HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Lin-Lyt

 

Linaria

Lindelofia

Lindenbergia

Lindera

Lindernia

Linnaea

Linosyris

Linum

Liparis

Lipocarpha

Lippia

Liquidambar

Liriodendron

Liriope

Lisianthus

Lissanthe

Listera

Litchi

Lithocarpus

Lithodora

Lithospermum

Litsea

Livistona

Lobelia

Lobularia

Lochia

Lochnera

Loeflingia

Logfia

Loliolum

Lolium

Lomatium

Lonchocarpus

Lonicera

Lophanthus

Lophochloa

Lopholaena

Lophospermum

Loranthus

Lotus

Louiseania

Loxostylis

Lubinia

Luculia

Ludisia

Ludwigia

Luehea

Luetkea

Luffa

Lunania

Lunaria

Lupinus

Lupsia

Lupulina

Lupulinus

Luziola

Luzula

Luzuriaga

Lychnis

Lycianthes

Lycium

Lycopersicon

Lycopsis

Lycopus

Lycoris

Lygos

Lyonia

Lyonothamnus

Lysichiton

Lysimachia

Lythrum

 

Linaria                                                        Plantaginaceae

      Linaria alpina                               [Aphis sambuci]; Myzus ascalonicus

        L. buriatica                                   [Acyrthosiphon dauricum]

      L. canadensis = Nuttallanthus canadensis

        L. cymbalaria = Cymbalaria muralis

        L. dalmatica = L. genistifolia ssp. dalmatica

        L. genistifolia                                Brachycaudus linariae; Myzus linariae

        L. genistifolia ssp. dalmatica        Acyrthosiphon ilka; Myzus linariae

        L. heterophylla                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus linariae

        L. Χ incompleta                             [Aphis franzi]

        L. melanantha                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. pelisseriana                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. popovii                                      [Aphis sp. (Uzbekistan; Davletshina 1964)]

        L. propinqua                                 Myzus linariae, persicae

        L. purpurea                                   Brachycaudus linariae

        L. repens                                       Brachycaudus linariae; Dysaphis gallica;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        L. vulgaris                                     [Aphis linariae Lichtenstein (nomen nudum)];

                                                              Brachycaudus linariae, rinariatus;

                                                              [Hyperomyzus rhinanthi]; [Macrosiphoniella linariae];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae                                                    

Key to apterae of Linaria:-

1      Cauda short, helmet-shaped, pentagonal or bluntly triangular, not more than 1.2 Χ its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                          …..2

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-like, more than 1.3 Χ its basal width in dorsal view                  …..6

2      ANT PT/BASE less than 2. SIPH shorter than R IV+V. ABD TERG 7 with large marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                 …..Protaphis middletonii

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 2.4. SIPH longer than R IV+V. ABD TERG 7 without MTu

…..3

3      ABD TERG 1-5 with extensive dark sclerotisation. Cauda with 10-15 hairs                  …..4

-       ABD TERG 1-5 without dark sclerotisation. Cauda with 4-6 hairs                                 …..5

4      ANT III and IV with numerous rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III. SIPH much shorter than (0.6-0.75 Χ ) ANT III. ABD TERG 1-5 with a solid dark shield, fused with marginal sclerites                                                        …..Brachycaudus rinariatus

-       ANT III and IV without rhinaria. Hairs on ANT III minute, the longest c.0.2 Χ BD III. SIPH slightly longer than ANT III. ABD TERG 1-5 with variably developed sclerotisation, usually with intersegmental gaps and not fused with marginal sclerites

…..Brachycaudus linariae

5      SIPH smooth, pale 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda. Head smooth with ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle undeveloped. Spiracular apertures large and rounded   …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       SIPH imbricated, dark at least towards apices, 2.4-3.3 Χ cauda. Head with evident ANT tubercles and a scabrous median frontal tubercle. Spiracular apertures small and reniform

…..Dysaphis gallica

6      Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent                          …..7

-       Head spinulose or nodulose with inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and steep-sided

…..8

7      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                                                                                       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III

…..Acyrthosiphon ilka

8      SIPH tapering, with a slight “S” curve. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings                                                                               …..Myzus ornatus

-       SIPH slightly to moderately clavate. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                …..9

9     SIPH 0.54-0.81 Χ ANT III                                                                                              …..10

-      SIPH 0.82-1.34 Χ ANT III                                                                                              …..11

10   Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view. SIPH almost smooth or weakly imbricated, with narrowest part of  basal stem not wider than hind tibia at midlength. Dorsal cuticle smooth or slightly wrinkled                                             …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles with convergent apices. SIPH heavily imbricated or scabrous, with narrowest part of stem  a little wider than hind tibia at midlength. Dorsal cuticle scaly

…..Myzus cymbalariae

11.  R IV+V 0.63-0.88 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.85                                 …..Myzus linariae

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5                                      …..Myzus persicae

 

Lindelofia                                                    Boraginaceae

      Lindelofia anchusioides = L. macrostyla

        L. longiflora                                  Brachycaudus cardui

        L. macrostyla                                Brachycaudus bicolor; Myzus persicae

        Lindelofia sp.                                Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to apterae on Cynoglossum.

 

Lindenbergia                                               Plantaginaceae

      Lindenbergia urticifolia                Aphis fabae

        Lindenbergia sp.                           Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lindera                                                                                    Lauraceae

        Lindera aggregata                        Pseudomegoura magnoliae                                               

        L. communis                                 Aiceona osugii

        L. erythrocarpa                             Aulacorthum muradachi

        L. glauca                                       Aiceona actinodaphinis

        L. praecox                                     Aulacorthum muradachi; Thoracaphis linderae

        L. pulcherrima                              Aiceona parvicornis

        L. sericea                                       Aulacorthum linderae

        L. strychnifolia = L. aggregata                 

        L. triloba                                       Aulacorthum muradachi; Thoracaphis linderae

        L. umbellata                                  Aulacorthum muradachi; Thoracaphis linderae

        Lindera sp.                                    Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Machilaphis pseudomachili;

                                                               ?Metanipponaphis sylvestrii;

                                                                [Greenideoida (Pentatrichosiphum) lutea];

                                                               Eutrichosiphum sp. - David & Rajasingh 1969];

                                                              Schizoneuraphis himalayensis

Key to species:-    

1      Aptera aleyrodiform; body flattened, almost circular, with dark sclerotic dorsum. Antennae very short, 3-segmented                                                                                                     .....2

-      Aptera of normal aphid form. Antennae 5- or 6-segmented                                             .....4

2      Dorsal hairs on prosoma all short, only 14-16 ΅m long            .....?Metanipponaphis sylvestrii

-      Prosomal hairs or at least the marginal ones, long and thick-based                                  .....3

3      BL c.1.8-2 mm. Abdominal plate with only one pair of long marginal hairs, the rest being minute                                                                                                .....Thoracaphis linderae

-      BL 0.9-1.1 mm. Abdominal plate (fused ABD TERG 2-7) with at least 3 pairs of long marginal hairs                                                                     .....Schizoneuraphis himalayensis*

4      SIPH merely small pores, not surrounded by hairs. Posterior abdomen with extensive wax gland pore plates                                                                       .....Machilaphis pseudomachili

(or possibly M. machili – check couplet 4 of key to aphids on Persea)

-       SIPH as pores on hairy cones or tubular. No extensive wax pore plates                          .....5

5      SIPH pores placed on hairy cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Eyes reduced                .....6

-       SIPH tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 2. Eyes well developed                                   .....7

6      R IV+V 0.76-0.80 Χ HT II. SIPH cones small, basal diameter maximally 0.12 mm

                                                                                                    .....Aiceona osugii (or parvicornis)

-       R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH cones large, of basal diameter more than 0.2 mm

.....Aiceona actinodaphnis

7      SIPH with numerous long hairs                     .....Greenideini sp. (try key to aphids on Litsea)

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                            .....8

8      Antennal tubercles weakly developed. SIPH and cauda of aptera both black                  .....9

-      Antennal tubercles well developed, steep-sided. SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale            .....10

9      Stridulatory mechanism present, consisting of a conspicuous pattern of ridges on ventrolateral areas of abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and a row of short peg-like hairs on the hind tibia (fig. 122)                                                                    .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      Stridulatory mechanism not present                                                         …..Aphis spiraecola

10    SIPH swollen on distal half                                                     .....Neoaulacorthum magnoliae

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical from base to flange                                                                 .....11

11    SIPH of aptera much darker than cauda. R IV+V 0.8-1.0Χ HT II

.....Aulacorthum muradachi

-       SIPH of aptera pale, or dark only at apices. R IV+V 1.2-1.4Χ HT II

.....Aulacorthum linderae*

 

Lindernia                                                    Linderniaceae

     Lindernia crustacea                       Aphis gossypii

 

Linnaea                                                       Caprifoliaceae

      Linnaea borealis                                    Aulacorthum solani; Illinoia simpsoni;

                (incl. var. americana)                 Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Linnaea:-

-      SIPH swollen on distal part, but the subapical part narrower and with polygonal reticulation (4-6 rows of large polygonal cells)                                                          ….. Illinoia simpsoni

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering on distal part and/or without polygonal reticulation

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Linosyris                                                      Compositae

      Linosyris villosa = Galatella villosa                                          

 

Linum                                                          Linaceae

        Linum alpinum                             [Macrosiphum hartigi]    

        L. austriacum                                Aphis craccivora, linorum; [Dysaphis pyri]

        L. capitatum                                  Aphis lini

        L. corymbulosum                          Acyrthosiphon mordvilkoi

        L. grandiflorum                            Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis fabae; Myzus persicae

        L. indehiscens = L. usitatissimum

        L. nervosum                                  Aphis lini, linorum

        L. perenne                                     Acyrthosiphon mordvilkoi; Aphis linorum;

                                                              [Macrosiphum sp. (aphidtrek.org)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        L. perenne ssp. alpinum = L. alpinum                                      

        L. strictum                                     [Acyrthosiphon pisum]; Aphis craccivora

        L. usitatissimum                            Acyrthosiphon ilka, mordvilkoi;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, lini, linorum;

                                                              Linaphis lini; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        Linum spp.                                   Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              [Sitobion avenae]; Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Linum:-

1    SIPH pale, long , tapering or cylindrical on distal half, and without subapical polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces, and median frontal tubercle evident                                                …..Acyrthosiphon ilka group (incl. mordvilkoi)

-     SIPH (if present) either not pale, long and tapering, or with subapical polygonal reticulation, and other characters not in above combination                                                                  …..2

2    ANT III longer than IV + V together                                                                                …..3

-     ANT III shorter than IV + V together                                                                               …..5

3     ANT III 2.2-3.7 Χ SIPH. SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which is broadly triangular and bears 6-9 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark markings                            .....Brevicoryne brassicae

-     ANT III 1.0-1.8 Χ SIPH. SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda which is elongate triangular or tongue-shaped and bears 4-7 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                …..4

4    ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. (Al. with 9-25 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-8 on IV and

      0-3 on V                                                                                                       .....Lipaphis erysimi

-     ANT PT/BASE less than 1.4. (Al. with 4-8 secondary rhinaria on ANT III only)

…..Linaphis lini

5      ANT PT/BASE c. 1.2-1.3. SIPH much shorter than (c. 0.6-0.7 Χ) cauda. Abdomen with variably developed paired dark markings on ABD TERG 1-4, and cross-bands on 5-8

…..Aphis lini

-      ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.5 or more than 2. SIPH (if present) 0.7-3.2 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                          …..6

6      ABD TERG 1-7 with large, rather flat marginal tubercles (MTu), occupying a large part of each marginal sclerite (sometimes small or absent on 5 and/or 6)                 …..Aphis linorum

-       MTu not large and flat and only ever regularly present on ABD TERG 1 and 7

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Liparis                                                         Orchidaceae

      Liparis bowkeri                             Aulacorthum solani; Sitobion eulophiae

        L. javanica                                    Neomyzus circumflexus

        L. neglecta = L. bowkeri

        L. nugentiae = Stichorkis nugentiae

        Liparis sp.                                     Cerataphis orchidearum

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.

 

Lipocarpha                                                  Cyperaceae

      Lipocarpha chinensis                   Aphis gossypii

 

Lippia                                                          Verbenaceae

      Lippia citriodora = Aloysia citriodora

        L. grandiflora                                Aphis gossypii

        L. javanica                                    Aphis gossypii

        L. macrophylla                              Aphis gossypii

        L. nodiflora = Phyla nodiflora

        L. triphylla = Aloysia citriodora

        L. urticoides = Aloysia virgata

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Liquidambar                Sweet Gums            Altingiaceae

        Liquidambar formosana              Aphis gossypii; Longistigma liquidambaris;
                                                      Myzus persicae; Stomaphis liquidambarus

        L. orientalis                                   Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        L. styraciflua                                               American Red Gum
                                                      Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Macrosiphum opportunisticum]; Myzus ornatus

Key to aphids on Liquidambar:-

1      BL less than 4 mm. Cauda tongue-shaped                       .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      BL more than 4 mm. Cauda broadly rounded                                                                   .....2

2      Rostrum longer than body. Forewing of alata with veins bordered with fuscous, and with pterostigma not extending to wing-tip                                        .....Stomaphis liquidambarus

-       Rostrum much shorter than body. Forewing of alata with wing veins not or only very lightly bordered, and with pterostigma extended to wing-tip

.....Longistigma liquidambarus

 

Liriodendron                                                                       Magnoliaceae              

        Liriodendron tulipifera                               Tulip Tree
                                                      Aphis fabae; Illinoia liliodendri;
                                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

1      SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT III of aptera without any secondary rhinaria

.....use key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III of aptera with 0-7 secondary rhinaria on basal half                                                                                                         .....2

2      SIPH 2.4-2.8Χ cauda. SIPH of aptera clearly darker than cauda and usually somewhat swollen on distal half. Longest hairs on ANT III not more than 0.5Χ longer than basal diameter of segment                                                                                .....Illinoia liriodendri

-       SIPH 1.7-2.3Χ cauda; in aptera not darker than cauda except at apices, and cylindrical on distal half. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5Χ longer than basal diameter of segment

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Liriope                                                         Asparagaceae

      Liriope muscari                             Hydronaphis liriopes; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi

        L. platyphylla = L. muscari

Key to apterae on Liriope:-

-       Head densely spinulose but with ANT tubercles weakly developed, divergent. ANT with many sec. rhin. (III 23-29, IV 0-13). Dorsal abdomen with a large irregularly-shaped dark central sclerite, large post-siphuncular sclerites and a cross-band on ABD TERG 7. SIPH dark, clavate                                                                     ..... Hydronaphis liriopes

 -     Without that combination of characters                     .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Lisianthus                                                   Gentianaceae

      Lisianthus glandulosus                 Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lissanthe                                                     Epacridaceae

      Lissanthe strigosa                         Ceriferella leucopogonis

 

Listera see Neottia                                                   Orchidaceae

        Listera ovata = Neottia ovata

        Listera sp. (Neottia sp.?)                  Sinomegoura citricola

Use key to polyphagous aphids (or try key to orchids under Cymbidium).

 

Litchi                                         Lychee                              Sapindaceae

        Litchi chinensis                             Aphis aurantii, craccivora;

                                                              Greenidea decaspermi, ficicola

-       SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                                   .....Greenidea spp.

-      SIPH without any hairs                                                       .....use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Lithocarpus (= Pasania)                                                                    Fagaceae

          Lithocarpus bennettii                   Eutrichosiphum nigrum;

                                                                          Greenidea (Trichosiphum) pallidipes;

                                                                          Mesotrichosiphum brevisetosum;

                                                                         Nipponaphis semiglabra

          L. chintungensis (?)                      Neothoracaphis saramaoensis

          L. cuspidatus = Castanopsis cuspidata

          L. dasystachyus                               Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum

          L. dealbatus?                                    [Allotrichosiphum assamense]

          L. densiflorus                                                      Tan Oak

                                                                         Tuberculatus (Pacificallis) pasaniae

          L. edulis                                               Eutrichosiphum apicifuscum, heterotrichum, nigrisiphon;

                                                                          Greenidea (Trichosiphum) kuwanai, nigra;

                                                                         Neothoracaphis saramaoensis; Nipponaphis monzeni;

                                                                         [Tuberculatus pilosus]

          L. fenestratus                                    [Eutrichosiphum assamense]

          L. glaber                                              Eutrichosiphum dubium, heterotrichum, pasaniae;
                                                                 Greenidea (Trichosiphum) kuwanai;
                                                                 Mollitrichosiphum lithocarpi, nigrofasciatum

          L. grifithii (?)                                    [Eutrichosiphum jugeshwari, manipurense]

          L. indutus                                           Sinonipponaphis hispida

          L. konishii                                          Eutrichosiphum dubium

          L. ovalis                                               Eutrichosiphum pasaniae, sinense

          L. rhombocarpus = L. taitoensis

          L. spicatus                                          Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum, pasaniae

          L. sundaicus                                     Metanipponaphis vandergooti

          L. taitoensis                                       Greenidea (Trichosiphum) nigra

          L. uraianus                                        Eutrichosiphum pasaniae; Mollitrichosiphum lithocarpi

          Lithocarpus spp.                      [Aiceona retipennis]; Dermaphis japonensis, takahashii;

                                                                          Eutrichosiphum flavum; Lithoaphis lithocarpi;

                                                                          Metanipponaphis lithocarpicola; [Neohormaphis wuyiensis];

                                                         Parathoracaphis setigera; Uichancoella gabrieli

Key to aphids on Lithocarpus:-  

1      Body of aptera aleyrodiform; oval, strongly sclerotised dorsally with head, thorax and ABD TERG 1 more-or-less fused (as prosoma). Legs and antennae much reduced and SIPH

        pore-like or absent. Antennae of alata with annular rhinaria                                                            .....2

-      Aptera of normal aphid form with well-developed legs and antennae. SIPH either truncated cones or tubes densely clothed with long hairs. Antenna of alata with oval or transversely elongate rhinaria                                                                                                               .....12

2      Aptera without SIPH                                                                                                         .....3

-      Aptera with SIPH as a pair of pores (sometimes very small) on the abdominal plate (= fused ABD TERG 2-7; see fig. 36B)                                                                                           .....6

3    Body of aptera elongate oval and dorsally flattened                                                          .....4

-      Body of aptera broadly oval, convex dorsally                                                                   .....5

4      Body of aptera with stout, spine-like marginal hairs, and hind legs concealed beneath body (fig. 91F)                                                                                      .....Parathoracaphis setigera

-      Body of aptera with small inconspicuous marginal hairs and hind legs projecting behind body                                                                                    .....Neothoracaphis saramaoensis

5      Marginal hairs of aptera 120-160 ΅m long (fig. 91L)                       .....Dermaphis japonensis

-      Marginal hairs of aptera maximally about 100 ΅m long                    .....Dermaphis takahashii

6      Prosoma of aptera densely covered with non-articulated hair-like processes, 15-40 ΅m long, lacking only on muscle plates (fig. 57A)                                       .....Sinonipponaphis hispida

-       Prosoma of aptera without hair-like processes                                                                   .....7

7      Prosoma ornamented with blunt conical nodules, often longer than their basal widths

         (fig. 91A). Prosomal hairs very long and very fine                          .....Nipponaphis monzeni

-       Prosoma variably sculptured, if pustulate then pustules are low pustules, all or mostly shorter than their basal widths. Prosomal hairs long or short                                                         .....8

8      Prosoma of aptera densely ornamented with numerous separate oval or rounded papillae or pustules (e.g., fig. 36C). Marginal hairs numerous, minute                                                .....9

-       Prosoma of aptera variably sculptured, but without a dense ornamentation of separate rounded papillae or pustules. Marginal hairs more than 20 ΅m long                               .....10

9      Prosoma of aptera with 3-13 hairs 30-50 ΅m long on medial area of each segment. Total antennal length 0.13-0.14Χ BL                                             .....Metanipponaphis vandergooti

-       Prosoma of aptera without any hairs on medial area (?). Total length of antenna only about 0.06-0.07Χ BL                                                                   .....Metanipponaphis lithocarpicola

10    Prosoma of aptera fused with abdominal plate (e.g., fig. 36C). Marginal hairs short and spine-like, about 28 ΅m long, and with 5 pairs of very short spinal hairs

.....Lithoaphis lithocarpi*

-       Prosoma and abdominal plate at least partially separate. Marginal hairs not spine-like,

        50-180 ΅m long                                                                                                                .....11

11    Prosoma of aptera with marginal hairs very long, stout basally but with finely-pointed apices, about 160 ΅m long (fig. 57B); with 5 pairs of similar large spino-pleural hairs, the 3 thoracic tergites also bearing several somewhat shorter, thinner hairs

.....Uichancoella gabrieli

-       Prosomal hairs of aptera all 50-80 ΅m long                                 .....Nipponaphis semiglabra*

12    SIPH as truncated cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. ABD TERG 1 and 2 each with a pair of large spinal processes. (All viviparae alate)

.....Tuberculatus (Pacificallis) pasaniae

-       SIPH as hairy tubes or broad flat hairy cones. Cauda much broader than long, anal plate entire. ABD TERG 1 and 2 without processes. (Viviparae apterous or alate)               .....13

13    SIPH as broad flat hairy cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5      .....Lachnus quercihabitans

-       SIPH as hairy tubes. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.8 (usually more than 1.0, except in one species with 4-segmented antennae)                                                                                .....14

14    Cauda with a median papilla. SIPH with reticulation on basal part                                .....15

-       Cauda without a median papilla. SIPH without reticulation                                           .....17

15    BL of aptera 1.3-2.2 mm. Head and legs mainly pale                     ..... Greenidea pallidipes*

-       BL of aptera 2.2-3.4 mm. Head and legs mainly dark                                                     .....16

16    Ventral abdomen smooth, or only locally and weakly spinulose, the spinules much smaller than hair sockets. Tibiae dark brown on basal half and pale brown on distal half

.....Greenidea kuwanai

-       Ventral abdomen of aptera distinctly spinulose, each spinule about as long as the diameter of the sockets of the ventral hairs. Tibiae entirely dark                                 .....Greenidea nigra

17    Antennae of aptera 4-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE c.0.5

.....Mesotrichosiphum brevisetosum*

-       Antennae of aptera 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7                  .....18

18    Hind tibia with a series of narrow tranverse (stridulatory) ridges spaced out over proximal 0.5-0.9 of length (fig. 57D). Body elongate                                                                    .....19

-       Hind tibia without stridulatory ridges. Body elongate oval or pear-shaped                    .....21

19    Dorsal thorax and abdomen with dark pleural areas linked across ABD TERG 3-4 by a broad cross-band                                                            .....Mollitrichosiphum nigrofasciatum

-       Dorsal abdomen without such markings                                                                          .....20

20    Ventro-lateral areas of abdomen densely spinulose (fig. 57C). ANT III of aptera at least 1.8 Χ ANT IV + V together                                                      .....Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus

-       Ventro-lateral areas of abdomen not spinulose. ANT III of aptera about 1.5 Χ ANT IV + V together                                                                                 .....Mollitrichosiphum lithocarpi*

21    R IV+V very long, 2.5-3.5 Χ HT II                                                                                 .....22

-       R IV+V 1.4-2.4 Χ HT II                                                                                                  .....24

22    SIPH of aptera pale, shorter than head width across eyes, with long hairs all of similar length (except near base)                                                                            .....Eutrichosiphum flavum

-       SIPH of aptera dark, longer than head width across eyes, with hairs of different lengths interspersed, the shortest hairs being about half as long as the longest (fig. 92G)          .....23

23    ANT III of aptera not longer than ANT VI (BASE + PT) and bearing 13-18 hairs, with long hairs only on anterior side                                                              .....Eutrichosiphum dubium

-       ANT III of aptera 1.1-1.5 Χ ANT VI and bearing 32-53 hairs, with long hairs on both anterior and posterior sides (fig. 92J)                                  .....Eutrichosiphum heterotrichum

24    Abdominal tergum smooth, lacking spinules except sometimes marginally. First tarsal segments with 5 or 7 hairs                                                                                                .....25

-       Abdominal tergum spinulose. First tarsal segments with 7 hairs                                     .....27

25    ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Legs mainly black                            .....Eutrichosiphum nigrum*

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Legs pale                                                                           .....26

26    First tarsal segments with 7 hairs. Posterior margin of prothorax smooth. SIPH paler on basal 0.7, dark only towards apices. (Alate morphs with large oval secondary rhinaria)

…..Eutrichosiphum apicifuscum

-       First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Posterior margin of prothorax spinulose. SIPH wholly dark. (Alate morphs with transversely narrow secondary rhinaria)

…..Eutrichosiphum nigrisiphon                                                                      

27    Tergum dark. SIPH wholly black                                                .....Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

-       Tergum pale. SIPH basally pale, black over distal c.0.7                .....Eutrichosiphum sinense

 

Lithodora                                                    Boraginaceae

      Lithodora diffusa = Glandora diffusa

          L. fruticosa                                    Uroleucon jaceae

(See key under Lithospermum.)

 

Lithospermum                                             Boraginaceae

      Lithospermum arvense                 Aphis craccivora, fabae; Brachycaudus bicolor, cardui;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella lithospermi;

                                                              Uroleucon jaceae, [picridis (misidentified cichorii?)]

        L. diffusum = Glandora diffusa

        L. erythrorhizon                            Brachycaudus cardui

        L. fruticosum = L. fruticosa            

        L. officinale = L. arvense

        L. pilosum see L. ruderale

        L. ruderale                                    Aphis lithospermi

        L. tenuiflorum = Buglossoides tenuiflora

        Lithospermum sp.                         Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Lithospermum:-

1      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH with a subapical annular incision                                              …..2

-      Cauda tapering, tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH without a subapical annular incision                                                        …..4

2     Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH 0.9-1.5 Χ cauda. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                                …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with a dark shield or extensive dark markings. SIPH 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes                                                                      …..3

3     Broad, flat, pale marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-7, larger than the spiracles and occupying almost the whole of the sclerites on which they are placed. ABD TERG 7 often, and 6-8 sometimes, with spinal tubercles (STu)                      .....Brachycaudus bicolor

-       MTu irregularly present on ABD TERG 2-4, sometimes also on 1 and/or 5, but never on 6 and 7, and generally smaller than the spiracles. No STu                   …..Brachycaudus cardui

4      SIPH and cauda both black                                                                                              …..5

-       SIPH and cauda (or at least cauda) pale                        ….. go to key to polyphagous aphids

5      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 14 or more rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                           …..6

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu                                                                                                         …..7

6     Presiphuncular sclerites present                                           …..Macrosiphoniella lithospermi*

-      Presiphuncular sclerites absent                                                                …..Uroleucon jaceae

7     ABD TERG 1-5 with black cross-bands. ANT flagellum (III-VI) dark except at base of III. SIPH about equal in length to cauda                                                     …..Aphis lithospermi*

-      ABD TERG 1-5 without dark cross-bands. ANT flagellum pale except for apex of V, VI, and terminal process. SIPH longer than cauda (except in very small specimens)

…..Aphis fabae

 

Litsea                                                                                         Lauraceae

        Litsea amara = L. umbellata

        L. chinensis see L. glutinosa

        L. citrata = Actinodaphne citrata

        L. corymbosa (?)                           Nipponaphis [machilicola], manoji;

                                                              Schizoneuraphis himalayensis, machiliphaga

        L. cubeba                                      Eutrichosiphum sankari; Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus;

                                                              Greenideoida (Pentatrichosiphum) lutea 

        L. glauca = Neolitsea sericea

        L. glutinosa                                   Eutrichosiphum dubium, [jugeshwari], litseae;
                                                      [Lachnus tropicalis]; Parathoracaphis manipurense;                                                                 Schizoneuraphis gallarum; Sinomegoura citricola;

                                                              [Thoracaphis sp.]

        L. khasyana                                  Eutrichosiphum flavum

        L. monopetala                               Aiceona actinodaphnis, robustiseta, titabarensis;

                                                              Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                               [Brachycorynella montana];

                                                              Greenidea ficicola; Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii;

                                                               Greenideoida (Pentatrichosiphum) lutea;

                                                                [Kurisakia indica];
                                                       Nipponaphis manoji, [Nipponaphis sp. (Raha &

                                                                  Raychaudhuri 1981)];
                                                       Schizoneuraphis himalayensis, machiliphaga,

                                                                  [querciphaga];

                                                              Sinomegoura citricola

        L. polyantha = L. monopetala          

        L. populifolia                                 Aiceona actinodaphnis

        L. pungens                                    Aiceona actinodaphinis

        L. rotundifolia                               Aiceona titabarensis

        L. salicifolia                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Sinomegoura citricola

        L. sebifera = L. glutinosa

        L. umbellata                                  Greenideoida (Pentatrichosiphum) lutea;

                                                               Schizoneuraphis litseicola; Sinomegoura citricola

        L. veitchiana                                 Aiceona actinodaphnis

        L. wilsonii                                      Aiceona actinodaphnis

        Litsea sp.                                       Eutrichosiphum makii

Key to aphids (apterae only) on Litsea:-

1      Aptera aleyrodiform; dorsum with head, thorax and ABD TERG 1 fused as prosoma, ABD TERG 2-7 reduced and fused together (as abdominal plate); and much reduced,

        3- or 4-segmented antennae                                                                                               .....2

-       Aptera of normal aphid form, with 4- to 6-segmented antennae                                      .....8

2      Aptera without SIPH; marginal hairs stout, dagger-like, about 40 ΅m long

.....Parathoracaphis manipurense

-       Apterae with SIPH as small pores; marginal hairs variable, not dagger-like                    .....3

3      Aptera with large areas of dorsal cuticle of prosoma granular or almost smooth, regions of pustulate ornamentation being localised. Longest prosomal hairs very thick (6-10 ΅m basal diameter) and more than 100 ΅ long, with raised bases                                                     .....4

-       Aptera with dense pustulate ornamentation extending over most of dorsal area of prosoma (fig. 58C). Longest prosomal hairs are fine and much less than 100 ΅m long, without raised bases                                                                                                                                   .....6

4      Aptera with prosomal hairs maximally 140 ΅m long. Abdominal plate with the first 3 pairs of submarginal hairs long, stout and dark, much larger and thicker (e.g., basal diameter 3-4 Χ more) than the posterior 3 pairs (fig. 58D)                           .....Schizoneuraphis himalayensis

-       Aptera with prosomal hairs up to 160-170 ΅ long. Abdominal plate with either 2 or 3 pairs of long stout submarginal hairs on anterior half, but with the most posterior pair also large (e.g. figs 58E,F)                                                                                                                         .....5

5      Aptera with thick dorsal prosomal hairs having acuminate apices (fig. 58A). Abdominal plate with only 2 long stout pairs of submarginal hairs on anterior half (fig. 58E)

.....Schizoneuraphis gallarum

-       Aptera with thick dorsal prosomal hairs having fine-pointed apices (fig. 58B). Abdominal plate with first 3 pairs of submarginal hairs all long and stout (fig. 58F)                          .....6

6      Aptera with numerous small fine dorsal prosomal hairs (40-60 ΅m long) in the pleural region as well as marginally, in addition to the large spinal and submarginal hairs    

..... Schizoneuraphis litseicola

-      Aptera with small hairs marginally but without small hairs in the pleural region

.....Schizoneuraphis machiliphaga

7      Aptera with dorsal hairs of prosoma less than 2 Χ middle diameter of ANT III, and pointed at apices (fig. 58C, as N. litseae)                                                        .....Nipponaphis distychii

-       Aptera with dorsal hairs of prosoma long and fine, 3-4 Χ middle diameter of ANT III, and pointed at apices                                                                                  .....Nipponaphis manoji

8      SIPH as large pores on shallow cones, surrounded by long hairs                                      .....9

-       SIPH tubular, much longer than basal width                                                                   .....11

9      Aptera with SIPH cones pale and dorsal abdomen without pigmented sclerites. R IV+V

        0.8-0.9 Χ HT II                                                                                     .....Aiceona robustiseta

-       Aptera with SIPH cones dark and with small dark, hair-bearing sclerites on dorsal abdomen. R IV+V 1.0-1.25 Χ HT II                                                                                                    .....10  

10    ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.45. ABD TERG 7 with 11-22 hairs, and ABD TERG 8 with 8-14 hairs                                                                                                      .....Aiceona titabarensis

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.48-0.65. ABD TERG 7 with 6-10 hairs, ABD TERG 8 with 4-9 hairs

.....Aiceona actinodaphnis

11    SIPH without hairs.                                                         .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 -      SIPH much longer than cauda with numerous long hairs                                                .....12

12    Hind tibiae curved sharply in middle and with a series of 14-22 transverse ridges on basal part (fig. 57D). Body and SIPH elongate                           .....Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus

-       Hind tibiae not sharply curved and without transverse ridges. Body elongate oval or

        pear-shaped                                                                                                                      .....13

13    Antennae 4- or 5-segmented. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. SIPH of aptera tapering, broader at base than in middle                             .....Greenideoida (Pentatrichosiphum) lutea

-       Antennae 5- or 6-segmented. First tarsal segments with 7 hairs. SIPH of aptera cigar-shaped, broader in middle than at base                                                                                         .....14

14    SIPH with reticulation, either basally or over most of length                                          .....15

-       SIPH without reticulation                                                                                                .....16

15    SIPH reticulated only at base, and rather densely spinulose over most of length (fig. 48D)                                                                                           .....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

-       SIPH reticulated over most of length, spinulose only on distal part (fig. 48E)

.....Greenidea ficicola

16    Antennae 5-segmented                                                                                                     .....17

-      Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                                     .....18

17    Abdominal tergum spinulose. R IV+V 2.1-2.7 Χ HT II               .....Eutrichosiphum sankari

-      Abdominal tergum smooth. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II                     .....Eutrichosiphum makii

18    ANT PT/BASE 1.6-1.9. SIPH dark, with interspersed long and short hairs over most of length (as in fig. 92G)                                                                    .....Eutrichosiphum dubium

-      ANT PT/BASE about 0.8. SIPH pale, with long hairs over most of length and short hairs only near base                                                            .....Eutrichosiphum litseae* or E. flavum

 

Livistona                                                                                 Arecaceae

        Livistona altissima                        Astegopteryx rhapidis

        L. chinensis                                   Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to aphids on palms under Calamus.

 

Lobelia                                                        Campanulaceae

      Lobelia assurgens                         Neomyzus circumflexus

        L. pyramidalis                               Brachycaudus helichrysi

        L. syphilitica                                  [Capitophorus elaeagni]

      Lobelia sp.                                     Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lobularia                                                    Brassicaceae

      Lobularia maritima                      Aphis gossypii; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.         

 

Lochia                                                         Caryophyllaceae

      Lochia trichophylla                       Aphis gossypii

 

Lochnera  see  Catharanthus                                 Apocynaceae             

 

Loeflingia                                                    Caryophyllaceae

      Loeflingia hispanica                     Aphis craccivora

 

Logfia                                                          Compositae

      Logfia arvensis = Filago arvensis

      L. gallica                                        Aphis [filaginis (nomen nudum)], frangulae;

                                                              Pemphigus populinigrae

       L. minima                                      Pemphigus populinigrae

Use key to apterae under Filago.       

 

Loliolum                                                      Poaceae

      Loliolum subulatum                     Forda marginata, pawlowae; Sitobion avenae;

                                                              Tetraneura uilmi

 

Lolium                                                         Poaceae

      Lolium italicum = L. multiflorum

      L. multiflorum                              Anoecia zirnitsi; Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae; Tetraneura ulmi

        L. perenne                                     Anoecia corni, krizusi, vagans; Atheroides serrulatus;

                                                              Diuraphis noxia; Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                              Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae; Tetraneura ulmi;

                                                              Utamphorophora humboldti

        L. persicum                                   Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium festucae

        L. remotum                                   Sitobion avenae

        L. rigidum                                     Forda marginata; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        L. temulentum                              Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, vagans; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              [Loniceraphis paradoxa]; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae 

        Lolium sp.                                     Aploneura lentisci; Diuraphis frequens; [Dysaphis tulipae];

                                                              Geoica lucifuga, utricularia group; Sipha flava;

                                                              [Sitobion longisiphon Rusanova 1942 (nomen nudum)];

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Lomatium (including Leptotaenia)                               Apiaceae

      Lomatium multifida                      Aphis asclepiadis; Cavariella aegopodii

        L. nudicaule                                  Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Hyadaphis foeniculi

        L. triternatum                                Aphis asclepiadis

        Lomatium sp.                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [valerianae]

Use key to apterae on Apium, which includes these species.

                                                

Lonchocarpus                                                       Leguminosae

     Lonchocarpus sp.                           Aphis craccivora

 

Lonicera (including Xylosteum)                                    Caprifoliaceae

      Lonicera albertii                            [Macrosiphum rosae]

      L. alpigena                                    Aphis gossypii;  Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, poae; Trichosiphonaphis corticis

        L. altaica = L. caerulea var. altaica

        L. altmannii                                  Amphicercidus lonicericola; Avicennina sogdiana;

                                                              Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii, tataricae;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa; Prociphilus umarovi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, tianshanica;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi

        L. angustifolia                               [Prociphilus sp. with 2n=10 (Dutta & Gautam 1993)];

                                                              [Semiaphis sp. (Chowdhuri et al. 1969)]

        L. anisotricha                                Avicennina turkestanica; Brevicoryne lonicerina

        L. arborea                                     Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis coerulescens, passerinii;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. Χ bella                                       Hyadaphis tataricae; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. bracteolaris                               Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi; Loniceraphis paradoxa;

                                                              Prociphilus umarovi; Rhopalomyzus narzikulovi

        L. Χ brownii                                  Hyadaphis passerinii

        L. caerulea                                    Amphicercidus japonicus;

                                                              Hyadaphis coerulescens, tataricae;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa;  Prociphilus konoi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, tianshanica;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi, heraclei, sphondylii

        L. caerulea var. altaica                 Hyadaphis passerinii; Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus poae, Semiaphis aizenbergi, sphondylii

        L. caerulea var. edulis                  Brachycorynella lonicerina; Hyadaphis passerinii;

                                                              Prociphilus konoi, xylostei; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Semiaphis heraceli, rabotkinae, sphondylii 

        L. caerulea ssp. stenantha see L. stenantha

          L. caerulea ssp. villosa see L. villosa                                                                                          

        L. canadensis                                Hyadaphis foeniculi; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. caprifolia                                   Alphitoaphis lonicericola;

                                                              Hyadaphis [foeniculi], passerinii, tataricae;

                                                              Prociphilus umarovi; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis corticis

        L. caucasica                                  Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. chamissoi                                  Amphicercidus japonicus

        L. chrysantha (incl. Χ gibbiflora,      Amphicercidus japonicus; Aphis gossypii; 

                                     oehneana)            Brachycorynella lonicerina; Hyadaphis tataricae;

                                                              Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              Prociphilus konoi, xylostei; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. ciliosa                                        Hyadaphis passerinii

        L. coerulea = L. caerulea

        L. confusa                                     Hyadaphis foeniculi; Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              [Trichosiphonaphis polygoniformosana];

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei

        L. coreana                                     Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola

        L. demissa                                     Prociphilus xylostei; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. dioica (incl. glauca,                      Alphitoaphis lonicericola; Gypsoaphis oestlundi

                   glaucescens,  parviflora)

        L. edulis = L. caerulea  var. edulis

          L. elisae                                         [Aulacorthum muradachi]

        L. etrusca                                      Aulacorthum solani; Hyadaphis foeniculi (? – see text)     

        L. ferdinandii                                Myzus persicae

        L. flava                                          Hyadaphis foeniculi

        L. fragrantissima                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. Χ gibbiflora see L. chrysantha     

        L. glabrata                                    Amphicercidus japonicus

        L. glauca see L. dioica

          L. glehnii                                       Trichosiphonaphis polygoni                                               

        L. gracilipes (incl. var. glabra)          Prociphilus konoi, lonicerae; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei

        L. heckrotii                                    Aphis gossypii; Hyadaphis passerinii

        L. heterophylla =L. karelinii

        L. hispida                                      Brevicoryne lonicerina;

                                                              Prociphilus sp. near umarovi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus alaica, lonicerae, tianshanica

        L. iberica                                       Hyadaphis passerinii; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. iliensis                                       Semiaphis iliensis

        L. implexa                                     Hyadaphis [foeniculi], passerinii

        L. insularis                                    Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

        L. involucrata                                Amphicercidus flocculosus; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Delphiniobium canadense;                                                                                                         Hyadaphis foeniculi, tataricae; Illinoia crystleae;

                                                              [Neomyzus circumflexus]; Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus grabhami, lonicerae, poae;

                                                              [Wahlgreniella sp. (Oregon, USA; A. Jensen,

                                                                   aphidtrek.org)]

        L. involucrata var. ledebourii       Hyadaphis tataricae; Illinoia crystleae ssp. bartholomewi;

                                                              Macrosiphum raysmithi; Rhopalomyzus grabhami

        L. japonica                                    Amphicercidus japonicus, sinilonicericola; [Aphis crinosa];

                                                              Hyadaphis [foeniculi], passerinii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera abeliae;

                                                              Prociphilus dilonicerae, lonicerae, trinus, xylostei;            

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae, polygonifoliae,

                                                                 [ polygoniformosana], Trichosiphonaphis sp. (BMNH

                                                                  collection)

        L. kamtschatica                             Aphis fabae, gossypii; Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

        L. karataviensis                             Brachycorynella lonicerina

        L. karelinii                                     Avicennina turkestanica; Hyadaphis tataricae;

                                                              Prociphilus umarovi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus codonopsidis; tianshanica;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi

        L. koehneana see L. chrysantha

        L. korolkowii                                 Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis coerulescens, passerinii, tataricae;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa; Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus [codonopsidis (ovip. amd males only)],

                                                                   hissaricus, lonicerae, tianschanicus

        L. lanceolata                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. ledebourii = L. involucrata var. ledebourii

          L. ligustrina ssp. yunnanensis       Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        L. maackii                                     Amphicercidus japonicus; Hyadaphis tataricae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              Prociphilus xylostei ssp. ussuricus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae, polygoni

      L. macrantha                                  Aphis spiraecola; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae

      L. maculata (?)                               Hyadaphis foeniculi

      L. maximowiczii                             Amphicercidus japonicus; Prociphilus konoi;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. microphylla                                Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri, passerinii, tataricae;

                                                              [Metopolophium mukhamedievi];

                                                              Prociphlus sp. near umarovi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus alaica; Semiaphis aizenbergi, longissima

      L. morrowii (incl. insularis)               Amphicercidus japonicus; Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              Prociphilus konoi, oriens, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

      L. Χ muendeniensis                        Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. Χ muscaviensis                           Prociphilus xylostei; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. myrtillus                                     Brachycorynella lonicerina

      L. nigra                                           Hyadaphis bicincta, foeniculi; Macrosiphum oredonense;

                                                              Prociphilus xylostei; Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                              Semiaphis pastinacae, sphondylii

      L. nitida = ligustrina ssp. yunnanensis

        L. Χ notha                                       Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. nummulariifolia                         Amphicercidus alticola, alticola ssp. tschatcalica;

                     (incl. persica)                           Aphis fabae; Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis coerulescens, coriandri, ferganica,  foeniculi,

                                                                  levantina, passerinii;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus hissarica, narzykulovi

      L. obovata                                       Brachycorynella lonicerina

      L. olgae                                           Brachycorynella lonicerina

      L. pallasii                                        Semiaphis sphondylii

      L. paradoxa                                    Hyadaphis passerinii

      L. parviflora see L. dioica

      L. periclymenum                            Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycorynella lonicerin ;            

                                                              Hyadaphis [foeniculi], passerinii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Semiaphis sphondylii

      L. Χpermixta                                   Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. persica see L. nummularifolia

      L. pileata                                         Hyadaphis passerinii

      L. praecox = L. elisae

      L. praeflorens                                 Neotoxoptera abeliae; Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae

      L. prolifera                                      Hyadaphis passerinii; Prociphilus xylostei

      L. Χ purpusii                                   Hyadaphis tataricae

      L. pyrenaica                                    Hyadaphis foeniculi; Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. quinquelocularis                        Amphicercidus lonicerae, tuberculatus;

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri, tataricae;

                                                              Myzus sp. (? mumecola – BMNH collection and

                                                                   Chowdhuri et al. 1969);

                                                              Prociphilus himalayensis, Prociphilus sp. (BMNH

                                                                  collection, India)

      L. rupicola var. syringantha           Hyadaphis foeniculi

      L. ruprechtiana                              Amphicercidus japonicus; Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii;

                                                              Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola;

                                                              Prociphilus xylostei ssp. ussuricus;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. Χ salicifolia                                 Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. segreciensis                                Prociphilus xylostei

      L. semenovii                                   [Avecinnina sp. (Kazakhstan)]

      L. sempervirens                              Gypsoaphis oestlundi;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii, tataricae

      L. seravschanica                             Avicennina sogdiana

      L. simulatrix                                   Avicennina sogdiana; Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis coerulescens, passerinii;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa; Prociphilus xylostei, umarovi;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus hissarica, tianshanica;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi

      L. sovetkinae                                   Prociphilus xylostei

      L. stenantha                                    Brachycorynella lonicerina; Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi;

                                                              Hyadaphis tataricae; Loniceraphis paradoxa;

                                                              Prociphilus xylostei; Rhopalomyzus tianshanica;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi

      L. steveniana                                  Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

      L. syringantha = L. rupicola  var. syringantha

      L. tatarica (incl. Χzabelii)                   Amphicercidus japonicus; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Avicennina sogdiana, turkestanica;

                                                              Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis [coriandri], foeniculi, passerinii, tataricae;

                                                              Loniceraphis paradoxa; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Prociphilus umarovi, xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, poae;

                                                              Semiaphis aizenbergi, heraclei, [nolitangere], sphondylii;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis corticis, [foliotus Shaposhnikov in

                                                                  Juchnevitch 1968],  polygonifoliae

      L. Χ tellmanniana                           Hyadaphis [foeniculi], passerinii

      L. tianshanica                                 Loniceraphis paradoxa; Rhopalomyzus tianshanica

      L. utahensis                                    Macrosiphum schimmelum;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus grabhami, lonicerae

      L. villosa                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      L. webbiana                                    [Hyadaphis sp. (Pakistan; BMNH collection, leg. MA

                                                                   Ghani, fundatrix only)]

      L. xylosteum                                   Aphis [frangulae], xylostei; [Brachycaudus prunicola];

                  (= Xylosteum vulgare)              Brachycorynella lonicerina;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, [passerinii]; Prociphilus xylostei;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae;

                                                              Semiaphis pastinacae, sphondylii;

                                                              Trichosiphonaphis alpestris, corticis                                  

      L. Χzabelii  see L. tatarica                 

      L. zeravshanica                              Avicennina sogdiana; Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi

      Lonicera spp.                                 Hillerislambersia darjeelingi; Myzus antirrhinii;

                                                              [Myzus komaumii Shinji 1943 (as lonicerae Shinji 1944)];

                                                              Neorhopalomyzus lonicerisuctus; [Neotoxoptera oliveri]

Key to apterae (except couplets 2-7) on Lonicera:-

1      ANT PT/BASE much less than 0.5. Wax gland plates present on head (Fig.38a), thorax and abdomen. Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent. (Apt. fundatrix, all progeny of which are al. having unbranched media in forewing and ANT with narrow, transversely elongate secondary rhinaria)                                                                                                                            …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. No wax gland plates. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH present (sometimes very small). (Al. have forewing with 1- or 2-branched media and ANT with round or oval secondary rhinaria)                                                                                     …..8

2      (Couplets 2-7 apply only to al. fundatrigeniae/ emigrants produced in leaf-curls in spring.) ANT III with 42-56 sec. rhinaria (IV with 16-25, V 3-6, VI BASE 0-2)

…..Prociphilus dilonicerae*

-       ANT III with 9-29 sec. rhinaria (IV 4-16, V 4-10, VI BASE 0-2)                                  …..3

3      ANT V without sec. rhinaria (III 18-27, IV 4-9, V 0, VI BASE 0)

…..Prociphilus xylostei

-       ANT V with 4-10 sec. rhinaria                                                                                          …..4

4      BL 3.5-5.5 mm. ANT III with 21-29 rhinaria (IV 8-16, V 4-10, VI BASE 0)

.....Prociphilus oriens

-       BL 2.0-3.6 mm, if more than 3.0 mm then ANT III with 9-16 rhinaria                            .....5

5      ANT IV with c.15 sec. rhinaria (III c.25, IV c.15, V c.9, VI BASE 0)

…..Prociphilus lonicerae*

-      ANT IV with 4-10 sec. rhinaria (III 9-c.22, IV 4-10, V 4-8, VI BASE 0-2)                   …..6

6      ANT III with 9-16 sec. rhinaria (IV 4-8, V 4-7, VI BASE 0)

        …..Prociphilus umarovi (incl. himalayensis, trinus*)

-       ANT III with 17-c.22 sec. rhinaria (IV 8-10, V 5-8, VI BASE 0-2)                                …..7

7      R IV+V 0.104-0.116 mm long, 0.41-0.49 Χ HT II. ANT VI BASE without sec. rhinaria (III 17-22, IV 8-10, V 5-8, VI 0)                                                                 …..Prociphilus konoi

-       R IV+V 0.137 mm long, 0.6 Χ HT II. ANT VI BASE with sec. rhinaria (1 specimen; III 22 and 22, IV 8 and 9, V 5 and 8, VI BASE 2 and 2)

        …..Prociphilus sp. on L. quinquelocularis (India, BMNH collection)

8      SIPH very short, flangeless, usually less than 0.5 Χ cauda and never more than 0.66 Χ cauda, or present merely as pores or shallow cones                                                                      …..9

-       SIPH 0.66-c.5 Χ cauda, and usually with a distinct flange                                            …..11

9      Cauda semicircular, much shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH as pores with partly sclerotised rims (Fig.38b)                                                       …..Gypsoaphis oestlundi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular, longer than, or at least as long as, its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH as shallow cones or short tubes                                                         …..10

10    SIPH as shallow cones, much shorter than wide (Fig.38c)     …..Brachycorynella lonicerina

-      SIPH as short flangeless tubes, at least as long as wide, and often curved inwards distally (Fig. 38d)                                                                                                    …..Semiaphis spp.

        (incl. aizenbergi*, heraclei, iliensis, longissima*, pastinacae, rabotkinae*, sphondylii, see text under these names; in the present state of knowledge it is not possible to provide a key to apterae of Semiaphis species in spring populations on Lonicera.)

11    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)

…..12

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                              …..19

12    Cauda helmet-shaped, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH very thick, tapering from base to apex, much more than 2 Χ thicker than hind tibia at their respective midlengths. Dorsal hairs very long and fine-pointed           ….. Hillerislambersia darjeelingi

-       Cauda finger-like, much longer than wide. SIPH cylindrical or slightly inflated on distal part, less than 2 Χ thickness of hind tibia at midlength. Dorsal hairs variable                        …..13

13    Abdominal spiracular apertures covered by opercula, and the cuticle surrounding them very rugose. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones (Fig.38e)

…..Delphiniobium canadense

-       Abdominal spiracular apertures not covered by opercula, and surrounding cuticle not rugose. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones                                                       …..14

14    Tibiae with pale apices, contrasting with dark tarsi                                                        …..15

-       Tibiae with apices dark like tarsi                                                                                     …..17

15    ANT III with 0-4 very small, inconspicuous rhinaria. R IV+V short, c.0.7 Χ HT II, with about 6 accessory hairs                                                                  …..Macrosiphum raysmithi

-       ANT III with 9-40 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II, with 13-24 accessory hairs        …..16

16    First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria

                                                                                            …..Illinoia crystleae ssp. bartholomewi

-      First tarsal segments mostly with 4-5 hairs. ANT III with 18-40 rhinaria

…..Illinoia crystleae

17    R IV+V 0.5-0.6 Χ HT II. ANT PT 2.4-4.2 Χ SIPH                 …..Macrosiphum schimmelum

-       R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II. ANT PT 0.6-1.7 Χ SIPH                                                        …..18

18    ANT PT/BASE 3.9-4.5. ANT III with 7-18 rhinaria. SIPH 2.5-3.1 Χ cauda

…..Macrosiphum oredonense

-      ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.2. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

19    SIPH short and thick or tubular and slightly to markedly swollen in middle or on distal part, the swollen section being at least 0.3 of the total length; never with hairs                     …..20

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, or if with slight subapical swelling then they bear some (sometimes minute) hairs                                                                                                 …..43

20    SIPH 0.67-1.6 Χ cauda                                                                                                   …..21

-       SIPH 1.6-c.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..32

21    SIPH 0.07-0.18 mm long                                                                                                …..22

-       SIPH 0.19-0.46 mm long                                                                                                …..27

22    Cauda helmet-shaped or very bluntly triangular, 0.67-1.3 Χ its basal width in dorsal view

…..23

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or triangular with a rather pointed apex; at least 1.4 Χ its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                               …..24

23    ANT III with 7-8 rhinaria on distal part. (Al. with 32-42 rhinaria on ANT III and 1-2 on IV)

…..Brevicoryne lonicerina*

-      ANT III without rhinaria. (Al. with 54-55 rhinaria on ANT III, 0 on IV)

…..Brevicoryne shaposhnikovi*

24    R IV+V 0.067-0.095 mm long                                                                                        …..25

-       R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long                                                                                            …..26

25    SIPH dark. Prosternum with a large dark trapezoid sclerite                …..Hyadaphis bicincta

-       SIPH pale/dusky. Prosternal sclerite pale, inconspicuous                   …..Hyadaphis tataricae

26    (Apt. fundatrigenia) SIPH narrow-based, not much thicker at base than at flange, slightly clavate, and more than 1.3 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE c.1.9-2.0           …..Hyadaphis polonica

-      All apt. on Lonicera are fundatrices with 5-segmented ANT, ANT PT/BASE 0.8-0.9, and broad-based SIPH 0.8-1.3 Χ HT II                                                    …..Hyadaphis coriandri

27    Cauda short, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view. (All apt. in spring populations are fundatrices with ANT 5-segmented, producing al. progeny)

        ….. Rhopalomyzus alaica*

-      Cauda 1.25-2.0 Χ its basal width in dorsal view. (Apt. fundatrigeniae often present in spring populations)                                                                                                                    …..28

28    Cauda tapering, bluntly triangular, less than 0.12 Χ BL                                                          

…..two Central Asian Hyadaphis spp. (coerulescens and  ferganica *)

-       Cauda finger-like, almost parallel-sided on distal part, and more than 0.12 Χ BL         …..29

29    Pro- and mesosternum both with dark, clearly-defined central sclerites, the mesosternal one larger and trapezoid in shape                                                              …..Hyadaphis levantina

-       No mesosternal sclerite                                                                                                   …..30

30    SIPH more than 1.45 Χ cauda. Prosternum with central sclerite pale or not clearly defined

…..Rhopalomyzus narzikulovi*

-       SIPH less than 1.45 Χ cauda. Prosternum with a dark, clearly defined trapezoid sclerite

…..31

31    Prosternal sclerite 2.7-3.6 Χ wider than long (Fig.38f) . SIPH 0.85-1.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.083-0.122 mm long. (Al. rarely with secondary rhinaria on ANT V)

…..Hyadaphis passerinii

-       Prosternal sclerite 1.36-2.6 Χ wider than long, and often with posterior margin convex (Fig.38g). SIPH 1.05-1.4 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.093-0.137 mm long. (Al. often with 1-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT V)                                                            …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

32    Cauda short, broadly rounded or helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width         …..33

-       Cauda triangular or tongue-shaped and longer than its basal width                               …..35

33    (Fund.) ANT 5-segmented, with PT/BASE 1.4-1.5. SIPH 0.12-0.14 Χ BL. Cauda with 4-6 hairs                                                                                        …..Rhopalomyzus tianshanica*

-       (Fund. or apt.) ANT 6-segmented, with PT/BASE 3.5-7.7. SIPH 0-16-0.25 Χ BL. Cauda with 12-18 hairs                                                                                                              …..34

34    BL 2.7-3.4 mm. ANT III 0.8-1.0 Χ SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.2. (ANT III of al. with 21-27 secondary rhinaria)                                                                      …..Avicennina sogdiana*

-       BL 3.8-5.5 mm. ANT III 1.05-1.45 Χ SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 6.9-7.7. (ANT III of al. with 56-77 secondary rhinaria)                                                            …..Avicennina turkestanica*

35    Head smooth dorsally, smooth or with some spicules ventrally. ANT tubercles undeveloped, or weakly developed with inner faces  broadly divergent (All apt. in spring populations fundatrices producing al. progeny)                                                                                …..36

-       Head spiculose. ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with inner faces usually

        steep-sided                                                                                                                      …..39

36    (Fund. only) SIPH 0.12-0.17 Χ BL, which is 1.8-2.6 mm. R IV+V shorter than HT II (all morphs)                                                                                                                          …..37

-       (Fund. only) SIPH c.0.1 Χ BL, which is 2.8-3.5 mm. RIV+V longer than HT II (all morphs)

…..38

37    (Fund.) ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.2. (SIPH of al. fundatrigenia 1.5-1.6 Χ cauda, 0.12-0.14 Χ BL)

…..Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

-       (Fund.) ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.3. (SIPH of al. fundatrigenia 2.3-2.7 Χ cauda, 0.15-0.17 Χ BL)

…..Rhopalomyzus hissarica

38    (Fund. and al.) Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III               …..Rhopalomyzus poae

-      (Fund. and al.) Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.4 Χ BD III       …..Rhopalomyzus grabhami

39    (Fund. only) ANT PT/BASE a little less than 1. (All second generation are alatae with

        dark-bordered wing veins)                                                                …..Neotoxoptera abeliae

-       (All morphs) ANT PT/BASE more than 1. (Al. without dark-bordered wing-veins)    …..40

40    ANT I and II dark, and femora mainly dark. ANT III usually with a single rhinarium on a slight swelling near base                                                         …..Neoaulacorthum magnoliae

-       ANT I and II and femora pale. ANT III without rhinaria                                              …..41

41    SIPH 0.20-0.28 Χ BL, which is 1.2-2.5 mm                       …..Myzus persicae (or antirrhinii)

-       (Fund.) SIPH 0.14-0.17 Χ BL, which is 2.6-3.5 mm                                                      …..42

42    R IV+V with 4 accessory hairs                                          …..Neorhopalomyzus lonicericola

-       R IV+V with c.14 accessory hairs                                 …..Neorhopalomyzus lonicerisuctus*

43    Cuticle of head densely spiculose dorsally and ventrally. SIPH with or without hairs  …..44

-       Cuticle of head smooth or with spicules only ventrally. SIPH without hairs                 …..51

44    ANT III with (0-)1-3 small rhinaria near base                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

-       ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                …..45

45    SIPH without hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. Cauda with 4-6 hairs                              …..46

-      SIPH usually with one or more hairs. ANT PT/BASE more than 3 (except fund.). Cauda with 6-13 hairs                                                                                                                 …..47

46    ANT tubercles very well developed, with inner faces apically convergent. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. SIPH with coarse, non-spinulose  imbrication                                                                                                    .....Myzus ornatus

-      ANT tubercles rather weakly developed, with inner faces divergent. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. SIPH with spinulose imbrication            .....Myzus sp.

(?mumecola; on L. quinquelocularis, India, BMNH colln and Chowdhuri et al. 1969)

47    Cauda tongue-shaped, broadly rounded at apex, about 2 Χ its basal width in dorsal view (Fig.38h). SIPH tapering from a broad base to a narrow apex, with a small flange, and bearing 6-20 hairs that are 14-22 μm long (Fig.38i)                           …..Trichosiphonaphis lonicerae

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, flask-shaped, pentagonal or triangular, less than 1.5 Χ its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH cylindrical on distal half or swollen subapically, with or without a flange, and bearing 0-20 hairs that are 5-55 μm long                                                      …..48

48    SIPH 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda, with well-marked spinulose imbrication at least on basal part, bearing (0-)6-20 hairs, and with a subapical constriction and a swollen apical rim or small flange

…..49

-       SIPH 3.6-5.0 Χ cauda, almost smooth, with 0-7 hairs, and completely flangeless         …..50

49    BL 1.8-2.5 mm. ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH 0.56-0.64 mm long, with 8-16 hairs which are maximally only 5-11 μm long (Fig.38j)         …..Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae

-      BL 0.9-1.2 mm. ANT tubercles well developed with inner faces almost parallel. SIPH

        0.26-0.36 mm long, with longest hairs 7-18 μm

…..Trichosiphonaphis sp. (Japan; BMNH collection, see text under polygoniformosanus)

50    Dorsal hairs very long and fine. SIPH with 0-5 very fine hairs 22-55 μm long (Fig.38k)

…..Trichosiphonaphis corticis

-      Dorsal hairs very short. SIPH  with 0-7 hairs (most often 0) only 5-7 μm long

…..Trichosiphonaphis alpestris

51    Cauda helmet-shaped or broadly rounded, shorter than, or not more than 1.2 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                          …..52

-      Cauda triangular with a rather pointed apex, or tongue-shaped, if tongue-shaped then more than 1.3 Χ longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                      …..60

52    (Fund.) Dorsal and antennal hairs short and inconspicuous. SIPH 0.08-0.09 Χ BL, and more than 5 Χ longer than their basal widths. ANT without sec. rhinaria. Marginal and spinal tubercles (MTu and STu) not evident. (All progeny of fund. are alate)                                  

…..Loniceraphis paradoxa*

-      Dorsal and antennal hairs long and fine-pointed. SIPH 0.17-0.25 Χ BL, thick, 3-5 Χ longer than their basal width. ANT with sec. rhinaria. MTu and STu often present                  ….53

53    Hairs on ANT III all less than 1.5 Χ BD III                                                                   …..54

-       Longest hairs on ANT III more than 1.5 Χ BD III                                                         …..55

54    ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.2. ANT III with 8-20 rhinaria. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 44-49, IV 7-16, V 0-3)                                               …..Amphicercidus flocculosus

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 3. ANT III with 22-77 rhinaria. (Al. with 113-163 rhinaria on ANT III, 0 on IV and V)                                                          …..Amphicercidus sinilonicericola*

55    ANT III with only 3-4 rhinaria (except in alatiform individuals). Cauda with 6 hairs   …..56

-       ANT III with 6-49 rhinaria. Cauda with 6-19 hairs                                                        …..57

56   ROSTRUM total length 0.4-0.5 Χ BL                                 ..… Amphicercidus lonicericola*

-      ROSTRUM total length 0.25-0.3 Χ BL                               …..Amphicercidus alticola s.str.*

57   ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.0. ANT III with 25-49 rhinaria              …..Amphicercidus lonicerae*

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.6-3.7. ANT III with 6-28 rhinaria                                                      …..58

58   Cauda with c.6 hairs                                          ….. Amphicercidus alticola ssp. tschatshica*

-      Cauda with 10-19 hairs                                                                                                   …..59

59   ABD TERG 2-7 with MTu (placed pleurally on 7), and ABD TERG 7 and 8 with STu, all well developed. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.7. ANT III with 6-11 rhinaria

…..Amphicercidus tuberculatus

-      Small MTu and Stu irregularly present on ABD TERG 2-5 and ABD TERG 7-8. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.8. ANT III with 8-28 rhinaria                           …..Amphicercidus japonicus

60    SIPH thin, cylindrical for most of length and pale, or only dusky towards apices, and almost flangeless (Fig.38l). Cauda with a rather pointed apex, not more than 1.3 Χ its basal width. ABD TERG 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                       …..Alphitoaphis lonicericola

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange, and wholly dark. Cauda with rounded apex, and more than 1.3 Χ its basal width. ABD TERG 7 with MTu                                                      …..61

61    Hairs on ANT III long and fine, the longest more than 2.1 Χ BD III        …..Aphis xylostei*

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-2.1 Χ BD III                                                                            

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

Lophanthus                                                 Lamiaceae

      Lophanthus schrenkii                   Klimaszewskia lophanthi

        L. pinetorum                                 Genus and sp. nr Hyperomyzus (Neonasonovia)

                                                                  (Afghanistan, BMNH collection)

 

Lophochloa  see Rostraria                                    Poaceae

      L. cristata = Rostraria cristata

        L. phleioides = Rostraria cristata

 

Lopholaena                                                 Compositae

      Lopholaena coriifolia                   Aphis gossypii

 

Lophospermum                                           Plantaginaceae

       Lophospermum erubescens         [Myzus persicae (1 male, as Macrosiphum lophospermum)]

     

Loranthus                  Mistletoes                 Loranthaceae

      Loranthus acaciae = Plicosepalus acaciae

        L. cordifolius = Tapinanthus cordifolius

        L. dregei = Erianthemum dregei

          L. europaeus                                 Aphis fabae

        L. pentandrus = Dendrophthoλ pentandra

        L. sutchuenensis = Taxillus sutchuenensis

        Loranthus spp.                             Aphis gossypii; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;

                                                              Greenidea rappardi; Sitobion loranthi;

                                                              Tuberaphis loranthi, scurrulae

Key to apterae on Loranthus (also Erianthemum, Scurrula, Tapinanthus and Taxillus):-

(Note: Most plants described in Loranthus are now placed in other genera, e.g. Dendrophthoe, Erianthemum, Macrosolen, Scurrula, Tapinanthus, Taxillus, so many records of aphids from “Loranthus sp.” or “mistletoe”,  particularly those from East Asia and Africa, should more properly be referred to one or other of those genera.)

1      Head fused with prothorax. Eyes 3-faceted. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3. SIPH as pores. Anal plate bilobed                                                                     …..2

-       Head not fused with prothorax, and without spine-like hairs. Eyes multifaceted. ANT usually 6-segmented, with ANT PT//BASE more than 0.5. SIPH tubular. Anal plate entire

…..4

2      Marginal wax glands present in a longitudinal row on each segment (Fig.39a; sometimes lacking on ABD TERG 5-8). Head with a pair of mammariform or conical tubercles situated anterio-ventrally near ANT bases, each bearing a thick spine-like hair (Fig.39b). R IV+V rather short and blunt, 0.85-1.07 Χ HT II. SIPH pores with 5-20 encircling hairs (Fig.39c). BL 1.5-2.1 mm                                                                                                                  …..3

-       Marginal wax glands not evident. Head without a pair of anterio-ventral tubercles. R IV+V acute, with RV somewhat attenuated; 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II. SIPH with 2-4 encircling hairs

…..Tuberaphis takenouchii 

3      Cauda with the distal part in form of a broad knob (Fig.39d). Tergum pale. ABD TERG 5-8 often without marginal wax glands                                                     …..Tuberaphis loranthi

-       Cauda broadly rounded (Fig.39e). Tergum dark. ABD TERG 1-8 all with longitudinal rows of marginal wax glands                                                                     …..Tuberaphis scurrulae

4    SIPH with numerous long hairs. Cauda broadly rounded, with a median stylus-like process

…..Greenidea rappardi

-     SIPH without hairs. Cauda tongue-or finger-shaped                                                         …..5

5    ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.7. SIPH pale, shorter than their basal widths and about 0.5 Χ cauda

…..Brachyunguis harmalae

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 2. SIPH dark at least distally, much longer than their basal widths, and more than 0.7 Χ cauda                                                                                                 …..6

6    SIPH pale basally, 0.8-1.0 Χ the large black cauda                            .....Sinomegoura citricola

-     SIPH wholly dark, longer than cauda                                                                                 .....7

7    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 1-2(-4) small rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-9.0                                                                                              .….8

-     SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE less than 5

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 25

8    SIPH 0.64-0.96 mm long, 0.34-0.38 Χ BL and 2.3-2.7 Χ cauda, their midlength diameter

      2.0-2.5 Χ that of hind tibia. ANT PT/BASE 7.5-9.0                                …..Sitobion loranthi*

-     SIPH 0.39-0.48 mm long, 0.20-0.27 Χ BL and 1.5-1.9 Χ cauda, their midlength diameter 1.50-1.66 Χ that of hind tibia. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-6.0                             …..Sitobion asirum*

 

Lotus                                                            Leguminosae

      Lotus allionii = L. cytisoides          

        L. angustifolius                             Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis loti

        L. angustissimus                           Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis loti; Therioaphis brachytricha

        L. conjugatus ssp. requienii          Acyrthosiphon pisum

        L. corniculatus                              Acyrthosiphon kondoi, loti, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, loti, lotiradicis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1974)];

                                                              Megoura viciae; Nearctaphis bakeri;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus heikinheimoi; [Sipha glyceriae];

                                                              Therioaphis brachytricha, trifolii

        L. creticus                                     Aphis craccivora

        L. cytisoides                                   Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis craccivora, loti;

                                                              Therioaphis litoralis

        L. gebelia                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis loti; Therioaphis litoralis, loti

        L. graecus = Dorycnium graecum     

        L. hirsutus = Dorycnium hirsutum

        L. hispidus                                    Aphis craccivora

        L. lamprocarpus = L. palustris

        L. lanuginosus                              Aphis craccivora

        L. latifolius                                    Therioaphis loti

        L. maritimus                                 Aphis craccivora, loti

        L. ornithopodioides                       Aphis craccivora

        L. palustris                                    Aphis craccivora

        L. parviflorus                                Acyrthosiphon loti

        L. pedunculatus                            Aphis craccivora, lotiradicis

        L. peregrinus                                Therioaphis loti

        L. rectus = Dorycnium rectum

        L. scoparius = Syrmatium glabrum

        L. subbiflorus                                Acyrthosiphon loti, pisum

        L. suffruticosus                             Therioaphis obscura

        L. tenuifolius = L. tenuis

        L. tenuis                                        Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

        L. uliginosus (incl.                          Acyrthosiphon loti, pisum;

           pedunculatus auctt. non Cav.)          Aphis craccivora, loti, lotiradicis;

                                                              Megoura viciae; Therioaphis brachytricha

        Lotus sp.                                        [Geoica lucifuga]; Paracletus cimiciformis];

                                                              [Therioaphis subalba]

Key to apterae on Lotus (couplets 1-3 only can be applied to alatae):-

1     Fore coxae greatly enlarged. SIPH in form of small truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                                                      .….2

-      Fore coxae normal. Form of SIPH various. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire

…..8

2     All viviparae are alatae                                                                                                       …..3

-      Apterae are commonly present                                                                                          …..4

3     (Al.) Knob of cauda trapezoid, longer than its greatest width (Fig.40a). ABD TERG 8 with 4-7 hairs, usually placed on dark sclerites. Head with dark ventral cross-band between eyes

…..Therioaphis dorycnii

-      (Al.) Knob of cauda almost globular, not longer than its greatest width (Fig.40b). ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, placed on pale or dusky sclerites. Ventral cross-band between eyes often pale or indistinct                                                                                …..Therioaphis loti

4     Dorsal hairs only 7-10 μm long, much shorter than ANT BD III, with blunt apices, and arising from rough convex sclerotic plates (Fig.40c)                   …..Therioaphis brachytricha

-      Dorsal hairs 35-90 μm long, mostly much longer than ANT BD III, thick, and with knobbed or otherwise expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate or conical bases                   …..5

5      ABD TERG 1-5 each with 1 pair of long spinal hairs and 1 pair of long marginal hairs (occasionally there are also 1-2 much smaller hairs)                                                          …..6

-      ABD TERG 1-5 with at least some tergites having more than 4 long hairs per segment        

…..7

6      ABD TERG 1-7 with very large paired variably pigmented sclerotic bars, often fused across midline. Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are c.70 μm long, placed on processes c.35 μm high (Fig.40d)                                                                                             …..Therioaphis obscura

-      ABD TERG 1-7 without large sclerotic bars. Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 80-90 μm long, and placed on processes c.60 μm high (Fig.40e)            …..Therioaphis litoralis

7      Dorsum usually unpigmented and unsclerotised. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.9, with PT about equal to HT II. SIPH small and inconspicuous, only about 0.02-0.04 mm long (Fig.40g)

                                                                                                               …..Therioaphis bonjeaniae

-      Dorsum with hairs arising from variably pigmented sclerites (Fig.40f). ANT PT/BASE more than 1.1, PT being much longer than HT II. SIPH pigmented, distinctly visible, 0.04-0.07 mm long (Fig.40h)                                                                                 …..Therioaphis trifolii

8      Body broadly spindle-shaped, BL 2.0-5.5 mm. ANT tubercles well-developed              …..9

-      Body oval, 1.1-2.9 mm. ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed                   ….13

9      Head and ANT I and II black. SIPH dark, swollen in middle or on distal part             …..10

-      Head and ANT I and II pale. SIPH mainly pale, thin and tapering or cylindrical         …..11

10    Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH cigar-shaped, similar in length to the long finger-like cauda                                                            …..Megoura viciae

-      Head spiculose with inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and almost parallel. SIPH strongly swollen over distal 0.7, and more than 2 Χ longer than the short triangular cauda

…..Rhopalosiphoninus heikinheimoi

11   ANT I with 9-23 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.25-0.40 mm long, 1.8-2.9 Χ longer than R IV+V. SIPH attenuate distally, with diameter at midlength similar to or less than middle diameter of hind tibia                                                                                            ..…Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      ANT I with 6-10 hairs. ANT BASE VI 0.13-0.20 mm long, 1-1.5 Χ longer than R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally; diameter at midlength greater than middle diameter of hind tibia

..…12

12   ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.2. R IV+V with 6 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.20-0.25 Χ BL

…..Acyrthosiphon loti

-      ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.0. R IV+V with 4 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.25-0.33 Χ BL

…..Acyrthosiphon kondoi

13   SIPH pale, short, with close-set rows of spinules (Fig.40i), 0.8-1.1 Χ cauda which is also short, only a little longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                     …..Nearctaphis bakeri

-      SIPH dark, with normal imbrication, 0.8-2.2 Χ cauda which is much longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                           …..14

14    Longest hairs on ANT III finely pointed, 0.8-2.2 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen usually with well-developed black cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, but with only small, scattered sclerites on ABD TERG 1-6. Cauda with 11-25 hairs                                     …..Aphis fabae

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.2-0.8 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen either with extensive dark sclerotisation on ABD TERG 1-6, or if mainly membranous then cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8 are vestigeal or absent. Cauda with 4-16 hairs                                       …..15

15    Dorsal sclerotisation variably developed, at most with separate dark cross-bands on metanotum and ABD TERG 1-6. R IV+V 1.10-1.25 Χ HT II. Cauda with 11-16 hairs. MTu regularly present on some of ABD TERG 2-6 (totalling 6-7)                   …..Aphis lotiradicis

-      Dorsum usually with a solid black shield over metanotum and ABD TERG 1-6, sometimes partially fragmented, but never divided into segmental cross-bands. R IV+V 0.87-1.15 Χ HT II. Cauda with 4-11 hairs. ABD TERG 2-6 rarely with MTu (totalling 0-4)                  …..16

16    Cauda finger-like, almost parallel-sided on distal part with rounded apex (Fig.40j), 0.13-0.18 Χ BL, and bearing 6-11 hairs. SIPH 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda. (Al. with 0-2 rhinaria on ANT IV)

 …..Aphis loti

-      Cauda with distal part tapering, apex not rounded (Fig.40k), 0.09-0.13 Χ BL, and bearing 4-9 hairs. SIPH 1.2-2.2 Χ cauda. (Al. never with rhinaria on ANT IV)         …..Aphis craccivora

 

Louiseania                                                                            Rosaceae

      Louiseania ulmifolia                      Aphidura bozhkoae

 

Loxostylis                                                                               Anacardiaceae

      Loxostylis alata                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

 

Lubinia  see Lysimachia                                                    Primulaceae

 

Luculia                                                        Rubiaceae

      Luculia gratissima                        Myzus persicae

      Luculia sp.                                    Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Ludisia                                                        Orchidaceae

      Ludisia discolor                             Cerataphis orchidearum

 

Ludwigia (including Jussiaea)                                     Onagraceae

      Ludwigia abyssinica                     Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus lythri

      L. angustifolia (?)                          Aphis gossypii; Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

        L. bonariensis                               Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

        L. decurrens                                  Aphis gossypii; Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

        L. erecta                                        Aphis [pomi], spiraecola

        L. grandiflora                                Aulacorthum solani

        L. linifolia                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

        L. octovalvis                                  Aphis gossypii; Hyalomyzus jussiaeae; Myzus lythri

        L. palustris                                    Neomyzus circumflexus

        L. peploides                                   [Aphis carverae]

        L. peruviana                                  Aphis gossypii; [Sitobion indicum]

        L. suffruticosa (?)                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

Key to apterae on Ludwigia:-

1      Head spiculose or nodulose, with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces

        steep-sided and scabrous. SIPH pale or dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu          …..2

-      Head smooth with ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                            …...go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

2      ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.0                                           …..Myzus lythri

-       ANT 1.1-1.3 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 4-5                                                                   …..3

3      SIPH slightly clavate, 2.6-3.3 Χ cauda which bears 4 hairs. R IV+V 1.45-1.75 Χ HT II., with 2 accessory hairs. Tergum sclerotic, with a wrinkled, reticulate appearance. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                              …..Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

-      SIPH tapering /cylindrical, 2.0-2.5 Χ cauda which bears 7 hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II, with 5-7 accessory hairs. Tergum membranous, smooth. ANT III usually with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                                                                  …..Aulacorthum solani

 

 

Luehea                                                                                    Malvaceae

        Luehea divaricata                         Aphis gossypii

 

Luetkea                                                                                   Rosaceae

        Luetkea pectinata                         Ericaphis louisae; Macrosiphum opportunisticum

Key to apterae on Luetkea:-

-       SIPH 0.13-0.20 Χ BL, without any subapical polygonal reticulation. Antennae much shorter than body, and ANT III without rhinaria. ANT tubercles weakly developed and rugose, with median frontal tubercle almost equally developed                          …..Ericaphis louisae

-       SIPH more than 0.2 Χ BL, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Antennae longer than body, and ANT III with 1 or more small rhinaria near base. ANT tubercles well developed, with smooth inner faces                                  …..Macrosiphum  opportunisticum

 

 

Luffa                                                            Cucurbitaceae

       Luffa acutangula                          Aphis gossypii, [umbrella];

                                                              Neoaulacorthum magnoliae

       L. aegyptiaca = L. cylindrica

       L. cylindrica                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii

       Luffa sp.                                        Aphis solanella, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

                                                           

Lunania                                                       Flacourtiaceae

      Lunania cubensis                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Lunaria                                                        Brassicaceae

      Lunaria annua                             Aphis fabae; Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

      L. biennis = L. annua

        L. rediviva                                     Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Lunaria:-

-      ANT III 2.5-3.7 Χ SIPH, which are somewhat swollen in middle (barrel-shaped) and 0.8-1.0 Χ the broadly triangular cauda. Dorsum with paired dark markings

…..Brevicoryne brassicae

-      Without the above combination of characters                 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

(or try key to apterae on Brassica)

 

Lupinus                                                       Leguminosae

      Lupinus affinis                              Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. albiflorus (?)                             Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. albifrons                                    Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. albus                                         Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphum albifrons; Myzus persicae

      L. angustifolius                             Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae;

                                                              Macrosiphum albifrons, euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        L. arboreus                                   Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. arcticus                                     Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. argenteus (incl. decumbens)          Aphis lupini; Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. densiflorus                                Aphis sp. (?craccivora); Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. hartwegii                                   Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. latifolius                                    Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. luteus                                        Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum albifrons;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        L. mutabilis                                   Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. nootkatensis                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum albifrons;

                                                              [Pseudocercidus rosae]

        L. pilosus                                       Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. polyphyllus                               Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. pubescens                                 Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. rivularis                                    Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. sericeus                                     Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. subcarnosus                             Macrosiphum albifrons

        L. termis = L. albus

        L. varius (?)                                   Macrosiphum albifrons

        Lupinus spp.                                 Aphis lupinehansoni; Macrosiphum timpanogos, zionense;

                                                              Myzus ornatus                 

Key to apterae on Lupinus:-

(See Blackman & Eastop, 2000, for an illustrated key to aphids on cultivated lupins.)

1      Cuticle of head smooth and ANT tubercles well-developed, their inner faces smooth and divergent                                                                                                                           …..2

-       Head either smooth with ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or spiculose with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces scabrous and parallel or apically convergent      

…..7

2      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                                                                      …..3

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III

…..6

3      SIPH, ANT , distal parts of femora, tibiae and tarsi black            …..Macrosiphum zionense

-       SIPH, ANT and legs mainly pale                                                                                      …..4

4      ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. BL 1.7-3.6 mm                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       ANT III with 11-40 rhinaria. BL 3.2-5.1 mm                                                                   …..5

5      Cauda slightly constricted at about 0.3 from base. ANT III with 11-22 rhinaria. ANT V 1.03-1.09 mm long, 0.9-1.1 Χ ANT IV and 0.8-0.9 Χ ANT III

…..Macrosiphum timpanogos*

-      Cauda without any constriction. ANT III with 17-40 rhinaria. ANT V 0.57-0.79 mm long, 0.7-0.8 Χ ANT IV and 0.5-0.7 Χ ANT III                                     …..Macrosiphum albifrons

6      ANT I with 9-23 hairs. Articulation between ANT III and IV blackish pigmented. ANT BASE VI 0.25-0.40 mm long, 1.8-3 Χ longer than R IV+V. SIPH attenuate distally, with diameter at midlength less than middle diameter of hind tibia         ..…Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      ANT I with 6-10 hairs. Articulation between ANT III and IV not blackish pigmented. ANT BASE VI 0.13-0.20 mm long, 1-1.5 Χ longer than R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally; diameter at midlength greater than middle diameter of hind tibia   …..Acyrthosiphon kondoi

7      ANT I-VI rather uniformly dark. Cauda with 12 –20 hairs                                             …..8

-       ANT with at least III-V mainly pale. Cauda with 4-25 hairs                                           …..9

8      R IV+V acute, 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE less than 2. Cauda tapering almost to a point. (Al. with 3-6 rhinaria on ANT III and 0 on IV)                                   …..Aphis lupini

-      R IV+V blunter, about 1 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE more than 2. Cauda broader with more rounded apex. (Al. with 12-18 rhinaria on ANT III and 1-2 on IV) …..Aphis lupinehansoni

9      Dorsum with an extensive dark shield, with a pale reticulation (sometimes fragmented in small specimens)                                                                                                               .....10

-       Dorsum without an extensive dark shield                                                                        .....11

10   R IV+V 0.88-1.16 Χ HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 Χ). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs

…..Aphis craccivora

 -     R IV+V  0.97-1.3 Χ HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 Χ). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)                                                                                    …..Aphis cytisorum

11    Head smooth with ANT tubercles weakly developed, ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu), no dark markings on dorsal abdomen anterior to SIPH, and hairs on hind femur all distinctly shorter than diameter of femur at its base                                        …..12

-       Without the above combination of characters                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

12    ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.8. ABD TERG 8 with a dark cross-band. (Al. with 1-2 rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                    …..Aphis frangulae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.2. ABD TERG 8 usually without a cross-band. (Al. without rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                  …..Aphis gossypii

 

Lupsia  see Galactites                                              Compositae                

 

Lupulina (-us)  see Medicago                                      Leguminosae

 

Luziola (including Hydrochloa)                                             Poaceae

      Luziola sp.                                     Schizaphis longicaudata; Sipha glyceriae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.       

 

Luzula                                                         Juncaceae                     

        Luzula albida = L. luzuloides

        L. alpinopilosa                              Melanaphis luzulella; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

        L. arctica = L. nivalis                      

        L. banksiana                                 Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        L. campestris                                 Forda formicaria; Melanaphis luzulella; Sitobion avenae

        L. forsteri                                      Rhopalosiphum padi

      L. lutea                                          Melanaphis luzulella

        L. luzuloides                                  Ceruraphis eriophori; Melanaphis luzulella;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi; Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

        L. multiflora                                  Melanaphis luzulella; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        L. nemorosa = L. luzuloides            

        L. nivalis                                       Carolinaia sp.(schlingeri?)

        L. nivea                                         Carolinaia sp.(schlingeri ?); Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        L. nutans = L. pediformis

        L. pallescens                                 Sitobion avenae

        L. pediformis                                 Sitobion avenae

        L. pilosa                                         Ceruraphis eriophori; Melanaphis luzulella;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi; Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae 

        L. spadicea = L. alpinopilosa

        L. spicata                                       Melanaphis luzulella

        L. sudetica                                     Sitobion avenae

        L. sylvatica                                    Forda formicaria; Melanaphis luzulella;

                                                              Metopolophium festucae; Sitobion fragariae

        Luzula sp.                                     [Atheroides brevicornis]; Sipha maydis

Key to apterae on Luzula:-

1      SIPH absent. Eyes of 3 facets only. ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.3

.....2

-      SIPH present as tubes or pores. Eyes multifaceted. ANT 5- or 6-segmented. ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                                                                         .....3

2      Hind legs elongate, with femora and tibiae curved, and hind tarsi 0.22-0.38 mm long, 1.4-1.8 Χ longer than mid- tarsi. ANT densely clothed with fine hairs. Primary rhinarium on ANT V not much larger than that on ANT IV                                                     .....Paracletus bykovi

-      Hind legs not elogate, with hind tarsi less than 0.22 mm long, less than 1.4 Χ longer than mid-tarsi. ANT not densely clothed with fine hairs, and primary rhinarium on ANT V very large, transversely oblong and extending around segment                       .....Forda formicaria

3      SIPH as pores on shallow cones. Dorsal hairs very thick, long and spine-like. Cauda broadly rounded                                                                                                          …..Sipha maydis

-      SIPH tubular. Dorsal hairs not very thick and spine-like. Cauda triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped                                                                                                                               …..4

4      ANT III bearing 2-10 rhinaria, and with longest hairs at least 2 Χ BD III. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH black and very rugose               …..Ceruraphis eriophori

-      ANT III without rhinaria or with 1-4 very small rhinaria, and with longest hairs less than 1.5 Χ BD III. Dorsum with or without sclerotisation, SIPH pale or dark                              …..5

5      SIPH clavate; i.e. distinctly swollen on distal part, with a narrower section basad. Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation                                                                     …..6

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering. Dorsal abdomen without extensive dark sclerotisation     …..7

6      ANT tubercles very well developed, their inner faces approximately parallel in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 4.7-5.3. Dorsal abdomen with segmentally divided sclerotisation

              …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-      ANT tubercles low, rounded. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.5. Dorsal abdomen with an almost complete shield over metanotum and ABD TERG 1-6           …..Carolinaia sp. (schlingeri?)

7      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                      …..8

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                …..9

8      SIPH 1.75-2.25 Χ cauda, which has a rounded apex                             …..Sitobion fragariae

-      SIPH 1.1-1.4 Χ cauda, which has a more pointed apex                             …..Sitobion avenae

9      SIPH 0.15-0.22 Χ BL. ANT III with 0-4 small rhinaria near base. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                   …..10

-       SIPH 0.09-0.14 Χ BL. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with small MTu

…..11

10   ANT with each segment pale at base and dusky/dark at apex (base of VI paler than apex of V). R IV+V 0.55-0.71 Χ HT II. (Al. without dorsal abdominal pigmentation)

…..Metopolophium dirhodum

-      ANT progressively darker from base to apex. R IV+V 0.71-0.90 Χ HT II. (Al. with dark dorsal abdominal bars)                                                                  …..Metopolophium festucae

11    ANT usually 5-segmented, with PT/BASE 1.8-3.6. SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange                                                                                                  …..Melanaphis luzullela

-       ANT usually 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.2. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen distally with a smooth, constricted region proximal to flange

…..Rhopalosiphum padi

 

Luzuriaga                                                    Alstroemeriaceae

      Luzuriaga radicans