenera                                       Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        Maesa sp.                                      Eutrichosiphum tapatii; Greenidea ficicola

Key to apterae on Maesa:-

-       SIPH without hairs                                                       ….....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                                 .....Greenideini spp.

(incl. Eutrichosiphon, Greenidea, Mollitrichosiphon)

(The various species of Greenideini recorded from Maesa are normally associated with trees in other families such as Fagaceae and Myrtaceae. It seems likely that Maesa is either visited casually by members of the Greenideini, or used by them as a "reserve host".)


Maesopsis                                                               Rhamnaceae

        Maesopsis eminii                          Aphis fabae, gossypii, odinae;

                                                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus; Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Magnolia                                                      Magnoliaceae

      Magnolia campbellii                       Formosaphis micheliae

      M. champaca                                  Prociphilus micheliae

      M. denudata                                   Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum albimagnoliae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura  magnoliae

      M. fraseri                                        [Illinoia spiraecola]

      M. fuscata (= M. figo var. figo)           [Nipponaphis karatanei]

      M. grandiflora                                Aphis [magnoliae Macchiati 1884], spiraecola,

                                                                    [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)];

                                                              Formosaphis micheliae; Sinomegoura citricola

      M. kobus                                         Aphis fabae; Neocalaphis magnoliae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

      M. liliiflora                                      Aphis gossypii, odinae; Calaphis magnoliae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

      M. obovata                                      Calaphis magnolicolens; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

      M. sieboldii                                     Aulacorthum albimagnoliae, solani

      M. stellata                                       Formosaphis micheliae

      M. tripetala                                     [Illinoia liriodendri]

      Magnolia spp.                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;

                                                                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Tinocallis insularis;

Key to species on Magnolia:-

1      SIPH absent                                                                                               .....2

-       SIPH present as tubes or small truncate cones                                                     .....3

2      Antenna of alata 5-segmented; ANT III, IV and V each with an extensive, complex rhinarial structure occupying most of segment (fig. 61A)                       .....Formosaphis micheliae

-       Antenna of alata 6-segmented, with separate. transversely elongate secondary rhinaria on ANT III and IV only, fringed with minute spinules (fig. 61B)       .....Prociphilus micheliae


3      SIPH tubular, longer than their basal widths, anal plate entire and cauda tongue-shaped. (Viviparae apterous or alate)                                                                                              .....4

-       SIPH as small truncate cones, not longer than their basal widths. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. (All viviparae alate)                                                                                              .....5

4      Head with well-developed antennal tubercles, their inner faces almost parallel, with dorsal cuticle of head almost smooth and ventral surface only weakly spinulose. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, legs of aptera pale                                   .....Aulacorthum albimagnoliae

-       Without that combination of characters: if antennal tubercles are well developed with parallel inner faces then head is distinctly spinulose and/or SIPH are slightly clavate and legs of aptera mainly dark                                                                       .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

5      ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                                     .....Tinocallis insularis

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 4                                                                                              .....6

6      ANT III with two broad black bands, one in the middle and one distally (fig. 59A). All tibiae with black bases. Forewing veins heavily bordered with fuscous, especially distally

.....Calaphis magnoliae

-       ANT III only gradually darkening distally (fig. 59B). Tibiae without dark basal sections, and forewing veins not bordered with fuscous                                    .....Calaphis magnolicolens



Magydaris                                                   Apiaceae

      Magydaris pastinacea                   Anuraphis pyrilaseri, shaposhnikovi; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia

Key to apterae on Magydaris:-

(All 4 species have undeveloped or weakly-developed ANT tubercles, dark SIPH, dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 8 or 7-8, and usually some scattered dark markings on ABD TERG 1-6.)

1     Cauda distinctly longer than its basal width. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent, abdominal marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present only on ABD TERG 1 and 7  …..Aphis fabae

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width. STu present on head and at least some ABD TERG, and MTu on ABD TERG 1-5 or 1-7                                                  …..2

2     R IV+V much shorter than SIPH. SIPH more than 3 ื basal width with normal imbrication. Cauda with 5 hairs                                                                                  …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-      R IV+V longer than SIPH. SIPH less than 2.5 ื basal width with close-set rows of spinules. Cauda with 11-18 hairs                                                                                                     …..3

3     MTu on ABD TERG 1-5 only. R IV+V 1.6-2.1 ื HT II                   …..Anuraphis pyrilaseri

-      MTu on ABD TERG 1-7. R IV+V 1.2-1.6 ื HT II                   …..Anuraphis shaposhnikovi


Mahoberberis                                              Berberidaceae

      Mahoberberis neubertii                Liosomaphis berberidis


Mahonia                                                      Berberidaceae

      Mahonia aquifolia  = Berberis aquifolium                                

        M. japonica                                   Liosomaphis berberidis; [Prociphilus osmanthae]

        M. morrisonensis = M. oiwakensis

        M. oiwakensis                               Wahlgreniella viburni

        M. repens = Berberis repens

Key to apterae on Mahonia:-

(Both species have SIPH strongly swollen on distal c.0.7 of length)

-       ANT 0.4-0.5 ื BL, ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4. ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view           …..Liosomaphis berberidis

-       ANT c. 0.8 ื BL, ANT PT/BASE 1.6-1.9. ANT tubercles moderately developed, projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view                               …..Wahlgreniella viburni

(or try key to apterae on Berberis)


Maianthemum (including Smilacina)                         Asparagaceae

      M. bifolium                                 Aulacorthum majanthemi; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus maianthemi; Sitobion avenae

        M. dilatatum                               Macrosiphum badium, euphorbiae

        M. kamtschaticum = M. dilatatum

        M. racemosum                            Macrosiphum badium, pechumani

        M. stellatum                                Illinoia wahnaga; Macrosiphum badium, insularis

Key to apterae on Maianthemum:-

(All species have well-developed ANT tubercles, and ANT at least 0.9 ื BL.)

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 2-3 rows of closed cells)        


-       SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation                                                          …..8

2      SIPH swollen on distal c.0.7 of length, and cauda triangular in dorsal view, shorter than (c. 0.8 ื) R IV+V. Hairs on ANT III long and pointed,  the longest 1.7-2.1 ื BD III. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. Head densely spinulose both dorsally and ventrally

…..Rhopalosiphoninus maianthemi

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical, or if swollen then cauda is tongue or finger-shaped and at least 2 ื R IV+V. ANT III with blunt hairs maximally 0.3-1.0 ื BD III. Dorsum without extensive dark sclerotisation. Head smooth or not densely spinulose                                              …..3

3     SIPH swollen proximal to reticulated zone, to 1.2-1.4  minimal diameter of basal half. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 ื BD III. First tarsal segments each with 5 hairs

…..Illinoia wahnaga

-      SIPH cylindrical or less swollen. Hairs on ANT III 0.3-1.0 ื BD III. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                                                                         …..4

4     SIPH black and less than 1.5 cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 ื BD III

…..Sitobion avenae

-      SIPH pale or dark and more than 1.5 cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-1.0 ื BD III


5      R IV+V 0.75-1.0 ื HT II. SIPH usually pale on at least basal half, sometimes becoming darker distally                                                                                                                    …..6

-       R IV+V 1.15-1.48 ื HT II. SIPH dusky/dark, sometimes paler at base                          …..7

6      ANT BASE VI 0.25-0.30 mm, at least 2 ื R IV+V and similar in length to cauda

…..Macrosiphum insularis

-       ANT BASE VI 0.13-0.20 mm, 0.9-1.3 ื R IV+V and 0.3-0.5 ื cauda

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

7      ANT III with 11-25 rhinaria arranged in a row over most of length. Head, ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda all very dark. Head cuticle smooth                            …..Macrosiphum pechumani

-       ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria near base. Head, ANT, legs and SIPH mainly dusky or dark, cauda pale/dusky. Head with spinules dorsally, and sometimes also ventrally

…..Macrosiphum badium*

8      SIPH clavate, 2.3-3.3 ื cauda, with a narrow stem that is a little thinner at its narrowest point than hind tibia at midlength. ANT III without rhinaria               …..Myzus ascalonicus

-       SIPH cylindrical/tapering, 1.6-1.7 ื cauda, with a subapical annular incision close to flange. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                  …..Aulacorthum majanthemi


Maireana                                                     Amaranthaceae

     Maireana trichoptera                    Aphis craccivora


Majorana  see Origanum                                                 Lamiaceae


Malabaila                                                    Apiaceae

      Malabaila aurea                            Cavariella theobaldi


Malacantha = Pouteria                                                     Sapotaceae


Malachium  see Myosoton                                              Caryophyllaceae


Malachra                                                     Malvaceae

      Malachra alceifolia                       Myzus ornatus

      M. capitata                                    Aphis gossypii

        M. fasciata                                    Aphis gossypii

        M. rotundifolia = M. alceifolia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Malacocarpus                                             Zygophyllaceae

     Malacarpus crithmifolius             Brachyunguis harmalae


Malcolmia                                                   Brassicaceae

      Malcolmia africana                    Aphis craccivora

        M. maritima                                Brevicoryne brassicae

      Malcolmia sp.                             Acyrthosiphon ilka

Use key to apterae on Isatis.


Mallotus                                                                  Euphorbiaceae

      Mallotus japonicus                  Myzus persicae; Stomaphis malloti

      M. oppositifolius                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      M. philippensis                        Aphis gossypii; [Thoracaphis sp.]

      Mallotus spp.                           [Sumatraphis celti]

-       Rostrum longer than body. BL of adult more than 5 mm                  .....Stomaphis malloti

-       Rostrum much shorter than body. BL of adult less than 4 mm

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Malope                                                        Malvaceae

      Malope trifida                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        Malope sp.                                  Aphis nasturtii, umbrella

Use key to apterae on Malva.


Malpighia                                                               Malpighiaceae

      Malpighia fucata                     Aphis aurantii, craccivora, spiraecola

      M. glabra                                 Aphis aurantii, craccivora, spiraecola

      M. punicifolia = M. glabra

      M. punctata (?)                        Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

      Malpighia sp,                           Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Malus                  Apples, Crab-apples             Rosaceae

A key to apple aphids is provided in Blackman & Eastop (1984). Here we provide a more comprehensive treatment of the aphid fauna of the genus Malus. The nomenclature of Malus is confused as many species hybridise freely with one another in cultivation. Many European records of aphids from M. pumila apply to cultivated apples (M. domestica), so we have had to list records from cultivated and wild European apples (domestica, pumila, sylvestris) under one name. The separation of Dysaphis species applies only to spring forms, and is based largely on the work of Stroyan (1963) and Shaposhnikov (1967, 1986); the difficult taxonomy of Dysaphis is discussed under that genus.

Host plant list:-

      Malus angustifolia                                 Southern Crab-apple
                                                      Aphis spiraecola; [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae];
                                                      Muscaphis smithi; Prociphilus caryae ssp. fitchii

      M. arnoldiana                             Aphis pomi

      M. atrosanguinea                       Aphis pomi

      M. baccata                                             Siberian Crab-apple
                                                      Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis affinis, sp. near anthrisci, devecta, mordvilkoi,

                                                                  plantaginea, sibirica, Dysaphis sp. (Korea: Stroyan 1985);

                                                              Eriosoma lanigerum; [Myzus cerasi umefoliae];

                                                              Nearctaphis bakeri; Ovatus crataegarius, malisuctus;

                                                              Prociphilus kuwanai; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                              Schizaphis mali

      M. cerasifera                               Aphis pomi

      M. coronaria                                               Sweet Crab-apple
                                                      Aphis gossypii, pomi

      M. denticulata (?)                          Aphis pomi

      M. domestica                                      Apple, European Crab-apple, Paradise Apple
(incl. pumila, sylvestris)                  Allocotaphis quaestionis; [Anuraphis farfarae];

                                                              Aphidounguis mali;
aurantii, craccivora, eugeniae, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                   odinae, pomi, spiraecola, [spiraephaga];

                                                              [Aploneura ampelina]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi];

                                                              Dysaphis affinis, anthrisci, anthrisci majkopica, armeniaca,
                                                           brachycyclica, brancoi, brancoi ssp. malina,

                                                                   brancoi ssp. rogersoni, bunii, chaerophylli,

                                                                   chaerophyllina, devecta, flava, [gallica], malidauci,

                                                                   meridialis, mordvilkoi, [orientalis], physocaulis,

                                                                   plantaginea, radicola, sibirica, zini;
                                                      Eriosoma lanigerum, [lanuginosum];

                                                  [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae]; Longistigma xizangensis;
                                                      Macrosiphum [chukotense], euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                              Myzus [ornatus], persicae;
                                                      Nearctaphis bakeri; [Nippolachnus piri];
                                                      Ovatus crataegarius, insitus, malisuctus;

                                                              [Phorodon humuli]; [Plocamaphis gyirongensis];

                                                              Pterochloroides persicae;
                                                      Prociphilus caryae ssp. fitchii, [crataegicola],
                                                           kuwanai, oriens, [pini], sasakii;
                                                      Pyrolachnus pyri; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, [padi];

                                                              Schizoneurella indica; [Watabura nishiyae]

      M. doumeri                                   Ovatus malisuctus; [Tuberocephalus sakurae]

      M. floribunda                                Aphis gossypii, pomi; Dysaphis devecta;

                                                              Eriosoma lanigerum; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

      M. formosana = M. doumeri                    

      M. fusca                                                 Oregon Crab-apple
                                                      Allocotaphis quaestionisbg; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              Dysaphis anthriscibg; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthaebg

      M. glaucescens                             Aphis pomi; Dysaphis plantaginea                                     

      M. halliana                                   Aphidounguis mali; Aphis spiraecola; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              Ovatus malisuctus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale];

                                                              [Watabura nishiyae]

      M. hartwigi (= M. ืhartwegii?)         Aphis pomi                                                                         

      M. ioensis                                               Prairie Crab-apple
                                                      Aphis pomi; Dysaphis plantaginea;
                                                      Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

      M. kirghisorum = M. sieversii

      M. mandshurica                           Aphis spiraecola; Dysaphis deltoidei, mordvilkoi, sibirica;

                                                              Ovatus insitus, malisuctus

      M. micromalus                           Aphis pomi, spiraecola; Ovatus  crataegarius

      M. orientalis                                  Allocotaphis quaestionis; Aphis pomi;

                                                              Dysaphis affinis, anthrisci majkopica, armeniaca,
                                                          brachycyclica, brancoi, chaerophyllina, devecta,

                                                                  plantaginea, radicola

      M. pallasiana = M. baccata

      M. praecox = M. domestica

      M. prunifolia                                 Aphis pomi; Dysaphis anthrisci, devecta, plantaginea;

                                                              Eriosoma lanigerum

        M. pumila see M. domestica

      M. ืpurpurea                               Aphis pomi; Dysaphis affinis

      M. rivularis = M. fusca

      M. rockii                                        Aphis pomi

      M. sargentii                                   [Dysaphis pyri]

      M. scheideckeri                           Aphis pomi; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

      M. sieboldii                                             Toringo Crab-apple
                                                      Aphis pomi; Eriosoma lanigerum; Ovatus malisuctus;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum padi]


      M. sieversii                                             Central Asian Wild Apple

                                                              Allocotaphis quaestionis;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis affinis, brancoi, devecta, flava, malidauci,


                                                              Eriosoma lanigerum, [lanuginosum]; Ovatus crataegarius;

                                                              [Prociphilus aurus]; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

      M. sikkimensis                              Aphis pomi

      M. spectabilis                                Aphis pomi; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

      M. sylvestris see M. domestica

      M. toringoides                               Aphis pomi

      M. tschonoskii                               Aphis pomi

      M. zumi                                         Aphis pomi; Dysaphis plantaginea;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

Key to aphids on Malus:- 

(Prociphilus aurus could not be included as only the fundatrix is described, and the spring generations of Watabura nishiyae are unknown, although its sexuparae may be found on twigs and branches of Malus in autumn in east Asia.)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Cauda broadly rounded, usually shorter than width at base


-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5 (usually more than 1). Cauda semicircular, helmet-shaped or tongue-shaped, about as long as its basal width or longer                                              .....11

2      Aptera, and sometimes alata also, with conspicuous wax pore plates. SIPH either absent or present only as pores                                                                                                          .....3

-       Wax pore plates absent. SIPH in form of large, broad, dark, hairy cones                        .....9

3      Wax pore plates of aptera comprising rings of circular, polygonal or elongate facets surrounding single or multiple clear central areas (e.g. figs 60B,C). Wax glands of alata are small and indistinct                                                                                                            .....4

-      Wax pore plates honeycomb-like, without any clear central areas. Alata with well-developed wax pore plates, at least on thorax, or head and thorax                                                     .....6

4      Antenna of aptera 4-segmented (fig. 60A). Tarsi of aptera with only one claw developed. Alata with unbranched media in forewing                                             .....Aphidounguis mali

-       Antenna of aptera 5- or 6-segmented, and tarsi with both claws equally developed. Forewing of alata with once-branched media                                                                                    .....5

5      Aptera without SIPH. Antenna of aptera 5-segmented, less than 0.17ื BL, with last two segments each about as broad as long. Wax pore plates comprising groups of elongate facets radiating from 2-9 small clear circular central areas (fig. 60B)          .....Schizoneurella indica

-       Aptera with SIPH as slightly raised pores with partly sclerotised rims. Antenna of aptera usually 6-segmented, more than 0.17ื BL, with last 2 segments much longer than broad. Wax pore plates each comprising large circular or polygonal facets enclosing one or more clear central areas (fig. 60C)                                                                .....Eriosoma lanigerum

6      BL of spring migrant alata from leaf-nest gall (s.m.a.) 4 mm or more. R IV+V more than

        0.2 mm long and bearing 7 or more accessory hairs                                .....Prociphilus oriens

-       BL of s.m.a. less than 4 mm. R IV+V less than 0.16 mm long and bearing 2-5 accessory hairs


7      S.m.a. without any clear wax pore plates on head, and secondary rhinaria on ANT V numbering 8-10                                                                                    .....Prociphilus kuwanai

-       S.m.a. with 1-2 pairs of very pale and clearly-defined wax pore plates on head; secondary rhinaria on ANT V numbering 0-7                                                                                     .....8

8      S.m.a. with one pair of circular wax pore plates on vertex of head. ANT I (outside length) as long as or longer than its basal width (fig. 60E). SIPH present as small pigmented rings

.....Prociphilus sasakii

-       S.m.a. with 2 pairs of cephalic wax pore plates, one pair on frons and the other on vertex, and ANT I shorter than its basal width (fig. 60D). SIPH absent        .....Prociphilus caryae fitchii

9      Dorsal abdomen with paired, pigmented spinal tubercles on each segment. Alata with maculate forewings and short pterostigma                                   .....Pterochloroides persicae

-       Dorsal abdomen without dark tubercles. Forewings of alata not maculate, and with a long pterostigma                                                                                                                       .....10

10    Forewing of alata with pterostigma curved distally, extended around wing-tip

.....Longistigma xizangensis*

-       Forewing of alata with pterostigma almost straight, not extending around tip of wing

.....Pyrolachnus pyri

11    Head with well-developed antennal tubercles, their inner faces scabrous or spinulose and bearing short, blunt or slightly clavate hairs (e.g., fig. 42I )                                             .....12

-       Head with antennal tubercles either undeveloped or with inner faces smooth and divergent and bearing pointed hairs                                                                                                 .....16

12    SIPH slightly to moderately swollen on distal half (fig.121H)                   .....Myzus persicae

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering on distal half, or at most slightly swollen subapically        .....13

13    Inner faces of antennal tubercles approximately parallel. ANT III almost always with a single small rhinarium near base                                                                      .....Aulacorthum solani

-       Inner faces of antennal tubercles apically convergent. ANT III without rhinaria           .....14

14    Genital plate enlarged and produced posteriorly. ANT PT/BASE less than 4. SIPH dark, very coarsely imbricated (scabrous), and with a small flange (fig. 60F)

.....Ovatus malisuctus

-       Genital plate normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 4. SIPH pale or dusky, moderately imbricated, with a well-developed flange (fig. 60G)                                                      .....15

15    Spring migrant alata with 60-83 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 36-52 on ANT IV and 13-22 on ANT V                                                                                                      .....Ovatus insitus

-       Spring migrant alata with 22-49 rhinaria on ANT III, 5-20 on IV and 0-10 on V

.....Ovatus crataegarius

16    Head capsule of aptera spinulose or nodulose                                                                 .....17

-       Head capsule of aptera smooth or wrinkled                                                                     .....18

17    SIPH short, of similar length to short cauda, with closely-spaced rows of nodules or spinules (fig. 42M )                                                                                              .....Nearctaphis bakeri

-       SIPH more than 4 ื cauda; jet black and imbricated in aptera (= fundatrix), dark and mainly smooth in alata                                                                                          .....Muscaphis smithi

18    Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than basal width                                    .....19

-       Cauda short, helmet-shaped, semi-circular or triangular, not longer than or about as long as its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                           .....29


19    Body oval, with SIPH only about half as long as the distance between their bases, without polygonal reticulation. Antennal tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped. Aptera without rhinaria on ANT III                                                                                            .....20

-       Body spindle-shaped, SIPH longer than the distance between their bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Antennal tubercles divergent in dorsal view. Aptera with a few rhinaria on ANT III near base                                                                                   .....28

20   Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posteriodorsally to spiracle, and no larger than the spiracular opening  (fig. 42H)                                                                                    …..21

-       Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posterioventrally to spiracle and usually larger than spiracular opening (fig. 42H)                                                                                    .....22

21    SIPH slightly swollen subapically and constricted before the well-developed apical flange (fig. 60H). ANT III 1.8-2.3 ื R IV+V                                  .....Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

-       SIPH tapering from base to apex, with flange only moderately developed. ANT III more than 3 ื longer than R IV+V                                                                     …..Schizaphis mali

22    Stridulatory apparatus present, with sclerotic ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6 and a row of peg-like hairs on hind tibia (fig. 122). ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0

.....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-       No stridulatory ridges present, and peg-like hairs on hind tibia only in one species (Aphis eugeniae). ANT PT/BASE less than 3.5                                                                          .....23

23    Femoral hairs long and fine, many exceeding the length of the trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 6-24 hairs                                                                                                       ....24

-       Femoral hairs mostly short, with only a few ventral hairs long and those not exceeding the length of the trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                        .....27

24    Aptera with black transverse bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and at least some dark spino-pleural markings anterior to SIPH. Alata with a series of dorsal abdominal transverse bars. Cauda tongue- shaped, without a trace of a constriction                                  .....Aphis fabae

-       Aptera without dark dorsal abdominal markings, and alata with only marginal sclerites. Cauda finger-shaped, with a slight constriction near midpoint (fig. 121T)                     .....25

25    Hind tarsus usually with 3 hairs (a sense peg plus 2 lateral hairs), like the fore and mid-tarsi (fig. 60I). Basal half of hind tibia with a spaced-out row of short peg-like hairs

.....Aphis eugeniae

-       Hind tarsus with only 2 hairs (no sense peg; fig. 60J). Hind tibia without peg-like hairs


26    Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13). R IV+V more than 120 ตm                                                                                    .....Aphis pomi

-       Marginal tubercles usually absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V less than 120 ตm                                                          .....Aphis spiraecola

27    Dorsum of aptera mainly black. SIPH and cauda black, the cauda having a rather pointed apex                                                                                                           .....Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsum of aptera pale. SIPH usually darker than cauda, which has a rounded apex             

.....Aphis gossypii

28    Front of head pale or dusky. SIPH of aptera pale at least on basal half, sometimes dusky towards apex                                                                               .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Front of head black. SIPH wholly black                                              .....Macrosiphum rosae

29    Abdomen without marginal tubercles. SIPH more than 3.5ื cauda                                       

.....Allocotaphis quaestionis

-       Abdomen with marginal tubercles on most segments. SIPH less than 3.5ื cauda        .....30

30    Antennae of apt. at least as long as distance from frons to bases of SIPH, and those of al. about as long as body. Apt. without pigmentation of abdominal tergites anterior to SIPH

.....Dysaphis plantaginea

-       Antennae of apt. shorter than the distance from frons to bases of SIPH, and those of al. less than body length. Apt. with dorsal abdominal pigment spots or patches anterior to SIPH


31    Late spring colonies include many apterae, or alatiform apterae with sclerotised thorax (monoecious, non-migratory species)                                                                               .....32

-       Late spring colonies include many immature and adult alatae (host-alternating species)


32    Longest hairs on ANT III longer than BD III. True aptera (no sclerotisation of thorax) with only sparse abdominal pigmentation                                                        .....Dysaphis devecta

-       Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5ื BD III. True aptera with broad dark bands or paired patches on all tergites                                                                       .....Dysaphis affinis

33    (Remaining couplets apply only to spring migrant alatae) Each antenna with a total of

        112-198 secondary rhinaria. HT I usually with 3 hairs                                                   …..34

-       Each antenna with a total of 20-113 secondary rhinaria. HT I with 2 or 3 hairs            …..36

34    Marginal tubercles usually absent from ABD TERG 6, rarely present on both sides (3% of individuals). Longest hair on ANT III is 34-59 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 58-92 μm

…..Dysaphis brancoi ssp. malina

-       Marginal tubercles usually present on ABD TERG 1-7 inclusive, rarely (5% of individuals) absent from both sides of ABD TERG 6. Longest hair on ANT III is 12-50 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 22-90 μm                                                                                             …..35

35    Longest hair on ANT III is 12-45 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 22-54 μm

.....Dysaphis brancoi s.str.

-       Longest hair on ANT III is 18-50 μm, and on ABD TERG 8 is 57-90 μm

..... Dysaphis brancoi ssp. rogersoni

36    Ratio of total number of secondary rhinaria on both antennae to length of SIPH (in ตm) is 1.12-1.64                                                                                                                          .....37

-       Ratio of total number of secondary rhinaria on both antennae to length of SIPH 0.26-1.00


37    Marginal tubercles frequently present on ABD TERG 1-7 inclusive. Ratios of diameter of SIPH at midpoint to diameters of largest and smallest marginal tubercles on ABD TERG

        1-5 are 0.8-1.1, and 1.1-1.8, respectively. ANT V with 0-6 secondary rhinaria

.....Dysaphis sibirica

-       Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-5, or 1-5 and 7 (never on 6). Ratios of diameter of SIPH at midpoint to diameters of largest and smallest tubercles on ABD TERG 1-5 are 1.3-2.1 and 2.7-6.0 respectively. ANT V with 3-10 secondary rhinaria

.....Dysaphis mordvilkoi (or deltoidei)

38    Posterior part of pronotum with a pair of pleural hairs (arrowed)                                    .....39

-       Posterior part of pronotum without a pair of pleural hairs (although occasionally one is present)                                                                                                                             .....42

39    ABD TERG 8 with 7-10 hairs. Longest hair on ANT III 42-64 ตm long, 1.6-2.7ื BD III

.....Dysaphis chaerophylli

-       ABD TERG 8 with 4-5 hairs. Hairs on ANT III are maximally 39 ตm, not more than 1.7ื BD III                                                                                                                              .....40

40    Cauda with 6-9 hairs. Longest hair on ANT III is 13-18 ตm, usually shorter than BD III

.....Dysaphis flava

-       Cauda with 4-6 hairs, usually 5; rarely with 7. Longest hair on ANT III is 9-39 ตm, longer or shorter than BD III, but if shorter then very blunt or dilated apically                             .....41

41    Spino-pleural hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually short and blunt, maximally 11-23 ตm long. Longest hair on ANT III 9-29 ตm, 0.4-1.3ื BD III. Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-7 inclusive (occasionally absent from one side on 6)     .....Dysaphis radicola group

-       Spino-pleural hairs on ABD TERG 3 pointed, the longest being more than 25 ตm long. Longest hair on ANT III in range 20-39 ตm, 1.0-1.7ื BD III. Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 1-5, or 1-5 and 7; absent from 6 except rarely on one side only

.....Dysaphis anthrisci group

42    Each antenna with a total of 60-99 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V less than 1.1ื HT II

.....Dysaphis affinis

-       Each antenna with a total of 26-59 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V usually more than 1.1ื HT II


43    Total number of "spinal" tubercles (including those on head) 6-19. Each antenna with a total of  37-59 (usually more than 46) secondary rhinaria                           .....Dysaphis armeniaca

-       Total number of "spinal" tubercles (including those on head) 2-7. Each antenna with a total of 26-46 secondary rhinaria                                          .....Dysaphis foeniculus ssp. malidauci


Malva                                                          Malvaceae

      Malva aegyptia                              Aphis frangulae

      M. alcea                                        Aphis gossypii, umbrella

        M. arborea                                    Aphis gossypii, umbrella; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        M. assurgentiflora                        Myzus persicae

        M. borealis                                    Aphis umbrella

        M. cathayensis                              Aphis umbrella

        M. crispa = M. verticillata

        M. linnaei                                      Aphis craccivora, fabae, umbrella;  Brachycaudus malvae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        M. meluca = M. verticillata

        M. moschata                                 Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        M. neglecta                                   Acyrthosiphon gossypii, malvae, [pisum];

                                                              Aphis althaeae, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                  spiraecola, umbrella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, malvae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [malvicola (nomen dubium)];

                                                              Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        M. nicaeensis                                Aphis spiraecola, umbrella; Myzus persicae

        M. olitoria                                     Myzus persicae                

        M. parviflora                                 Acyrthosiphon gossypii;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, umbrella;

                                                              Brachycaudus malvae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae];

                                                              [Uroleucon compositae]

        M. peruviana = Fuertesimalva peruviana

        M. plebeja                                     Brachycaudus malvae

        M. pusilla                                      Aphis althaeae, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,


                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Macrosiphum malvicola Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        M. sinensis = M. cathayensis

        M. sylvestris                                   Acyrthosiphon gossypii, malvae;

                   (incl. var. mauritiana)               Aphis fabae, gossypii, umbrella; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus malvae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              [Uroleucon sp. (Leonard, 1964: 98)]

        M. thuringiaca                              Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                              Aphis althaeae, nasturtii, solanella, umbrella;

                                                              [Brachycaudus sp. (Bozhko 1976)]; Myzus persicae

        M. trimestris                                  Aphis umbrella; Myzus persicae

        M. verticillata                                Aphis gossypii, umbrella; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Malva spp.                                    Aphis [eupatorii], solanella; [Cryptomyzus alboapicalis];

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to apterae on Malva:-

1     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH with an annular incision proximal to the flange. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                           …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH (if present) without any distinct subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform                                     …..3

2     Dorsum with an extensive solid black sclerotic shield. Hairs on ANT III are very short, only 0.20-0.25 ื BD III                                                                           …..Brachycaudus malvae

-      Dorsum without a dark sclerotic shield. Hairs on ANT III are longer, 0.5-0.7 ื BD III

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

3     SIPH pale, very long and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, 0.33-0.45 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda                           …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter                                            …..4

4     SIPH pale or dusky, or only dark towards apex, ANT tubercles weakly developed, and marginal tubercles (MTu) always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                   …..5

-      Without the above combination of characters; i.e., either SIPH (if present) are wholly dark or ANT tubercles are well developed and MTu are absent from ABD TERG 1 and 7

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

5     ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V very long, narrow and pointed, 4-5 ื its basal width and 1.6-2.1 ื HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 are mostly longer than ANT BD III. MTu are absent from ABD TERG 2-5                                                                                            .....Aphis althaeae

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented. R IV+V less than 3 ื its basal width and 0.95-1.6 ื HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 are shorter than ANT BD III. MTu are often present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                    .....6

6     MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5, and diameter of tubercle on ABD TERG 7 is less than that of base of ANT III. SIPH 0.8-1.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.95-1.2 ื HT II. ANT VI BASE 0.85-1.1 ื HT II                                                                  .....Aphis nasturtii

-      MTu usually present (except in summer dwarfs) on ABD TERG 2-5 in addition to those on 1 and 7, those on 7 being greater in diameter than base of ANT III. SIPH 1.35-2.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.0-1.6 ื HT II. ANT VI BASE 1.0-1.35 ื HT II                           ..... Aphis umbrella


Malvastrum                                                 Malvaceae

      Malvastrum americanum             Aphis gossypii, umbrella

      M. coccineum = Sphaeralcea coccinea

      M. corchorifolium                        Aphis gossypii

        M. coromandelianum                   Aphis gossypii

        M. peruvianum = Fuertesimalva peruviana

        M. tricuspidatum = Malvastrum americanum

Use key to apterae on Malva.


Malvaviscus                                                Malvaceae

      Malvaviscus arboreus                         Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                  (incl. vars drummondii,             Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

                   mexicanus, penduliflorus)         

        M. conzattii = M. arboreus var. mexicanus

        M. grandiflorus = M. arboreus var. mexicanus                            

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Mammea                                                                                 Calophyllaceae

        Mammea americana                    Aphis aurantii, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Mandevilla                                                  Apocynaceae

        Mandevilla laxa                            Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii; Myzus persicae           

        M. suaveolens = M. laxa

        Mandevilla sp.                              [Sitobion pseudoluteum]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Mangifera                              Mangoes                         Anacardiaceae

        Mangifera indica                          Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae, solanella,


                                                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Greenidea mangiferae, [heeri];

                                                              Macrosiphum [centranthi], euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
                                                      Sinomegoura citricola; Sitobion krahi

Key to species on Mangifera:-

1      SIPH with numerous very long hairs                                             .....Greenidea mangiferae

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                         .....2

2      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. SIPH and antennae mainly dark in both aptera and alata. SIPH at midpoint of similar thickness to hind femora. Hairs on ANT III all less than half basal diameter of segment                                          .....Sitobion krahi

-       SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation, or if with reticulation then other characters do not apply                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Manihot                                                       Euphorbiaceae

      Manihot esculenta                        Aphis craccivora; [Rhopalosiphum esculentum]

      M. utilissima = M. esculenta


Manilkara  see Achras                                            Sapotaceae

      Manilkara zapota = Achras zapota


Mantisalca                                                  Asteraceae

      Mantisalca salmantica                  Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Mapouria  see Psychotria                                                 Rubiaceae


Marah (including Megarrhiza)                                       Cucurbitaceae

      Marah fabaceus                            Aphis gossypii

        M. oreganus                                  Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1974)


Maranta                                                       Marantaceae

      Maranta arundinacea                  Aphis gossypii

        Maranta sp.                                  Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Marcetella                                                   Rosaceae

      Marcetella  maderensis see Sanguisorba maderensis


Marcgravia                                                  Marcgravaceae

        Marcgravia rectiflora = M. trinitatis

        M. trinitatis                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Margaretta                                                                            Asclepiadaceae

        Margaretta whitei                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Aphis nerii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Margaritaria                                               Phyllanthaceae

        Margaritaria discoidea                 Schoutedenia ralumensis

                                var. nitida


Marianthus                                                           Pittosporaceae

      Marianthus lineatus                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Mariscus see Cyperus                                                         Cyperaceae



Markhamia                                                            Bignoniaceae

      Markhamia acuminata = M. zanzibarica

      M. hildebrandtii = M.lutea

      M. lutea                                         Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

      M. nutans (?)                                [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. platycalyx = M.lutea

      M. zanzibarica                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii

      Markhamia sp.                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Marrubium                                                  Lamiaceae

      Marrubium alternidens = M. anisodon

        M. anisodon                                  [Aphis affinis, craccivora]

      M. incisum (= Lagopsis supina)        Aphis gossypii (? - on roots with eggs; Chu 1949:100)

        M. peregrinum                              [Aphis frangulae (or ballotae? - Holman & Pintera 1981)]

        M. supinum                                  Aphis ballotae, gossypii; Cryptomyzus ballotae, taoi

        M. vulgare                                     Aphis ballotae, [frangulae], gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus ballotae;

                                                              Cryptomyzus ballotae

Key to apterae on Marrubium:-

1      Dorsal body hairs are long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them have knobbed or expanded apices, and arise from tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 6.4-10.5


-       Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-5.5                       …..3

2      ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 ื HT II, with 7-9 accessory hairs

…..Cryptomyzus taoi

-       ANT PT/BASE 6.4-8.8. R IV+V 1.5-1.6 ื HT II, with 8-14 accessory hairs

…..Cryptomyzus ballotae

3     Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsal abdomen dark, or with dark cross-bands. Spiracles large and rounded                      …..Brachycaudus ballotae

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum mainly or entirely pale. Spiracles reniform (i.e. partially covered by sclerites)                                               .....4

4      ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces steep-sided and spiculose. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. SIPH pale, tapering/ cylindrical, with a well-developed flange. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)         …..Aulacorthum solani

-       ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH wholly dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                 …..Aphis ballotae or Aphis gossypii


Marsdenia                                                   Apocynaceae

      Marsdenia australis                      Aphis nerii

        M. latifolia                                     Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Marsilea                                                      Marsileaceae               

        Martsilea polycarpa                      Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        M. quadrifolia = M. polycarpa        

        M. strigosa                                    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        M. vestita                                       Myzus persicae

        Marsilea sp.                                  Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Marsilea:-

1      Head almost smooth with ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH uniformly dusky or dark


-       Head spiculose with well-developed ANT tubercles. SIPH at least partly pale               …..3

2      SIPH swollen on distal half. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spicules arranged in polygons

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons

…..Aphis fabae

3      SIPH pale, sometimes dark at apices, slightly clavate. Dorsal hairs short and blunt, without tuberculate bases. Head and ANT I-II pale                                                …..Myzus persicae

-       SIPH black on basal part, contrastingly pale distally. Dorsal hairs thick and expanded apically, arising from tuberculate bases. Head and ANT I-II black

…..Idiopterus nephrelepidis


Marsypianthes                                             Lamiaceae

      Marsypianthes chamaedrys          Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Martynia                                                      Martyniaceae

      Martynia annua                            Aphis gossypii

      M. diandra = Martynia annua

        M. louisiana = Proboscidea louisiana

        M. lutea = Ibicella lutea


Maruta see Anthemis                                                           Asteraceae                  


Masakia                                                       Celastraceae

      Masakia japonica = Euonymus hederaceus                         


Masdevallia                                                 Orchidaceae

      Masdevallia sp.                           Sitobion pseudoluteum


Mastichodendron see Sideroxylon                       Sapindaceae


Matayba                                                      Sapindaceae

     Matayba oppositifolia                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Matricaria (includng Chamomilla, Lepidotheca)             Asteraceae

      Matricaria ambigua = Tripleurospermum ambiguum var. phaenocephalum

        M. breviradiata                             Aphis fabae

        M. caucasica = Matricaria. breviradiata

        M. chamomilla                             Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola,


                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              [Cavariella aegopodii]; Coloradoa inodorella;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani, tanacetaria, tapuskae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Metopeurum matricariae;                                                   

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                              Protaphis dudichi, [terricola]; Trama troglodytes

        M. corymbifera = Tripleurospermum disciforme

        M. disciformis = Tripleurospermum disciforme

        M. discoidea                                  Aphis solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, he;lichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Coloradoa inodorella; Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

        M. inodora = Tripleurospermum inodorum

        M. maritima = Tripleurospermum maritimum                                                                                 

        M. matricarioides (incl.                  Aphis duduchi, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella,

                                       suaveolens)                   spiraecola, [spiraephaga], vandergooti;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Coloradoa inodorella;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani, tapuskae; Smynthurodes betae

        M. parthenoides                            Brachycaudus helichrysi

        M. perforata = Tripleurospermum inodorum

        M. recutita = Matricaria chamomilla

        M. suaveolens = Matricaria matricarioides

        M. tenuifolia = Tripleurospermum tenuifolium

        M. tetragonasperma                     Aphis fabae

        Matricaria spp.                             Aphis matricariae; Macrosiphoniella silvestrii;                                                                         Myzus cymbalariae

Key to apterae on Matricaria and Tripleurospermum:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes composed of only 3 facets. SIPH absent                  .....2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. Eyes multi-faceted. SIPH present                                    .....3

2      Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 ื hind tibiae. Body and appendages densely covered in fine hairs. No discrete wax glands                                       …..Trama troglodytes

-       Hind tarsi normal. Body with rather sparse, short hairs. Posterior part of abdomen with paired wax glands                                                                                     …..Pemphigus sp(p)

3      Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, shorter than or not more than 1.25 ื longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                          …..4

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, more than 1.5 ื longer than its basal width                 …..8

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, constricted at base and rounded at apex. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH with a subapical annular incision                                                      …..5

-       Cauda triangular, tapering, without any basal constriction. Spiracular apertures small, oval or reniform. SIPH without any distinct subapical annular incision                                       …..7

5     Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm, 1.2-1.3 ื HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm, 1.4-2.0 ื HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 ื cauda


6      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25ตm long

.....Brachycaudus lateralis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25ตm long                                                                                                     .....Brachycaudus cardui

7    SIPH very short, black, cylindrical, much shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.3. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large marginal tubercles (MTu)                      …..Protaphis dudichi

-     SIPH pale or dark, narrow at base, somewhat swollen on distal half, longer than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.9. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu             …..Coloradoa inodorella

8      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                            …..9

-       SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                        …..16

9      SIPH 0.6-1.3 ื cauda, and reticulated on distal 0.40-0.67 of length                             …..10

-       SIPH 1.6-2.3 ื cauda, and reticulated on distal 0.12-0.33                                             …..14

10    ANT, legs mostly pale, or pale on at least basal part of ANT III, bases of femora and middle sections of tibiae. SIPH pale at least basally. Cauda pale or dusky                                 .....11

-       ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda all wholly dark                                                                    .....12

11   SIPH more than 0.9 ื head width across (and including) eyes, and at least as long as the cauda, which bears 18-33 hairs                                                   .....Macrosiphoniella oblonga

-       SIPH less than 0.9 ื head width across eyes and usually shorter than cauda, which bears 12-28 hairs                                                                                            ….Macrosiphoniella abrotani

12    SIPH thicker than and 1.1-1.3 ื cauda. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark spinal sclerites, each bearing 2-3 hairs                                                                        …..Macrosiphoniella silvestrii

-       SIPH thinner than and 0.6-1.0 ื cauda. Dorsum with or without dark sclerites             .....13

13    All dorsal abdominal hairs arising from conspicuous dark scleroites (Fig.5g). PT 3.3-4.3 ื BASE VI.  R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II                                        ......Macrosiphoniella millefolii

-       Dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from dark scleroites. PT 2.9-3.5 ื BASE VI. RIV+V  0.7-0.9 ื HT II                                                                     ......Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

14    ANT III with 1-7 (-10) rhinaria. SIPH not flared distally (often with the reticulated part somewhat constricted), but with a distinct flange                     …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       ANT III with 6-26 rhinaria. SIPH flared distally, but with flange undeveloped           …..15

15    SIPH mainly pale, broad-based (Fig.5i), 0.25-0.30 ื BL and 1.8-2.3 ื cauda, which is tongue-shaped. ANT tubercles well-developed                       …..Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

-       SIPH wholly dusky/dark, narrow-based, c.0.2 ื BL and c.1.6-1.8 ื cauda. Cauda elongate triangular. ANT tubercles rather weakly developed                    …..Metopeurum matricariae

16    ABD TERG 1-4 (-5) and 7 or 1-7 with conical or domed marginal tubercles (MTu)      .....17

-       MTu either absent or only regularly present on (prothorax and) ABD TERG 1 and 7    .....18

17    SIPH 0.8-1.1 ื cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-3.2 ื BD III               …..Aphis lindae

-       SIPH 1.9-2.6 ื cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.6 ื BD III      …..Aphis vandergooti

18    SIPH dark 0.65-0.80 ื cauda, which is similarly pigmented and bears 6-10 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with variable dorsal dark markings anterior to SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.0

..…Aphis matricariae

-       SIPH longer than 0.8 ื cauda and other characters not in that combination                  .....19

19    Head smooth with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles. SIPH mainly pale, thin, at midlength similar in thickness to middle part of hind tibia                    .....Acyrthosiphon ilka

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids



Matteuccia (including Pteretis)                                   Woodsiaceae

      Matteuccia intermedia             [Amphorophora scabripes ssp. galba]

      M. struthiopteris                        Amphorophora ampullata, ampullata ssp. laingi;

                                                            Macrosiphum adianti, walkeri; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Matthiola                                                     Brassicaceae

      Matthiola annua = M. incana

          M. bicornis = M. longipetala ssp. bicornis

          M. fruticulosa (incl. ssp.                  Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi


        M. incana                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipamyzodes matthiolae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae

        M. livida =  M. longipetala ssp. livida

        M. longipetala (incl. sspp.                Acyrthosiphon gossypii;

                               bicornis, livida)          Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae

        M. odoratissima                            Brevicoryne brassicae

        M. perennis = M. fruticulosa ssp. perennis

Key to apterae on Matthiola:-

1      ANT III 2.1-3.7 ื the short and somewhat barrel-shaped SIPH. Cauda broadly triangular, not longer than its basal width. ANT  tubercles undeveloped. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings                                                                                           …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-       ANT III 0.8-2.0 ื SIPH, which are not barrel-shaped. Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular, longer than its basal width. ANT tubercles are variably developed, and dorsal abdomen is with or without dark markings                                                                                          …..2

2      SIPH pale, very long and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, 0.33-0.45 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda                          …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter                                                              …..3

3      Ventral surfaces of femora scabrous or heavily imbricated. ANT tubercles variably developed, with inner faces divergent; if well developed then the median frontal tubercle is also well developed                                                                                                            .....4

-       Ventral surfaces of femora smooth or weakly imbricated or, if scabrous or heavily imbricated, then the ANT tubercles are well developed, with inner faces parallel or apically convergent, and the median frontal tubercle is undeveloped

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids

4      ANT pale except for much darker apex of ANT V and whole of VI.  ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.5. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 ื HT II.  Dorsal cuticle smooth.  Cauda pale, 0.4-0.6 ื SIPH, and 0.6-1.3 ื R IV+V                                                                                          .....Lipamyzodes matthiolae

-       ANT uniformly dusky or dark except for basal part of ANT III.  ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. R IV+V 0.6-0.9 ื HT II. Dorsal cuticle roughened.  Cauda dusky or dark, 0.6-0.9 ื SIPH and 1.2-1.9 ื R IV+V                                                                                                               .....5

5     ANT III + PT together 1.95-2.5 ื SIPH (90% of specimens less than 2.4 )

…..Lipaphis erysimi

-      ANT III + PT together 2.1-3.2 ื SIPH (90% of specimens more than 2.4 ื)

…..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae


Maurandya                                                  Plantaginaceae

      Maurandya “hendersoni”            Myzus persicae

                = M. barclaiana?                    


Mauritia                                                                  Arecaceae

      Mauritia flexuosa                         Cerataphis brasiliensis

      M. vinifera = M. flexuosa

Use key to aphids on palms under Calamus.



Mauritiella                                                             Arecaceae

     Mauritiella armata                    Cerataphis brasiliensis



Maytenus (including Gymnosporia)                           Celastraceae

      Maytenus arbutifolia                    Aphis aurantii, fabae; Myzus persicae

      M. boaria                                      Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      M. heterophylla                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

      M. royleana                                   [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Mazus                                                          Phrymaceae

      M. japonicus                               Neotoxoptera oliveri

        M. miquelii (incl. var. stolonifer)     Aleurodaphis blumeae; Schizaphis minuta

        M. surculosus                             Dysaphis microsiphon; [Protrama longitarsus sclerodensis]

        Mazus sp.                                    Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Mazus:-

1      Eyes with only 3 facets. Body elongate oval, small (BL less than 1.3 mm), sclerotic dorsally, with a  crenulate margin due to a continuous fringe of wax glands. SIPH as pores with raised rims. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                        …..Aleurodaphis blumeae

-       Eyes multifaceted, and all other characters above also do not apply                                …..2

2      SIPH dark, only 0.03-0.08 mm long, 0.4-0.8 ื cauda which is helmet-shaped, distinctly shorter than its basal width. Body and appendages with numerous long hairs. ABD TERG 1-5 with marginal tubercles                                                                    …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

3      SIPH tapering/cylindrical, mainly pale with dark apices. Head smooth with ANT tubercles low, not or hardly projecting forward beyond middle part of front of head in dorsal view. ANT with primary rhinaria on ANT V much smaller than that on VI, its diameter 0.3-0.4 ื width of segment at that point. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with small marginal tubercles

.....Schizaphis minuta

-       Without that combination of characters                          .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Mecardonia                                                 Plantaginaceae

      Mecardonia procumbens           Aphis gossypii


Meconopsis                                                 Papaveraceae

      Meconopsis betonicifolia            Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        M. cambrica                                Aphis fabae; Myzus ornatus

        M. paniculata                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Medicago                                                     Fabaceae

        Medicago arabica                         Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis trifolii

        M. arborea                                    Aphis craccivora, Aphis (Pergandeida) sp. (France, BMNH

                                                                  collection, leg. F. Leclant);

                                                              Therioaphis trifolii

        M. caerulea                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis trifolii

        M. carstiensis                                Acyrthosiphon pisum

        M. corniculata                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

        M. coronata                                  Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum

        M. denticulata = M. polymorpha

        M. disciformis                               Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        M. falcata                                      Acyrthosiphon [hissaricum], kondoi, pisum;

                                                              Aphis coronillae ssp. arenaria, [craccae], craccivora,

                                                                  [loti], [lotiradicis], medicaginis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Therioaphis [brachytricha], trifolii

        M. galilaea = M. granadensis

        M. glomerata                                Therioaphis trifolii

        M. granadensis                             Acyrthosiphon pisum

        M. helix = M. tornata ssp. helix

        M. hispida = M. polymorpha

        M. indica (?)                                  Therioaphis rhiemi

        M. laciniata                                   Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum; Aphis craccivora

        M. littoralis                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Therioaphis trifolii 

        M. lupulina                                   Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                              Aphis coronillae ssp. arenaria, craccivora, fabae,


                                                              Megoura viciae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus populi;

                                                              Therioaphis [brachytricha], [ononidis], subalba, trifolii

        M. marina                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        M. media = M. sativa ssp. varia

          M. medicaginoides                        Aphis craccivora

        M. minima                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Therioaphis trifolii

        M. orbicularis                               Therioaphis rhiemi

          M. orthoceras                                Aphis craccivora

        M. perennis (?)                              Macrosiphum albifrons

        M. polycarpa = M. polymorpha

          M. polyceratia                               Aphis craccivora

        M. polymorpha (incl. var.                Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                           vulgaris)                Megoura viciae; Myzus persicae; Nearctaphis sensoriata;

                                                              Therioaphis trifolii

        M. prostrata                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Therioaphis trifolii

        M. radiata                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum

        M. rigidula                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Therioaphis trifolii

        M. romanica = M. falcata

        M. ruthenica                                 Aphis craccivora

        M. sativa (incl. ssp. varia)                 Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [hissaricum], kondoi, loti, pisum;

                                                              [Anuriella dorsolineata del Guercio (nomen dubium)];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [incerta],

                                                                  [loti], medicaginis, yangbajaingana;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Cavariella llhasana]; [Macrosiphoniella maculata];

                                                              Macrosiphum creelii, euphorbiae; Megoura viciae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae; Nearctaphis bakeri;

                                                              [Pemphigus sp. (Zw๖lfer 1958)];

                                                              [Schizaphis rotundiventris]; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                              Therioaphis [brachytricha],  [cana], riehmi, [luteola],

                                                                  [ononidis], subalba, trifolii, trifolii ssp. maculata,

                                                                  trifolii ssp. ventromaculata

        M. sulcata (?)                                Aphis craccivora

        M. tianschanica = M. sativa. ssp. varia

        M. tornata ssp. helix                     Aphis craccivora

        M. truncatula                                Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; 

                                                              Therioaphis trifolii ssp. maculata

        M. turbinata                                  Aphis fabae

        M. ืvaria                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis coronillae, craccivora;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae

        Medicago sp.                                 [Aphis sibirica]

Key to apterae on Medicago:-

(Couplet 1-3 only can be applied to both apterae and alatae. For an illustrated, simplified key to common alfalfa aphids see Blackman & Eastop 2000.)

1      Cauda with a constriction and a knob-like apex. Anal plate bilobed. Dorsal hairs arising from pigmented bases (if apt. then these hairs are mostly long and capitate). Fore coxae greatly enlarged. ANT PT/BASE about 1                                                                                     …..2

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, rounded or triangular in dorsal view, or not evident. Anal plate entire. Body hairs blunt or pointed, with or without pigmented bases. Fore coxae normal. ANT PT/BASE either much more or much less than 1                                                              …..5

2      (Apterous viviparae are very rare.) ABD TERG 1-5 each with 4 hairs (1 pair spinal, 1 pair marginal)                                                                                               …..Therioaphis riehmi

-       (Apterae are common.)  ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with 6 or more hairs                    …..3

3      ABD TERG 1-5 each with only 4 long hairs (1 pair spinal, 1 pair marginal), but usually with additional much smaller hairs in pleural region                                   …..Therioaphis subalba

-       ABD TERG 1-5 each with 8 or more hairs  (2 pairs spinal, 2 marginal)                           …..4

4     Ventral abdomen with large black submarginal sclerites, each encompassing the bases of 5-6 ventral hairs                                                            …..Therioaphis trifolii ssp. ventromaculata

-     Ventral abdomen either without any submarginal sclerites or with small or fragmented dusky-dark sclerites, each encompassing bases of 1-4 hairs

.….Therioaphis trifolii (incl. ssp. maculata)

5    Head with well-developed ANT tubercles, the inner faces of which are smooth and divergent


-     ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if well developed then with their inner faces steep-sided and scabrous or spiculose                                                                               …..13

6    SIPH black, black, swollen in middle (cigar-shaped), similar in length to cauda, which is also black                                                                                                             …..Megoura viciae

-     SIPH mainly pale, tapering/cylindrical, longer than cauda, which is also pale                   …..7

7      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                                 …..8

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III very short and blunt, much less than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                                                                    .….10

8      ANT III with 17-40 rhinaria. BL 3.2-5.1 mm                                …..Macrosiphum albifrons

-       ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. BL 1.7-4.0 mm                                                                     …..9

9      ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.3 ื R IV+V                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       ANT VI BASE 1.4-2.0 ื R IV+V                                                     …..Macrosiphum creelii

10    SIPH attenuated distally, as thin as or thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths


-       SIPH not attenuated distally, thicker than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths    …..12

11    SIPH 2.2-3.3 ื cauda and 0.33-0.45 ื BL                                    …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH 1.2-1.9 ื cauda and 0.22-0.37 ื BL                                       …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

12    ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.0, and PT usually 1.6-2.5 ื cauda. SIPH usually more than 1.7 ื cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon kondoi

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.2, and PT usually 1.1-1.6 ื cauda. SIPH usually less than 1.7 ื cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon loti

13    Head densely spiculose or nodulose, but ANT tubercles are undeveloped. SIPH with close-set, strongly spiculose imbrication. Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, not longer than or only a little longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                    …..14

-       Head smooth or, if densely spinulose or nodulose then with ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH (if present) with normal imbrication. Cauda (if developed at all) tongue- or finger-like, much longer than its basal width                                                                                     …..15

14    Hind tibiae with numerous rounded scent glands. Dorsal abdomen with black sclerotic shield

…..Nearctaphis sensoriata

-       Hind tibiae without scent glands. Dorsal abdomen with small pale to dark hair-bearing sclerites, sometimes fused into larger patches or bars on posterior tergites

…..Nearctaphis bakeri

15    Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, divided into polygons                   …..16

-       Dorsal abdomen not extensively sclerotised                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

16    SIPH 0.075-0.08 ื BL, and 0.65-0.85 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.0

                                                              …..Aphis (Pergandeida) sp. on Medicago arborea, France

-       SIPH 0.11-0.25 ื BL and 1.1-2.1 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.3                             …..17

17    ABD TERG 2-6 usually without marginal tubercles (MTu) (range 0-3)

…..Aphis craccivora

-       ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) regularly bearing dome-shaped MTu (range 4-10)                        …..18

18    Cauda with most hairs short, blunt and often rather straight or adpressed. Dorsal sclerotisation often fragmented. Longest hairs on ANT III 5-8 μm, 0.15-0.33 ื BD III

…..Aphis medicaginis

-       Cauda with long, curved, finely-pointed hairs. Dorsal sclerotisation forming a solid patch. Longest hairs on ANT III 8-16 μm, 0.36-0.7 ื BD III                                                   .....19

19    SIPH 0.49-0.97 ื head width across eyes,  and 1.0-1.6 ื ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.0

                                                                                          …..Aphis coronillae (incl. ssp. arenaria)

-       SIPH 0.4-0.5 ื head width across eyes, and 0.7-0.8 ื ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.4

.....Aphis yangbajaingana


Megapterium                                               Onagraceae

      Megapterium missouriense           Aphis oenotherae; Myzus persicae                                     


Megarrhiza  see Marah                                                    Cucurbitaceae


Meibomia  see Desmodium                                              Fabaceae


Meiotrichum see Polytrichum                               Polytrichaceae


Melaleuca                                                              Myrtaceae

      Melaleuca angustifolia (?)            Myzus persicae

      M. armillaris                                 [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. bracteata                                  Aulacorthum solani

      M. brevifolia                                  [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. elliptica                                    [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]; Aulacorthum solani

      M. hamulosa                                 [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. lanceolata                                Sensoriaphis malaleucica

      M. lateriflora                                 [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. leucadendra                             Aphis gossypii; Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii;
                                                      Myzus persicae

      M. longicorna = M. macronychia

      M. macronychia                           Aphis gossypii

      M. megacephala                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      M. monticola = M. bracteata

      M. pauciflora                                Aulacorthum solani

      M. platycalyx                                 [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]; Aulacorthum solani

      M. quinquenervia                         [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]

      M. radiata (?)                                Aphis gossypii

      M. squarrosa                                 Aphis gossypii

      M. teretifolia                                  Sensoriaphis malaleucica

      M. uncinata                                  Aphis gossypii

      Melaleuca sp(p).                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii  

Key to aphids on Melaleuca:-                                                                                                       

1      SIPH with numerous long hairs. Dorsum of aptera dark, sclerotic, bearing long hairs with furcate apices. Hind tibiae with imbrications bearing minute spinules

.....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

-       SIPH without hairs. Dorsum pale and membranous bearing hairs with finely pointed or blunt apices. Hind tibiae without spinulose imbrication                                                             .....2

2      SIPH as small, broad-based cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. ABD TERG 6 and 7 of aptera each with a pair of backwardly-directed processes, and ABD TERG 8 with 4 such processes                                                              .....Sensoriaphis malaleucica

-       SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped. ABD TERG 6-8 without processes             

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids



Melampodium                                             Asteraceae

      Melampodium perfoliatum           Uroleucon ambrosiae