HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Jul-Lap

 

Julbernardia

Juncus

Junellia

Juniperus

Jurinea

Jussaeia

Justicia

 

Kalanchoe

Kali

Kalimeris

Kallstroemia

Kalmia

Kalopanax

Karelinia

Kaschgarica

Kentia

Kerria

Keteleeria

Khaya

Kickxia

Kielmeyera

Kigelia

Kindbergia

Klasia

Kleinia

Knautia

Kneiffia

Kniphofia

Koanophyllon

Kobresia

Kochia

Koeleria

Koelreuteria

Kohautia

Kolkwitzia

Kotschya

Krascheninnikovia

Kraussia

Krigia

Krugiodendron

Kuhnia

Kummerowia

Kunzea

Kyllinga

 

Lablab

Laburnum

Laccosperma

Lachenalia

Lacinaria

Lactuca

Laelia

Laeliocattleya

Laetia

Lafoensia

Lagascea

Lagedium

Lagenaria

Lagerstroemia

Laggera

Lagochilus

Lagopsis

Lagotis

Lagunaria

Lagurus

Lamarckia

Lamium

Lampranthus

Lamprocapnos

Lampsana

Landolphia

Languas

Lannea

Lansium

Lantana

Lapeirousia

Laplacea

Laportea

Lappa

Lappula

Lapsana

 

 

Julbernardia                                                         Leguminosae

     Julbernardia globiflora              Aphis craccivora
 

Juncus                                                         Juncaceae

      Juncus acutiflorus                        Juncobia leegei; [Sipha maydis]

        J. alpinus = J. alpinoarticulatus

        J. alpinoarticulatus                       Juncobia leegei

      J. ambiguus = J. hybridus

        J. articulatus                                 Atheroides hirtellus; [Jacksonia papillata];

                                                              Juncobia leegei; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis palustris; Sipha glyceriae;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae; Thripsaphis cyperi

        J. balticus                                      Rhopalosiphum cerasifoliae

        J. bifolius = J. subnodulosus            

        J. bufonius                                    Juncobia leegei; Rhopalosiphum oxyacantyhae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis palustris; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                              [Utamphorophora humboldti]

        J. compressus                               Atheroides brevicornis; Iziphya bufo; Juncobia leegei;

                                                              [Sipha elegans]; Sitobion avenae; Thripsaphis verrucosa

        J. conglomeratus                          Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae

        J. coriaceus                                   Prociphilus corrugatans  

        J. decipiens                                   Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae;

                                                              Schizaphis rotundiventris, [Schizaphis sp. (Korea; Paik

                                                                  1972)]

        J. effusus                                       Aphis fabae; [Caricosipha paniculatae];

                                                              Carolinaia floris, obscura;

                                                              Prociphilus corrugatans, erigeronensis;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                              Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        J. filiformis                                    Sitobion avenae

        J. gerardii                                      Atheroides serrulatus; Juncobia leegei;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis palustris;

                                                              [Sipha maydis]; Sitobion avenae

        J. glaucus = J. inflexus

        J. hybridus                                    Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis palustris; Sitobion avenae

        J. inflexus                                     Atheroides serrulatus; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                              Saltusaphis scirpus; Sitobion avenae

        J. krameri                                     Carolinaia obscura

        J. lampocarpus = J. articulatus

        J. maritimus                                  Juncobia leegei

        J. oxycarpus                                  Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sitobion graminis

        J. ranarius                                    Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis palustris;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        J. squarrosus                                Juncobia leegei

        J. subnodulosus                            Juncobia leegei; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Schizaphis palustris;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

        J. tenageia                                     Schizaphis palustris

        J. tenuis                                         Schizaphis graminum, palustris; Sitobion avenae

        Juncus spp.                                  Cavariella aquatica; Forda formicaria; Geoica utricularia;

                                                              Iziphya maculata; [Myzus titschaki]; Schizaphis scirpi

Key to apterae on Juncus:-

1     SIPH tubular; tapering, cylindrical or swollen, longer than their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-6.7                                                                                                                                …..2

-      SIPH in form of short truncate cones not longer than their basal widths, or present merely as pores, or completely absent. ANT PT/BASE 0.1-1.8                                                      …..15

2     ABD TERG 8 with a supracaudal process (Fig.35b). ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.3. SIPH flangeless, with a small terminal aperture (Fig.35a)                            …..Cavariella aquatica

-      No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-6.7. SIPH with a flange and normal aperture

…..3

3     SIPH dark with subapical polygonal reticulation                                                              …..4

-      SIPH pale or dark, without any polygonal reticulation                                                     …..6

4     Cauda dark, almost as dark as SIPH. Dorsal abdomen with clearly defined dark segmental  markings                                                                                                   …..Sitobion graminis

-      Cauda pale or dusky. Dorsal abdomen with ill-defined dark pigmentation, not segmentally divided, or unpigmented                                                                                                    …..5

5     SIPH 1.75-2.25 Χ cauda, which has a rounded apex. Dorsal abdomen sometimes with

       ill-defined dark pigmentation, darkest in central area                             …..Sitobion fragariae

-      SIPH 1.1-1.4 Χ cauda, which has a rather pointed apex. Dorsal abdomen usually pale, if with dark pigmentation then the central area is palest                                        …..Sitobion avenae

6     ANT tubercles markedly scabrous or spiculose. ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria                      …..7

-      ANT tubercles not markedly scabrous or spiculose. ANT III without rhinaria                 …..8

7     ANT 0.5-0.7 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.0. ANT tubercles well developed, rounded, scabrous, and frontal sinus narrow. Dorsal cuticle strongly wrinkled       …..Carolinaia floris

-      ANT longer than BL, with ANT PT/BASE c. 4. ANT tubercles low, divergent, spiculose, and frontal sinus very broad. Dorsal cuticle with reticulate sculpturing      …..Carolinaia obscura

8     Cauda pale. SIPH pale, dark-tipped or dark, if entirely dark then much darker than cauda

…..9

-      Cauda and SIPH with similar dusky or dark pigmentation                                             …..11

9     SIPH black, calf-shaped, contrasting with long pale cauda. Femora mainly dark. ANT PT/BASE 4.9-6.7                                                                              …..Hysteroneura setariae

-      SIPH pale or with dark apices, tapering from base. Femora pale. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.8

       (-5.0)                                                                                                                                 …..10

10   R IV+V 0.073-0.091 mm long, 0.38-0.56 Χ cauda                           …..Schizaphis graminum

-      R IV+V 0.092-0.120 mm long, 0.6-0.8 Χ cauda                     …..Rhopalosiphum cerasifoliae

11   Dorsal cuticle usually dusky/dark, sclerotic and very rough, with close-set irregular angular denticulation (Fig.35c). Marginal abdominal tubercles (MTu) absent. SIPH short, tapering (Fig.35d), 0.08-0.11 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.1                             …..Schizaphis palustris

-      Dorsal cuticle pale or dusky, ornamented with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons. Small MTu present on ABD TERG 1 and 7. SIPH 0.11-0.21 Χ BL, clavate or cylindrical on distal half. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.8                                                                                  …..12

12   ABD TERG 8 with (5-) 6-16 hairs, 88-150 μm long. Hairs on outer side of hind tibia very long and fine, 2-3 Χ diameter of tibia at midlength                                  …..Schizaphis scirpi

-      ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs up to 60 μm long. Hairs on outer side of hind tibia not much longer than its midlength diameter                                                                                  …..13

13   SIPH clavate (with narrow region proximal to swollen part), more than 2 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-4.0                                                                      …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      SIPH not clavate; not more than 2 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.6-5.8                             …..14

14   ANT 6-segmented. ANT PT 1.2-1.9 Χ ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III                                                                                                            …..Rhopalosiphum padi

-      ANT usually 5-segmented, when 6-segmented ANT PT 1.7-2.6 Χ ANT III. Longest hairs on ANT III longer than BD III                                                         …..Rhopalosiphum insertum

15   Eyes multifaceted. SIPH present ; pore-like, stump-shaped or broadly conical. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.8                                                                                                             …..16

-      Eyes with only 3 facets. SIPH absent. ANT PT/BASE 0.1-0.5                                      …..24

16   Distal part of cauda developed into a knob. Body oval or elongate, variably sclerotized. SIPH stump-shaped or as raised pores on shallow cones                                                …..17

-      Cauda either undeveloped or broadly rounded, not evident. Body narrowly elongate, dorsum strongly sclerotized. SIPH as scarcely elevated pores with chitinised rims                     …..22

17   Dorsal hairs spine-like, with numerous small denticles or spinules between the hairs. Anal plate entire. Eyes with ocular tubercles (triommatidia)                              …..Sipha glyceriae

-      Dorsal hairs fan-shaped or finely pointed. Anal plate bilobed. Eyes without ocular tubercles

…..18

18   Dorsal hairs fan-shaped. Fore- and mid-tibiae thickened at base, forming a smooth sclerotic “patella” (clearly different from base of hind tibia). Body oval                                      …..19

-      Dorsal hairs pointed. Fore- and mid-tibiae with bases like hind tibia. Body elongate    …..21

19   SIPH situated on ABD TERG 6, with anterior edge of cone behind the border between ABD TERG 5 and 6. ABD TERG 8 with a pair of large processes each bearing 2 long

       rod-shaped or slightly capitate hairs                                                      …..Saltusaphis scirpus

-      SIPH situated on border between ABD TERG 5 and 6. ABD TERG 8 with or without

       hair-bearing processes                                                                                                      …..20

20   Head broadly rounded, with lateral margin between ANT socket and eye sloping towards vertex. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-0.8                                                                   …..Juncobia leegei

-      Head not broadly rounded, with lateral margin between ANT socket and eye almost parallel to mid-line.  ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.8                                                                …..Iziphya bufo

21   Front of head with a very prominent quadrate median projection, almost extending forward to apex of ANT I. Posterior margin of ABD TERG 8 slightly emarginate. Dorsal cuticle rather pale, with numerous small nodules. Wax pores not apparent           …..Thripsaphis verrucosa

-      Front of head with much less prominent, rounded, median projection. Posterior margin of ABD TERG 8 not emarginate. Dorsal cuticle rather dark, especially on margins and posteriorly, with numerous wax pores                                                    …..Thripsaphis cyperi

22   Dorsal body hairs numerous, long and spine-like, the longest 110-200 μm long. ANT III with 3-5 hairs 50-70 μm long                                                                        …..Atheroides hirtellus

-      Dorsal body hairs maximally 30 μm long, rod-shaped or flabellate. ANT III with 0-3 hairs, maximally 15-20 μm long                                                                                                …..23

23   Dorsal abdominal hairs rod-shaped, ABD TERG 1-5 with only 2-4 spinal hairs and 2

       pleural hairs per segment. Marginal hairs longer and more conspicuous

…..Atheroides serrulatus

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly flabellate, and much more numerous, in 2-3 irregular rows on each of ABD TERG 1-5. Marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 not longer than pleuro-spinal hairs                                                                                                  …..Atheroides brevicornis

24   First tarsal segments with 2 or 3 hairs. Cauda dark, evident, semicircular or bluntly triangular

…..25

-      First tarsal segments with 4 or more hairs. Cauda not evident                                        …..26

25   Large wax glands present on head, thorax and adbomen. Cauda rounded, with c.16 hairs. R IV+V 0.7-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                 …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

-      Wax glands not evident.  Cauda bluntly triangular (conical), with c.60 hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II                                                                                          …..Prociphilus corrugatans

26   Primary rhinaria without fimbriate margins, the primary rhinarium on ANT V being much larger than that on ANT IV.  Anal plate in normal ventral position        …..Forda formicaria

-      Primary rhinaria with fimbriate margins, and of similar size on ANT IV and V. Anal plate enlarged and displaced dorsally                                                             …..Geoica utricularia

 

Junellia see Verbena                                              Verbenaceae

 

Juniperus                            Junipers                              Cupressaceae

The aphid fauna of junipers includes at least 19 species of Cinara, several of which are known only from their original descriptions. An attempt is made to discriminate these species in the key below, but for some of the species in the genus Cinara s. str. insufficient samples are available to estimate the range of seasonal variation, so determinations should be treated warily, especially in the case of species marked *, specimens of which have not been seen by the authors.

      Juniperus bermudiana                   Cinara cupressi, tujafilina; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. chinensis (incl. var.                       Cinara [confinis], [cupressi ssp. langzhouensis], fresai,

                         columnaris)                      juniperi, tujafilina;

                                                              Gootiella tremulae; Illinoia morrisoni; Sanbornia juniperi;

                                                              Siphonatrophia cupressi

      J. columnaris see J. chinensis

      J. communis (incl. vars                     Cinara cognita, [confinis],  fresai, juniperensis, juniperi,

               depressa, nana, saxatilis)                    lalazarica, mordvilkoi, rubicunda, smolandiae,

                                                                   tujafilina;

                                                              Gootiella tremulae; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. conferta see J. rigida

      J. davurica see J. sabina

      J. depressa see J. communis

      J. excelsa                                        Cinara cupressi, juniperi, pseudosabinae, taurica

      J. foetidissima                                 Cinara juniperi

      J. hibernica = J. communis

      J. horizontalis                                 Cinara cupressi, fresai, manitobensis, petersoni;
                                                        Gootiella tremulae; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. indica                                          Cinara tujafilina

      J. japonica = J. procumbens

      J. macrocarpa see J. oxycedrus         

      J. monosperma                               Cinara tonaluca; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. monticola                                    Illinoia morrisoni

      J. occidentalis                                 Cinara cupressi, fresai, rubicunda; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. osteosperma                                Cinara burrilli, pulverulens, wahhaca

      J. oxycedrus (incl. ssp.                       Cinara cupressi, fresai, juniperi, [maritimae],

                         macrocarpa)                         oxycedri, ?petersoni

      J. phoenicea                                   Cinara cupressi, juniperi, tujafilina; Stomaphis cupressi

      J. polycarpos (incl. var.                     Cinara cupressi, tujafilina

                      seravschanica)

      J. procera                                        Cinara cupressi

      J. procumbens                                Cinara fresai, juniperi

      J. prostrata – J. horizontalis

      J. pseudosabina                              Cinara cupressi, dahurica, juniperi, mordvilkoi,

                                                                  pseudosabina, tujafilina;

                                                              Gootiella tremulae

      J. recurva                                        Cinara cupressi                                                                  

      J. rigida (incl. var. conferta)                Cinara fresai, juniperi, [minoripinihabitans];

                                                              Illinoia morrisoni; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      J. sabina (incl. var. davurica)              [Aploneura juniperina = Gootiella alba?];

                                                              Cinara cupressi, fresai, juniperi, lalazarica;

                                                              Illinoia morrisoni

      J. scopulorum                                 Cinara burrilli, cupressi, fresai, pulverulens, wahluca;
                                                        Illinoia morrisoni; Sanbornia juniperi;
                                                        Siphonatrophia cupressi

      J. semiglobosa                                Cinara cupressi, pseudosabina, tujafilina

      J. seravschanica see polycarpos

      J. sibirica = J. communis var. saxatilis

      J. squamata                                    Cinara fresai, juniperi; Illinoia morrisoni

      J. thurifera                                      Cinara cupressi, juniperi; Stomaphis cupressi

      J. turkestanica = J. pseudosabina

      J. utilis = J. rigida

      J. virginiana                                   Cinara cupressi, fresai, juniperi, juniperivora, tujafilina;

                                                              Illinoia morrisoni; Sanbornia juniperi;

                                                              Siphonatrophia cupressi

      J. wallichiana = J. indica

Key to juniper aphids (apterae viviparae only):-

1      SIPH long and tubular, with subapical reticulation                                                           .....2

-       SIPH (if visible) not long and tubular                                                                               .....3

2      SIPH distinctly swollen on distal half (fig. 53A). Antennal hairs short, those on ANT III all less than 0.5Χ basal diameter of segment                                                 .....Illinoia morrisoni

-       SIPH cylindrical on distal half (although reticulated zone sometimes somewhat constricted). Longest antennal hairs more than 0.5Χ basal diameter of segment

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3      SIPH absent, or inconspicuous pores, or small pale cones                                                 .....4

-       SIPH in form of large pores on broad, often pigmented, hairy cones                               .....6

4      Cauda longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. Wax pore plates not developed. Legs normal                                                                                                     .....5

-       Cauda broadly rounded, much shorter than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25 Wax pore plates on posterior dorsal abdomen. Legs very thick, and tibiae armed with spines distally (fig. 53B)                                                                                   .....Gootiella tremulae

5      Antenna usually 4-segmented. Frons with a median quadrate projection (fig. 53C). SIPH reduced to minute pores hardly larger than spiracles. Cauda long and tapering, with more than 20 hairs                                                                                           .....Sanbornia juniperi

-       Antenna 5- or 6-segmented. Frons without a median projection. SIPH as small, pale cones (fig. 44A). Cauda tongue-shaped with about 10 hairs                  .....Siphonatrophia cupressi

6      Rostrum much longer than body                                                           .....Stomaphis cupressi

-       Rostrum much shorter than body                                                                                       .....7

7      Hairs on ANT III sparse and very short, less than 0.5Χ diameter of segment at midpoint

 .....Cinara wahhaca

-       Hairs on ANT III mostly longer than diameter of segment at midpoint                           .....8

8      Antennae and legs densely clothed in fine, rather short, rather recumbent, hairs; those on ANT III mostly less than 1.5Χ diameter of segment at midpoint, and those on hind tibia mostly less than width of tibia at midpoint (fig. 53D). SIPH base with more than 70 very fine hairs, shorter than diameter of siphuncular pore                           .....Cinara juniperivora

-       Hairs less fine and numerous, more erect and usually longer. SIPH base if with more than 70 hairs then many of these are longer than diameter of siphuncular pore                             .....9

9      Hairs on ANT III mostly less than 2Χ diameter of segment at midpoint and/or hairs on dorsal side of hind tibia mostly less than 1.5Χ width of tibia at midpoint                                 .....10

     Hairs on ANT III mostly more than 2Χ diameter of segment at midpoint and/or hairs on dorsal side of  hind tibia mostly more than 1.5Χ width of tibia at midpoint                              .....14

10    SIPH cones large, of maximum basal diameter more than 0.3 mm       .....Cinara rubicunda*

-       SIPH cones of maximum basal diameter less than 0.27 mm                                           .....11

11    ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. Diameter of base of SIPH cone less than 0.12 mm

.....Cinara tonaluca*

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. Diameter of base of SIPH cone more than 0.14 mm       .....12

12    ANT BASE VI less than 0.5Χ HT II                                      .....Cinara burrilli*/pulverulens

-       ANT BASE VI more than 0.5Χ HT II                                                                            .....13

13    Dorsum with numerous hairs, not confined to transverse rows. ANT III with a rhinarium near apex                                                                                             .....Cinara manitobensis

-       Dorsum with fewer hairs arranged in transverse rows. ANT III usually without a subapical rhinarium                                                                                                    .....Cinara cognita*

14    HT I with dorsal length a little more than, or at least equal to (1.0-1.2Χ) basal width (e.g, fig. 53E). PT with 4-5 subapical hairs                                                                                     ....15

-       HT I with dorsal length distinctly shorter than (0.5-0.9Χ) basal width (e.g., fig. 53F). PT usually with 3 subapical hairs (subgenus Cupressobium)                                                .....16

15    Greatest diameter of SIPH cone 0.25 mm, less than R IV+V. HT II less than 0.25 mm. ANT BASE VI less than 0.14 mm                                                                      .....Cinara wahluca

-       Greatest diameter of SIPH cone at least 0.28 mm, more than R IV+V. HT II more than 0.25mm long. ANT BASE VI 0.14 mm or more                                  .....Cinara juniperensis

16    Hind tibiae uniformly brown, except sometimes for a slightly lighter region on the basal half

…..17

-       Hind tibiae mostly pale or at least with an extensive pale region between the dark base and apex                                                                                                                                 …..23

17    Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove more than 1.25 mm, more than 0.37 Χ BL. ANT III with 0-8 secondary rhinaria                                                                                             …..18

-       Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove less than 1.25 mm, and less than 0.34 Χ BL . ANT III without secondary rhinaria                                                                                        …..19

18    R IV+V 0.29-0.34 mm, 3-4 Χ its basal width. Dorsal length of HT I is 0.62-0.87 Χ its basal width                                                                                                     .....Cinara smolandiae

-       R IV+V 0.35-0.40 mm, 4-5 Χ its basal width. Dorsal length of HT I is 0.41-0.50 Χ its basal width                                                                                                       .....Cinara dahurica*

19    Longest dorsal tibial hairs 1.1-1.3 Χ width of tibia at midpoint. ANT III 1.2-1.6 Χ longer than maximum diameter of SIPH base. R IV+V 0.29-0.33 mm          …..Cinara lalazarica*

-       Longest dorsal tibial hairs 1.5-2.7 Χ width of tibia at midpoint. ANT III less than 1.2 Χ longer than maximum diameter of SIPH base. R IV+V 0.20-0.27 mm                         …..20

20    Longest dorsal tibial hairs about 1.5 Χ width of tibia at midpoint. ANT III 0.26-0.30 (-0.35) mm long, hardly longer than ANT VI (incl. PT)                                      …..Cinara petersoni

-       Longest dorsal tibial hairs 1.9-2.7 Χ width of tibia at midpoint. ANT III 0.29-0.40 mm long, 1.25-1.7 Χ longer than ANT VI (incl. PT)                                                                      …..21

21    BL 2.7-3.3 mm. ANT V 0.85-1.05 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT). ABD TERG 2 without spinopleural sclerites                                                                                                  …..Cinara mordvilkoi

-       BL often less than 2.7 mm (range 2.1-3.4 mm). ANT V 0.7-0.9 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT). ABD TERG 2 with spinopleural sclerites                                                                                 …..22

22    R IV short, 0.12-0.15 mm long, and bearing 3-4 accessory hairs. R IV+V 0.60-0.85 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI often slightly constricted at about its midpoint (fig. 53G)

…..Cinara juniperi

-      R IV 0.15-0.18 mm long and bearing 4-6 accessory hairs. R IV+V 0.83-0.99 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI without a constriction (as in fig. 53H)                                      …..Cinara oxycedri

23    Tibiae dark only at apices (“knees” pale)                                                                        …..24

-      Tibiae dark at least at both apices and bases (dark “knees”)                                           …..27

24    R III (third segment of rostrum) with more than 28 hairs. R IV+V with 6-8 accessory hairs. ANT PT with 3 subapical hairs. ANT V and sometimes also ANT IV with a secondary sensorium                                                                                                  …..Cinara tujafilina

-       R III (third segment of rostrum) with less than 18 hairs. R IV+V with 4-5 accessory hairs. ANT PT with 2 subapical hairs. ANT V without a secondary sensorium                      …..25

25    ANT III 1.6-2.3 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing less than 20 hairs. Cauda bluntly triangular. ABD TERG 8 with 8-13 hairs                                          …..Cinara louisianensis

-       ANT III 2.2-3.6 Χ ANT VI (incl. PT), and bearing more than 25 hairs. Cauda broadly rounded. ABD TERG 8 with 18-27 hairs                                                                       …..26

26    Metanotum and ABD TERG 1 and 2 with pairs of well-developed spinopleural sclerites. ANT VI BASE with 6-11 hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia are 120-180 μm

     …..Cinara taurica*

 -     Metanotum and ABD TERG 1 and 2 without spinopleural sclerites. ANT VI BASE with 5-6 hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia are 80-140 μm                          …..Cinara pseudosabinae*

27    ANT VI BASE with 4-6 (-7) hairs restricted to basal half (fig. 44B). R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 0.9-1.2 mm. Alata with 1-6 rhinaria restricted to distal half of ANT III                                               …..Cinara cupressi

-      ANT VI BASE with 7-12 hairs not restricted to basal half (fig. 44C). R IV with 5-7 accessory hairs. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.3-1.6 mm. Alata with 6-11 rhinaria extending over most of ANT III                                                       …..Cinara fresai

 

Jurinea                                                        Compositae

      Jurinea alata                                 Aulacorthum solani

        J. cyanoides                                   Aphis jurineae; Brachyunguis tigrahaudus

        J. ewersmannii                              Uroleucon jaceae

        J. filifolia = Pilostemon filifolia

        J. mollis                                         [Aphis fabae]; Protaphis terricola; Uroleucon jaceae

        J. stoechadifolia                            [Brachycaudus cardui]; Paczoskia jurineicola

Key to apterae on Jurinea:-

1      SIPH black, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.16-0.35 of length. Cauda black. ANT III black, with 16-54 rhinaria. Dorsal hairs arising from separate dark scleroites                  …..2

-       SIPH and cauda pale or dark, SIPH if dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria . Dorsal hairs not arising from separate dark scleroites                       …..3

2      Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. ANT I very long, almost 3 Χ ANT II. Cauda with c.8 hairs                                                                        …..Paczoskia jurineicola*

-       Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. ANT I less than 2 Χ ANT II. Cauda with 22-28 hairs

…..Uroleucon jaceae group

3      ANT tubercles well developed, steep-sided, cuticle of head spiculose. ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. SIPH pale except at apices                            …..Aulacorthum solani

-      ANT tubercles undeveloped, cuticle of head without spicules. ANT III with or without rhinaria. SIPH pale or dark                                                                                                …..4

4      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Spiracles large and rounded. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. Cauda short and rounded, with 6-8 hairs

…..Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsum without an extensive black shield and/or other characters do not apply             …..5

5      R IV+V longer than ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.0                                                    …..6

-       R IV+V much shorter than ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-3.5                                         …..7

6      CAUDA bearing 16-20 hairs. SIPH dark                                             …..Protaphis terricola

-       CAUDA bearing 6-8 hairs. SIPH pale                                    …..Brachyunguis tigrahaudus*

7      SIPH 1.8-2.8 Χ cauda which bears c.8 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7 with large MTu                                                                                                              …..Aphis jurineae

-       SIPH 0.7-1.8 Χ cauda, which bears 11-27 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 sometimes with small MTu                                                                                                               …..Aphis fabae group

        (or, if none fit, try key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Jussiaea see Ludwigia                                             Onagraceae                 

 

Justicia (including Jacobina, Rostellularia)               Acanthaceae

      Justicia alba (?)                             [Aphis sp. nr salviae (Bodenheimer & Swirski 1957) =

                                                                  craccivora?];

                                                              Myzus persicae

        J. anselliana                                  Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon compositae

        J. brandegeeana                           Myzus persicae

        J. carnea                                       Myzus ornatus, persicae

        J. furcata                                       Aulacorthum solani

        J. ilicifolius (?)                              Aphis gossypii

        J. japonica                                    Aphis nasturtii;  Myzus ornatus

        J. matammensis = J. anselliana      

        J. obtusa (?)                                  Myzus ornatus

        J. peploides                                   Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        J. procumbens                              Aphis [glycines], gossypii; nasturtii

                                                              [Carolinaia justiceae Shinji (nomen dubium)]

        J. secunda                                     Aphis gossypii

        J. simplex = J. japonica                  

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

K

     

Kalanchoe (including Bryophyllum)                                Crassulaceae

     Kalanchoe blossfeldiana                Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus persicae

      K. brachyloba                                 Aphis gossypii

      K. carnea = K. laciniata

      K. crenata                                       Aphis gossypii

      K. delagoensis = Bryophyllum delagoense

      K. integrifolia                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

      K. laciniata                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

      K. longiflora                                   Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      K. marmorata                                 Myzus persicae

       K. pinnata = Bryophyllum pinnatum  

      K. prolifera = Bryophyllum proliferum

      K. somaliensis = K. marmorata

      K. waldheimii = Bryophyllum waldheimii

      Kalanchoe sp.                                 Aphis sedi, solanella

Key to apterae on Kalanchoe:-

1     SIPH pale and ANT tubercles well-developed, or if weakly developed then SIPH and cauda both black, the latter bearing 7-24 hairs                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed and SIPH usually darker than cauda which bears 4-7 (-8) hairs                                                                                                                                    …..2

2     Rostrum (total length measured from base of protractor apodeme, see Fig. 1) 0.30-0.42 Χ BL. ANT V 1.0-1.5 Χ ANT VI BASE. SIPH 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda                                  …..Aphis sedi

-      Rostrum 0.22-0.30 Χ BL (except in very small specimens with BL less than 1.1 mm). ANT V 1.4-1.9 Χ ANT VI BASE. SIPH 1.3-2.3 Χ cauda                                         …..Aphis gossypii

 

Kali  see Salsola                                             Amaranthaceae

 

Kalimeris                                                     Compositae

      Kalimeris altaica                           Macrosiphoniella davazamci

        K. incisa                                        Aleurodaphis asteris; Aulacorthum asteris;

                                                              Chitinosiphum kalimeris; Macrosiphoniella yomenae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        K. indica                                        Macrosiphoniella yomenae; Myzus asteriae;

                                                              Neotoxoptera yasumatsui; [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

        K. lautureana                                Macrosiphoniella yomenae; Neotoxoptera yasumatsui

        K. mongolica                                Brachycaudus helichrysi

        K. yomena = Aster yomena              

Use key to aphids on Aster.

 

Kallstroemia                                                Zygophyllaceae

      Kallstroemia maxima                   Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Kalmia                                                         Ericaceae

        Kalmia angustifolia                      Neoamphorophora kalmiae

        K. latifolia                                      Ericaphis wakibae;

                                                              Illinoia azaleae ssp. kalmiaflora, [lambersi],  rhokalaza

Key to apterae on Kalmia:-

1      SIPH pale and very strongly swollen over about distal 0.7, with maximum width of swollen part 1.9-3.0 Χ minimum width of basal stem. Cuticle of head smooth, with rather low, rounded ANT tubercles, not projecting forward beyond medial frontal prominence in dorsal view                                                                                         …..Neoamphorophora kalmiae

-      SIPH pale or dark, cylindrical or swollen on distal half to 1.1-1.5 of minimum width of basal half. Cuticle of head smooth or spiculose, with ANT tubercles projecting forward far beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                             …..2

2      SIPH pale and tapering or cylindrical, or only very slightly swollen on distal half, and with only 1-2 rows of polygonal cells (if any) at apex. ANT III without rhinaria. Head cuticle spiculose. Cauda elongate triangular/tongue-shaped                             …..Ericaphis wakibae

-      SIPH mainly dark, sometimes paler at base, distinctly clavate, with 4-8 rows of polygonal cells on constricted subapical part. ANT III with 2-9 rhinaria. Head cuticle smooth. Cauda finger-like, long and pale                                                                                                   …..3

3      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.15-0.4 Χ BD III. (Al. with 12-19 rhinaria on ANT III)

…..Illinoia azaleae ssp. kalmiaflora

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-0.8 Χ BD III. (Al. with 22-41 rhinaria on ANT III)

…..Illinoia rhokalaza

 

Kalopanax                                                                             Araliaceae

      K. septemlobus                               Aphis acanthopanaci, [kalopanacis], odinae

       (= Eleutherococcus ricinifolius)      

       (= Acanthopanax pictus)

 

-       SIPH 0.2-0.3 Χ BL, much longer than cauda                                    …..Aphis acanthopanaci

-       SIPH only about 0.04-0.05 Χ BL, much shorter than cauda                          …..Aphis odinae 

 

 

Karelinia                                                     Compositae

      Karelinia caspia                          Macrosiphoniella kareliniae;

                                                            Protaphis anuraphoides, carthami, iliensis, kareliniae

Key to apterae on Karelinia:-

Couplets 2-4 follow Kadyrbekov (2001b) and Kadyrbekov et al. (2002).

1      SIPH 0.19-0.22 Χ BL with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.32 of length. ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.15. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..Macrosiphoniella kareliniae

-      SIPH less than 0.1 Χ BL and without polygonal reticulation. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.05. ABD TERG 1 and 7 (at least) with MTu                                                                                   …..2

2      ABD TERG 6 with MTu. ANT III and IV without rhinaria           …..Protaphis kareliniae*

-      ABD TERG 6 without MTu. ANT III usually with a few rhinaria on distal part, and sometimes on ANT IV                                                                                                      …..3

3      ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.7. Diameter of MTu on ABD TERG 1 is 2.3-2.7 Χ basal diameter of ANT III                                                                                                  …..Protaphis iliensis*

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.85-1.05. Diameter of MTu on ABD TERG 1 is 1.3-2.0 Χ basal diameter of ANT III                                                                                                                             …..4

4      SIPH 0.047-0.057 Χ BL, 1.2-1.6 Χ their maximum width and 0.65-0.85 Χ cauda

…..Protaphis carthami

-       SIPH 0.062-0.075 Χ BL, 1.8-2.5 Χ their maximum width and 0.9-1.25 Χ cauda

…..Protaphis anuraphoides

 

Kaschgarica                                                Compositae

      Kaschgarica komarovii               Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005b)

 

Kentia  see  Hydriastele                                                        Arecaceae

      K. ramsayi = Hydriastele ramsayi 

 

Kerria                                                          Rosaceae

      Kerria japonica                           Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum kerriae, solani;

                                                            Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                            [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]

Key to apterae on Kerria:-

-       Head, thorax and marginal and posterior parts of abdomen with extensive dark pigmentation. SIPH mainly dark, somewhat paler in middle. ANT tubercles well developed, steep-sided. Head with spicules at least ventrally. ANT III usually with 1-2 (-3) rhinaria on ANT III                                                                                              …..Aulacorthum kerriae

-      Without this combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Keteleeria                                                                               Pinaceae                        

        Keteleeria evelyniana              Mindarus keteleerifoliae

        K. fortunei                               Cinara keteleeriae

Separation of these two aphids:-

-       Densely hairy aphid, BL more than 3 mm. Aptera with multi-facetted eyes. Secondary rhinaria rounded. SIPH as large pores on shallow pigmented hairy cones. Cauda rounded with numerous hairs                                                                                .....Cinara keteleeriae

-      Sparsely haired aphid, BL less than 2.5 mm. Aptera with 3-facetted eyes. Secondary rhinaria of alata transversely elongate. SIPH as small pores without surrounding hairs or pigmentation. Cauda triangular with 2 hairs                                  .....Mindarus keteleerifoliae


 

Khaya                      African Mahoganies                Meliaceae

        Khaya senegalensis                      Aphis gossypii

 

 

Kickxia                                                        Plantaginaceae

      Kickxia spartioides                        Myzus persicae

        K. spuria                                       Aphis fabae, gossypii, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)];

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Kielmeyera                                                             Clusiaceae

      Kielmeyera coriacea                     Aphis gossypii
 

Kigelia                                                                     Bignoniaceae

     Kigelia africana                              Aphis aurantii, gossypii

     K. pinnata                                       Aphis gossypii

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Kindbergia                                                             Brachytheciaceae

      Kindbergia oregana                  [Prociphilus xylostei]

      K. praelonga                           Melaphis rhois

Use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

Klasia  see Serratula                                                Compositae

      Klusia radiata ssp. gmelinii see Serratula gmelinii

          K. nudicaulis see Serratula nudicaulis

          K. quinquefolia see Serratula quinquefolia                         

        K. radiata see Serratula radiata

 

Kleinia  (including Notonia, Notoniopsis)                        Compositae

       Kleinia fulgens                              Myzus persicae

       K. grandiflora                               Brachycaudus helichrysi

       K. neriifolia                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       K. repens                                       [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       K. stapeliiformis                            Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.        

 

Knautia                                                        Dipsacaceae

      Knautia arvensis                           Aphis confusa, longini, thomasi;

                                                              Aulacorthum knautiae, sedens, solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, knautiae, rosae, [weberi];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus; Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        K. dinarica                                    Aphis confusa

        K. dipsacifolia                               Aphis confusa; Macrosiphum knautiae, rosae;

                                                              Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        K. drymeia                                     [Aphis knautiae (nomen nudum)]; Aulacorthum knautiae;

                                                              Macrosiphum knautiae, rosae;

                                                              Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

        K. integrifolia                                Aphis confusa, thomasi

        K. intermedia                                Macrosiphum rosae

        K. kitaibelii                                    Macrosiphum knautiae

        K. longifolia                                  Macrosiphum rosae

        K. orientalis                                   Macrosiphum rosae

        K. purpurea ssp. subscaposa        Macrosiphum rosae

        K. subscaposa = K. purpurea ssp. subscaposa

          K. sylvatica = K. drymeia               

Key to apterae on Knautia:-

1      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                 …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                …..4

2      Cauda with 14-24 hairs. Longest hairs on hind femur as long as or longer than diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Well-developed MTu present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7. ANT PT/BASE 3-4                                                                                    …..Aphis longini

-       Cauda with 4-9 hairs. Longest hairs on hind femur 0.15-0.7 of diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Small MTu present or absent from ABD TERG 2-4(-5). ANT PT/BASE

        1.5-3.3                                                                                                                               …..3

3      Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 0.2-0.5 Χ ANT BD III                               …..Aphis thomasi

-      Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.6-1.1 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 1.0-2.0 Χ ANT BD III                               …..Aphis confusa

4      Head and SIPH black. ANT III with 7-25 rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length (8 or more rows of closed cells)                                                  …..5

-      Head and SIPH pale. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria. SIPH without polygonal reticulation or with only 1-4 rows of closed cells                                                                                     …..6

5      R IV+V usually (in 90%) less than 0.17 mm, 0.92-1.17 Χ HT II        …..Macrosiphum rosae

-      R IV+V usually (in 90%) more than 0.17 mm, 1.19-1.9 Χ HT II   …..Macrosiphum knautiae

6     Cuticle of  head smooth dorsally and ventrally. PT 1.5-2.3 Χ ANT III, which is without rhinaria. SIPH slightly swollen subapically, narrowing to a slight constriction before flange

......Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

-       Head spinulose at least on ventral surface. PT 0.8-1.6 Χ ANT III, which is with or without 1 or more small rhinaria near base. SIPH cylindrical, slightly swollen distally, or clavate         

…..7

7      SIPH clavate, with thinnest part of “stem” thinner than or as thin as hind tibia at midlength. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                       …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical or only slightly swollen, thicker than hind tibiae at midlength. ANT III with 1 or more small rhinaria near base                                                              …..8

8      Outer side of ANT I with 2-4 hairs on basal half. SIPH slightly swollen on distal 0.33, with at least 2-3 rows of closed polygonal cells subapically. SIPH 2.2-2.9 Χ cauda. Head with anterio-dorsal part devoid of spinules                                              …..Aulacorthum knautiae

-      Outer side of ANT I with 1-2 hairs on basal half. SIPH cylindrical on distal part, sometimes with 1-3 indistinct rows of closed polygonal cells subapically, but usually without any. SIPH 2.0-2.5 Χ cauda. Head including anterio-dorsal part with numerous spinules                  …..9

9      R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.7                             …..Aulacorthum sedens

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5                               …..Aulacorthum solani

                                                

Kneiffia                                                       Onagraceae

      Kneiffia fruticosa                          Aphis grossulariae

        K. pilosella                                     Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

Use key to apterae on Oenothera.

    

Kniphofia                                                    Asphodelaceae

     Kniphofia Χhybrida                        Aphis fabae

      Kniphofia spp.                                Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Sitobion schoelli

Key to apterae on Kniphofia:-

-     SIPH 0.15-0.22 Χ BL and 0.7-0.8 Χ head width across (and including) eyes, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.35 of length                                                  …..Sitobion schoelli

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation, or if with reticulation then this extends over only distal 0.1-0.2 of length, and SIPH are 0.3-0.4 Χ BL and 1.3-1.9 Χ head width across eyes

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Koanophyllon                                              Compositae

      Koanophyllon ayapanoides       Aphis spiraecola

        K. clementis                                Aphis spiraecola

        K. grandiceps                             Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

       K. polyodon                                Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

       K. polystictum                             Uroleucon ambrosiae

       K. rhexioides                               Aphis spiraecola

       K. villosum                                  Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Kobresia                                                      Cyperaceae

      Kobresia caricina = K. simpliciuscula

        K. simpliciuscula                           Ceruraphis eriophori

      Kobresia sp.                                  Gharesia polunini

Use key to apterae on Carex.

 

Kochia                                                         Amaranthaceae

      Kochia cana                                Chaitaphis safavii

        K. childsii                                    Chaitaphis tenuicauda

        K. hyssopifolia = Bassia hyssopifolia

        K. indica                                      Aphis craccivora

        K. prostrata = Bassia prostrata

        K. scoparia = Bassia scoparia

        K. trichophylla                            Aphis salsolae

Key to apterae on Kochia:-

1      Dorsal hairs with expanded, often furcate apices (Fig.36a,b). Cauda long and thin, 4-5 Χ longer than its middle width (e.g. Fig.36c)                                                                      …..2

-       Dorsal hairs blunt or pointed. Cauda less than 4 Χ its middle width                                …..3

2      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.9. SIPH 0.8-0.95 Χ cauda. Dorsal hairs with small pale tuberculate bases (Fig.36a)                                                                                …..Chaitaphis tenuicauda

-       ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.9. SIPH 0.6-0.75 Χ cauda. Dorsal hairs arising from large, rather rugose, hemispherical, often pigmented, tuberculate bases (Fig.36b)    …..Chaitaphis safavii

3      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-3.0. SIPH 1.2-2.2 Χ cauda             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids,

                     starting at couplet 24, where specimens running to A. craccivora may be A. salsolae

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.4. SIPH 0.5-0.9 Χ cauda                                                                …..4

4      SIPH in form of dark, broad-based cones, shorter than their basal widths (Fig.36f). Cauda bluntly conical, shorter than its basal width. Clypeus dark and swollen, but not globose (Fig.36e)                                                                                      …..Xerobion eriosomatinum

-      SIPH pale or dusky, tubular, often slightly swollen, much longer than their basal widths (Fig.36i). Cauda finger-like, longer than its basal width. Clypeus globose (Fig.36d)

…..Clypeoaphis suedae

 

Koeleria                                                       Poaceae

      Koeleria alpicola = K. vallesiana      Rhopalomyzus poae      

        K. alpina = K. asiatica

        K. asiatica                                      Rhopalosiphum padi

        K. cristata auct. = K. macrantha      

        K. gracilis = K. macrantha

        K. litvinowii                                   Anoecia corni; Baizongia pistaciae; Geoica utricularia

        K. luerssenii                                  Sitobion fragariae

        K. macrantha                                Aploneura lentisci; [Colopha compressa];

                                                              Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                               Israelaphis carmini; Laingia psammae;

                                                               Paracletus cimiciformis; [Pterasthenia shiraensis];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion miscanthi; Tetraneura ulmi

        K. phleioides = Rostraria cristata     

        K. pyramidata                               Forda formicaria; Sitobion avenae

        K. splendens                                  Sitobion avenae

        K. vallesiana                                 Rhopalomyzus poae

        Koeleria spp.                                 Diuraphis noxia; Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha maydis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Koelreuteria                                                                         Sapindaceae

      Koelreuteria bipinnata                   Myzus persicae

      K. integrifolia = K. bipinnata

      K. paniculata                                  Aphis fabae, [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972, 102];

                                                              Myzus persicae; Periphyllus koelreuteriae

 

-      Body and appendages conspicuously hairy. Tibiae entirely black. Dorsal abdomen with a double row of dark spots                                                             ..... Periphyllus koelreuteriae

 

-      Body and appendages more sparsely hairy.  Tibiae at least basally pale. Dorsal abdomen unpigmented or with less regular dark markings              .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Kohautia                                                      Rubiaceae

      Kohautia senegalensis                  Aphis gossypii

 

Kolkwitzia                                                   Caprifoliaceae

      Kolkwitzia amamilis                      Aphis asclepiadis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Kotschya                                                      Leguminosae

      Kotschya africana                       Aphis spiraecola; Sitobion burundiense

Key to apterae on Kotschya:-

-      SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.17-0.25 of length. ANT PT/BASE 5.1-6.6. First tarsal segments all with 4 hairs                                                   …..Sitobion burundiense

-      SIPH if black then without distal reticulation, and other characters do not apply                  

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Krascheninnikovia                                      Amaranthaceae

      Krascheninnikovia ceratoides       [Aphis craccivora, fabae]; Brachycaudus eurotiae;

                                                              Eichinaphis pamirica, turanica;

       K. ewersmanniana                        Brachycaudus eurotiae; Eichinaphis pamirica, turanica

       K. lanata                                        Macrosiphoniella frigidicola, ludovicianae

       K. latens = K. ceratoides

Key to apterae on Krascheninnikovia:-

1     ANT equal to or more than BL. ANT III with 3-15 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.5. SIPH 0.25-0.3 Χ BL, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.3-0.5. Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than broad                                                                                                               …..2

-      ANT up to 0.6 Χ BL. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.0. SIPH are short, conical or tubular, 0.05-0.15 Χ BL, without polygonal reticulation. Cauda is broadly rounded or conical                                                                                                                            …..3

2     BL 2.8-4.2 mm. Cauda 0.42-0.55 mm, with 15-24 hairs    …..Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae

-      BL 1.6-2.3 mm. Cauda 0.24-0.44 mm, with 6-13 hairs          …..Macrosiphoniella frigidicola

3     ANT only about 0.25 Χ BL.  SIPH as small pores raised on small sclerotic cones. R IV+V not stiletto-shaped. Dorsal body hairs without tuberculate bases. Cauda is very broadly rounded

..…Brachycaudus eurotiae*

-      ANT more than 0.3 Χ BL.  SIPH tubular, swollen, longer than basal width. RIV+V stiletto-shaped, with long tubular RV. Dorsal body hairs mostly arise from tuberculate bases. Cauda is conical                                                     …..Eichinaphis pamirica (or turanica? – see text)

 

Kraussia                                                      Rubiaceae

      Kraussia floribunda                      Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Krigia                                                          Compositae

      Krigia montana                             Uroleucon brachychaeta

        K. virginica                                    Protaphis middletonii; Uroleucon brachychaeta

Key to apterae on Krigia:-

-       SIPH black, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation, 1.4-1.8 Χ the finger-like cauda. ANT III with 28-62 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 4.7-6.2. R IV+V very short, 0.6-0.8 Χ HT II

…..Uroleucon brachychaeta

-      Without this combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Krugiodendron                                            Rhamnaceae

      Krugiodendron ferreum               Aphis aurantii, craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.        

 

Kuhnia  see Brickellia                                             Compositae

 

Kummerowia                                               Leguminosae

      Kummerowia stipulacea               Microparsus singularis                                                       

 

Kunzea                                                         Myrtaceae

      Kunzea ericifolia                         Aphis gossypii

        K. pomifera                                 [Cinara tujafilina]

        K. recurva                                   Aphis gossypii

     

Kyllinga                                                       Cyperaceae

      Kyllinga brevifolia                       Carolinaia caricis; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                            Vesiculaphis caricis

        K. bulbosa                                   Aphis gossypii

        K. odorata                                   Hysteroneura setariae; [Myzus ornatus];

                                                            Schizaphis rotundiventris

        K. peruviana = K. vaginata

        K. sumatrensis = Cyperus cyperoides

        K. vaginata                                  Carolinaia caricis

        Kyllinga spp.                               Saltusaphis scirpus

Use key to apterae on Cyperus.

 

L

 

Lablab                                                         Leguminosae

      Lablab purpureus                         Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis gossypii

Use key to apterae on Medicago

 

Laburnum                                                              Leguminosae

      Laburnum anagyroides                Acyrthosiphon caraganae (ssp. occidentale), pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, cytisorum; Myzus persicae

      L. watereri (?)                                Aphis craccivora

Key to aphids on Laburnum:-

1      Antennal tubercles well developed, with inner faces smooth and divergent. SIPH mainly pale, tapering/cylindrical                                                                                .....2

-       Antennal tubercles poorly developed or if well-developed then with inner faces apically convergent. SIPH if pale then slightly clavate                                                     .....3

2      Base of ANT VI 1.9-2.9 times longer than R IV+V. SIPH distally thin and cylindrical

.....Acyrthosiphon pisum

-       Base of ANT VI 1.1-1.5 times longer than R IV+V. SIPH tapering from base to apex

.....Acyrthosiphon caraganae 

3      Antennal tubercles well developed, convergent in dorsal view (fig. 42I). SIPH slightly swollen on distal half. SIPH and cauda pale                                     .....Myzus persicae

-       Antennal tubercles poorly developed. SIPH tapering. SIPH and cauda dark               .....4

4      BL divided by R IV+V less than 3.2 + (6Χ BL)                                .....Aphis cytisorum

-       BL divided by R IV+V more than 3.2 + (6Χ BL)                             .....Aphis craccivora

Laccosperma                                                                       Arecaceae

        Laccosperma sp.                           Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

 

Lachenalia                                                  Asparagaceae

      Lachenalia aloides                        Aphis gossypii

      L. tricolor = L. aloides

      Lachenalia sp.                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lacinaria  see Liatris                                                         Compositae

 

Lactuca                                                       Compositae

      Lactuca alpina see Cicerbita alpina

        L. biennis                                      Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

      L. brevirostris = Pterocypsela indica

        L. brunoniana                               Uroleucon longisetosum  

        L. canadensis                                Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Uroleucon pseudambrosiae, sonchellum, sonchi

      L. capensis = L. inermis                  

        L. chinensis  = Ixeris chinensis

        L. debilis = Ixeris debilis                  

        L. dentata                                      Hyperomyzus lactucae

        L. denticulata = Paraixeris denticulata

          L. dolichophylla                            Dysaphis microsiphon

          L. dracoglossa                               Uroleucon formosanum

        L. floridana                                   Aphis nasturtii (as floridanae Tissot 1937);

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, sonchellum

        L. formosana = Pterocypsela formosana                                    

        L. glandulifera                              Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon compositae

        L. graciliflora                                Uroleucon longisetosum

        L. gracilis = Ixeris gracilis

        L. graminifolia                              Uroelucon sonchellum

        L. hastata                                      Uroleucon longisetosum

        L. hirsuta                                      Uroleucon pseudambrosiae, sonchellum                           

        L. indica                                        [Aphis lactucae Shinji 1922];

                                                              Aulacorthum ixeridis, solani;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              Uroleucon formosanum, lactucicola, picridis, sonchi

        L. inermis                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Hyperomyzus lactucae;

                                                              Sitobion africanum; Uroleucon compositae, sonchi

        L. intybacea = Launaea intybacea    

        L. jamaicensis                               Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

        L. laciniata = Pterocypsela laciniata

        L. laevigata = Ixeridium laevigatum  

        L. lanceolata = Crepidiastrum laevigatum

        L. longifolia = Lactuca dolichophylla

        L. ludoviciana                               Uroleucon sonchellum

        L. macrophylla = Cicerbita macrophylla

        L. macrorhiza                               Uroleucon longisetosum

        L. muralis = Mycelis muralis                                            

      L. oldhami = Ixeridium laevigatum                                       

        L. oleracea                                    Nasonovia ribisnigri

        L. pancicii                                     [Macrosiphum prenanthidis]

        L. perennis                                    Acyrthosiphon lactucae; Aphis fabae; 

                                                              Uroleucon bielawskii, cichorii, ochropus, sonchi

        L. plumieri                                    Uroleucon ochropus

        L. pulchella                                   Uroleucon deltense, erigeronense, sonchellum

        L. quercina                                   Uroleucon murale

        L. racemosa                                  Uroleucon sonchi

      L. raddeana                                  Uroleucon formosanum, fuchuense                                   

        L. sagittifolia  = Lactuca canadensis

        L. saligna                                      Acyrthosiphon lactucae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pulcherimum;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius; Uroleucon bielawskii, ochropus

        L. sativa                                         Acyrthosiphon lactucae, [moltshanovi], [scariolae];

                                                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus carduellinus, lactucae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, lactucicola, ornatus,

                                                                 persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pemphigus [betae], [borealis], bursarius, [populivenae];

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis; Protaphis terricola

                                                              [Protrama radicis, flavescens];

                                                              Trama caudata, [maritima], troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, bielawskii, cichorii, formosanum,

                                                                  picridis, pseudambrosiae, sonchi

        L. scariola = Lactuca serriola          

        L. serriola (incl. integrata,                Acyrthosiphon lactucae, scariolae;

                                   scariola)               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Hyperomyzus carduellinus, lactucae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Protaphis lactucicola, terricola;

                                                              Trama caudata, [rara],  troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon bielawskii, chondrillae, cichorii, erigeronense,

                                                                 formosanum, mulgedii, picridis, pseudambrosiae,

                                                                 [rudbeckiae], sonchellum, sonchi

        L. sibirica                                      Uroleucon brevirostre, formosanum                                  

        L. spicata                                       Myzus persicae

        L. squarrosa = Pterocypsela indica  

        L. tatarica = Mulgedium tataricum

        L. thunbergii = Ixeris dentata

      L. triangulata                                Uroleucon formosanum  

        L. unciniata (?)                             Uroleucon sonchi

        L. viminalis (?)                              Uroleucon chondrillae

        L. viminea                                     Uroleucon bicolor, bielawskii, ochropus

        L. viminea ssp. chondrilliflora      Acyrthosiphon lactucae; Uroleucon cichorii

        L. virosa                                        Acyrthosiphon [lactucae], scariolae; Aphis craccivora;     

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense, [jaceae], pseudambrosiae,

                                                                  sonchellum

        Lactuca spp.                                 Acyrthosiphon ilka; Aphis [intybi], spiraecola;

                                                              [Hyalomyzus collinsoniae];

                                                              [Hyperomyzus nabali? (as braggi?)];

                                                              Pemphigus populitransversus;

                                                              Protaphis [carthami], pseudocardui

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon; [Uroleucon gravicorne]

Key to apterae on Lactuca (also Mulgedium and Pterocypsela) :-

(See Blackman & Eastop 2000, for an illustrated key to common aphids on lettuce.)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH either absent , or present only as pores on shallow cones

…..2

-       ANT PT/BASE at least 0.7. SIPH tubular                                                                        …..5

2      HT II of normal length. Body hairs sparse                                                                       …..3

-       HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. Body hairs numerous, conspicuous      …..4

3      R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, and without accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments short and thick. Cauda and anal plate not projecting posteriorly

…..Pemphigus spp.

-       R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments long and fine. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark posterior projection of the abdomen                                                                               …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

4      SIPH present as shallow cones. Eyes usually with more than 12 facets    …..Trama caudata

-       SIPH absent. Eyes with only 3 facets                                                   …..Trama troglodytes

5      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)                                                                                                                                  …..6

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                              …..31

6      SIPH pale, sometimes dusky towards apices. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs             …..7

-       SIPH wholly dark, or pale only on basal part or in middle. First tarsal segments with 3-5 hairs

…..9

7      SIPH reticulation consisting of numerous (<100) small polygonal cells. ANT PT/BASE

        2.9-3.4                                                                                               …..Uroleucon mulgedii*

-       SIPH reticulation consisting of fewer larger polygonal cells. ANT PT/BASE more than 4

…..8

8      SIPH 0.25-0.35 Χ BL, 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda. ANT III with 1-8 (-10) rhinaria on basal part

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH c.0.45 Χ BL and c.2.6 Χ cauda. ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria on middle part

…..Macrosiphum pulcherimum*

9      SIPH with grossly inflated, balloon-like section proximal to reticulated subapical part. Head strongly spiculose. ANT III without rhinaria                      …..Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical, or flared apically. Head without spicules. ANT III with rhinaria

…..10

10    ANT III with 1-4 small rhinaria near base. SIPH with a distinct flange. Dorsal abdominal pigmentation when present diffuse or as dark bands, not concentrated at hair-bases. R IV+V 0.09-0.14 mm long, shorter than HT II and bearing 6 accessory hairs. Cauda with 7-10 (-12) hairs                                                                                                                                 …..11

-      ANT III with more than 5 rhinaria. SIPH with flange small or undeveloped. Dorsal abdominal pigmentation when present consisting of dark scleroites at hair bases. R IV+V 0.125-0.24 mm, often longer than HT II and bearing 8 or more accessory hairs. Cauda with 8-37 hairs                                                                                                                         …..12

11    Dorsal abdominal pigmentation usually consisting of  segmentally arranged, variably developed but well-defined black bars. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 20 μm long

…..Sitobion africanum

-      Dorsal abdominal pigmentation variably developed, ill-defined and not segmentally divided. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 20 μm long                                  …..Sitobion miscanthi

12    SIPH with pale basal section                                                                                          …..13

-       SIPH wholly dark, or sometimes with paler middle section                                           …..14

13    ANT III with 5-17 rhinaria. R IV+V longer than HT II. SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda, which has 1 or more distal hairs short and blunt or capitate                   …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      ANT III with 42-69 rhinaria. R IV+V shorter than HT II. SIPH thick, less than 2 Χ cauda, which has distal hairs all fine-pointed                                               …..Uroleucon bielawskii

14    Cauda almost as dark as SIPH                                                                                        …..15

-      Cauda distinctly paler than SIPH                                                                                   …..16

15    ANT III with 51-77 rhinaria, extending over most of its length. Primary rhinarium on ANT V flat and not clearly larger than secondary rhinaria on III            …..Uroleucon compositae

-      ANT III with 11-19 rhinaria confined to basal half. Primary rhinarium on ANT V protruberant and much larger than secondary rhinaria on III          …..Uroleucon lactucicola

16    ANT III 1.5-2.0 Χ longer than ANT IV+V together                                                      …..17

-       ANT III less than 1.2 Χ ANT IV+V together                                                                …..18

17    ANT III with 96-135 strongly protruberant rhinaria. Cauda 1.3-1.9 Χ ANT V. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.3                                                                          …..Uroleucon formosanum

-      ANT III with 49-93 rhinaria, which do not protrude strongly. Cauda 0.85-1.3 Χ ANT V. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-8.4                                                                   …..Uroleucon sonchellum

18    Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present                                                          …..19

-       Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct                                                                 …..23

19    R IV+V 0.67-0.95 Χ HT II                                                             …..Uroleucon chondrillae

-       R IV+V 1.17-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                                             …..20

20    SIPH short and thick, 0.14-0.15 Χ BL                                         …..Uroleucon longisetosum

-       SIPH 0.20-0.29 Χ BL                                                                                                      …..21

21    R IV+V 1.17-1.33 Χ HT II                                                                   …..Uroleucon cichorii

-       R IV+V 1.45-1.84 Χ HT II                                                                                             …..22

22    ANT VI BASE 0.6-0.7 Χ R IV+V, which is c.4.2† Χ longer than its basal width. Marginal tubercles (MTu) usually present on ABD TERG 2-4. ANT III with 25-66 rhinaria extending for 0.7-0.9 of its length. Cauda with 12-25 hairs                                  …..Uroleucon picridis

-       ANT VI BASE c.0.9 Χ R IV+V, which is c.2.2† Χ longer than its basal width. MTu absent. ANT III with c.26 rhinaria mostly on basal half. Cauda with c.37 hairs

…..Uroleucon hasanicum*

†these figures were erroneously transposed in Blackman & Eastop (2006)

23    Coxae dusky/dark, distinctly darker than basal parts of femora                                    …..24

-       Coxae pale, concolorous with basal parts of femora                                                       …..27

24    Cauda with 10-12 hairs. ANT III with 45-62 rhinaria                      …..Uroleucon ochropus

-       Cauda with 20-35 hairs. ANT III with 9-45 (-69) rhinaria                                            …..25

25    Dark scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs more than 2 Χ diameter of hair bases. SIPH 0.67-0.77 mm long                                                                                                …..Uroleucon deltense

-      Dark scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs absent or very small, usually less than 2 Χ diameter of hair bases. SIPH 0.8-1.3 mm long                                                                                   …..26

26    SIPH 0.25-0.4 Χ BL and 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda, which is pale. ANT III with rhinaria confined to basal 0.5 (-0.6) of length                                                                        …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      SIPH 0.20-0.25 (-0.29) Χ BL and 1.2-1.5 Χ cauda, which is pale or dusky. ANT III with rhinaria extending over 0.6-0.8 of length                                       …..Uroleucon brevirostre*

27    Ventral side of hind tibia with a row of short, peg-like hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs long; those on ABD TERG 3 maximally 50-60 μm, about 2 Χ ANT BD III

…..Uroleucon fuchuense

-      Hind tibia without a distinct row of peg-like hairs (although ventral hairs are often the shortest). Hairs on ABD TERG 3 maximally 20-45 μm, less than 1.6 Χ ANT BD III    ….28

28    SIPH rather thick (c.8-12 Χ longer than diameter at midlength), 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.45  Χ HT II                                                                                                             …..29

-      SIPH long and thin (c.11-17 Χ longer than diameter at midlength), 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.75-0.9 (-1.0) Χ HT II)                                                                                                   …..30

29    HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more Χ longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 Χ R IV+V

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

30    SIPH 1.22-1.33 mm long, 0.32-0.37 Χ BL. Cauda with 27-34 hairs   …..Uroleucon bicolor*

-     SIPH 0.65-0.77 mm long, 0.22-0.33 Χ BL. Cauda with 11-19 hairs      …..Uroleucon murale

31    Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, shorter than or not clearly  longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                        …..32

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or elongate triangular, clearly longer than its basal width

…..37

32    ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. Marginal tubercles (MTu) either absent or present on ABD TERG 1-5, but never on ABD TERG 7. Cauda helmet-shaped with 5-7 hairs                                 …..33

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu. Cauda bluntly triangular with 14-28 hairs                                                                                              …..34

33    SIPH imbricated, very small, 0.03-0.08 mm. Well-developed MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5. Spiracular apertures reniform. Dark dorsal abdominal cross-bands often present

…..Dysaphis microsiphon

-      SIPH smooth, 0.08-0.14 mm. MTu absent. Spiracular apertures rounded. Never with dark dorsal markings                                                                            …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

34    MTu consistently present and well-developed on ABD TERG 6 as well as on 1 and 7

…..Protaphis astrakhanica*

-      Only ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu. MTu on ABD TERG 6 only sporadically present and then much smaller                                                                     ….35

35    ANT PT 0.75-1.05 Χ SIPH                                                                   …..Protaphis terricola

-      ANT PT 1.06-1.4 Χ SIPH                                                                                               …..36

36    ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4                                                                 …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.0                                                                   …..Protaphis lactucicola*

37    Head smooth, and ANT tubercles well developed with smooth, broadly divergent inner faces. ANT III with rhinaria, and ABD TERG 1 and 7 usually without MTu               …..38

-      Head spiculose or, if smooth, then ANT tubercles weakly developed, ANT III without rhinaria and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                  …..42

38    SIPH clavate                                                                                                                   …..39

-       SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half                                                                     …..40

39    Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 8-19 μm long, and on ANT tubercles 6-11 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-29, IV (0)-1-16, V 0 (-9). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.6. ANT PT 1.6-2.3 Χ cauda                                                                         …..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-50 μm long, and on ANT tubercles 18-30 μm. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 4-20, IV 0 (-1), V 0. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-7.4. ANT PT 2.0-3.0 Χ cauda                                                                                               …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

40    Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                                                                     …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE less than 7.5. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.7 Χ BD III. Dorsum without any dark markings                            …..41

41    R IV+V 0.6-0.7 Χ HT II, with 16-25 accessory hairs

…..Acyrthosiphon lactucae /scariolae group

-       R IV+V 0.8-0.9 Χ HT II, with 6-8 accessory hairs                               …..Acyrthosiphon ilka

42    Head densely spiculose and dorsum with extensive uniform dusky/dark sclerotisation

…..43

-      Head smooth or spiculose; if spiculose then dorsum is not extensively sclerotised or has a clearly defined pattern of dark markings                       ….. go to key to polyphagous aphids

43    SIPH mainly pale and  slightly clavate. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. ANT III without any rhinaria. (Al. with a solid black dorsal patch, and with sec. rhin. on ANT IV-(V) as well as III)                                                                                                           …..Myzus lactucicola

-       SIPH dark and tapering/cylindrical. R IV+V (0.83-) 0.9-1.1. ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria near base. (Al. with separate dorsal cross-bands, and with sec. rhin. usually on III only)

…..Aulacorthum ixeridis

     

Laelia                                                          Orchidaceae

      Laelia lobata = Cattleya lobata

      Laelia sp.                                       Cerataphis orchidearum; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

ΧLaeliocattleya                                                   Orchidaceae

      ΧLaeliocattleya (hybrid)                Aulacorthum solani

 

Laetia                                                          Salicaceae

      Laetia crenata = Zuelania guidonia

      L. thamnia                                    Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Lafoensia                                                    Lythraceae

        Lafoensia glyptocarpa                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        L. punicifolia                                 Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Lagascea                                                     Compositae

      Lagascea sp.                                 Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Uroleucon maximilianicola

-      SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                    .....Uroleucon maximilianicola

(or U. ambrosiae?)

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                          .....Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

 

     

Lagedium see Mulgedium                                       Compositae

 

Lagenaria                                                    Cucurbitaceae

      Lagenaria leucantha = L. siceraria

          L. leucantha var. clavata = Benincasa hispida                                  

        L. siceraria (incl. depressa,               Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola, [umbrella];

                               vulgaris)                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

        L. vulgaris = L. siceraria

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lagerstroemia              Crape-Myrtles                   Lythraceae

        Lagerstroemia floribunda            Aphis gossypii

        L. flos-reginae (= L. speciosa)          Aphis aurantii, citricidus, craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                   odinae;

                                                              Greenidea psidii; Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) himalayensis                           

        L. indica                                        Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae,

                                                                   spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              Sinomegoura citricola; Sarucallis kahawaluokalani          

        L. macrocarpa (= L. speciosa)         Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) himalayensis

        L. speciosa (see also                        Aphis aurantii, gossypii

               flos-reginae, macrocarpa)

        Lagerstroemia sp.                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to Lagerstroemia aphids:-

1      SIPH with numerous long hairs. Cauda rounded with an apical papilla   .....Greenidea psidii

-      SIPH without hairs. Cauda tongue-shaped or knobbed                                                    .....2

 

2      All adult viviparae winged. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. SIPH as short, pale, truncated cones                                                                          .....3

-       Adult viviparae apterous or alate. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH tubular, tapering or swollen on distal half 

.....use key to polyphagous aphids

3      Forewings marked with broad bands of fuscous, especially along and behind the main vein and along the branches of the media. Head and thorax without spinal tubercles. Spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 2 large, dark, united over more than half their length (fig. 54A, as Tinocallis kahawaluokalani)                                                   ..... Sarucallis kahawaluokalani

-      Forewings with veins often lightly bordered but without broad bands of fuscous. Head and thorax with spinal tubercles. Spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 2 pale or dusky, separate or fused only at bases (fig. 54B)                              .....Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) himalayensis

 

Laggera                                                       Compositae

      Laggera alata                                Aphis gossypii

        L. crispata                                     Aphis gossypii

      L. flava = Blumeopsis falcata             Brachycaudus helichrysi

        L. pterodonta                                 Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Dysaphis sp.]

      L. purpurascens = L. crispata

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lagochilus                                                  Lamiaceae

     Lagochilus diacanthophyllus         Brachycaudus cerasicola

     L. platyacanthus                             Brachycaudus cerasicola

 

 

Lagopsis                                                      Lamiaceae

      Lagopsis supina                            Aphis gossypii (? - on roots with eggs; Chu 1949, 100)

 

Lagotis                                                         Plantaginaceae

      Lagotis integrifolia                        Brachycaudus cerasicola

 

Lagunaria                                                   Malvaceae

      Lagunaria patersonia                   Myzus persicae

    

Lagurus                                                       Poaceae

      Lagurus ovatus                             Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Lamarckia                                                   Poaceae

      Lamarckia aurea                        Geoica utricularia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Lamium (including Lamiastrum)                                   Lamiaceae

      Lamium album                             Aphis craccivora, frangulae, gossypii, lamiorum,

               (incl. ssp. barbatum)                       odorikonis;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, lamii;

                                                              Cryptaphis garwhalensis;

                                                              Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, ballotae, galeopsidis,

                                                                 korschelti, multipilosus, ribis, stachydis, taoi, ulmeri;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae

        L. amplexicaule                            Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii, lamiorum, nerii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, ballotae, galeopsidis,

                                                                   korschelti, ribis, stachydis, taoi, ulmeri;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius

        L. flexuosum                                 Brachycaudus lamii

        L. galeobdolon                              Aphis lamiorum, [Aphis sp. (Cocuzza et al. 2014)];

                                                              Cryptomyzus galeopsidis, maudamonti

        L. hybridum see L. purpureum

        L. luteum = L. galeobdolon              Aphis lamiorum

        L. maculatum                               Aphis frangulae, lamiorum; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi, lamii;

                                                              Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, galeopsidis, ribis, ulmeri;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        L. purpureum (incl. var.                  Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, fabae, gossypii, 

                                hybridum)                     lamiorum;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, lamii;

                                                              Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, galeopsidis, korschelti, ribis,

                                                                  ulmeri;

                                                              [Dysaphis montemartinii nomen dubium];

                                                              [Eucarazzia elegans]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        Lamium spp.                                Aphis [aliena], [ballotae], [incerta Nevsky of Rusanova

                                                                  1942], [pollinosa (nomen dubium)];

                                                              [Chaetosiphon heterotrichum]                                           

Key to apterae on Lamium:-

1      Dorsal body hairs long and thick, much longer than ANT BD III, and many or all of them with knobbed or expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases                            …..2

-      Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than BD III; pointed or blunt, or if with somewhat expanded apices then without tuberculate bases                                                            …..11

2      Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than or about equal to (0.5-1.1 Χ) BD III, clearly shorter than hairs on ANT I. R IV+V at least 1.3 Χ HT II, with 6-18 accessory hairs. SIPH at least 0.2 Χ BL                                                                                                                            …..3

-      Longest hairs on ANT III longer than (1.2-2.5 Χ) BD III, similar in length to those on ANT I. R IV+V with 2-10 accessory hairs. SIPH less than 0.2 Χ BL                                       …..6

3      ANT PT 1.2-1.6 Χ ANT III. Longest hair on ANT III 0.9-1.1 Χ BD III

…..Cryptomyzus ballotae

-       ANT PT more than 1.6 Χ ANT III. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.8 Χ BD III              …..4

4      SIPH more-or-less cylindrical, with little trace of swelling; thinner than hind tibia for most of length. SIPH 2.2-3.1 Χ cauda                                                                 …..Cryptomyzus ribis

-      SIPH with distinctly swollen section on distal part, with maximum diameter 1.2-1.6 Χ minimum diameter on proximal half, the swollen part distinctly thicker than hind tibia. SIPH 3.6-5.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                                  …..5

5      R IV+V with 11-18 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 1-4 each with a group of 2-3, rarely 4, marginal hairs on each side                                                             …..Cryptomyzus korschelti

-      R IV+V with 7-13 accessory hairs. ABD TERG 1-4 each with a group of 4-5 marginal hairs on each side                                                                                             …..Cryptomyzus taoi

6      Hairs on ANT III all pointed, the longest of them 1.7-2.1 Χ BD III. ANT III with 7-19 rhinaria, distributed over most of its length                             …..Cryptomyzus multipilosus*

-      Hairs on ANT III all distinctly capitate, the longest of them either 1.2-1.7 Χ  or 2.2-2.5 Χ BD III. ANT III with 0-17 rhinaria on its basal half                                                               …..7

7      Longest hairs on ANT III 2.2-2.5 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 30-34 hairs. R IV+V with c.10 accessory hairs                                                            .....Cryptaphis garwhalensis*

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 1.2-1.7 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 5-20 hairs. R IV+V with 2-7 hairs                                                                                                                      .....8

8      ABD TERG 1-4 each with 12-20 capitate hairs. SIPH 0.09-0.11 Χ BL and 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda

…..Cryptomyzus alboapicalis

-      ABD TERG 1-4 each with 5-14 capitate hairs; if with 12-14 then SIPH more than 0.15 Χ BL and more than 2 Χ cauda                                                                                                   …..9

9      SIPH 0.10-0.23 mm. The following discriminant function is less than 49.4: <0.5 Χ number of hairs on ABD TERG 3 plus 698 Χ HT II minus 0.7 Χ number of rhinaria on ANT III minus 309 Χ minimum width of basal part of SIPH                                      …..Cryptomyzus ulmeri

-      SIPH 0.17-0.38 mm; if less than 0.23 mm, then use the above discriminant function, the value of which is greater than 49.4                                                                                 …..10

10    Rostrum reaching to hind coxae. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 8-14 hairs. The following discriminant function is usually (90% of specimens) greater than 20: <182 Χ length of longest hair on ABD TERG 2-4 plus 113 Χ ANT BASE VI plus 1.3 Χ number of hairs on ABD TERG 3 (not counting very small ones) minus 328 Χ length of longest hair on ANT I

…..Cryptomyzus maudamanti

-      Rostrum not reaching to hind coxae. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 4-11 hairs. Value of above discriminant function is less than 20                                            …..Cryptomyzus galeopsidis

11    Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracles large and rounded. SIPH with a distinct annular incision proximal to the flange                          …..12

-       Cauda either not evident, of if present then tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width. Spiracles reniform. SIPH (if present) without a distinct subapical incision

…..13

12    Dorsum with a dark sclerotic shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, c. 2 Χ cauda

…..Brachycaudus lamii

-       Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH pale and smooth, less than 1.5 Χ cauda

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

13    SIPH uniformly dark, not swollen. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..14

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, or with dusky/dark apices, if wholly dark then markedly swollen. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

14    Cauda black with 11-25 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7and 8 and dark markings anterior to SIPH                                         …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda pale or dark with 5-12 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually without dark markings   …..15

15    ANT usually 5-segmented, or with partial fusion of III and IV. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II

…..Aphis odorikonis

-      ANT usually 6 segmented (sometimes 5-segmented in summer dwarfs). R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II  ….. Aphis lamiorum or A. frangulae (incl. ssp. beccabungae) or A. gossypii (see text)

 

Lampranthus                                               Aizoaceae

      Lampranthus spectabilis               [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard 1972a)]; Myzus persicae

        Lampranthus sp.                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Lamprocapnos  see Dicentra                                Papaveraceae

      Lamprocapnos spectabilis see Dicentra spectabilis

 

Lampsana  = Lapsana                                                          Compositae

 

Landolphia                                                  Apocynaceae

      Landolphia gentilii = L. owariensis

      L. owariensis                                 Aphis aurantii, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Languas  = Alpinia                                                             Zingiberaceae

 

Lannea                                                                   Anacardiaceae

      Lannea acidissima = L. welwitschii

      L. coromandelica                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, odinae

      L. edulis                                         Aphis gossypii

      L. stuhlmannii                              Aphis gossypii

      L. welwitschii                                Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      L. wodier = L. coromandelica      

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)

Lansium                                                                  Meliaceae

      Lansium ?domesticum                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Schizoneuraphis gallarum

 

 

Lantana                                                       Verbenacae

       Lantana camara                           [Aleurodaphis blumeae];

                                                              Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii,

                                                                  [punicae], solanella, spiraecola, [verbasci], sp. nr fabae

                                                                  with short SIPH (Portugal; BMNH collection, leg. F.A.

                                                                  Ilharco);

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae, [siegesbeckicola]

       L. kisi                                             [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

       L. macrophylla = Lippia macrophylla

       L. montevidensis                           Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani

        L. sellowiana = Lantana montevidensis                                      

        Lantana sp.                                   Smynthurodes betae

Use key to polyphagous aphids, but note the possibility that specimens similar to Aphis gossypii but with SIPH less than 1.5 Χ cauda may be A. punicae.

 

 

Lapeirousia                                                 Iridaceae

      Lapeirousia cruenta = Freesia laxa

 

Laplacea                                                      Theaceae

      Laplacea angustifolia                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       L. ekmanii = Gordonia ekmanii

       Laplacea sp.                                  Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Laportea  (including Fleurya)                                      Urticaceae

     Laportea aestuans                          Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Sitobion autriquei

      L. bulbifera                                     Hydronaphis laporteae

      L. gigas                                           Myzus ornatus

      L. interrupta                                   Myzus dycei

      L. platycarpa                                   Aphis gossypii

      Laportea sp. (as Fleurya)               Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Key to apterae on Laportea:-

1      Dorsal body hairs long and pointed, the longest ones on ABD TERG 3 are 1.6-2.2 Χ ANT BD III. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. R IV+V 1.6-1.8 Χ HT II

…..Hydronaphis laporteae

-      Dorsal hairs much shorter. If dorsum is dark and sclerotic then R IV+V is less than 1.2 Χ HT II                                                                                                                                        …..2

2      SIPH wholly dark with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head dark with

        well-developed, broadly divergent ANT tubercles. (Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation)                                                                                          …..Sitobion autriquei

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without subapical reticulation and head with ANT tubercles weakly developed                                                                                                             …..3

3      Head densely spiculose or nodulose, with well-developed, rounded ANT tubercles, their inner faces apically convergent. SIPH 2.8-3.5 Χ cauda; rather thick, very rugose for most of length and usually somewhat swollen on distal part, but narrowing and smooth subapically

…..Myzus dycei

-       If head densely spiculose then SIPH are less than 2.7 Χ cauda                                        …..4

4.   Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1-3 spicules in the centre of each polygon. Head smooth with ANT tubercles weakly developed, SIPH clavate

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-     Dorsal cuticle without spinules arranged in polygons, and other characters not in this combination                                                                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

 

Lappa  see Arctium                                                               Compositae

 

Lappula  (including Echinospermum)                            Boraginaceae

      Lappula echinophora                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Sitobion avenae]

      L. lappula                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Uroleucon jaceae]

        L. microcarpa                               Aphis craccivora; Brachycaudus bicolor, helichrysi

        L. squarrosa                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi

        Lappula sp.                                   Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Echium.

 

 

Lapsana (including Lampsana)                                    Compositae

      Lapsana communis                      Acyrthosiphon ilka;

                                                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, [intybi], nasturtii, solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Hyperomyzus lampsanae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Trama rara, troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, picridis, teheranensis

Key to apterae on Lapsana:-

1      HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. Body densely clothed in fine hairs. SIPH absent                                                                                                                      …..2

-       HT II of normal length. Body not densely hairy, SIPH present or absent                       …..3

2      Eyes multi-faceted. Primary rhinaria enlarged; longitudinal diameter of that on VI 0.5-0.8 Χ BASE VI. HT II 0.77-0.90 Χ hind tibia                                                            .....Trama rara

-       Eyes of only 3 facets (except in alatiform specimens). Primary rhinaria smaller; longitudinal diameter of that on VI 0.33-0.47 Χ BASE VI. HT II 0.65-0.80 Χ hind tibia

.....Trama troglodytes

3      ANT III with 11-97 rhinaria distributed over more than half of length                           …..4

-      ANT III without rhinaria, or with 1-10 small rhinaria on basal part                                 …..8

4      SIPH strongly swollen over about distal 0.7, maximum width of swollen part being 1.5-2.6 Χ minimum width of basal part. Dorsum without any dark markings

…..Hyperomyzus lampsanae

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering. Dorsum usually with dark markings                                  …..5

5      SIPH pale or dark, without any distinct polygonal reticulation. Dorsal hairs not arising from dark scleroites. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent, and usually also without postsiphuncular sclerites, but with a clear pattern of intersegmental dark markings. ANT III with 11-36 rhinaria. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones

…..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.21-0.43 of length. Dorsal hairs arising from dark scleroites. Antesiphuncular sclerites present or absent, well-developed postsiphuncular sclerites always present. ANT III with 11-97 rhinaria. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones                                                                                        .....6

6      First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. R IV+V 1.15-1.26 Χ HT II and cauda with 16-17 hairs                                      …..Uroleucon teheranense*

-       First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present (sometimes subdivided). R IV+V 1.17-1.85 Χ HT II and cauda with 14-28 hairs        …..7

7      R IV+V 1.45-1.85 Χ HT II. Coxae pale like basal parts of femora      …..Uroleucon picridis

-       R IV+V 1.17-1.35 Χ HT II. Coxae dusky or dark, darker than the basal parts of femora

…..Uroleucon cichorii

8      ANT tubercles well-developed, smooth, divergent. SIPH pale, without subapical polygonal reticulation. Dorsal hairs short and inconspicuous. ANT III with 1-4 rhinaria near base

…..Acyrthosiphon ilka

-      Without that combination of characters                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids