(in alphabetical order)



































































































Larix                              Larches                          Pinaceae

The aphid fauna of Larix seems to reflect the apparently close relationship between the tree species in this genus. Host records of the best-known larch-feeding aphids (Cinara cuneomaculata, C. laricis, Adelges laricis) show no sign of discrimination between species of Larix, and it seems possible that the less well-known and less widely distributed aphids would be equally non-specific in their choice of hosts if given the opportunity. For Adelges species, it is not possible to provide a complete key in the present state of knowledge.

     Larix cajanderi                               Cinara laricis

     L. decidua                                                     European Larch
                                                              Adelges [abietis], diversis, geniculatus, laricis, segregis,

                                                                   [tardus], viridana, viridis;
                                                              [Aphis fabae];
                                                              Cinara [boerneriana Paŝek 1954 (nomen dubium)],

                                                                   [costata (?- as Lachniella laricina del Guercio 1909)],

                                                                   cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis

     L. Χ eurolepis                                 Adelges laricis, viridana, viridis; Cinara laricis

     L. europaea = L. decidua

     L. gmelinii (incl. var. olgensis)                     Dahurian Larch
                                                              Adelges [abietis], karamatsui, laricis, roseigallis, viridana;
                                                              Cinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis

     L. kaempferi                                                 Japanese Larch, Karamatsu   

                                                              Adelges isedakii,[japonicus], karamatsui, kitamiensis,

                                                                  laricis, torii, viridana, viridis;

                                                              [Aphis fabae];
                                                              Cinara chibi, cuneomaculata, kochiana,
                                                                  kochiana ssp. kochi, laricicola, laricis;
                                                              Prociphilus [?kuwanai], laricis, [ushikoroshi]

     L. kamtschatica                              Cinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis

     L. koreana = L. gmelinii var. olgensis

     L. laricina                                                     Alaskan Larch, Tamarack
                                                              Adelges aenigmaticus, lariciatus, laricis;
                                                              Cinara cuneomaculata, laricifex, spiculosa, subterranea

     L. leptolepis = L. kaempferi

     L. lyalli                                            Adelges lariciatus, laricis; Cinara lyalli

     L. occidentalis                                               Western Larch
                                                              Adelges oregonensis; Cinara laricifoliae

     L. potaninii                                     Adelges laricis ssp. potaninilaricis

     L. russica = L. sibirica

     L. sibirica                                                      Russian or Siberian Larch
                                                              Adelges [abietis], laricis, tardoides, viridana, viridis,

                                                              Cinara cuneomaculata, kochiana, laricicola, laricis;

                                                              Elatobium laricis

Key to larch aphids:-

1     Antennae of aptera with at most 3 segments. Antenna of alata 4- or 5-segmented with 3 large primary, but no secondary, rhinaria. Forewing with radial sector absent. Always oviparous, with a distinct, chitinous ovipositor                                                                  .....2

-      Antenna of aptera and alata 6-segmented, that of alata with secondary rhinaria. Forewing with radial sector present. Parthenogenetic morphs viviparous                                         .....5

2     Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) with double walled facets secreting hollow tubes of wax (e.g. fig. 55A). Head and prothorax of alata bearing wax gland areas of granular appearance, with facets not clearer than the surrounding cuticle, or at most with small groups of clear facets on marginal areas of prothorax (fig.55D)             .....3

-      Wax glands of overwintering neosistens either absent or if present then with simple, thin-walled facets secreting solid wax filaments (fig.55B). Head and prothorax of alata with or without wax gland areas bearing numerous facets that are clearer than surrounding cuticle (figs 55E, F)                                                                                                                       .....4


3     Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) each with 5-6 triangular

       double-walled pores                                                    ..... Adelges (Sacciphantes) roseigallis*

-      Wax glands of overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) each with 4 rounded,

       double-walled pores                                                  ..... Adelges (Sacciphantes) viridis group

4      Overwintering first instar larva (neosistens) with dorsal sclerotic plates of head and thorax separate (fig. 55B). Adult aptera (sistens) pyriform, BL 1.8-2.5 mm. Dorsum membranous, with small groups of wax gland facets on all segments (the marginal groups largest) (fig. 55G). Alata of BL 1.8-2.6 mm, with anterior and posterior cephalic wax gland areas united to form a continuous longitudinal swathe of facets on each side of the epicranial suture (fig. 55E). ANT IV and V of alata with minimal width of basal articulation of segment usually less than 0.5 of width of rhinaria

.....Adelges (Cholodkovskyana) viridana group

-      Overwintering neosistens heavily sclerotised, with dorsal sclerotic plates of head and thorax coalesced (fig. 55C). Adult aptera (sistens or progrediens) oval or sub-circular, with paired spinal, pleural and marginal sclerotic plates on thorax and ABD TERG 1-5; these are rounded, convex and wrinkled without wax glands in sistens (spring generation; fig. 55H), but more extensive and with numerous wax gland facets in aestivating (progrediens) generation (fig. 55I). Alata of BL 1.0-1.7 mm, with anterior and posterior cephalic wax gland areas if present usually separate (fig. 55F). ANT IV and V of alata with minimum width of basal articulation of segment usually more than 0.5 of maximum width of rhinaria

       .....Adelges laricis group

5     SIPH tubular, longer than their basal width. ANT PT/BASE more than 1                       .....6

-      SIPH either absent or on broad, hairy, pigmented cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 1


6     Dorsum pale. Cauda pale. SIPH mainly pale, and swollen on distal half. Antennal hairs very short and inconspicuous, of maximal length less than 0.5 Χ ANT BD III

.....Elatobium laricis

-      Dorsum with dark markings, at least marginally and posterior to SIPH. Cauda dark. SIPH dark, tapering from base to flange. Antennal hairs more than 0.5 Χ ANT BD III

.....Aphis fabae

7     SIPH absent or present only as small pores                                                                        .....8

-      SIPH present as large pores on broad hairy cones                                                           .....10

8     Alata developing on Larix (sexupara) with only about 6 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 2-4 on ANT IV, about 3 on V, and 2 on VI                                                 .....Prociphilus laricis

-      Alate sexupara with many more secondary rhinaria (e.g. more than 20 on III)                .....9

9     Head of alata without distinct wax pore plates (based on spring migrant, but probably also applying to sexupara)                                                                           .....Prociphilus kuwanai

-      Head of alata with a pair of wax pore plates (based on spring migrant, but probably also applying to sexupara)                                                                      .....Prociphilus ushikoroshi

10   (This and subsequent couplets apply only to apterous morphs.) ABD TERG 2-6 with at least some hairs arising from dark sclerites of minimum dimension at least 5 times the diameter of the hair base                                                                                                                      .....11

-      ABD TERG 2-6 either without hair-bearing sclerites or with hairs on very small, round scleroites of diameter less than 4 times that of hair base                                                 .....15

11   ANT BASE VI with 9-12 hairs. Hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 numerous rounded, evenly-spaced, and mostly rather uniform-sized (fig. 56A)             .....Cinara lyalli

-      ANT BASE VI with 6-8 hairs. Hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 of irregular shape and varying size and distribution                                                                                     .....12

12   Hind tibia mainly dark with a short pale section on basal third, of length less than 0.2 of total length of tibia. Hairs on hind tibia maximally 65 ΅m and hair-bearing sclerites on ABD TERG 2-6 numerous, mostly separate (fig. 56B)                                               .....Cinara laricifoliae

-      Hind tibia with most of basal half pale, the pale section occupying at least 0.25 of total length of tibia. If the longest hind tibial hairs are less than 65 ΅m then there are only a few, small sclerites on each of ABD TERG 2-6                                                                                .....13 

13    R IV+V usually less than 0.7 times longer than HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 each with only a few small flat sclerites, bearing variable but often rather finely pointed hairs which are maximally 40 ΅m long (fig. 56C)                                                                                 .....Cinara laricifex

-      R IV+V usually more than 0.7 times longer than HT II. ABD TERG 2-6 usually with numerous large sclerites, often confluent between hair bases; the hairs arising from them are often thick and spine-like with raised, conical bases (figs 56D,E)                                  .....14

14   Dorsal abdominal hairs often with enlarged or blunt, bifurcate or multifurcate apices (fig.56D)                                                                                                    .....Cinara spiculosa

-      All dorsal abdominal hairs with acute apices (fig. 56E)                                .....Cinara laricis

15   BL 4.7-6.1 mm. R IV 0.29-0.42 mm long, bearing 21-34 hairs arranged in 4 longitudinal rows                                                                                                           .....Cinara kochiana

-       BL less than 4.7 mm. R IV 0.15-0.25 mm long, bearing 5-11 hairs in 2 longitudinal rows


16   Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 at least 2 Χ diameter of ANT III at midpoint

.....Cinara subterranea*

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 no more than 1.5 Χ diameter of ANT III at midpoint  .....17

17    ANT IV shorter than or as short as ANT VI (incl. PT). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove (see fig. 74A) more than total length of antenna. BL usually less than 3 mm

.....Cinara chibi

-      ANT IV clearly longer than ANT VI (incl. PT). Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than total length of antenna. BL often more than 3 mm

.....Cinara cuneomaculata/laricicola

*only oviparae of C. subterranea have been seen.


Larrea                                                          Zygophyllaceae

       Larrea divaricata                           [Aphis craccivora]

       L. tridentata                                   Brachyunguis sp. (?tetrapteralis)


Laser                                                            Apiaceae

      Laser trilobum (?)                         Anuraphis pyrilaseri; Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii;

      (= Laserpitium marginatum?)                 Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis passerinii;

                                                              Macrosiphum laseri

Use key to apterae on Laserpitium


Laserpitium                                                 Apiaceae

      Laserpitium alpinum                  Cavariella aegopodii

       L. gallicum                                  Dysaphis apiifolia

      L. garganicum                            Cavariella aegopodii

       L. hispidum                                 Anuraphis pyrilaseri

       L. latifolium                                 Aphis fabae, solanella;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                            Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum [euphorbiae], gei, laseri

       L. siler                                          Acyrthosiphon nigripes; Anuraphis pyrilaseri; Aphis fabae;

                                                            Dysaphis laserpitii; Hyadaphis passerinii;

                                                            Macrosiphum gei

       Laserpitium sp.                           Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Laserpitium:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-directed process above cauda                                    …..2

-      No supracaudal process                                                                                                     …..4

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.55. R IV without accesory hairs. SIPH clavate

…..Cavariella aegopodii

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.9. R IV with 2 accessory hairs. SIPH clavate or not clavate          .....3

3     SIPH clavate                                                                                     …..Cavariella pastinacae

-      SIPH cylindrical/ tapering                                                                  …..Cavariella theobaldi

4     Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Well-developed spinal and marginal tubercles (STu and MTu) present                                                                       …..5

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. STu usually absent, MTu sporadic or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                         …..7

5     Head densely spiculose. SIPH shorter than R IV+V, with close-set annular rows of blunt spinules. Cauda with 10-12 hairs. STu on ABD TERG 1-5               …..Anuraphis pyrilaseri

-      Head not spiculose. SIPH longer than R IV+V, normally imbricated. Cauda with 5 hairs. STu on head and ABD TERG 8                                                                                       …..6

6     Longest hairs on ANT III 37-54 μm, 1.8-2.8 Χ BD III                         …..Dysaphis laserpitii

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 8-17 μm, 0.3-0.8 Χ BD III                           …..Dysaphis apiifolia

7     SIPH dusky/dark, clavate, 0.85-1.2 Χ the also dark cauda                .....Hyadaphis passerinii

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering (or if not then pale and much longer than pale cauda)         .....8

8     Head smooth with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces broadly divergent. …..9

-      Head either smooth with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or spiculose with steep-sided ANT tubercles                                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

9     ANT, legs except basal parts of femora, SIPH and cauda all black. SIPH without any distinct subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                           …..Acyrthosiphon nigripes

-      ANT, legs, SIPH and cauda pale, or only dark at apices. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                      …..10

10   R IV+V 0.95-1.14 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 7-10 hairs                   …..Macrosiphum gei

-      R IV+V 0.63-0.83 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 6 hairs                     …..Macrosiphum laseri


Lasiacis                                                       Poaceae

One aphid species, Pseudoregma panicola, is recorded from three Lasiacis spp.; L. divaricata, L. grisebachii and L. sorghoidea (or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria).


Lasiagrostis  see Stipa                                          Poaceae                       


Lasianthus                                                   Rubiaceae

      Lasianthus chinensis                    Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

       L. cyanocarpus                              Pseudomegoura nipponica

       Lasianthus sp.                               Sinomegoura citricola

Key to apterae on Lasianthus:-

-      Head black, spiculose, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles. SIPH wholly black, cylindrical/tapering. Cauda less than 0.5 Χ SIPH, with 5-6 hairs                                            

….. Pseudomegoura nipponica

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Lastrea  see Thelypteris                                                       Thelypteridaceae


Latania                                                        Arecaeae

      Latania borbonica = L. lontaroides

          L. lontaroides                                Cerataphis brasiliensis, lataniae

       L. rubra = L. lontaroides

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.


Lathraea                                                      Orobanchaceae

       Lathraea squamaria                     Aphis orobanches


Lathyrus  (including Oxypogon)                                   Fabaceae

       L. angulatus                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Megoura viciae

       L. angustifolius                             Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. aphaca                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Megoura viciae

       L. articulatus                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. cicera                                        Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. cingulatus (?)                            Megoura viciae

       L. clymenum                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. davidii                                       Megoura crassicauda

       L. grandiflorus                              Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. heterophyllus                            Megoura viciae

       L. hirsutus                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. humilis                                      Aphis craccivora

       L. japonicus (incl. ssp. glaber,          Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum; Aphis craccae;

                                 maritimus)              Macrosiphum creelii;

                                                              Megoura crassicauda, lathyricola, litoralis, viciae

       L. lanszwertii                                 Macrosiphum creelii

       L. latifolius                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Megoura viciae

       L. linifolius                                    Megoura viciae

       L. littoralis                                     Macrosiphum creelii

       L. macropus                                  Aphis cinerea

       L. magellanicus                            Aphis magellanica; Myzus ornatus

       L. maritimus = L. japonicus ssp. maritimus                                  

       L. marmoratus                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

       L. megalanthus = L. latifolius

       L. montanus = L. linifolius

       L. nevadensis (incl. ssp.                   Nearctaphis sclerosa


       L. niger                                         Aphis craccivora; Megoura viciae

       L. nissolia                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       L. nudicaulis = L. palustris ssp. nudicaulis

       L. nutallii = L. nevadensis ssp. lanceolatus

       L. ochroleucus                            Acyrthosiphon pisum; Macrosiphum creelii

       L. ochrus                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

       L. odoratus                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, [dissita Walker  (nomen nudum)],

                                                                  fabae, gossypii, solanella;

                                                              Macrosiphum [centranthi], euphorbiae; Megoura viciae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Nearctaphis crataegifoliae;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

       L. oroboides (?)                             Megoura viciae

       L. pagloi (?)                                   Aphis craccivora

       L. palustris (incl. ssp. nudicaulis,       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                         pilosus)         Megoura crassicauda, viciae                                              

       L. pilosus = L. palustris ssp. pilosus

       L. pisiformis                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

       L. pratensis                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                              Aphis comosa, craccivora, [medicaginis], pseudocomosa;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Megoura viciae;

                                                              Megourella purpurea; Pemphigus populi

       L. roseus                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. sativus                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Megoura viciae;

                                                              [Uroleucon compositae]

       L. subandinus                               Acyrthosiphon pisum

       L. sylvestris                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis fabae; Megoura viciae

       L. tuberosus                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis pseudocomosa;

                                                              Megoura viciae

       L. venetus                                      Aphis craccivora

       L. vernus                                       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis pseudocomosa;

                                                              Megoura viciae

       Lathyrus sp.                                  Acyrthosiphon [ilka], loti; [Aphis coronillae];

                                                              [Myzus cerasi]

Key to apterae on Lathyrus:-

1     ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward much further than the weakly developed median frontal tubercle, with inner faces smooth and broadly divergent                         …..2

-      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, or if well developed then either their inner faces are steep-sided and scabrous or spiculose, or the median frontal tubercle is developed to a similar extent                                                                                                                   …..11

2     SIPH somewhat swollen in middle, either entirely black or dusky/dark with black apices


-      SIPH pale and cylindrical or tapering for most of length                                                 …..7

3     Dorsal abdomen with a segmental pattern of dark spinal, pleural and marginal sclerites. Cauda pale. ANT III with 1-6 small rhinaria near base                    …..Megourella purpurea

-      Dorsal abdomen without a segmental pattern of dark sclerites. Cauda pale or dark. ANT III with 6-50 somewhat protruberant rhinaria extending onto distal half                              …..4

4     Cauda pale or only darker towards apex. Antesiphuncular sclerites pale or absent          …..5

-      Cauda dark brown or black. Large crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present (as in alata)                                                                                                                                  …..6

5     SIPH 0.67–0.95 Χ cauda. ANT III with 6–21 secondary rhi­naria. ANT PT/BASE 2.7–3.7

…..Megoura litoralis

-      SIPH 1.00–1.16 Χ cauda. ANT III with 40–59 secondary rhi­naria, ANT PT/BASE 3.5–4.75

…..Megoura lathyricola*

6     ANT III with 5-26 (usually 10-18) rhinaria, not in a row, on basal 0.75 of segment (ANT IV of al. with 0-7 rhinaria)                                                                              …..Megoura viciae

-      ANT III with  (15-) 21-50 rhinaria in a row extending over 0.75-0.90 of segment. (ANT IV of al. with more than 17 rhinaria)                                                    …..Megoura crassicauda

7     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                 …..8

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III very short and blunt, much less than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                                                      …..9

8     ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.3 Χ R IV+V                                            …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      ANT VI BASE 1.4-2.0 Χ R IV+V                                                     …..Macrosiphum creelii

9     Articulation between ANT III and IV blackish. ANT VI BASE 0.25-0.4 mm, 1.8-2.3 Χ R IV+V. SIPH very attenuate distally, with minimum diameter less than 0.25 Χ width of cauda at midlength in dorsal view                                                     …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      Articulation between ANT III and IV pale or dusky. ANT VI BASE 0.13-0.2 mm, 1.0-1.5 Χ R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally, with minimum diameter more than 0.25 Χ width of cauda at midlength in dorsal view                                                                                  …..10

10   ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.0, and PT usually 1.6-2.5 Χ cauda. SIPH rarely less than 1.7 Χ cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon kondoi

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.2, and PT 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda. SIPH rarely more than 1.7 Χ cauda

…..Acyrthosiphon loti

11   Head densely spiculose or nodulose, but ANT tubercles are undeveloped. SIPH with

       close-set, strongly spiculose imbrication. Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                       …..12

-      Head smooth or, if densely spinulose or nodulose then with ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH (if present) with normal imbrication. Cauda (if developed at all) tongue- or finger-like, longer than its basal width                                                                                              …..13

12   Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerites anterior to SIPH         …..Nearctaphis crataegifoliae

-      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH, including a quadrate patch over ABD TERG 3-5, and smaller sclerites on 1 and 2

…..Nearctaphis sclerosa*

13   Dorsal abdomen not extensively sclerotised                                                                   …..14

-      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, divided into polygons by a pale reticulation                                                                                                                       …..15 

14   SIPH only 0.6-0.7 Χ cauda, which is long, pale and finger-like and has a marked subproximal constriction                                                                                            …..Aphis magellanica

-      SIPH more than 0.7 Χ cauda                                          ….. go to key to polyphagous aphids

15   Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation consisting of segmentally separated cross-bands. (R IV+V 0.77-0.93 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.93-1.24 Χ cauda)                                               …..Aphis cinerea

-      Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation usually includng a solid patch. R IV+V 0.87-1.18 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.7-2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..16

16   Longest hair on ANT III is 0.25-0.75 (usually 0.5-0.6) Χ BD III. Cauda with 4-9 hairs

…..Aphis craccivora

-      Longest hair on ANT III is 0.67-1.38 Χ BD III. Cauda with 6-19 hairs                        …..17

17   SIPH 1.6-2.0 Χ cauda, which bears 6-11 hairs (usually less than 10)           …..Aphis comosa

-      SIPH 0.7-1.6 Χ cauda, which bears (8-)10-19 hairs                                                        …..18

18   SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdomen usually with a solid black shield incorporating all marginal sclerites (sometimes fragmented in small specimens)

…..Aphis pseudocomosa

-      SIPH 0.7-1.0 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdomen with a variably developed or fragmented black shield that does not extend laterally to unite with marginal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-3

…..Aphis craccae


Launaea                                                      Asteraceae

      Launaea arborescens                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              Uroleucon sonchi

       L. cornutus see Sonchus cornutus

       L. intybacea                                   Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, pseudambrosiae

       L. nana                                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       L. nudicaulis                                 Uroleucon hypochoeridis

       L. pinnatifida = L. sarmentosa

       L. resedifolia  = Scorzonera laciniata

       L. rotundifolia (?)                          Aphis spiraecola

       L. sarmentosa                                [Eutrichosiphum alnicola]; Myzus persicae

       Launaea spp.                                [Metopolophium chandrani]; Protaphis pseudocardui


Key to apterae on Launaea:-

1     ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. SIPH short, black, about as long as cauda which is bluntly triangular and bears 12-20 hairs                                                                     …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-      ANT PT/BASE  more than 1.8 and other characters not in that combination                  …..2

2     SIPH dark, with reticulation consisting of numerous small cells and extending over distal 0.16-0.43 of length                                                                                                                    …..3

-      SIPH pale or if dark then without distal polygonal reticulation                                       …..6

3     Dorsal hairs not arising from small dark scleroites                                  …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      All or most of dorsal hairs arising from small dark scleroites                                           …..4

4     Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. R IV+V 0.84-1.08 Χ HT II

…..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct. R IV+V 0.91-1.43 Χ HT II                      …..5

5     HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more Χ longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 Χ R IV+V

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

6     ANT tubercles well developed with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria near base. ANT III 0.8-1.0 Χ SIPH, which are long, pale and tapering/cylindrical on distal part, without any polygonal reticulation

…..Acyrthosiphon ilka

-      Aphids without that combination of characters              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Laurus                                                                    Lauraceae

      Laurus nobilis                               Aphis frangulae

      L. rotundifolia                               Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Lavandula                                                   Lamiaceae                    

       Lavandula angustifolia                 Aphis fabae; Eucarazzia elegans; Myzus persicae

       L. dentata                                      Aphis gossypii

       L. latifolia                                      Eucarazzia elegans

       L. multifida                                    Aphis gossypii, salviae

       L. officinalis = L. angustifolia

       L. pedunculata                              Eucarazzia elegans

       L. spica = L. angustifolia

       L. stoechas                                     Eucarazzia elegans

       Lavandula sp.                               Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Lavandula:-

1    SIPH very markedly clavate, so that maximum diameter of swollen part is more than 2 Χ minimum diameter of stem (Fig. 48a). SIPH 5.3-8.8 Χ cauda, which bears only 5 hairs

…..Eucarazzia elegans

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only moderately clavate; less than 3 Χ cauda, and if at all swollen then cauda bears 6 or more hairs                                                                          …..2

2     ABD TERG 1-6 pale or with only small scattered dark sclerites

….. go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation on ABD TERG 1-6, the sclerotic area having a pale polygonal reticulation                                                                                  …..3

3     R IV+V 0.87-1.18 Χ HT II (rarely more than 1.1 Χ)                              …..Aphis craccivora

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.42 Χ HT II (usually at least 1.13 Χ)                                        …..Aphis salviae


Lavatera                                                      Malvaceae

      Lavatera acerifolia = Saviniona acerifolia

       L. arborea = Malva arborea

       L. assurgentiflora = Malva assurgentiflora

       L. cretica = Malva linnaei

       L. olbia = Althaea olbia

       L. phoenicea                                  Aphis gossypii

       L. punctata                                    Aphis fabae, gossypii

       L. thuringiaca = Malva thuringiaca 

       L. trimestris = Malva trimestris

       Lavatera spp.                                Aphis [epilobii Kittel (invalid name)], [umbrella];

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids (or try key to apterae on Malva).


Lawsonia                                                     Lythraceae

      L. alba                                           Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (see Blackman & Eastop 1994)

       L. inermis                                      Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, [punicae]

       L. uniflora                                     Aphis gossypii

Key to aphids on Lawsonia:-

-      All adult viviparae alate. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. SIPH as short, pale truncate cones

…..Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (see Blackman & Eastop 1994)

-      Adult viviparae apterous or alate. Cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH tubular, tapering or swollen on distal half

      .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, but note the possibility that specimens similar to Aphis gossypii but with SIPH less than 1.5 Χ cauda may be A. punicae.


Lecythis                                                       Lecythidaceae

      Lecythis sp.                                   Aphis gossypii


Ledebouriella see Saposhnikovia                                Apiaceae


Ledum   see Rhododendron                                             Ericaceae

      Ledum palustre see Rhododendron palustre                              


Leea                                                             Vitaceae

      Leea spp.                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, odinae

See key to polyphagous aphids.


Leersia  (including Homalocenchrus)                             Poaceae

      L. hexandra                                  Brachysiphoniella montana; Kugegania ageni

        L. japonica                                    [Melanaphis siphonella]

        L. oryzoides                                   Colopha graminis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                              Sipha glyceriae

        L. virginica                                    Colopha graminis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to apterae on Leersia:-

1      SIPH long (0.14-0.31 Χ BL), tubular, and swollen on distal part                                     …..2

-       SIPH as very short cones, or absent                                                                                  …..3

2      Head not spiculose ventrally, and without spinal tubercles (STu). ANT tubercles weakly developed. Dorsal cuticle with a regular pattern of spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH 0.14-0.21 Χ BL                                                                                …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       Head spiculose on ventral side, dorsally smooth and with a pair of  STu. ANT tubercles are well-developed, with inner faces scabrous. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons. SIPH more than 0.25 Χ BL                                                     …..Kugegania ageni

3      Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent. ANT and legs greatly reduced, ANT less than 0.1 Χ BL. Wax glands present on all segments, each comprising a ring of cells surrounding 1-2 smaller central cells                                                                                             …..Colopha graminis

-       Eyes multifaceted. SIPH as very short cones. ANT and legs of normal length, e.g. ANT at least 0.2 Χ BL. No discrete wax glands                                                                            …..4

4      Dorsal body hairs thick and spine-like. Tergum sclerotic, with numerous small denticles between hair bases. Cauda short, pale, with a round knob. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5

…..Sipha glyceriae

-       Dorsal body hairs thin and fine-pointed. Tergum membranous, without denticles. Cauda long, dark, finger-like. ANT PT/BASE more than 2

…..Brachysiphoniella montana

        (or use general keys to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)


Lefeburea                                                    Apiaceae

      Lefeburea abyssinica                    Sitobion africanum, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]


Legousia (including Specularia)                             Campanulaceae

      Legousia sp.                                  Uroleucon sp. (as sonchi)


Lembotropis                                                Fabaceae

      Lembotropis nigricans                  Acyrthosiphon parvum, pisum ssp. spartii;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, cytisorum, pseudocytisorum;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Ctenocallis dobrovljanskyi

Use key to apterae on Cytisus.


Lemna                                                         Araceae

      Lemna gibba                                 Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        L. minor                                        [Aphis sambuci]; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        L. perpusilla                                  Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        L. polyrrhiza = Spirodela polyrrhiza

        L. trisulca                                      Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Lens                                                             Fabaceae

      Lens culinaris                               Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        L. esculenta = L. culinaris               

        L. nigricans                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum

Use key to apterae on Medicago.


Leonis                                                          Asteraceae

       Leonis trineura                              Aphis spiraecola


Leonotis                                                       Lamiaceae

      Leonotis leonurus                         Aphis gossypii

        L. nepetifolia                                 Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Uroleucon compositae

        Leonotis sp.                                   Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Leontodon (including Thrincia)                                   Asteraceae

      Leontodon alpinus                      Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon cichorii

        L. asper = L. crispus

      L. autumnalis = Scorzoneroides autumnalis

        L. crispus                                    Aphis leontodontis; Uroleucon leontodontis

        L. danubialus = L. hispidus          

        L. hastilis = L. hispidus

        L. hieracioides = Picris hieracoides

      L. hirtus                                      Uroleucon leontodontis, sonchi

        L. hispidus (incl. danubialis,           Aphis leontodontis, picridicola, solanella;

                                        hastilis)                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Trama [rara], troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis, leontodontis, picridis,

                                                                 [pilosellae], taraxaci

        L. incanus                                   Aphis leontodontis

        L. rothii = L. saxatilis ssp. rothii      

        L. saxatilis ssp. rothii                  Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Myzus cymbalariae; Protaphis terricola;

                                                            Uroleucon picridis

        L. taraxacoides                           Aphis picridicola

        L. taraxacoides ssp. longirostris = L. saxatilis ssp. rothii

        L. taraxacum = Taraxacum officinale

        L. villarsii = L. hirtus

        Leontodon spp.                           [Aulacorthum rufum]; Myzus ornatus; Protrama flavescens;

                                                            Uroleucon pilosellae

Key to apterae on Leontodon (and Scorzoneroides):-

1      Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 Χ hind tibiae. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. SIPH absent, or as pores on shallow cones                                                                       …..2

-       Hind tarsi normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular                                     …..4

2      SIPH absent. Eyes of only 3 facets                                                       …..Trama troglodytes

-       SIPH present as pores on small or shallow cones. Eyes multifaceted                               …..3

3      Apterae without secondary rhinaria on ANT III. Dorsum pale and membranous. HT II

        0.75-0.85 Χ hind tibia                                                                                ….. Trama caudata

-       Apterae all alatiform with secondary rhinaria on ANT III-VI. Dorsum with dark sclerotic markings. HT II 0.6-0.7 Χ hind tibia                                                   …..Protrama flavescens

4      Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, not longer than its basal width                                 …..5

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width                                           …..8

5      Cauda helmet-shaped, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH smooth, pale, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsum without dark markings. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                           

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda bluntly triangular, with 6-19 hairs. SIPH imbricated, dark, without a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.3. ANT III often with rhinaria. Dorsum usually with dark sclerotisation. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu         …..6

6      Cauda with 6-12 hairs. MTu usually present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as the large ones on 1 and 7                                                                                                      …..Aphis picridicola

-       Cauda with 11-19 hairs. MTu usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                …..7

7      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.3. SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda                                …..Protaphis middletonii

-       ANT PT/BASE (0.8-)1.0-1.2 (-1.4). SIPH 0.8-1.1 Χ cauda                  …..Protaphis terricola

8      Abdomen with conspicuous, well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) on ABD TERG

        2-4(-5) as well as on 1 and 7, diameter of  MTu on 7 being 1.6-2.9 Χ ANT BD III               

…..Aphis leontodontis

-       Abdomen either without MTu, or with MTu regularly present either only on ABD TERG 1 and 7 (that on 7 being less than 1.5 Χ ANT BD III), or only on 2-4(-5), but not both     …..9

9      SIPH dark with an extensive distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT mainly dark   .....10

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation, or with only a few closed cells subapically. ANT mainly pale                                                                                                                       .....16

10    Cauda dark like SIPH, and bearing 8-12 hairs                                     …..Uroleucon taraxaci

-       Cauda much paler than SIPH, and bearing 11-36 hairs                                                  …..11

11    Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 not arising from dark scleroites. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or vestigeal. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II                                          …..Uroleucon sonchi

-       Dorsal hairs all or mostly arising from dark scleroites. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. R IV+V 0.84-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                  …..12

12    First tarsal segments bearing only 3 hairs, all subapical. ANT III with 12-30 rhinaria. Cauda with 11-16 hairs. R IV+V 1.15-1.45 Χ HT II                                     .....Uroleucon pilosellae

-       First tarsal segments usually with 5 hairs, including a pair of lateral ones. ANT III with 25-97 rhinaria. Cauda with 12-36 hairs. R IV+V 0.84-1.84 Χ HT II                                         .....13

13    R IV+V 0.84-1.08 Χ HT II                                                         …..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

-       R IV+V 1.17-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                                             …..14

14    R IV+V 1.17-1.33 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-7.9. ANT III with 56-97 rhinaria. Cauda with (16-) 20-36 hairs                                                                                    …..Uroleucon cichorii

-       R IV+V 1.30-1.84 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-6.7. ANT III with 25-60 rhinaria. Cauda with 11-24 hairs                                                                                                               …..15

15    ABD TERG 2-4(-5) regularly with well-developed MTu, the diameter of which is usually larger than that of adjacent hair bases. Cauda with (12-) 18-24 hairs

…..Uroleucon picridis

-       ABD TERG 2-4 usually lacking MTu, and if present these are rarely larger than hair bases. Cauda with 11-17 (-20) hairs                                                         …..Uroleucon leontodontis

16    Head cuticle smooth (sometimes with a few spinules ventrally). ANT tubercles well developed with inner faces divergent or almost parallel, and smooth or only slightly scabrous. ANT III with 1-36 rhinaria                                                                              …..17

-       Either head is smooth and ANT tubercles are small or undeveloped, or head is markedly spinulose at least ventrally, and inner faces of ANT tubercles are markedly scabrous and parallel or apically convergent. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids


17    SIPH markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part 1.3-2.0 Χ diameter of stem

…..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering                                                                                            …..18

18    Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-5.2. ANT III bearing 1-4 rhinaria. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.7 Χ BD III                                       …..19

19    SIPH 0.22-0.25 Χ BL and 1.8-2.5 Χ cauda, which has no distinct constriction. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II                                                                                              …..Aulacorthum palustre

-       SIPH 0.23-0.31 Χ BL and 1.5-1.8 Χ cauda, which has a distinct constriction on basal  part.  R IV+V 0.77-0.90 Χ HT II                                                                    …..Acyrthosiphon ilka


Leontopodium                                             Asteraceae

      Leontopodium alpinum                Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella mutellinae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        L. conglobatum                            Aphis fabae

        L. coreanum                                 Uroleucon leontopodiicola

Key to apterae on Leontopodium:-

1      SIPH dark with an extensive zone of polygonal reticulation extending over at least 0.25 of length. ANT III with 15-67 rhinaria distributed over much of its length                         …..2

-       SIPH pale or dark, without extensive polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 0 (-10) rhinaria

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      BL 2.9-3.6 mm. SIPH 0.71-0.91 mm long, 1.4-1.5 Χ cauda and reticulated over distal c.0.25 of length                                                                                  …..Uroleucon leontopodiicola*

-       BL 1.5-1.7 mm. SIPH 0.20-0.25 mm, 0.65-0.85 Χ cauda, reticulated over more than 0.5 of length                                                                                     …..Macrosiphoniella mutellinae 


Leonurus                                                     Lamiaceae

        Leonurus cardiaca                       Aphis ballotae, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, [Aphis sp.

                                                                  (plantaginis of Wilson & Vickery 1918];

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Cryptomyzus ballotae, [galeopsidis], [korschelti],

                                                                  leonuri, ribis;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

        L. glaucescens                              Aphis sp. near gossypii

        L. heterophyllus = L. japonicus       

        L. japonicus                                  Aphis frangulae, gossypii

        L. macranthus                              Aphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus ballotae, ribis

        L. panzerioides                              [Brachycaudus cerasicola]

        L. quinquelobatus                         Aphis frangulae; Cryptomyzus [alboapicalis], leonuri

        L. sibiricus                                    Aphis gossypii; Cryptomyzus ribis, taoi;

                                                              Macrosiphum salviae; Myzus [kalimpongensis], persicae;

                                                              [Ovatus minutus]; [Semiaphis heraclei]

        L. turkestanicus                            Cryptomyzus multipilosus

        Leonurus sp.                                 Acyrthosiphon leonurae; Aulacorthum solani

Key to apterae on Leonurus:-

1      Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen on distal part                                                                                                                           …..2

-       Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases. SIPH swollen, tapering or cylindrical …..6

2      Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than or about equal to (0.5-1.1 Χ) BD III, clearly shorter than hairs on ANT I. R IV+V 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II, with 6-14 accessory hairs. SIPH 0.20-0.25 Χ BL, and 3.6-5 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..3

-       Longest hairs on ANT III longer than (1.2-2.1 Χ) BD III, similar in length to those on ANT I. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II, with 2-4 accessory hairs. SIPH less than 0.2 Χ BL, and less than 2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                                        …..5

3      ANT PT 1.2-1.6 Χ ANT III, and ANT PT/BASE 6.4-8.8. Longest hair on ANT III 0.9-1.1 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.5-1.6 Χ HT II                                                      …..Cryptomyzus ballotae

-       ANT PT more than 1.6 Χ ANT III and ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.8 Χ BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                       …..4

4      ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria. SIPH more-or-less cylindrical, with hardly any trace of swelling; thinner than hind tibia for most of length. SIPH 2.2-3.1 Χ cauda         …..Cryptomyzus ribis

-       ANT III with 5-19 rhinaria. SIPH with distinctly swollen section on distal part, with maximum diameter 1.2-1.6 Χ minimum diameter on proximal half, the swollen part distinctly thicker than the hind tibia. SIPH 3.6-5.0 Χ cauda                                   …..Cryptomyzus taoi

5      Hairs on ANT III all pointed. ANT III with rhinaria distributed over almost its entire length. SIPH a little more than 2 Χ cauda                                              …..Cryptomyzus multipilosus

-       Hairs on ANT III markedly capitate. ANT III with rhinaria restricted to basal 0.5-0.7. SIPH usually less than 2 Χ cauda                                                                 …..Cryptomyzus leonuri

6      SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.20 of length. ANT and tibiae entirely dark                                                                                      …..Macrosiphum salviae

-       SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT and tibiae not entirely dark                                                                                                                                   …..7


7      SIPH pale and 2.1-2.2 Χ cauda which bears only 3 or 4 hairs. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                                                                         .....Acyrthosiphon leonurae

-       Without this combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

(but note that specimens keying to A. gossypii might be some other member of the A. frangulae group specific to Lamiaceae)


Lepanthes                                                    Orchidaceae

      Lepanthes fulva                            Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Sitobion luteum

      L. lindmaniana = L. fulva            

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.


Lepargyrea see Shepherdia                                    Elaeagnaceae


Lepidagathis                                                         Acanthaceae

      Lepidagathis anobrya                   Aphis gossypii


Lepidaploa                                                  Asteraceae

      Lepidaploa sagraeana                  Aphis spiraecola

        L. segregata                                  Uroleucon ambrosiae      

Use key to apterae on Vernonia.


Lepidium  (including Cardaria)                                   Brassicaceae

      Lepidium amplexicaule                 Brevicoryne brassicae

      L. apetalum                                   Lipaphis ruderalis; Myzus cerasi; Protaphis middletonii

       L. armoracia                                  Brevicoryne brassicae

       L. campestre                                  Lipaphis lepidii ssp. lepidiicardiariae, pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus sp.

        L. cartilagineum                           Dysaphis [emicis], vandenboschi ssp. lepidii

        L. coronopus                                 Myzus cerasi, ornatus, persicae

        L. crassifolium = L. cartilagineum

        L. densiflorum                              Lipaphis ruderalis

        L. didymum                                  Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus populitransversus

       L. draba (= Cardaria draba)              Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Dysaphis vandenboschi;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, lepidii ssp. lepidiicardariae, ruderalis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus certus, ornatus, persicae

       L. draba ssp. chalepense               Aphis gossypiii, [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];

                                                              Lipaphis lepidii

       L. graminifolium                           Brevicoryne brassicae

       L. heterophyllum                           Brevicoryne brassicae

      L. latifolium                                   Acyrthosiphon [ilka], gossypii;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                              Dysaphis vandenboschi ssp. lepidii;

                                                              Lepidaphis deformans, terricola; Lipaphis lepidii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

       L. obtusum                                    Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Lepidaphis deformans, terricola

       L. perfoliatum                                Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Dysaphis [capsellae], vandenboschi ssp. lepidii;

                                                              Landisaphis davisi; Lipaphis lepidii; Myzus persicae

       L. repens = L. draba ssp. chalepense

       L. ruderale                                     Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lepidaphis deformans;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, lepidii, ruderalis;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus cerasi, persicae

       L. sativum                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi, ruderalis; Myzus cerasi, persicae

       L. subulatum                                 Aphis craccivora

       L. virginicum                                 Aphis [acaroides Rafinesque (invalid name)], craccivora,

                                                                  fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pemphigus populitransversus;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii

Key to apterae on Lepidium:-

1    Head with ANT tubercles well-developed, and median frontal tubercle undeveloped     …..2

-     Head with ANT tubercles low or absent, or if developed then the median frontal tubercle is also well developed, so front of head has a straight, convex or sinuate outline in dorsal view


2    Head cuticle smooth, ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent                                       …..3

-     Head cuticle spiculose or nodulose, at least ventrally, ANT tubercles with inner faces almost parallel or apically convergent                                                                                             …..4

3    SIPH very long and thin, about 3 Χ cauda, without any subapical reticulation

…..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH about 2 Χ cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation     …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

4      Dorsum with extensive dark pigmentation                                                                       …..5

-       Dorsum pale or with small dark intersegmental markings                                                 …..6

5      SIPH black, 2.3-2.8 Χ cauda, which is also dark. Dorsal cuticle almost entirely pigmented, and with a maze-like pattern of wrinkles. ANT 0.5-0.7 Χ BL

…..Myzus cerasi

-       SIPH pale/dusky, darker at apices, 1.8-2.3 Χ pale/dusky cauda. Dorsal cuticle not wrinkled, with a distinctive U-shaped mark on abdomen. ANT 0.9-1.3 Χ BL

…..Neomyzus circumflexus

6      Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation                     …..Myzus ornatus

-       Dorsum without any dark markings                                                                                  …..7

7      SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. ANT 1.1-1.5 Χ BL                                                                               …..Aulacorthum solani

-       SIPH slightly to moderately clavate. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT 0.6-1.2 Χ BL       …..8

8      SIPH 0.54-0.82 Χ ANT III. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II and bearing 7-15 accessory hairs

…..Myzus ascalonicus

-       SIPH 0.83-1.34 Χ ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II and bearing 2-5 accessory hairs   …..9

9     R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5 (rarely less than 3.25). Value of function cauda/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)                                   …..Myzus persicae

-      R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.7 (mostly less than 3.25). Value of function cauda/(ANT III Χ PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                                                                                                       …..Myzus certus

10   ANT 0.25-0.36 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.15. SIPH 0.032-0.054 Χ BL, shorter than R IV+V. Cauda triangular, about as long as its basal width in dorsal view                         .....11

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                            .....12

11   R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II. ANT 0.30-0.36 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 with 12-15 hairs, and posterior margin of subgenital plate with 13-17 hairs                                     .....Lepidaphis deformans*

-      R IV+V 1.20-1.27 Χ HT II. ANT 0.25-0.28 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 bearing 16-19 hairs, and posterior margin of subgenital plate with 19-24 hairs                         .....Lepidaphis terricola*

12   Cauda helmet-shaped (rounded or pentagonal), a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, and with 4-6 hairs                                                                                                   …..13

-      Cauda (if present) triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, shorter or longer than its basal width, but if shorter then with 7 or more hairs                                                                            …..14

13   Head almost always with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu), and STu often present on ABD TERG 7 and 8. Marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 1-5 and often also on 7. Spiracular apertures reniform                                         …..Dysaphis vandenboschi

-       Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually without STu. MTu of sporadic occurrence. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                         …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

14    ABD TERG 6-8 with median rugose conical processes, each bearing a pair of short (c. 20μm) club-shaped hairs. SIPH distinctly clavate, with diameter of swollen part c.1.5 Χ that of stem (Fig.37a)                                                                                                  .....Landisaphis davisi

-       ABD TERG 6 and 7 without median processes, and if ABD TERG 8 has a projection then SIPH are only very weakly if at all clavate                                                                      .....15

15    ANT 6-segmented with ANT III longer than IV + V measured together. SIPH somewhat swollen, either in middle or subapically                                                                          …..16

-       ANT 5- or 6-segmented, if 6-segmented then ANT III shorter than IV + V measured together. SIPH (if present) cylindrical or tapering, without any trace of swelling

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

16    SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which is short, broad-based and triangular. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark markings                                                                        …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-       SIPH longer than cauda, which is elongate triangular or tongue-shaped. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                                                    …..17

17   ANT tubercles developed, projecting about as far as median tubercle, so that front of head is sinuate in outline in dorsal view. ANT more than 0.5 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 without a rugose swelling or conical process                                                                                              .….18

-      ANT tubercles undeveloped, front of head convex in dorsal view.  ANT less than 0.5 Χ BL. ABD TERG 8 with a rugose medial swelling or conical process (Fig.37b,c)                 .….19

18   ANT III + PT together 1.95-2.5 Χ SIPH (90% of specimens less than 2.4 Χ)

…..Lipaphis erysimi

-      ANT III + PT together 2.1-3.2 Χ SIPH (90% of specimens more than 2.4 Χ)

…..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

19   Cauda 0.8-1.1 Χ ANT III. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II                              …..Lipaphis ruderalis

-      Cauda 0.65-0.75 Χ ANT III. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II                                                   …..20

20   SIPH 2.0-2.8 Χ HT II                                                                                  …..Lipaphis lepidii

-      SIPH 3.0-3.5 Χ HT II                                                ….. Lipaphis lepidii ssp. lepidiicardariae


Lepidolopha                                                                         Asteraceae

      Lepidolopha karatavica                 [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2014f)]

      Lepidolopha sp.                             Acyrthosiphon ilka



Lepidolopsis                                                 Asteraceae

      Lepidolopsis turkestanica              [Brachycaudus prunicola]


Lepidotheca see Matricaria                                            Asteraceae


Leptactina                                                   Rubiaceae

       Leptactina sp.                               Aphis craccivora (?)

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)


Leptadenia                                                  Apocynaceae

      Leptadenia hastata = L. lancifolia

        L. lancifolia                                   Aphis gossypii

        L. reticulata                                   Aphis nerii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Leptaleum                                                   Brassicaceae

      Leptaleum filifolium                     Aphis craccivora


Leptandra                                                    Plantaginaceae

      Leptandra sibirica                         Aphis fabae, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Leptilon  see Erigeron                                                        Asteraceae


Leptinella                                                    Asteraceae

      Leptinella plumosa                     Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to polyphagous aphids


Leptochloa                                                  Poaceae

      Leptochloa. filiformis = L. mucronata

          L. mucronata                                Hysteroneura setariae; Protaphis middletonii

        L. virgata                                       Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Leptodermis                                                Rubiaceae

      Leptodermis griffithii                    Aphis gossypii

        L. lanceolata                                 Aphis gossypii

        L. pilosa                                        Aphis gossypii


Leptogramma see Gymnogramma


Leptopus                                                      Euphorbiaceae

      Leptopus cordifolius                     [Eriosoma phaenax; vagrant sexuparae?];

                                                              Hyadaphis parvus (?)


Leptorumohra see Rumohra                                         Dryopteridaceae


Leptospermum                                                      Myrtaceae

      Leptospermum laevigatum           Myzus ornatus

      L. luehmannii                               Myzus persicae

      L. scoparium                                 Aphis gossypii; Anomalaphis casimiri;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

      Leptospermum sp.                        Myzus ornatus


-       ABD TERG 7 and 8 each bearing a pair of long, backwardly directed processes, those on ABD TERG 7 about as long as SIPH, which have a subapical zone of reticulation and a ring of 4-5 hairs with furcate apices                                             .....Anomalaphis casimiri


-       ABD TERG 7 and 8 without long processes. SIPH without reticulation and hairs

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Leptosyne see Coreopsis                                                   Asteraceae


Leptotaenia see Lomatium                                              Apiaceae


Lespedeza (including Kummerowia)                             Fabaceae

      L. bicolor (incl. var. japonica)           Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Megoura brevipilosa, lespedezae; [Rhodobium porosum]

        L. capitata                                     Microparsus singularis

        L. cuneata = L. juncea var. sericea

        L. cyrtobotrya                                Aphis spiraecola; Megoura lespedezae

        L. cytisoides = Rhynchosia cytisoides

        L. hedysaroides = L. juncea

        L. juncea (incl. var. sericea)              Megoura brevipilosa, lespedezae

        L. procumbens                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. repens                                       Microparsus singularis

        L. stipulacea (in Kummerowia)            Microparsus singularis

        L. thunbergii                                 Megoura lespedezae

        L. virgata                                       Aulacophoroides virgatae

        L. virginica                                    Microparsus singularis    

        Lespedeza sp.                                [Therioaphis ononidis]

Key to apterae on Lespedeza:-

1      SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                            …..2

-       SIPH pale, sometimes dark at apices                                                                                …..6

2      SIPH not swollen in middle. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

-       SIPH swollen in middle. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without Mtu                                             .....3

3      Large, dark marginal sclerites present on all thoracic and abdominal segments, much larger than the spaces between them and including very large ante- and postsiphuncular sclerites

…..Aulacophoroides virgatae

-       Marginal sclerites pale or dusky and smaller than the spaces between them. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites usually present, postsiphuncular sclerites small or not evident  …..4

4      SIPH 0.4-0.5 mm long, 0.20-0.25 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.1                                           

…..Microparsus singularis

-       SIPH 0.57-0.84 mm long, 0.27-0.34 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.9                                …..5

5      Head with ANT tubercles rather low, and bearing hairs more than 0.6 Χ BD III

…..Megoura lespedezae

-       Head with very well-developed ANT tubercles, bearing hairs less than 0.4 Χ BD III

…..Megoura brevipilosa

6      SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)                                        

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH without subapical reticulation                                                                                 …..7

7      Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH attenuate distally, 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda                                                                                              …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-       Head spiculose, at least on ventral side, with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided, approximately parallel. SIPH not attenuate distally, 2.1-2.5 Χ cauda

…..Aulacorthum solani


Lesquerella                                                 Brassicaceae

      Lesquerella arctica                       Brevicoryne arctica


Leucadendron                                                       Proteaceae

     Leucadendron argenteum             Aphis gossypii

     L. sabulosum                                  [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]


Leucaena                                                     Fabaceae

      Leucaena glauca = L. leucocephala

        L. leucocephala                            Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Leucanthemella                                          Asteraceae

      Leucanthemella serotina              Brachycaudus cardui


Leucanthemopsis                                        Asteraceae

      Leucanthemopsis flaveola            Aphis craccivora                                                   


Leucanthemum                                           Asteraceae

      Leucanthemum lacustre = L. vulgare                                       

      L. maximum see L. Χ superbum     

        L. myconis = Coleostephus myconis

        L. pallens                                      Aphis gossypii

        L. rotundifolium                           Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

        L. Χ superbum                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, vandergooti;

          (lacustre Χ maximum;                        Aulacorthum solani;

                        “Shasta Daisy”)                 Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, [iranicus], lateralis;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi, sanborni, subterranea,


                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphinonus latysiphon; Trama troglodytes

        L. rotundifolium                           Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

       L. sylvaticum                                 Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis

        L. vulgare                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, [hieracii], solanella, spiraecola,

        (= Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)           vandergooti, [Aphis sp. (Holman & Pintera 1981)];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Coloradoa tanacetina; [Illinoia goldamaryae];

                                                              Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae, [atra],

                                                                  leucanthemi, millefolii, oblonga, sanborni,

                                                                  subterranea, tanacetaria, tapuskae, [usquertensis] ;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard


                                                              Metopeurum fuscoviride;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;                                                     

                                                              [Pleotrichophorus chrysanthemi, duponti];

                                                              Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]; Trama troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon [chrysanthemi], erigeronense, gravicorne,

                                                                  ochropus, siculum, [solidaginis], sonchi

        L. waldsteinii  = L. rotundifolium

Key to apterae on Leucanthemum:-

1      Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 Χ hind tibiae. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. SIPH absent                                                                                           …..Trama troglodytes

-       Hind tarsi normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular                                     …..2

2      SIPH dark, at least on distal half, tapering/cylindrical or with flared apices, and with polygonal reticulation on at least distal 0.16 of length                                                     …..3

-       SIPH pale or dark, but if dusky/dark over half of length or more then either without polygonal reticulation or markedly swollen                                                                    …..17

3      Cauda tapering from base to apex, triangular, less than 1.7 times longer than its basal width (Fig.5f). ANT tubercles very weakly developed, so that front of head is very shallowly concave in dorsal view                                                                   .....Metopeurum fuscoviride

-       Cauda finger-like, more than 2 times its basal width. ANT tubercles variably developed      


4      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 placed on conspicuous dark scleroites (e.g. Fig.5g)                …..5

-       Scleroites at bases of hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 pale or small and inconspicuous             …..8

5      SIPH 0.6-1.0 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.40-0.63                                            …..6


-       SIPH 1.6-1.9 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.20-0.25                                            …..7

6      ANT III with (14-)29-55 rhinaria. Dorsal sclerites in spinal region partially fused, forming paired patches or short cross-bands                                         …..Macrosiphoniella absinthii

-       ANT III with 5-28 rhinaria. Dorsal hairs usually all or mostly on separate scleroites

…..Macrosiphoniella millefolii

7      Cauda pale. ANT III with 45-62 rhinaria. R IV+V shorter than HT II                                   

…..Uroleucon ochropus

-       Cauda dark. ANT III with 11-25 rhinaria. R IV+V longer than HT II

…..Uroleucon siculum

8      SIPH 0.23-0.38 Χ BL, 1.4-2.3 Χ cauda                                                                             …..9

-       SIPH 0.09-0.20 Χ BL, 0.6-1.3 Χ cauda                                                                           …..13

9      SIPH wholly dark, or paler only in middle. Large, dark postsiphuncular sclerites present

…..Uroleucon sonchi

-       SIPH pale at base. Postsiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct                                    …..10

10    SIPH 1.5-1.75 Χ cauda, which has an attenuated apical part without hairs

…..Uroleucon gravicorne

-       SIPH 1.8-2.3 Χ cauda, which has hairs near apex                                                           …..11

11    SIPH with a small apical lip or flange. ANT I and II as pale as head and basal part of ANT III                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-       SIPH flared at apex but without an apical lip or flange. ANT I and II distinctly darker than head and basal part of ANT III                                                                                      …..12

12    Femora contrastingly black on distal 0.17-0.30 of length

…..Macrosiphoniella leucanthemi

-       Femora pale or only dusky at apices                                         …..Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

13    SIPH pale, at least basally, 1.0-1.3 Χ cauda, which is pale/dusky. ANT VI BASE 1.9-2.3

        Χ R IV+V                                                                                  …..Macrosiphoniella oblonga

-       SIPH dark, 0.6-1.0 Χ the similarly dark cauda. ANT VI BASE 0.7-1.8 Χ R IV+V      …..14

14    Tibiae pale in middle, dark basally and apically. Antesiphuncular sclerites present (although they can be rather pale).  Cauda with 12-20 hairs                                                           …..15

-       Tibiae wholly dark. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. Cauda with 19-32 hairs              …..16

15    SIPH 0.15-0.20 Χ BL, with reticulation on distal 0.26-0.40 of length                                    

….. Macrosiphoniella subterranea

-       SIPH short and thick, 0.11-0.15 Χ BL, with reticulation on distal 0.63-0.81 of length

…..Macrosiphoniella sanborni

16    ANT III wholly black, with 12-32 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.35-0.51. Cauda with 26-32 hairs

…..Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-       ANT III pale at base, with 3-14 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.85-1.11 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.45-0.69. Cauda with 19-27 hairs                          …..Macrosiphoniella artemisiae

17    ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7 with large, conspicuous, rather flat marginal tubercles (MTu) (Fig.5j)                                                                                                   …..Aphis vandergooti

-       MTu present or absent on ABD TERG 1 and 7, but only sporadically present (and then small) on ABD TERG 2-4                                                                                               …..18

18    Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, with 5-8 hairs. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                           …..19

-       Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular; if as short as its basal width then with more than 10 hairs. Spiracular apertures small and reniform                                                                          …..21

19   Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm, 1.2-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm, 1.4-2.0 Χ HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda


20    Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25΅m long

.....Brachycaudus lateralis

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70΅m long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25΅m long                                                                                                     .....Brachycaudus cardui

21    Triommatidium merged with compound eye, so that there is no distinct ocular tubercle. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.7. Dorsal hairs small, club-shaped, or with somewhat expanded apices. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen subapically. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II with slightly concave sides. Cauda less than 1.5 Χ its basal width, with 4-5 hairs

…..Coloradoa tanacetina

-       Triommatidum forming a distinct ocular tubercle at posterior margin of eye, ANT PT/BASE more than 2, and other characters not in above combination

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Leucas                                                         Lamiaceae

        Leucas aspera                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Cryptomyzus taoi

        L. cephalotes                                 Aphis gossypii

        L. lavandulifolia                           Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        L. linifolia = L. lavandulifolia

        L. martinicensis                            Aphis gossypii

        L. zeylanica                                   Aphis gossypii

        Leucas spp.                                   [Aphis umbrella]; [Myzus siegesbeckicola];

                                                              [Sitobion indicum]

Key to apterae on Leucas:-

-       Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE 9.0-10.5. SIPH swollen on distal part, more than 3.5 Χ cauda

…..Cryptomyzus taoi

-       Without the above combination of characters                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Leucocrinum                                               Asparagaceae

        Leucocrinum montanum             Abstrusomyzus leucocrini


Leucolepis                                                   Mniaceae

        Leucolepis acanthoneura             Melaphis rhois

(or try key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)               



Leucopogon                                                Ericaceae

        Leucopogon concurvus                Ceriferella leucopogonis

        L. parviflorus                                Ceriferella leucopogonis

        L. richei                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Leucopogon:-

-       Wax plates divided into polygonal cells present dorsally on all body segments. Cauda constricted at about midlength so that distal part is an elongate, parallel-sided knob. Anal plate bilobed                                                                                 …..Ceriferella leucopogonis

-       Without the above combination of characters                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Leucosceptrum                                            Lamiaceae

      Leucosceptrum canum                 [Ericolophium rhododendri];

                                                              [Eutrichosiphum sp.(India; A.K. Ghosh & Agarwala 1993];

                                                              Subovatomyzus leucosceptri

        L. japonicum = Comanthosphace japonica


Leucosidea                                                             Rosaceae

      Leucosidea sericea                   Aphis gossypii


Leucospermum                                            Proteaceae                    

       Leucospermum cordifolium       Aphis gossypii; Protaphis evansi, pseudocardui

Key to apterae on Leucospermum:-

1      SIPH shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. Cauda triangular or bluntly conical, about as long as its basal width, with 13-19 hairs                                                …..2

-       SIPH longer than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.8. Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, with 4-8 hairs                                                               …..Aphis gossypii

(or try key to polyphagous aphids)

2      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 17-19 μm long. Cauda rounded at apex

…..Protaphis pseudocardui

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.7-0.9. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 20-25 μm long. Cauda with a rather pointed apex                                                                                             …..Protaphis evansi


Leucothoe                                                   Ericaceae

      Leucothoe axillaris                       [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]

        L. catesbaei                                   Illinoia azaleae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      L. fontanesiana                             Aulacorthum solani; Illinoia rhokalaza

        L. grayana var. oblongifolia        Aulacorthum vaccinii

                 (= Eubotryoides grayana)

Key to apterae on Leucothoe:-

(Check: all 5 species keyed usually have 1 or more rhinaria on basal part of ANT III.)

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of  reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of rather large closed polygonal cells). Inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent                                              …..2

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation. Inner faces of ANT tubercles spiculose and almost parallel                                                                                                                    …..4

2      ANT hairs very short and blunt, maximally only 0.20-0.25 Χ BD III. SIPH slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half proximal to reticulated part. First tarsal segments with (4-)5 hairs                                                                                                             …..Illinoia azaleae

-       Longest ANT hairs more than 0.5 Χ BD III. SIPH with or without swelling on distal half. First tarsal sgements with 3-5 hairs                                                                                   …..3

3      SIPH wholly dark. R IV+V c.1.6 Χ HT II, with 15-20 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                              …..Illinoia rhokalaza

-       SIPH pale, sometimes darker distally. R IV 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                        …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

4      Tergum dark, sclerotic. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.7. Cauda with 5 hairs

…..Aulacorthum vaccinii

-       Tergum pale. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. Cauda with 7 hairs                  …..Aulacorthum solani


Leuzea                                                         Asteraceae

        Leuzea altaica = Rhaponticum serratuloides

      L. carthamoides = Rhaponticum carthamoides                                                              


Levisticum                                                   Apiaceae

      Levisticum officinale                  Aphis fabae, [frangulae], gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii, konoi, pastinacae, [rutila],

                                                                salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                            Dysaphis apiifolia, apiifolia ssp. petroselini;

                                                            Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus

Use key to apterae on Apium, which includes all these species, but specimens keying to Hyadaphis foeniculi may be H. passerinii; see key to apterae on Foeniculum for discriminants.


Lewisia                                                        Portulacaceae

      Lewisia cantelovii                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        L. cotyledon                                Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Leycesteria                                                  Caprifoliaceae

      Leycesteria formosa                    [Forda riccobonii]; Hyadaphis coriandri;

                                                            Semiaphis heraclei

Key to apterae on Leycesteria:-

-       SIPH 0.098-0.21 mm, as long as or longer than R IV+V. ANT PT 0.75-1.3 Χ SIPH

.....Hyadaphis coriandri

-       SIPH 0.05-0.10 mm, shorter than R IV+V. ANT PT 1.5-4.5 Χ SIPH

.....Semiaphis heraclei


Leymus                                                        Poaceae

      Leymus angustus                          Anoecia corni; Forda marginata;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum insertum; Sipha elegans, maydis

        L. arenarius                                  Anoecia vagans; Atheroides hirtellus, serrulatus;               

                                                              Diuraphis frequens; Forda formicaria; Hyalopterus pruni;

                                                              Laingia psammae; Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis [muehlenbergiae], nigerrima, priori, rufula;

                                                              Sipha arenarii, glyceriae; Sitobion avenae

        L. chinensis                                   Diuraphis frequens; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sipha burakowskii, elegans

        L. condensatus                              Sipha maydis

        L. mollis                                        Sitobion alopecuri, avenae

        L. multicaulis                                Forda marginata; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                              Tetraneura africana

        L. paboanus                                  Diuraphis frequens

        L. pseudagropyron = L. chinensis

        L. racemosus                                Hyalopterus pruni; Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                              Sipha glyceriae, maydis, taurica; Sitobion fragariae

        L. ramosus                                    Forda marginata; Paracletus bykovi; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sipha maydis, uvarovi; Sitobion avenae

        L. sabulosus = L. racemosus

        L. secalinus                                   Laingia psammae; Sitobion avenae

        L. tianschanicus                           Sipha maydis

Use key to aphids on grasses under Digitaria.


Lhotskya  see Calytrix                                                        Myrtaceae


Liabum                                                        Asteraceae

     Liabum cubense                             Uroleucon ambrosiae


Liatris  (including Lacinaria)                                                Asteraceae

      Liatris aspera                                Aphis laciniariae

        L. elegans                                      Aphis laciniariae

        L. gummiferae (?)                         [Cavariella aegopodii (capreae of Theobald 1927: 8)]

        L. punctata                                    Aphis laciniariae; [Pleotrichophorus wasatchii]

        L. scariosa                                     Brachycaudus cardui

        L. squarrosa                                  Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

Key to apterae on Liatris:-

1      Dorsum with extensive black sclerotisation                                                                      …..2

-       Dorsum without dark markings                                                                                         …..3

2      Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. R IV+V 1.3-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda

…..Brachycaudus cardui

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, tapering, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures small and reniform. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.2-2.2 Χ cauda                      …..Aphis craccivora

3      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large, domed marginal tubercles (MTu), similar in diameter to SIPH at midlength. SIPH and cauda both pale/dusky. Posterior hair on hind trochanter only 0.2-0.3 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                      …..Aphis laciniariae

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu; if with MTu then these are much smaller in diameter than SIPH at midlength, SIPH and cauda are not both pale or dusky, and posterior hair on hind trochanter is 0.5 or more Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture

…...go to key to polyphagous aphids


Libanotis                                                     Apiaceae

      Libanotis buchtormensis              Aphis fabae, umbelliferarum, [Aphis sp. (Kazakhstan;

                                                                   Juchnevitch 1968)];

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, [angelicae]; Dysaphis foeniculus;

                                                              Semiaphis dauci, [sphondylii]

      L. condensata                               Aphis podagrariae, [schilderi];

                                                              Dysaphis foeniculus ssp. malidauci;

                                                              [Semiaphis sphondylii]

        L. incana                                       Aphis fabae

        L. montana = Seseli libanotis

        L. pyrenaica = Seseli libanotis

        L. schrenkiana                              Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis foeniculus;

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri; Semiaphis dauci

        L. seseloides                                  Dysaphis mordvilkoi; Semiaphis heraclei

        L. sibiricum = Seseli sibiricum

        L. transcaucasica = Seseli transcaucasicum

        Libanotis sp.                                 Aphis grosmannae

Use key to apterae on Seseli.


Licania                                                        Chrysobalanaceae

      Licania michauxii                        Aphis gossypii


Licuala                                                                   Arecaceae

      Licuala spinosa                             Cerataphis brasiliensis


Ligularia                                                     Asteraceae

      Ligularia altaica                           Aphis fabae

        L. fischeri                                      Aleurodaphis ligulariae; Aphis fabae, ligulariae;

                                                              Aulacorthum ligularicola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

        L. glauca                                       Aphis fabae

        L. hodgsonii                                  Aphis ligulariae; Brachycaudus cardui

        L. narynensis                                Dysaphis ligulariae

        L. persica                                      Dysaphis ligulariae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

        L. sachalinensis                            Brachycaudus helichrysi

        L. schmidtii                                   Aphis ligulariae

        L. sibirica (incl. var. speciosa)           Aphis fabae,[jacobeae]; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

        L. stenocephala                             [Aphis saussurearadicis]; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                              Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

        L. talassica                                    Dysaphis ligulariae

        L. thyrsoidea                                 Aphis fabae

        L. thomsonii                                  Dysaphis ligulariae

        L. wilsoniana                                Brachycaudus cardui

        Ligularia spp.                               Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Ligularia:-

1      Body elongate oval, sclerotic dorsally, with a  crenulate margin due to a continuous fringe of wax glands. Eyes as triommatidia. SIPH as pores with raised rims. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                …..Aleurodaphis ligulariae*

-       Body oval or spindle-shaped, without a marginal fringe of wax glands. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular. Cauda helmet-, tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire                       …..2

2      SIPH with numerous (20-30) long fine hairs on basal 0.7-0.8 of length, similar to the hairs densely clothing the body and appendages                                  …..Sorbaphis chaetosiphon

-       SIPH without hairs                                                                                                            …..3

3      Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) consistently present on ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                    .....4

-       MTu absent or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                     .....5

4      Hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III. Paired spinal tubercles (STu) usually present on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8. Cauda helmet-shaped with 5-6 hairs

…..Dysaphis ligulariae*

-       Hairs on ANT III very numerous and the longest more than 2 Χ BD III. STu absent.  Cauda finger-shaped with 20-23 hairs                                                                 .....Aphis ligulariae*

5      ANT III with 5-17 rhinaria in a row on basal half. Head spinulose dorsally and ventrally with well-developed steep-sided ANT tubercles. ANT PT/BASE 4.9-5.6. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH dusky, cylindrical, without or with indistinct subapical reticulation, 2.9-3.3 Χ cauda                                                                                          .....Aulacorthum ligularicola*

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..6

6      Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark pleural markings. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4                                …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Thoracic and abdominal spiracles all small. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings. ANT PT/BASE less than 7                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Ligusticum                                                  Apiaceae

      Ligusticum acutilobum = Angelica acutiloba                           

        L. alatum (?)                                 [Dysaphis armeniaca]

        L. apiifolium                                 Cavariella aegopodii

        L. grayi                                          Aphis asclepiadis

        L. hultenii                                     Semiaphis heraclei

        L. lucidum (incl. pyrenaeum)            Anuraphis subterranea; Aphis fabae; Dysaphis apiifolia

        L. mutellina                                  Cavariella aegopodii; Pemphigus sp. (Zwφlfer 1958)

        L. officinale                                  Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella salicicola;

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei

        L. porteri                                       Aphis asclepiadis;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, [archangelicae], pastinacae

        L. pyrenaeum see L. lucidum

        L. scoticum                                   Aphis fabae; Semiaphis sphondylii

        Ligusticum sp.                              [Uroleucon martini]

Key to apterae on Ligusticum:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly pointed process above cauda. SIPH clavate              …..2

-       ABD TERG 8 without a supracaudal process. SIPH (if present) not clavate                  …..4

2      ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0                                                                    …..Cavariella pastinacae

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.3                                                                                                   .….3

3     SIPH thick, short  and coarsely imbricated, narrowing only near base (Fig.10a). R IV+V 1.05-1.2 Χ HT II, with a pair of accessory hairs                                  .....Cavariella salicicola

-      SIPH moderately imbricated, with a narrow basal stem (Fig. 10b). R IV+V 0.7-0.95 Χ HT II, without accessory hairs                                                                      …..Cavariella aegopodii

4      SIPH very small, less than 0.5 Χ cauda, flangeless, and usually curved so that aperture is slanted towards midline of body                                                                                      …..5

-       SIPH (if present) more than 0.8 Χ cauda, and with a distinct flange                               …..6