(in alphabetical order)














































































































Hovenia                                                                 Rhamnaceae

      Hovenia dulcis                              Myzus persicae


Howea                                                                     Arecaceae

      Howea forsteriana                        Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.


Hoya                                                            Apocynaceae

      Hoya bella = H. lanceolata ssp. bella

      H. carnosa                                    Aphis nerii; Myzus persicae

        H. lanceolata                                 Myzus persicae

        H. longifolia                                  Aphis asclepiadis, nerii

        H. viridis                                        Aphis asclepiadis (India), nerii

Use key to apterae on Asclepias.


Hulthemia see Rosa                                                           Rosaceae


Humularia                                                   Fabaceae

      Humularia welwitschii               Neoantalus humulariae


Humulus                                                      Cannabaceae

      Humulus japonicus  see  H. scandens

      H. lupulus                                   Aphis fabae, gossypii, [lupuli], nasturtii;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, hamiltoni;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Phorodon cannabis, humuli, humulifoliae;

                                                            [Rhodobium porosum (as Metopolophium humulisuctum)];

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        H. lupulus Χ neomexicanus       Aphis asclepiadis

        H. scandens (incl. japonicus)          Aphis humuli; Karamicrosiphum humuliosum;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Phorodon humulifoliae, japonensis

        Humulus sp.                               Aphis spiraecola

Key to apterae on Humulus:-

(See Blackman & Eastop, 2000, for an illustrated key to common aphids on hops.)

1      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                                                                                   …..2

-       ANT tubercles well developed                                                                                          …..3

2      ANT 5-segmented in both apt. and al. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                             …..Aphis humuli

-       ANT 6-segmented (rarely 5-segmented in midsummer dwarf apt.). ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

3      ANT tubercles with finger-like forward projections, at least half as long as ANT I        …..4

-       ANT tubercles without finger-like projections                                                                  …..7

4      Dorsal hairs capitate, including those on ANT tubercles and ANT I-III. Longest hairs on ANT III about equal to BD III                                                            …..Phorodon cannabis

-       Dorsal and ANT hairs with blunt or pointed apices. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                                                                               …..5

5      SIPH with distal part strongly curved outwards, swollen on the curve and then narrowing abruptly, the narrow section being completely smooth, the rest coarsely imbricated

…..Phorodon humulifoliae

-       SIPH with distal part slightly curved outwards but tapering gradually over most of length, there being no abrupt transition to a smooth narrow apical section                                  …..6

6      Finger-like projection on ANT tubercle reaching apex of ANT I or beyond, its length greater than that of ANT II. R IV+V 1.1-1.35 Χ HT II                                     …..Phorodon humuli

-       Finger-like projection on ANT tubercle not reaching apex of ANT I, its length less than that of ANT II. R IV+V 1.35-1.6 Χ HT II                                               …..Phorodon japonensis

7      Cuticle of head spiculose or nodulose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and steep-sided, parallel or apically convergent. SIPH without polygonal reticulation

        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-       Cuticle of head smooth, inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                   …..8

8      First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. ANT PT/BASE less than 5. ANT III with 11-12 rhinaria. ANT and dorsal body hairs expanded apically               …..Karamicrosiphum humuliosum*

-       First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE more than 5. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. ANT and dorsal body hairs blunt or pointed                                                                    …..9

9      SIPH slightly swollen on distal half proximal to reticulated section, which extends for less than 0.1 of SIPH length. SIPH 2.4-2.6 Χ cauda                           …..Macrosiphum hamiltoni

-       SIPH cylindrical on distal half, with reticulation extending 0.13-0.2 of length. SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Hutchinsia                                                  Brassicaceae

      Hutchinsia alpina = Hornungia alpina


Hyacinthus                                                  Asparagaceae

      Hyacinthus orientalis                    Aphis gossypii; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        Hyacinthus sp.                              Aphis craccivora; Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hyalea                                                         Asteraceae

      Hyalea pulchella                           Aphis fabae; Capitophorus elaeagni; Protaphis hyaleae;

                                                              Uroleucon minor; Xerobion zoijae

Use key to apterae on Centaurea.


Hyaloseris                                                   Asteraceae

      Hyaloseris cinerea                        Uroleucon gochnatiae


Hybanthus  (including Ionidium)                                 Violaceae

      Hybanthus concolor                     Myzus persicae


Hydrangea  (including Calyptranthe)                                  Hydrangeaceae

      Hydrangea altissima = H. anomala

          H. anomala                                   Chakrabartiaphis hydrangeae

        H. arborescens                              Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

      H. aspera                                       Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Tuberoaphis hydrangeae

        H. bretschneideri                          Myzus persicae

        H. hortensis = H. macrophylla         

        H. involucrata                               Aphis spiraecola; Macromyzus woodwardiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

        H. macrophylla                             Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                              Aphis citricidus, fabae, gossypii, nerii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macromyzus woodwardiae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae, philadelphi;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              [Rhodobium porosum]; Rhopalosiphoninus hydrangeae;

                                                              [Sitobion fragariae]

        H. paniculata                                Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Eumyzus darjeelingensis;

                                                              Macromyzus woodwardiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae, hydrangeae

        H. petiolaris                                   Aphis spiraecola; Eumyzus hydrangi;

                                                              Macromyzus woodwardiae;

                                                              ?Myzus sp. (BMNH collection, Japan, leg. M. Miyazaki);

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae, hydrangeae,

                                                                  Rhopalosiphoninus sp. (BMNH collection, Japan, leg.

                                                                  M. Miyazaki);

                                                              Taiwanomyzus montanus

        H. robusta                                     Tuberoaphis hydrangeae ssp. digitata

        H. scandens = H. petiolaris

          H. sikokiana                                  Macrosiphum woodwardiae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

        H. strigosa                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani

        Hydrangea ssp.                             Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Hydrangea:-

1      Dorsal body hairs arising from finger-like or tapering processes that are much longer than their basal widths (e.g. Fig.32a,b)                                                                                    …..2

-       Dorsal body hairs not arising from finger-like processes                                                  …..4

2      Longest dorsal abdominal processes only about 0.05 mm long

…..Tuberoaphis hydrangeae*

-       Longest dorsal abdominal processes more than 0.1 mm long                                           …..3

3      BL 1.1-2.2 mm. Spinal abdominal processes 0.12-0.21 mm long (fundatrix, Fig.32a) or 0.05-0.13 mm long (2nd generation), with thick apices. Eyes without evident ocular tubercles

…..Tuberoaphis hydrangeae ssp. digitata

-       BL c. 3.1-3.2 mm. Spinal abdominal processes 0.33-0.54 mm long (fundatrix), with narrow apices (Fig.32b). Ocular tubercles evident at posterior edge of eye

…..Macromyzus woodwardii*

4      Cauda swollen on basal half, narrowing abruptly to a cylindrical apical section, the swollen part bearing 4 hairs. Dorsal body hairs long and finely pointed; the longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 80-85 μm, 3.5-4.0 Χ ANT BD III               ….. Chakrabartiaphis hydrangeae *

-       Cauda tapering, triangular, tongue or finger-shaped, sometimes constricted in the middle but without a much narrower cylindrical apical section, and often with more than 4 hairs. Dorsal body hairs blunt or acutely pointed, less than 60 μm, less than 3.5 Χ ANT BD III         …..5

5      SIPH 2.55-4.3 Χ cauda, and slightly to markedly clavate. (Al. with rhinaria distributed ANT III 13-64, IV 0-22, V 0-6)                                                                                                …..6

-       SIPH less than 2.5 Χ cauda, tapering, cylindrical or clavate. (Al. generally with less rhinaria)


6     SIPH very markedly inflated, with diameter of balloon-like swollen part 2.0-4.5 Χ minimum diameter of basal part                                                        ......Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

-       SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or swollen with diameter of swollen part less than 2 Χ minimum diameter of basal part                                                                                                        …..7

7      SIPH dark and imbricated                                                                                                …..8

-       SIPH pale and smooth                                                                                                      …..9

8      ANT III with 3-26 rhinaria. Tibiae pale. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, rounded at apex, with 4-5 hairs                                                                              …..Taiwanomyzus montanus

-       ANT III without rhinaria. Tibiae dusky/dark. Cauda triangular, with 6-7 hairs

…..Myzus philadelphi

9      SIPH (Fig.32c) thick and markedly clavate, 2.55-3.2 Χ cauda; maximum width of swollen part 1.3-1.9 Χ minimum width of basal part, and about equal to or greater than R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.9. ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria near base

…..Rhopalosiphoninus hydrangeae

-     SIPH less clavate, 3.1-4.3 Χ cauda; max. width of swollen part 1.2-1.3 Χ minimum width of basal part, and 0.4-0.6 Χ R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.7. ANT III without rhinaria. (Possibly fundatrices of species migrating in second generation to secondary host)        .....10

10    ANT hairs very short and inconspicuous, less than 0.3 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.1. SIPH 3.1-3.3 Χ cauda                      .....Rhopalosiphoninus sp., Japan (Miyazaki 2388, 2419)

-       ANT hairs evident, 0.6-0.7 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE c.2.6. SIPH 4.2-4.3 Χ cauda

                                                                                    .....?Myzus sp., Japan (Miyazaki 2417, 2434)

11    Head densely spiculose or nodulose, with ANT tubercles weakly developed and divergent. Dorsal hairs acutely pointed, with slightly tuberculate bases; 0.8-3 Χ ANT BD III       …..12

-       Either head is without spicules or nodules or, if head is spiculose or nodulose then ANT tubercles are well developed and steep-sided, with inner faces parallel or apically convergent, and dorsal hairs are very short and blunt (less than 0.5 Χ ANT BD III)

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

12    Longest hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 about equal to ANT BD III.  R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II

…..Eumyzus darjeelingensis*

-       Longest hairs on ABD TERG 2-5 more than 2 Χ ANT BD III.  R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II

…..Eumyzus hydrangi


Hydriastele                                                  Arecaceae

      Hydriastele ramsayi                      Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.


Hydrilla                                                       Hydrocharitaceae

     Hydrilla verticillata                         Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Hydrocharis                                                Hydrocharitaceae

      Hydrocharis morsus-ranae          Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        Hydrocharis sp.                            [Uroleucon obscurum – Bφrner 1952 (error?)]


Hydrochloa see Luziola                                                   Poaceae


Hydrocleys                                                  Alismataceae

      Hydrocleys nymphoides                Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Hydrocotyle                                                 Araliaceae

      Hydrocotyle bonariensis               Aulacorthum solani

        H. sibthorpiodes                            Aulacorthum solani; Neomyzus circumflexus

        H. verticillata                                 Neomyzus circumflexus

        H. vulgaris                                    Aulacorthum solani; Hyadaphis coriandri;

                                                              Pemphigus sp. (?protospirae); Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

        Hydrocotyle spp.                           Myzus ornatus; Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Hydrocotyle:-

1      SIPH very short, 0.60-0.82 Χ cauda; thick at base and swollen distally, constricted just proximal to the well-developed flange                                              …..Hyadaphis coriandri

-       SIPH (if present) much longer than cauda; clavate, cylindrical or tapering                     …..2

2      SIPH clavate. Dorsal cuticle with a reticulate sculpture consisting of bead-like spinule

…..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-       SIPH (if present) not clavate and dorsal cuticle without bead-like spinulose reticulation

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Hygrohypnum                                             Amblystegiaceae

      Hygrohypnum luridum                Pemphigus hydrophilus (?)

        H. ochraceum                               [Pachpappa rosettei]

(or use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum)               


Hydrophyllum                                             Hydrophyllaceae

      Hydrophyllum tenuipes                Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974, 102)


Hygrophila                                                  Acanthaceae

One polyphagous aphid species, Aphis gossypii, is recorded from three Hygrophila spp.; auriculata,  costata, difformis.



Hylocereus                                                  Cactaceae

     Hylocereus undatus                      Aphis craccivora


Hylocomium                                                Hylocomiaceae

      Hylocomium armoricum              Jacksonia papillata; Melaphis rhois

      H. brevirostre                                Muscaphis musci

      H. flagellare                                  Muscaphis musci

        H. splendens                                 Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi;

                                                              [Pachypappa sacculi]; [Prociphilus xylostei];

                                                              Pseudacaudella rubida

      H. squarrosum                              Muscaphis musci

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Hylotelephium                                            Crassulaceae

      Hylotelephium erythrostictum      Aphis sedi

        H. pallescens                                 Aphis sedi

        H. spectabile                                  Aphis sedi

        H. telephium = Sedum telephium     


Hymenanthera  see  Melicytus                                     Violaceae


Hymenanthes                                              Ericaceae

      Hymenanthes californica             Illinoia rhododendri

        H. macrophylla                             Illinoia rhododendri

        H. maxima                                    Aulacorthum solani; Illinoia azaleae, rhokalaza

Use key to apterae on Rhododendron.


Hymenocardia                                                                   Euphorbiaceae

        Hymenocardia acida                    Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii

        H. ulmoides                                   Aphis(Toxoptera) aurantii

 (Use key to polyphagous aphids)


Hymenodictyon                                                                 Rubiaceae

      Hymenodictyon  sp.                        Greenideoida lambersi



 Hymenosporum                                                                Pittosporaceae

        Hymenosporum flavum               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus antirrhinii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hymenoxys                                                  Asteraceae

      Hymenoxys hoopesii                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae, valerianae;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; Uroleucon martini

Use key to apterae under Helenium.


Hyocomium                                                 Hypnaceae

     Hyocomium armoricum              Jacksonia papillata

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Hyoscyamus                                                Solanaceae

      Hyoscyamus albus                        Aulacorthum solani

        H. muticus                                    Myzus persicae

      H. niger                                         Aphis fabae, gossypii, [hyoscyami Kittel 1827 – invalid


                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

        H. pusillus                                     Aphis craccivora

        Hyoscyamus sp.                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hyoseris                                                      Asteraceae

     Hyoseris radiata                            Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                            Uroleucon [cichorii], sonchi, Uroleucon sp. (Spain, BMNH


Key to apterae on Hyoseris:-

1      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                      …..2

-       SIPH without subapical reticulation                                                                                 …..4

2      SIPH mainly or wholly pale, sometimes darker apically. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                        …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH wholly dark or somewhat paler in middle. ANT III with 11-50+ rhinaria. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                                                         .....3

3      ANT III with 11-48 rhinaria. Pre-siphuncular sclerites and scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs weakly developed or absent                                                                    .....Uroleucon sonchi

-       ANT III with more than 50 rhinaria. Well developed pre-siphuncular sclerites and dark scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs                                .....Uroleucon sp. (Spain, BMNH colln)

4      ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones                                                                 …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-5.5. Thoracic and abdominal spiracles similar in size                                                                                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 


Hyparrhenia                                                Poaceae

      Hyparrhenia cymbaria                 [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

        H. filipendula                                Rhopalosiphum maidis

        H. hirta                                          Schizaphis graminum; Sitobion africanum

        H. rufa                                          Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, graminis, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis

        H. variabilis                                   Pseudaphis sijui; Sipha flava; [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Hypecoum                                                   Papaveraceae

      Hypecoum erectum                      Lipaphis jungarica

        H. parviflorum                              Acyrthosiphon glaucii

        H. procumbens                             Aphis fabae, gossypii

Key to apterae on Hypecoum:-

-       SIPH pale, with slight distal swelling, almost flangeless. R IV+V c.0.75 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu), which may however be present on ABD TERG 6. ABD TERG 8 with a median process                                    .....Lipaphis jungarica

-       Without that combination of characters                         .....go to key to aphids on Glaucium


Hypericum  (including Ascyrum)                              Hypericacae

      Hypericum aethiopicum             Aphis chloris

        H. alpinum                                  Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aulacorthum solani

        H. androsaemum                        Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                            Aphis chloris, gossypii, Aphis sp. (Stroyan 1984,124)

        H. Χarnoldianum                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        H. ascyron (incl. ssp. gebleri)          Aphis hypericiphaga, hypericiradicis, spiraecola

        H. balearicum                             Aphis chloris, gossypii

        H. calycinum                              Aphis gossypii, hyperici, Aphis sp. (Stroyan 1984, 124);

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus

        H. canadense                              Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        H. canariense = Webbia canariensis                                         

        H. caprifolium                            Aphis frangulae

        H. cernuum                                Aphis gossypii, [Aphis sp. (Dutta & Gautam 1993)];

                                                            Myzus persicae

        H. chinense = H. monogynum        

        H. crispum = H. triquetifolium       

        H. densiflorum = H. prolificum var. densiflorum

        H. elatum see H. Χinodorum

        H. elongatum                              Aphis chloris, [citrina (= A. chloris?)]

        H. foliosum                                 Aphis fabae

        H. forrestii see H. patulum

        H. frondosum                             Aphis hyperici                    

        H. gebleri see H. ascyron               

        H. gentianoides                           Protaphis middletonii

        H. grandifolium                          Aphis fabae

        H. hircinum (incl. ssp. metroi)        Aphis chloris, fabae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)];

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae

        H. hirsutum                                Aphis chloris, fabae; Aulacorthum solani

        H. hookerianum                         [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae

        H.   x?hypericoides                     Aphis spiraecola

        H. hyssopifolium                         Aphis chloris, [citrina]

        H. Χ inodorum (incl. elatum)         Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        H. kalmianum                            Aphis hyperici, mizzou

        H. lanceolatum = H. revolutum

        H. linarifolium                            Aphis chloris

        H. maculatum                             Aphis chloris, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum rosae

        H. metroi see H. hircinum

        H. mitchellianum                        Hyalomyzus mitchellensis

        H. monogynum                          Myzus ornatus, persicae

        H. montanum                             Aphis chloris, fabae

        H. oblongifolium                          Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        H. olympicum (incl. grandiflora,      Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus, persicae


        H. patulum (incl. var. forrestii)          Aphis chloris, gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Wahlgreniella nervata]

        H. perforatum                             Aphis chloris, [citrina], craccivora, fabae, gossypii,

                                                                hypericiphaga, hypericiradicis,

                                                                [oenotherae (Leonard 1974)], spiraecola

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Brachunguis zawadovskii];

                                                            [Illinoia sp. (B.C., Canada; A. Jensen,];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            [Pergandeida polygonata Nevsky var. hyperici Rusanova

                                                                 1942 (nomen nudum)]

        H. polyphyllum see H. olympicum

        H. prolificum                              Aphis hyperici; Hyalomyzus triangulatus

                   (= Myriandra prolifica)

        H. prolificum var. densiflorum       Hyalomyzus triangulatus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus

        H. pulchrum                               Aulacorthum solani

        H. quadrangulum see H. tetrapterum

        H. revolutum                               Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Sitobion africanum

        H. roeperianum                          Aphis chloris, gossypii

        H. scabrum                                 Aphis chloris, [citrina], craccivora, pavlovskii

        H. tetrapterum (incl.                     Aphis chloris, fabae

                  “quadrangulum” cultivars)

          H. tomentosum                           Aphis chloris

        H. triquetrifolium                       Aphis chloris; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        H. uralum                                   Aphis gossypii, nasturtii

        Hypericum spp.                          Metopolophium darjeelingense

Key to apterae on Hypericum:-

1      Dorsal cuticle of head spiculose or strongly wrinkled, and ANT tubercles well developed with inner faces scabrous and steep-sided or apically convergent, or with rounded, convergent processes                                                                                                         …..2

-       Dorsal cuticle of head smooth or slightly wrinkled, and ANT tubercles absent, weakly developed or, if well developed, then with inner faces smooth and divergent                …..4

2      SIPH clavate; swollen on distal 0.7-0.8, constricted subapically, and with narrower basal section. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.1. (Al. with secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and V)         …..3

-       SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate, but if clavate then without a subapical constriction, and with ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. (Al. without secondary rhinaria on ANT IV and V)

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

3      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.1. Dorsal cuticle of head spinulose. SIPH often dusky to dark. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed III 19-28, IV 13-21, V 3-8)

…..Hyalomyzus mitchellensis

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.0. Dorsal cuticle of head strongly wrinkled. SIPH pale. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-19, IV 6-10, V 3-6) …..Hyalomyzus triangulatus

4      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)        


-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                …..6

5      SIPH black. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark sclerotisation. Longest ANT hairs less than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                   …..Sitobion africanum

-       SIPH pale. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotisation. Longest ANT hairs 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

6      SIPH 0.2-0.7 Χ cauda                                                                                                        …..7

-       SIPH 0.8-2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                        …..9

7      Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8 and irregular dark

        sclerotisation of more anterior tergites. R IV without any accessory hairs. ANT 5-segmented

…..Aphis mizzou

-       Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotisation. R IV with 2 accessory hairs. ANT 5- or 6-segmented                                                                                                                         …..8

8      SIPH dark, 0.04-0.07 mm long, shorter than or not much longer than their basal widths. Cauda 0.11-0.15 mm long, with 5-7 hairs                                                    …..Aphis hyperici

-       SIPH pale, sometimes darker towards apices, at least 0.10 mm long and twice as long as their basal widths.  Cauda at least 0.20 mm long, with 6-11 hairs   …..Aphis hypericiphaga*

9      ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH pale, 1.5-2.5 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                               …..10

-       ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-4.5. SIPH dark, 0.8-2.2 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                           …..11

10    ANT PT/BASE 4.8-7.5. Femora without spinules. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs (1 sense peg)                                                                                                 …..Acyrthosiphon malvae

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.0-3.9. Femora with many small blunt spinules ventrally. First tarsal segments usually with 4 hairs (2 sense pegs)

 …..Metopolophium darjeelingense

11    ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-6 as well as 1 and 7 with large, dome-like MTu                           …..12

-       MTu only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                 …..13

12    ANT PT/BASE 2.2-2.8. MTu present on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7   …..Aphis hypericiradicis*

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.7. MTu present on all of ABD TERG 1-7           …..Aphis pavlovskii*

13    Cauda usually paler than SIPH, and bearing 4-8 hairs. Dorsum without dark markings. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III                                                                    …..14

-       SIPH and cauda both black; cauda with 4-25 hairs, but if 8 or less then either dorsal abdomen has a solid black shield or longest hairs on ANT III are more than 0.5 Χ BD III

                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

14    Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.37-0.53 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.1                                                                                            …..Aphis chloris

-       Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.55-1.54 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.2                                                                                                            …..15

15    R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II. (Al. without rhinaria on ANT IV)                      …..Aphis gossypii

-       R IV+V 0.8-0.95 Χ HT II. (Al. with 2-6 rhinaria on ANT IV)

…..Aphis sp. (Stroyan 1984,124)


Hypnum                                                       Hypnaceae

      Hypnum cupressiforme                Jacksonia papillata; Muscaphis escherichi

      Hypnum sp.                                  Melaphis rhois

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Hypochaeris (or Hypochoeris)                              Asteraceae

      Hypochaeris achyrophorus          Aphis fabae, picridicola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Myzus certus];

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis

        H. brasiliensis                               Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum

        H. glabra                                       Aphis hypochoeridis, picridicola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon hypochoeridis

        H. laevigata                                   Uroleucon hypochoeridis

        H. maculata                                  Aphis hypochoeridis, [leontodontis];

                                                              Protaphis picridicola; Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis

        H. radicata                                    Aphis fabae, gossypii, hypochoeridis, nasturtii,

                                                                  picridicola, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum palustre, solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Hyperomyzus carduellinus; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Protaphis [evansi], pseudocardui;

                                                              Trama caudata, troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, cichorii, [grossum], hypochoeridis,


        H. uniflora                                    Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis, [picridis]

        Hypochaeris (or Hypochoeris)      [Acyrthosiphon ilka]; Aphis pernilleae;

                                          spp.              [Aulacorthum rufum]; Uroleucon malarguense

Key to apterae on Hypochaeris:-

1      Hind tarsi greatly elongated, more than 0.6 Χ hind tibiae. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4. SIPH absent, or as pores                                                                                                   …..2

-       Hind tarsi normal. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. SIPH tubular                                     …..3

2      SIPH absent. Eyes of only 3 facets                                                       …..Trama troglodytes

-       SIPH present as pores on small cones. Eyes multifaceted                          …..Trama caudata

3      Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, not longer than its basal width                                 …..4

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, much longer than its basal width                                  …..6

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH smooth, pale, with a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.2. ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsum without dark markings. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda triangular, with 7-19 hairs. SIPH imbricated, dark, without a subapical annular incision. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.9. ANT III often with rhinaria. Dorsum usually with dark sclerotisation. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                 …..5

5      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.1. Cauda with 6-12 hairs                                       …..Aphis picridicola

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.2 (-1.4). Cauda with 13-19 hairs                …..Protaphis pseudocardui

6      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                 …..7

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                …..9

7      Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.14-0.6 Χ height of adjacent MTu. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.7. R IV+V 1.2-2.0 Χ HT II. (ANT usually 5-segmented)                                                     …..8

-       Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.7-1.8 Χ height of adjacent MTu. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.7. R IV+V 0.9-1.5 Χ HT II              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

8      R IV+V 1.6-2.0 Χ HT II. Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.3 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. SIPH 2.4-4.2 Χ their midlength diameters                       …..Aphis pernilleae

-       R IV+V 1.2-1.6 Χ HT II. Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.4-1.0 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. SIPH 3.5-7.1 Χ their midlength diameters                 …..Aphis hypochoeridis

9      Cuticle of head densely spiculose or nodulose, at least on ventral surface. ANT tubercles with inner faces scabrous or spiculose and parallel or apically convergent                              

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-       Cuticle of head smooth or with only sparse spinules. ANT tubercles with inner faces smooth and divergent or almost parallel                                                                                      …..10

10    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells)


-       SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                               …..16

11    SIPH mainly pale, with reticulation consisting of  few, large cells and extending over distal 0.13-0.20 of length. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen without scleroites at base of hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                 …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH dark, with reticulation consisting of numerous small cells and extending over distal 0.16-0.43 of length. ANT III with 2-97 rhinaria. Dorsal abdomen with dark scleroites at base of hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                      …..12

12    Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or indistinct                                                                 …..13

-       Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present                                                          …..15

13    Coxae pale. SIPH 1.0-1.35 Χ cauda                                                 …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-       Coxae dusky/dark (darker than trochanters). SIPH 1.4-2.2 Χ cauda                               .....14

14    R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II, Cauda pale with 23-30 hairs                          …..Uroleucon sonchi

-       R IV+V 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II. Cauda brown with 9-14 hairs              …..Uroleucon malarguense 

15    R IV+V 1.17-1.33 Χ HT II, SIPH 1.4-1.8 Χ cauda                              …..Uroleucon cichorii

-       R IV+V 0.84-1.08 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.25-1.5 Χ cauda                  …..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

16    SIPH slightly but distinctly swollen on distal half, 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda which is constricted about 0.4 from base                                                                   …..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-     SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, 1.6-2.5 Χ cauda which is not constricted     …..17

17    ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.7-1.1 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones                          …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-       ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria, and with longest hairs less than 0.4 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE

        4.2-5.2.  Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones           …..Aulacorthum palustre


Hypocyrta  see Nematanthus                                  Gesneriaceae


Hypoestes                                                    Acanthaceae

      Hypoestes phyllostachya             Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Hyptis  (including Mesosphaerum)                                 Lamiaceae

      Hyptis capitata                              Aphis gossypii; Hyalomyzus eriobotryae;

                                                              Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. mutabilis                                  Sitobion mesosphaeri

      H. pectinata                                   Aphis spiraecola; Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. procumbens                             Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. radiata                                      Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. rhomboidea                              Aphis gossypii

        H. spicata                                      Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. spicigera                                   Aphis gossypii

        H. suaveolens                                Sitobion mesosphaeri

        H. verticillata                                 Aphis spiraecola; Sitobion mesosphaeri

Key to apterae on Hyptis:-

1      Head densely spiculose with scabrous, convergent ANT tubercles. SIPH clavate, 2.5-2.7 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II. (Al. with very numerous rhinaria on ANT III, IV and V)

…..Hyalomyzus eriobotryae

-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..2

2      SIPH dark except at bases, with zone of polygonal reticulation on subapical 0.16-0.25. ANT tubercles well developed, with smooth, divergent inner faces. ANT dark, much longer than body, with ANT PT/BASE 5.4-6.9                                                  ….. Sitobion mesosphaeri

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Hyssopus                                                     Lamiaceae

      H. officinalis                                 Aphis calaminthae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Eucarazzia elegans

        H. seravschanicus                         Uroleucon hyssopii

Key to apterae on Hyssopus:-

1      SIPH dark, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with numerous (c.60) rhinaria distributed along most of its length                                       …..Uroleucon hyssopii*

-       SIPH pale or dark, without polygonal reticulation. ANT III with 0-12 rhinaria              …..2

2      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles. SIPH dark, tapering, 0.10-0.16 Χ BL and 1.25-1.9 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5                       

….. Aphis calaminthae

-       ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles. SIPH pale, tapering or swollen distally, 0.18-0.36 Χ BL and 1.8-8.6 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-5.5


3      SIPH strongly swollen on distal half, 5.5-8.6 Χ the triangular cauda, which bears 5 hairs. Alatiform apt. common with rhinaria distally on ANT III (-IV)         …..Eucarazzia elegans

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical, 1.8-2.6 Χ the tongue-shaped cauda which bears 6-8, usually 7, hairs. ANT III usually with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                     …..Aulacorthum solani


Hysterionica                                                Asteraceae

      Hysterionica jasionoides               Uroleucon bereticum, essigi, macolai

Key to separate these three species:-

1      First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT III (of aptera) with 2-8 secondary rhinaria

…..Uroleucon essigi

-       First tarsal segments with 3-5 hairs. ANT III (of aptera) with 7-35 secondary rhinaria   …..2

2      ANT III (of aptera) with 15-35 secondary rhinaria distributed over almost the whole length of the segment. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs pale, inconspicuous

…..Uroleucon bereticum

-       ANT III (of aptera) with 7-15 secondary rhinaria on basal half of segment. Dark scleroites present at bases of dorsal hairs                                                             …..Uroleucon macolai


Hystrix                                                         Poaceae

      Hystrix patula                               Metopolophium dirhodum

                (= Asperella hystrix)

 (or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)



Iberis                                                           Brassicaceae

      Iberis affinis = I. amara

        I. amara                                      Aphis gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae

        I. sempervirens                           Myzus cymbalariae

        I. umbellata                                 Myzus persicae

        Iberis sp.                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.


Ibicella                                                         Martynaceae

      Ibicella lutea                              Nasonovia ribisnigri


Iboza  see Tetradenia                                               Lamiaceae                   


Ichnanthus                                                  Poaceae

      Ichnanthus pallens                     Pseudoregma panicola


Ichnocarpus                                                Apocynaceae

      Ichnocarpus frutescens              Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Ilex                                 Hollies                            Aquifoliaceae

      Ilex aquifolium                        Aphis aurantii, fabae, ilicis; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Illinoia lambersi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae

      I. berteroi                                 Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

      I. canariensis see perado

      I. colchica                                Aphis ilicis

      I. cornuta (incl. var. burfordii)     Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         [Eutrichosiphum tattakanum];

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae

      I. crenata                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      I. cubana                                 Aphis (Toxoptera)  aurantii

      I. glabra                                   Macrosiphum rosae

      I. hanceana                              [Aiceona titabarensis]

      I. integra                                  Macrosiphum rosae

      I. latifolia                                  Aulacorthum solani

      I. macfadyenii                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      I. macropoda                           Pseudomegoura magnoliae

      I. nipponica                              [Anoecia ilicicola Sorin 1999; vagrant sexuparae?]

      I. opaca                                    Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      I. paraguayensis                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus

      I. pedunculosa                         Aphis aurantii, odinae

      I. perado (incl. canariensis)          Aphis aurantii, ilicis

      I. rotunda                                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Myzus persicae; Sinomegoura citricola

      I. rugosa                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      I. serrata (incl. var. sieboldii)       Aphis celastrii (= spiraecola?); Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                         Ryoichitakahashia prunifoltae

      I. turquinensis = I. cubana

      I. verticillata                             Macrosiphum rosae

      I. vomitoria                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      I. wrightii (?)                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      Ilex spp.                                   [Myzocallis polychaeta]; Myzus ornatus;

                                                         [Pseudothoracaphis himachali]; [Taoia indica]

Key to Ilex-feeding aphids:-

1      Cauda pale, shorter than its basal width, less than 0.3 of length of black SIPH. Antennal hairs long and fine, mostly 3-4 Χ basal diameter of ANT III. ANT III of aptera with secondary rhinaria on distal 0.5-0.7                                      .....Ryoichitakahashia prunifoltae

-      Cauda pale or dark, longer than its basal width, more than 0.3 of length of SIPH. Antennal hairs less than 3 Χ basal diameter of ANT III, which in aptera has rhinaria either absent or only on basal 0.3                                                                                                                 .....2

2      Body broadly spindle-shaped. SIPH with an apical zone of polygonal reticulation         .....3

-      Body oval or pear-shaped. SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                      .....5


3      SIPH clearly swollen on distal half, proximad to the reticulated part. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ basal diameter of segment                                            .....Illinoia lambersi

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering on distal half. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ basal diameter of segment                                                                                                           .....4

4      Head black, like SIPH. Dark sclerites present anteriad and posteriad to SIPH, the antesiphuncular sclerite being crescent-shaped                                   .....Macrosiphum rosae

-      Head and SIPH pale or dusky. No dark ante- and postsiphuncular sclerites                        

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

5     Antennal tubercles well developed, their inner faces parallel or convergent in dorsal view


-      Antennal tubercles poorly developed                                                                              .....10

6     Legs of aptera black except at bases of femora                       .....Pseudomegoura magnoliae

-      Legs of aptera with at least tibiae mainly pale                                                                  .....7

7     Cauda black, and SIPH dark on distal halves                                 .....Sinomegoura citricola

-      Cauda pale, and SIPH pale or only dark at apices                                                             .....8

8     Antennal tubercles with inner faces parallel in dorsal view (fig. 42J). ANT III of aptera with a small secondary rhinarium near base                                                  .....Aulacorthum solani

-      Antennal tubercles with inner faces convergent in dorsal view (e.g., fig. 42I). ANT III of aptera never with a secondary rhinarium                                                                            .....9

9     Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation.  ANT PT/BASE

       less than 2.5.  SIPH tapering, with a shallow S-curve, and coarsely imbricated

.....Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE more than 3. SIPH slightly swollen on distal half                                                                                   .....Myzus persicae

10   SIPH 0.4-0.6 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 5-12 hairs                                   .....Aphis odinae

-      SIPH 0.9-1.7 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5 hairs                                                     .....11

11    Stridulatory ridges present on abdominal sternites 5 and 6, and evenly spaced stridulatory peg-like hairs on hind tibiae (fig. 122). ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0 Dorsal abdominal markings if present confined to ABD TERG 7 and 8. Alata with media of forewing once-branched

.....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      Stridulatory apparatus absent. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.2 Dark, broken sclerites or bands usually present on ABD TERG 1-8. Alata with media of forewing twice-branched                  .....12

12    Longest hair on ANT III usually more than 2 Χ basal diameter of segment. ABD TERG

        2-5 as well as 1 and 7 often with marginal tubercles                                          .....Aphis ilicis

-      Longest hair on ANT III rarely more than 2 Χ basal diameter of segment. ABD TERG 2-5 less frequently with small marginal tubercles                                                                   .....13

13    Dorsum with variable dark markings, usually consisting of at least dark sclerotic bands on pronotum, mesonotum and ABD TERG 7 and 8, and small dark marginal sclerites (fig. 121R); often also with small dark sclerites scattered over other abdominal tergites. Cauda without any constriction and bearing 11-24 hairs                                             .....Aphis fabae

-      Pronotum, mesonotum and ABD TERG 7 and 8 without dark sclerotic bands and marginal sclerites not deeply pigmented.  Cauda usually with a constriction about one third from base, and bearing 6-12 hairs (fig 121T)                                                              .....Aphis spiraecola


Iliamna                                                        Malvaceae

        Iliamna rivularis                           Uroleucon eoessigi


Illicium                                                        Schisandraceae

      Illicium anisatum                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Polytrichaphis fragilis;

                                                              [Semiaphis heraclei];

        I. religiosum                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        I. verum                                         Polytrichaphis illicius

Key to apterae on Illicium:-

1      Dorsal body hairs multiplied (ABD TERG 1-4 each with at least 8 spino-pleural hairs and 1 marginal pair). SIPH dusky, or dark on distal half only. Cauda with 6-11 hairs. No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                        …..2

-      Dorsal body hairs not multiplied (ABD TERG 1-4 each with only 1 spinal and 1 marginal pair). SIPH black. Cauda with 10-26 hairs. Stridulatory apparatus present

…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

2      Dorsal body hairs very long, fine and numerous, those on ABD TERG 3 maximally 3.5-4.5 Χ ANT BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 9-13 hairs. SIPH uniformly dusky

…..Polytrichaphis fragilis

-      Dorsal body hairs shorter and less numerous, those on ABD TERG 3 not more than 2.5 Χ ANT BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 4-5 hairs. SIPH dark basally and pale distally

…..Polytrichaphis illicius*


Impatiens                                                     Balsaminaceae

      Impatiens balfourii                     Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiense

      I. balsamina                                Aphis [cephalanthi], fabae, gossypii, impatientis, nasturtii,


                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus helichrysi];

                                                            Eumyzus impatiensae;

                                                            Impatientinum asiaticum,  asiaticum ssp. dalhousiense,


                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus [formosanus], ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Sinomegoura citricola

      I. bicornuta                                 Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiense, impatiens

      I. biflora see I. capensis                 

        I. capensis (incl. biflora, fulva)        Aphis [cephalanthi], fabae, impatientis, nasturtii,

                                                                Aphis sp. (Ontario, BMNH collection),

                                                                [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1968)];

                                                            Catamergus fulvae

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, impatientis, [pallidum];

                                                            Uroleucon impatiensicolens

        I. ecalcarata                                Macrosiphum pallidum (or impatientis?)

      I. edgeworthii                              Impatientinum asiaticum

        I. falcifer (= I. serrata)                    Aphis spiraecola; Epipemphigus marginalis

        I. fulva see I. capensis                   

        I. furcillata                                  Impatientinum impatiens

        I. glandulifera                             Aphis fabae, impatiphila, impatiradicis, nasturtii,

                                                                Aphis sp. (Ontario, BMNH collection) ;

                                                            Eumyzus indicus;

                                                            Impatientinum asiaticum, balsamines, impatiens;

                                                            Myzus ornatus

        I. grandiflora (?)                         Aphis fabae

        I. holstii  = I. walleriana

        I. nolitangere                               Aleurodaphis impatientis; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                            Epipemphigus niisimae; Eumyzus gallicola, impatiensae;

                                                            Hydronaphis impatiens;

                                                            Impatientinum asiaticum, balsamines, impatiens

                                                            Semiaphis moiwaensis, nolitangere

        I. pallida                                      Aphis impatientis; Catamergus fulvae;

                                                            Macrosiphum impatientis, pallidum;

                                                            Uroleucon impatiensicolens

        I. parviflora                                 Aphis fabae, gossypuii, nasturtii;

                                                            Impatientinum asiaticum, [balsamines]; Myzus persicae

        I. purpureo-violacea                   Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        I. roylei = I. glandulifera

        I. scabrida                                   Aphis fabae; Eumyzus indicus;

                                                            Impatientinum asiaticum, asiaticum ssp. dalhousiense

        I. sultani                                      Aulacorthum solani; Impatientinum balsamines;

                                                            Myzus persicae

        I. textori                                       Aleurodaphis impatientis; Eumyzus impatiensae;

                                                            Hydronaphis impatiens;

                                                            Impatientinum balsamines, impatiens

        I. walleriana                                Aphis fabae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)];

                                                             Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        Impatiens sp.                               [Cryptomyzus galeopsidis; (Germany –]

Key to apterae on Impatiens:-

1      Body aleyrodiform; flattened, elongate oval, with a crenulate margin of wax glands. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                        …..Aleurodaphis impatientis.

-       Body of more normal aphid form, and other characters do not apply                              …..2

2      ANT 5-segmented, less than 0.25 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes 3-faceted, SIPH absent. Dorsal abdomen with paired spinal and pleural wax gland plates

…..Epipemphigus sp(p).

-      ANT usually 6-segmented, more than 0.45 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multi-faceted, SIPH present. No dorsal wax gland plates                                                …..3

3      Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation                                                                       …..4

-       Dorsum membranous, or with only localised sclerotisation                                              …..8

4      Head spiculose. Cauda short and dark, much less than 2 Χ its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH tapering or slightly swollen on distal half, with a large flange                                …..5

-       Head not spiculose. Cauda pale, finger-like, at least 2 Χ its basal width. SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, usually with some subapical reticulation, and with a small flange


5      SIPH more than 3 Χ cauda, and slightly swollen on distal half. ANT PT/BASE 4.7-5.5

.....Hydronaphis impatiens

-      SIPH tapering with no swelling, 1.6-2.3 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.7

.....Eumyzus indicus*

6      Apices of tibiae pale, and apices of femora pale or dusky. ANT III with 8-17 secondary rhinaria, IV with 1-7 and V with 0-7. R IV+V 0.65-0.77 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.64-0.77 Χ head width across (and including) eyes. Height of ANT tubercles much less than 0.5 Χ length of ANT I along inner side                                                              …..Impatientinum balsamines

-      Apices of tibiae dark or black, distal parts of femora black. ANT III with 1-11 secondary rhinaria, IV and IV with 0. R IV+V 0.84-1.0 Χ HT II. SIPH at least 0.8 Χ head width across eyes. Height of ANT tubercles about 0.5 Χ length of ANT I along inner side                 …..7

7      Basal part of SIPH with nodulose imbrication, and post-siphuncular sclerite spiculose (Fig.33a). SIPH 0.8-0.9 Χ head width across eyes. Spiracular sclerites of abdominal segments 1 and 2 very close, often contiguous (Fig.33c)                              …..Impatientinum asiaticum

-      Basal part of SIPH and post-siphuncular sclerite quite smooth (Fig.33b). SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ head width across eyes. Spiracular sclerites on abdominal segments 1 and 2 distinctly separated (Fig.33d)                                                                      …..Impatientinum impatiens

8      SIPH very small, 0.24-0.45 Χ cauda, with apices curved inwards and flangeless (e.g. Fig.33e)


-       SIPH at least 0.6 Χ cauda, and usually with at least a small flange                                …..10

9      SIPH about as long as their basal widths, 0.2-0.3 Χ cauda             …..Semiaphis nolitangere

-       SIPH c.1.5 Χ their basal widths, and 0.33-0.45 Χ cauda                …..Semiaphis moiwaensis

10    Head densely spiculose, at least ventrally                                                                       …..11

-       Head not spiculose                                                                                                          …..13

11    Dorsal hairs all short and blunt, shorter than ANT BD III, and without tuberculate bases or pigmented scleroites. SIPH smooth or variously imbricated

                                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      Dorsal hairs much longer than ANT BD III, rather spine-like, with acute apices, and placed on lightly or heavily pigmented scleroites (e.g. Fig.33f). SIPH with close-set nodulose imbrication                                                                                                                       …..12

12    Dorsal hairs maximally 1.5-2.2 Χ ANT BD III, arising from small lightly pigmented, flat scleroites. SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which is longer than its basal width

…..Eumyzus gallicola

-      Dorsal hairs maximally 2.2-3.3 Χ ANT BD III, arising from large, often heavily pigmented, somewhat domed scleroites (Fig.33f). SIPH 1.6-2.3 Χ cauda, which is not or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                      …..Eumyzus impatiense

13    ANT longer than BL. ANT tubercles well developed, divergent. SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation (if rather indistinct, then SIPH are thin with pale basal half and dark distal half). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT III with secondary rhinaria                                                                                                                             …..14

-       ANT shorter than BL. ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. ANT III (or fused III+IV) without rhinaria


14    SIPH rather thin, about equal in length to cauda, with pale basal half and dark distal half , and with 1-4 rather indistinct rows of polygonal cells near apex (Fig.33g)

…..Catamergus fulvae

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, longer than cauda, with a least 4-5 subapical rows of  well-defined polygonal cells; entirely pale, entirely dark, or mainly dark with pale base       …..15

15    SIPH dark, 1.2-1.4 Χ cauda, with reticulation extending over distal 0.3-0.4 of length. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                    …..Uroleucon impatiensicolens

-      SIPH pale or dark, 1.4-2.2 Χ cauda, with reticulation extending over distal 0.13-0.23 of length. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                        …..16

16    SIPH pale, or only dusky towards apices                                  …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH mainly dark,sometimes paler at base                                                                     …..17

17    ANT III (except at base) and tibiae black                                     …..Macrosiphum pallidum

-       ANT III mainly pale (except for rhinariated section and apex), tibiae with pale middle section                                                                                         …..Macrosiphum impatientis

18    ABD TERG 2-4, as well as 1 and 7, with low, conical or hemispherical MTu              …..19

-       ABD TERG 2-4 without or only very sporadically with MTu                                       …..20

19    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 Χ BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.5 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. SIPH 1.2-1.7 Χ cauda and 1.1-1.5 Χ ANT III

…..Aphis impatiphila

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 1.2-1.7 Χ BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter 1.1-1.4 Χ length of trochantro-femoral suture. SIPH 1.0-1.1 Χ cauda and 0.9-1.0 Χ ANT III

…..Aphis impatiradicis

20.   R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. Cauda dark like SIPH and bearing 4-6(-7) hairs

…..Aphis impatientis

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda either not dark like SIPH or bearing more than 7 hairs


21.   SIPH 0.67-1.0 Χ cauda, which bears 13-18 hairs. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II

…..Aphis sp. (Ontario, BMNH collection)

-      SIPH (0.8-) 1.0-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 4-24 hairs, but if more than 12 hairs and/or siphunculi are shorter than cauda, then R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24


Imperata                                                      Poaceae

      Imperata arundinacea = I. cylindrica                                      

        I. cylindrica (incl. var. major)            Anoecia corni, [radiciphaga]; Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Ceratovacuna [beijingensis], graminum, [imperata],

                                                                 lanigera, nekoashi;

                                                              Forda marginata, orientalis, pawlowae;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Melanaphis zhanhuaensis; Sipha maydis;

                                                              Tetraneura multisetosa, fusiformis, radicicola,

                                                                 triangula, yezoensis

        I. koenigii = I. cylindrica

      Imperata sp.                                Ceratovacuna panici

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Indigofera                                                              Fabaceae

      Indigofera anil = I. suffruticosa

      I. arrecta                                      Aphis craccivora

        I. astragalina                               Aphis gossypii

        I. australis                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum

        I. cassioides                                 [Macrosiphum sp.; Leonard 1972a]

        I. colutea                                     Aphis gossypii

        I. comosa                                     Aphis craccivora

        I. conjugata                                 Aphis gossypii

        I. dendroides                               Aphis gossypii

        I. dosua                                       [Macrosiphum sp.; Leonard 1972a]; Megoura dooarsis

      I. emarginella                              Aphis craccivora

               I. enneaphylla = I. linnaei

       I. gerardiana = I. heterantha         

        I. heterantha                               Acyrthosiphon pisum; Cavariella himachali;

                                                            [Macrosiphum sp.; Leonard 1972a];

                                                            Megoura dooarsis, [Megoura sp. (India)]; Myzus persicae

      I. hirsuta                                     Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

               I. hirta (?)                                    Aphis craccivora, gossypii

               I. linnaei                                      Aphis craccivora

       I. melanadenia                            Aphis craccivora

       I. nigritana                                  Aphis gossypii

      I. nummulariifolia                      Aphis gossypii

       I. oblongifolia                             Aphis craccivora

       I. pilosa                                       Aphis gossypii

        I. prieureana                               Aphis gossypii

        I. pseudotiuctoria                        Aphis craccivora, [indigoferae]

        I. pulchella = I. cassioides

        I. spicata                                      Aphis craccivora; Pterasthenia albata

        I. splendens                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum

        I. subulata = I. trita ssp. subulata

        I. suffruticosa                              Aphis craccivora

        I. teysmanni = I. zollingeriana       

      I. tinctoria                                   Aphis craccivora

        I. trita                                          Aphis craccivora

        I. trita ssp. subulata                    Aphis gossypii; Microparsus brasiliensis

        I. zollingeriana                            Aphis craccivora; Megoura dooarsis, lespedezae                

        Indigofera spp.                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Anomalosiphum indigoferae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; Nudisiphon folisacculata;              

Key to apterae on Indigofera:-

See Blackman & Eastop (2000) for an illustrated key to apterae of common aphids on indigo.

1      SIPH as very short, broad, pigmented cones. Cauda shaped like an arrowhead in dorsal view. Anal plate bilobed                                                                      …..Pterasthenia albata

-      SIPH tubular. Cauda either broad with a distinct median stylus, triangular or tongue- or finger-shaped. Anal plate entire                                                                                        …..2

2      SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs with expanded apices. ABD TERG 8 with hair-bearing backwardly directed processes. Cauda broad with a median stylus

…..Anomalosiphum indigoferae

-      SIPH without hairs. ABD TERG 8 without processes. Cauda tongue-shaped, or triangular with a curved, horn-like apex                                                                                            …..3

3      SIPH dark, at least on distal half                                                                                      …..4

-       SIPH pale, sometimes darker at apex                                                                             …..11

4      Head spiculose. SIPH clavate, dark on swollen distal part, paler on about distal 0.4. (Al. with black-bordered wing veins)                                                 …..Microparsus brasiliensis

-       Head without spicules. SIPH wholly dark, or paler only at base                                     …..5

5      ANT longer than BL. ANT tubercles well-developed, with divergent inner faces. ANT III with 1 or more rhinaria near base. SIPH slightly swollen in middle. Cauda long, pale and finger-like                                                                                                                          …..6

-      ANT shorter than BL. ANT tubercles small or undeveloped. ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH cylindrical, tapering or swollen on distal part. Cauda pale or dark, tongue-shaped         …..7

6.     Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III. ANT mainly black, and legs with large sections of femora and tibiae black. SIPH wholly dark                     …..Megoura lespedezae

-      Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. ANT and legs variably pigmented but usually mainly pale. SIPH usually paler at base                                     …..Megoura dooarsis

7      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. SIPH flangeless, clavate. ABD TERG 8 with a thumb-like process. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                 …..Cavariella himachali*

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.9-5.0. SIPH tapering or cylindrical, with a flange. No process on ABD TERG 8. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                         …..8

8      ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0. Cauda with 10-26 hairs. Stridulatory apparatus present

…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.9-3.4. Cauda with 4-12(-15) hairs. No stridulatory apparatus             …..9

9      Dorsum usually with an extensive black shield                                       …..Aphis craccivora

-       Dorsum without any dark markings                                                                                …..10

10    Cauda paler than SIPH, and bearing 4-7 hiars. Longest hind femoral hairs only 0.4-0.7 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                                         …..Aphis gossypii

-       Cauda as dark as SIPH, and bearing 7-15 hairs. Longest hind femoral hairs more than 0.7 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                                      …..Aphis spiraecola

11    SIPH tapering or cylindrical and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths. Head with well-developed, divergent ANT tubercles. ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria near base                                                                         …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      SIPH tapering or somewhat swollen on distal part, thicker than hind tibiae at midlength. Head either without ANT tubercles or these have steep-sided, scabrous inner faces. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                               …..12

12    SIPH flangeless. Head without ANT tubercles. Dorsal hairs pointed. Cauda triangular, with a curved, horn-like apex                                                               …..Nudisiphon folisacculata

-      SIPH with a flange. Head spiculose with steep-sided, apically convergent ANT tubercles. Dorsal hairs short and blunt. Cauda tongue-shaped                                                       …..13

13   Dorsum with extensive dark markings, including a roughly horseshoe-shaped dorsal abdominal patch and paired large dark patches on thorax. SIPH not clavate. R IV+V 1.2-1.7 Χ HT II                                                                                            .....Neomyzus circumflexus

-      No dark dorsal markings. SIPH slightly clavate. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II …..Myzus persicae



Indocalamus                                                                       Poaceae

       Indocalamus tessellatus           Ceratovacuna angusticorna; Glyphinaphis bambusae;                                                             Pseudoregma panicola

       Indocalamus sp.                      Ceratovacuna nekoashi

Key to apterae on Indocalamus:-

1    Head of aptera without frontal horns.  Dorsal and marginal body hairs thick and

      spine-like, and usually long                                                             .....Glyphinaphis bambusae

-      Head of aptera with a pair of forwardly-directed frontal horns.  Body hairs short, or if long then fine                                                                                                                              .....2

2     ABD TERG 1-6 without spinal wax glands                                                                      .....3

-      ABD TERG 1-6 with spino-pleural as well as marginal wax glands                                 .....4

3     Head without wax gland plates between eyes. SIPH without hairs

       ..... Ceratovacuna nekoashi

-      Head with one pair of wax gland plates between eyes, each composed of 2-4 facets. SIPH with 5-8 small finely pointed hairs                                            .....Ceratovacuna atrovirensa* 

4     ABD TERG 1-6 with very well-developed spinal, pleural and marginal series of wax glands, the spinal and marginal ones having numerous facets

       .....Ceratovacuna angusticorna*

-      ABD TERG 1-6 with spinal and marginal wax glands variably developed but never with more than 6 facets, and without pleural wax glands                                .....Pseudoregma panicola

(or try key to aphids on Bambusa)


Indosasa                                                                                 Poaceae

       Indosasa shibataeaoides         Ceratovacuna silvestrii          


Inga                                                                                            Fabaceae

        Inga edulis                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        I. laurina                                  Macrosiphum salviae

        I. vera                                       Macrosiphum salviae

Key to apterae on Inga:-

-       SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hind tibiae and SIPH entirely or mainly dark. R IV+V 1.25-1.55Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with a central black patch

.....Macrosiphum salviae

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Inula                                                            Asteraceae

      Inula acaulis                            Brachycaudus sakicinae

      I. aspera                                   Brachycaudus salicinae; Uroleucon inulicola

        I. bifrons                                  Uroleucon bifrontis

        I. britannica                             Aphis fabae, [anuraphoides];

                                                         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrys, salicinae; Dysaphis inulae;

                                                         Ovatus inulae;

                                                         Protaphis sp.(Czech Republic, BMNH collection);

                                                         Uroleucon inulicola, pulicariae

        I. cappa                                    Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Indomasonaphis anaphalidis, inulae;

                                                         Myzus ornatus, persicae; [Subovatomyzus leucosceptri];

                                                         Uroleucon budhium, compositae

        I. caspica                                  Brachycaudus salicinae;

                                                         [Protaphis sp. (Kadyrbekov & Aoitzhanova 2005b)];

                                                         Uroleucon pulicariae, [Uroleucon sp. (Kadyrbekov &

                                                             Aoitzhanova 2005b)]

        I. conyza                                   Capitophorus [hippophaes], inulae; Ovatus inulae;

                                                         Uroleucon inulae (?), pulicariae

        I. cuspidata                              Aphis nerii, spiraecola; Indomasonaphis anaphalidis, inulae

        I. dysenterica  = Pulicaria dysenterica                                       

        I. ensifolia                                Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae;

                                                         Uroleucon ensifoliae, inulicola

        I. germanica                            [Aphis elatior]; Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae

        I. grandiflora = I. orientalis

        I. grandis = I. orientalis

        I. graveolens = Dittrchia graveolens

        I. helenium                              Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, salicinae;

                                                         Capitophorus inulae, pakansus; Myzus persicae;

                                                         Ovatus inulae; [Trama troglodytes]; Uroleucon inulicola

        I. hirta                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae; Capitophorus inulae;

                                                         Uroleucon inulicola

        I. hookeri                                 Capitophorus inulae

        I. japonica                                [Aphis helianthemi ssp. obscura];

                                                         [Macrosiphoniella sanborni]

        I. macrophylla = I. orientalis

        I. magnifica                             Brachycaudus cardui, salicinae; Capitophorus pakansus

        I. oculus-christi                        Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae

        I. orientalis                               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, salicinae;

                                                         Capitophorus [formosartemisiae],  pakansus

        I. pilosa  (?)                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

        I. racemosa                              Myzus persicae

        I. rigida                                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon inulicola

        I. royleana                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus pakansus

        I. rubricaulis                            Uroleucon fuscaudatum

        I. salicina                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae; Capitophorus inulae;

                                                         Myzus persicae;

                                                         Uroleucon inulicola, pulicariae, [Uroleucon sp. (Kadyrbekov


        I. spiraeifolia                            [Aphis plantaginis of Theobald (1927)]; Capitophorus inulae;

                                                         [Protaphis sp. (Holman & Pintera 1981)];

                                                         Uroleucon inulae (?), inulicola

        I. squarrosa  = I. spiraeifolia

        I. stricta (incl. vrabelyiana)          Brachycaudus helichrysi, salicinae;

                                                         Uroleucon ensifoliae, inulicola, pulicariae

        I. telephium (?)                        Uroleucon inulae (?)

        I. thapsoides                             Uroleucon elbursicum

        I. verbascifolia                         Uroleucon dalmaticum

        I. viscosa = Dittrichia viscosa     

        I. Χ weberi                                Brachycaudus helichrysi

        Inula spp.                                [Brachycaudus bicolor]; [Capitophorus gynoxanthus]

Key to apterae on Inula and Dittrichia:-

1      SIPH dusky or dark over at least half of length, with a distal zone of reticulation comprising numerous (more than 100) small polygonal cells                                                               …..2

-      SIPH pale or dark without polygonal reticulation, or pale with distal reticulation comprising fewer, larger cells                                                                                                            …..11

2      R IV+V 1.85-3.01 Χ HT II                                                                                               …..3

-       R IV+V 1.05-1.70 Χ HT II                                                                                               …..7

3      R IV+V 2.05-2.92 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                               …..4

-       R IV+V 1.4-2.0 Χ ANT BASE VI                                                                                   …..5

4      SIPH dusky, basally almost concolorous with body, 0.27-0.37 Χ BL. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs pale and indistinct. Cauda with 11-22 hairs                         …..Uroleucon inulae

-      SIPH entirely dark, much darker than body, 0.34-0.42 Χ BL. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs dark. Cauda with 19-28 hairs                                                …..Uroleucon elbursicum*

5      R IV+V with about 30 accessory hairs and with the lateral pair of primary (subapical) hairs much longer than all the others                                                          …..Uroleucon bifrontis*

-       R IV+V with 8-10 accessory hairs, and with all primary and accessory hairs of similar length


6      ANT III with 8-31 rhinaria. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.20-0.27 of length

…..Uroleucon dalmaticum

-       ANT III with 32-72 rhinaria. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.12 –0.21 of length

…..Uroleucon budhium

7      Cauda dark like SIPH and distal parts of femora                                                             …..8

-       Cauda much paler than SIPH and distal parts of femora                                               …..10

8      R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II                                                               …..Uroleucon fuscaudatum

-       R IV+V 1.08-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                                                 …..9

9      First tarsal segments with 3 (occasionally 4) hairs. Cauda tapering to a rounded apex           

                                                                                                                   …..Uroleucon ensifoliae

-       First tarsal segments with 5 (occasionally 4) hairs. Cauda tapering to a narrowly acute apex

                                                                                                                …..Uroleucon compositae

10    SIPH 0.23-0.28 Χ BL, and 1.3-1.8 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.14-1.36 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon pulicariae

-      SIPH 0.32-0.4 Χ BL, and 1.8-2.4 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.25-1.65 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                    …..Uroleucon inulicola

11    Dorsal hairs long (more than 50 μm), with capitate or at least slightly expanded apices, and usually with tuberculate bases                                                                                         …..12

-       Dorsal hairs shorter with blunt or pointed apices, and without tuberculate bases          …..15

12    SIPH rather strongly clavate (Fig.34a). BL 3.4-4.8 mm      ….. Indomasonaphis anaphalidis

-       SIPH cylindrical on distal part, or very weakly clavate. BL 1.3-3.4 mm                       …..13

13    BL 2.8-3.4 mm. SIPH 0.25-0.3 Χ BL, 1.8-2.0 Χ cauda, which bears about 24-26 hairs. R IV+V with 16-18 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs

…..Indomasonaphis inulae

-      BL 1.3-2.2 mm. SIPH very long and thin, 0.31-0.4 Χ BL and 4-6 Χ cauda, which bears 5-7 hairs. RIV+V with 2 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                        …..14

14    ANT III with 2-5 long capitate hairs, as long as or longer than BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 16-28 capitate hairs, arranged in spinopleural and marginal groups on large tubercles, the longest hairs being 3-4 Χ ANT BD III (Fig.34b). R IV+V 2.2-2.5 Χ HT II

…..Capitophorus pakansus

-      ANT III with very short hairs, 0.2-0.3 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 12-14 capitate hairs, the longest 2-3 Χ ANT BD III (Fig.34c). R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II

…..Capitophorus inulae

15    Cauda helmet-shaped or bluntly triangular, not or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                                                 …..16

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width                                               …..20

16    ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.1. Cauda bluntly triangular with 14-20 hairs. ABD TERG 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Spiracular apertures reniform

….. Protaphis sp. (Czech Republic, BMNH collection, leg. D. Hille Ris Lambers)

-      ANT PT.BASE 2.3-5.1. Cauda helmet-shaped, with 4-8 hairs. ABD TERG 7 without MTu. Spiracular apertures reniform or rounded                                                                        …..17

17    SIPH and cauda pale. Dorsum without dark markings               …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH and cauda dark. Dorsum with a solid dark shield or with variably developed dusky markings, and dark intersegmental muscle plates                                                           …..18

18    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. SIPH 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.5-2.0 Χ HT II. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes

…..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dusky segmental markings, and dark intersegmental muscle plates. SIPH 1.0-1.4 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                                                     …..19

19    Spiracular apertures rounded. SIPH 1.0-1.4 Χ cauda                    …..Brachycaudus salicinae

-      Spiracular apertures reniform.  SIPH 1.4-1.8 Χ cauda                               …..Dysaphis inulae

20    R IV+V 2.3-3.0 Χ HT II, and bearing 17-26 accessory hairs (Fig.34d). Head smooth, except for a well-developed rather scabrous median frontal tubercle, and divergent ANT tubercles, each bearing a rounded, scabrous process (Fig.34e)                                    …..Ovatus inulae

-      R IV+V less than 1.6 Χ HT II, and bearing less than 10 accessory hairs. Head smooth or spiculose, with ANT tubercles undeveloped or variably developed, without a scabrous median frontal tubercle                                                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Iochroma                                                     Solanaceae

     Iochroma cyaneum                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Ionidium  see Hybanthus                                                  Violaceae


Ionopsis                                                       Orchidaceae

     Ionopsis utricularioides                  Aphis spiraecola


Iozoste = Actinodaphne                                                        Lauraceae


Ipecacuanha  = Carapichea                                               Rubiaceae

(N.B. a record of Aphis nerii from Ipecacuanha was probably based on ‘Bastard Ipecacuanha’, which is Asclepias curassavica.)


Ipomoea  (including Pharbitis)                                     Convolvulaceae

      I. aculeata                                     Myzus persicae

      I. alba                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        I. aquatica                                     Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]

        I. argentaurata                              Aphis gossypii

        I. argentea                                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        I. asarifolia                                    Aphis gossypii

        I. batatas (incl. var. edulis)                Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Geopemphigus floccosus;

                                                              [Greenidea ficicola]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae


        I. biflora                                        Myzus persicae

        I. cairica                                        Geopemphigus floccosus; Myzus persicae

        I. calophylla                                  Aphis gossypii

        I. carnea                                        Aphis gossypii

        I. crispa                                         Myzus persicae

        I. dichoroa = I. calophylla                Aphis gossypii

        I. dissecta = Merremia dissecta

        I. eriocarpa                                   Aphis gossypii

        I. fistulosa                                     Aphis fabae, gossypii

        I. floribunda = Jacquemontia floribunda

        I. hederacea = I. nil

          I. imperati                                     Myzus persicae

          I. indica                                         Myzus persicae

          I. learii = I. indica

        I. littoralis                                      Myzus persicae

        I. lobata                                         [Myzakkaia verbasci]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        I. maxima                                     Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        I. mexicana                                   Myzus persicae

        I. nil (incl. var. japonica)                   Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae


        I. palmata                                      Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Geopemphigus floccosus; Myzus persicae

        I. pandurata                                  Aphis gossypii

        I. pes-caprae                                 Myzus persicae

        I. purpurea                                    [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;                       

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        I. rubrocaerulea = I. tricolor

        I. sinensis = I. biflora

        I. staphylina                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

        I. stipulacea = I. cairica

        I. stolonifera = I. imperati

        I. tiliacea                                       Aphis spiraecola

        I. tricolor                                       Aphis aurantii, frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        I. villosa = I. argentea

        Ipomoea spp.                                [Capitophorus mitegoni]; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              [Sitobion indicum]

Key to apterae on Ipomoea:-

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Groups of wax glands present dorsally on head, thorax and abdomen                                                                    …..Geopemphigus floccosus

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular. No discrete groups of dorsal wax glands

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Ipomopsis                                                    Polemoniaceae

      Ipomopsis aggregata                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia takala

Key to apterae on Ipomopsis:-

-      RIV + V with about 25 accessory hairs, 2.5-2.7 Χ HT II, which is very short (less than 0.07 mm). First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. ANT III with 10-41 rhinaria, mostly clustered on rather swollen basal half. Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones. SIPH 1.2-1.7 Χ cauda, without subapical polygonal reticulation            …..Nasonovia takala

-       R IV+V with 7-10 accessory hairs, 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II, which is over 0.1 mm long. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT III with 1-10 small rhinaria. Thoracic and abdominal spiracular apertures of similar size. SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 (or try key to polyphagous aphids)


Iranecio                                                       Asteraceae

        Iranecio taraxacifoliae                  Aphis craccivora          


Iresine                                                         Amaranthaceae

        Iresine calea                                  Myzus persicae             

        I. celosia = I. diffusa                        

        I. diffusa                                        Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        I. herbstii                                       Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        I. lindeni (?)                                   Myzus ornatus, persicae

        Iresine spp.                                   Aphis coreopsidis

Key to apterae on Iresine:-

-      SIPH long, dark and tapering, 0.24-0.4 Χ BL. Head, ANT I, II and base of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT                                                          …..Aphis coreopsidis

-     Without this combination of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Iris                                                               Iridaceae