(in alphabetical order)

























































































































Hamamelis                                                   Hamamelidaceae

        Hamamelis japonica                     Hamamelistes betulinus, kagamii, miyabei;

                                                              Hormaphis betulae

        H. virginiana                                 Hamamelistes spinosus;

                                                              Hormaphis cornu, hamamelidis

Key to alatae from galls:-


1    Antenna 3-segmented. Hindwing with 1 oblique vein (fig. 50A)                                      …..2

-     Antenna 5-segmented. Hindwing with 2 oblique veins                                                     ......3

2    ANT III with 19-27 rather spaced-out annular secondary rhinaria. Length of forewing 1.5-2.0 mm, length of hind tibia 0.29-0.36 mm           …..Hormaphis hamamelidis (sexupara)

-     ANT III with 26-40 rather close-set annular secondary rhinaria. Length of forewing 1.9-2.2 mm, length of hind tibia 0.35-0.44 mm                                  …..Hormaphis cornu (emigrant)

3    SIPH inconspicuous or absent                                                                                             .....4

-     SIPH present as pores with sclerotic rims                                                                            .....5

4    Hindwing with the 2 oblique veins often incomplete, and well separated at their bases (fig. 50B)                                                                                                  .....Hamamelistes spinosus

-     Hindwing with the 2 oblique veins complete; united or close together at their bases (e.g., fig. 50C)                                                                                                         .....Hormaphis betulae

5    ANT IV distinctly longer than (more than 1.2 Χ) ANT V. Hindwing with the 2 oblique veins united or together at their bases (e.g., fig.50D)                                 .....Hamamelistes miyabei

-     ANT IV about equal in length to (0.9-1.1 Χ) ANT V. Hindwing with the 2 oblique veins separated at their bases                                   .....Hamamelistes kagamii or betulinus (see text)


Hamelia                                                       Rubiaceae

      Hamelia erecta  see patens

        H. patens                                       Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

        Hamelia spp.                                Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hamiltonia  see  Spermadictyon                                         Rubiaceae

        Hamiltonia suaveolens = Spermadictyon suaveolens


Hampea                                                       Malvaceae

     Hampea stipitata                           Aphis gossypii


Handelia                                                     Asteraceae

      H. trichophylla                              Brachycaudus cardui ssp. turanica

                                                              Dysaphis [cousiniae], handeliae;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella aktashica; [Aphis elatior]

Key to apterae on Handelia:-

1      ANT tubercles well-developed, with divergent inner faces, so that there is a deep frontal sinus. Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width       …..Macrosiphonilla aktashica

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped. Cauda not longer than its basal width                               …..2

2      Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. Mesosternum with a pair of semiglobular tubercles

…..Brachycaudus cardui (incl. ssp. turanica)

-      Dorsum with less extensive pigmentation. Spiracular apertures small and reniform. Without mesosternal tubercles                                                                           …..Dysaphis handeliae



Handroanthus                                                                   Bignoniaceae

        Handroanthus impetiginosus       Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

        H. chrysotrichus                           Myzus persicae

(Use key to polyphagous aphids.)


Haplocladium                                             Leskeaceae

      Haplocladium microphyllum       Melaphis rhois (or asafitchi?)


Haplopappus                                               Asteraceae

      Haplopappus acradenius              Uroleucon erigeronense

        H. bloomeri  = Ericameria bloomeri

        H. hirtus (var. sonchifolius)         Uroleucon suzannae

        Haplopappus sp.                           Aphis melosae

Key to apterae on Haplopappus:-

1      Many or all dorsal hairs expanded from base, fan- or funnel-shaped, or with fan- or funnel-shaped apices, or (in one species) minute with club-shaped apices. SIPH thin, at midlength  less than half thickness of cauda, without any polygonal reticulation                                     

                                                             ….. Pleotrichophorus spp. (use key under Chrysothamnus)

-       Dorsal hairs never fan-or funnel-shaped; tapering from base, with pointed, blunt or capitate apices. SIPH either thicker or with subapical polygonal reticulation                                …..2

2      SIPH wholly dark, without polygonal reticulation, less than 1.7 Χ the dark cauda. Dorsum with variable but often extensive dark sclerotisation, marked with a pale reticulate pattern. Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-7

                                                                                                                              …..Aphis melosae

-       SIPH with pale bases, dark distally and with an extensive distal zone of polygonal reticulation; more than 1.8 Χ the long pale/dusky cauda. Dorsum without dark markings. MTu absent                                                                                                                        …..3

3      R IV+V 0.14-0.16 mm long, with 6-9 accessory hairs. Cauda with 7-10 hairs, of which one or more subapical hairs are usually blunt or with slightly expanded apices

                                                                                                              …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-       R IV+V 0.24-0.25 mm long, with 34-38 accessory hairs. Cauda with 12-26 hairs,

        all pointed                                                                                           …..Uroleucon suzannae


Haplophyllum                                             Rutaceae

      Haplophyllum acutifolium           Protaphis rutae

      H. dshungaricum                         Hyadaphis haplophylli

        H. tuberculatum (?)                      [Protaphis terricola]

Go to Ruta for key to apterae on Ruta and Haplophyllum.


Hardenbergia                                              Fabaceae

      Hardenbergia comptoniana         Aphis craccivora                                                                

        H. monophylla = H. violacea

        H. violacea                                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Harpephyllum                                                       Anacardiaceae

      Harpephyllum caffrum                Aphis aurantii, odinae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)];

                                                              Myzus persicae

(Use key to polyphagous aphids )


 Harpullia                                                               Sapindaceae

      Harpullia arborea                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972:]


Harrisonia                                                   Rutaceae

      Harrisonia abyssinica                   Uroleucon compositae


Harungana                                                            Hypericaceae

      Harungana madagascariensis                   Namahasi
                                                      Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, odinae;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Sitobion congolense, nigeriense        

Key to aphids on Harungana:-

1      SIPH long, with a short subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda long and tapering, that of aptera more than 0.15 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE more than 6                                    .....2

-       SIPH long or short, without any polygonal reticulation. Cauda of aptera less than 0.13 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE less than 6                             .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      SIPH slightly flared apically, with a well-developed flange. Alata without secondary rhinaria on ANT IV                                                                                             .....Sitobion nigeriense

-       SIPH narrow or slightly constricted apically, with a very small flange. Alata sometimes with 1-7 rhinaria on ANT IV                                                                           .....Sitobion congolense



Hasteola                                                      Asteraceae

      Hasteola suaveolens                     Uroleucon sp. (as rudbeckiae)


Haumaniastrum                                          Lamiaceae

      Haumaniastrum cylindraceum = H. villosum                         

        H. galeopsifolium = H. villosum                                               

        H. villosum                                    Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hauya                                                          Onagraceae

      Hauya elegans ssp. cornuta          Aphis sp. (California, BMNH collection, and Leonard

                                                            1972a: 102)

      H. matudai = H. elegans ssp. cornuta


Haworthia                                                   Asphodelaceae

      Haworthia attenuata var. radula Aloephagus myersi

      H. reinwardtii                                Aphis craccivora

      H. rugosa = H. attenuata var. radula 

Key to apterae on Haworthia:-

-     SIPH tubular, black. Cauda black, tongue-shaped. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                             

                                                                                                                         …..Aphis craccivora

-     SIPH absent. Cauda not evident (broadly rounded). ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.4

                                                                                                                      …..Aloephagus myersi


Hebe  (including Parahebe)                                           Plantaginaceae

      Hebe Χandersonii                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        H. catarractae                               Myzus ornatus

        H. diosmifolia                               Myzus persicae

        H. elliptica                                     Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        H. glaucophylla                            [Aphis sp. near coprosmae (New Zealand; Teulon et al.


        H. hulkeana                                  Myzus persicae

        H. perfoliata                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

        H. salicifolia                                  Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

        H. speciosa                                    Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        H. stricta                                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Hebe sp.                                        Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hebeclinium                                               Asteraceae

      Hebeclinium macrophyllum        Aphis spiraecola


Hedera                                                         Araliaceae

        Hedera canariensis                       Aphis fabae, hederae

        H. colchica                                    Aphis hederae

        H. helix                                         Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, hederae, [ilicis],


                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                              [Dysaphis angelicae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              [Pemphigus populi (as P. hederae)];

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        H. japonica  = H. rhombea

        H. nepalensis                                Myzus manoji

        H. rhombea                                   Aphis hederae, hederiphaga

        H. tobleri = H. rhombea

        Hedera sp.                                     Aphis nasturtii

Key to apterae on Hedera:-

1      SIPH and cauda both dark, the latter bearing 9-25 hairs.  R IV+V 1.35-1.70 Χ HT II. Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, and frequently ABD TERG 2-4


-       Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..3

2      Hairs on ANT III numerous (25 or more), the longest of them 1.7-2.2 Χ BD III. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                     …..Aphis hederiphaga

-       Hairs on ANT III sparse (15 or less), the longest of them 0.6-1.7 Χ BD III. Apt. often alatiform with 0-19 small rhinaria on ANT III                                             …..Aphis hederae

3      Head uniformly warty or bluntly spiculose with ANT tubercles well-developed and gibbous on inner apices. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, 0.15-0.18 Χ BL and 1.7-2.0 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE c. 2.6-3.0                                                                                       …..Myzus manoji

-       Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Hedlundia                                                   Rosaceae

      Hedlundia minima = Sorbus minima


Hedychium                                                  Zingiberaceae

        Hedychium coccineum                 Aphis fabae; Pseudoregma nicolaiae

        H. coronarium                              Aphis gossypii; Astegopteryx styracophila;

                                                              Pentalonia caladii, kalimpongensis, nigronervosa

        Hedychium sp.                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Hedychium:-

(including also Pseudoregma sundanica, so that the key can be applied to aphids found on several other genera of Zingiberaceae; Alpinia, Amomum, Costus, Elettaria, Etlingera, Zingiber)

1      Head fused with pronotum, and bearing a pair of forwardly directed horns between the antennal bases. Eyes of 3 facets. SIPH poriform, or on low cones                                   …..2

-       Head not fused to pronotum, and without horns. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular       …..4

2     Tips of horns pointed. Dorsal cuticle pale. SIPH with pore raised on a shallow cone bearing 2-11 hairs. Wax gland plates if present only marginal, and arranged in rows

.....Astegopteryx styracophila

-       Tips of horns rounded. Tergites mainly brown, sclerotic, the cuticle being ornamented with numerous pustules. SIPH as simple pores. Wax gland plate if present then in groups, and often spinal as well as marginal                                                                                          .....3

3     Dorsal hairs on head are 69-78 μm long, and those on ABD TERG 8 are 80-92 μm long. Wax glands always well-developed; e.g. marginal wax glands on ABD TERG 2 in groups of 7-12, and spinal wax glands on prothorax in groups of  7-17                 …..Pseudoregma nicolaiae

-      Dorsal hairs on head are 28-45 μm long, and those on ABD TERG 8 are 37-59 μm long. Wax glands less well developed, sometimes absent; e.g. marginal wax glands on ABD TERG 2 in groups of 0-6, and spinal wax glands on pronotum in groups of  0-5

                                                                                                             …..Pseudoregma sundanica

4     SIPH pale on basal half and dark on distal half, and usually slightly swollen subapically. SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins)                                                                                                                                 …..5

-      SIPH either mainly pale or mainly dark; tapering, cylindrical, or clavate. SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. (Al. with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)                                                                 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

5     ANT PT/BASE 3-4. (Al. with radius of forewing strongly curved but not touching media)

                                                                                                         ….. Pentalonia kalimpongensis

-      ANT PT/BASE 5-8. (Al. with radius of forewing fused to media for part of length to form a closed cell below the pterostigma)                                                                                    …..6

6     R IV+V almost always less than 0.135 mm long                                     .....Pentalonia caladii

-      R IV+V almost always more than 0.137 mm long                        .....Pentalonia nigronervosa


Hedyotis                                                       Rubiaceae

      Hedyotis corymbosa = Oldenlandia corymbosa

       H. scandens                                   Aphis aurantii, gossypii;

                                                              [Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hedypnois                                                    Asteraceae

      Hedypnois rhagadioloides             Protaphis carthami (?); Uroleucon cichorii

               (incl. ssp. cretica)


Hedysarum                                                  Fabaceae

      Hedysarum arcticum = H. hedysaroides ssp. arcticum

      H. austrosibiricum                         Aphis hedysari

       H. boreale ssp. mackenzii              Acyrthosiphon churchillense (?)

       H. canum  see Desmodium incanum

         H. caucasicum                               Acyrthosiphon pisum

       H. coronarium                               Aphis craccivora

       H. gmelinii                                     Aphis craccivora

       H. grandiflorum                            Aphis craccivora

         H. hedysaroides                             Acyrthosiphon pisum; Megoura lespedezae

       H. hedysaroides ssp. arcticum       Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum;

                                                              [Metopolophium taimyricum]

       H. mackenzii = H. boreale ssp. mackenzii

         H. neglectum                                 Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis fabae

       H. onobrychis = H. viciifolia

         H. semenovii                                  [Acyrthosiphon hissaricum]

         H. songoricum                               Aphis craccivora

         H. spinosissimum                          Aphis craccivora

         H. viciifolia                                    Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora (? - as onobrychidis)

       Hedysarum sp.                              Megoura dooarsis

Key to apterae on Hedysarum:-

1     Spindle-shaped aphid. Dorsal body unsclerotised. SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale            .....2

-      Oval aphid, dorsal body partly or extensively sclerotised. SIPH and cauda black           …..6

2     SIPH mainly or wholly dark, slightly swollen in middle. Head and ANT I dark             …..3

-      SIPH mainly or wholly pale, cylindrical or tapering. Head and ANT I pale                     …..4

3    Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III. ANT mainly black, and legs with large sections of femora and tibiae black. SIPH wholly dark                       …..Megoura lespedezae

-     Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. ANT and legs variably pigmented but usually mainly pale. SIPH usually paler at base                                                   …..Megoura dooarsis

4     SIPH very attenuate distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths. Cauda very thick. ANT BASE VI 1.8-3.0 Χ R IV+V                                   …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      SIPH gradually tapering, not attenuate distally, thicker than hind tibia at their respective midlengths. ANT BASE VI 1.1-1.8 Χ R IV+V                                                                …..5

5     ANT III with (2-) 4-11 rhinaria in a row on basal half. SIPH 1.2-1.6 Χ cauda

                                                                                                        .....Acyrthosiphon churchillense

-      ANT III with 1 (-3) rhinaria near base. SIPH 1.6-2.1 Χ cauda          .....Acyrthosiphon kondoi

6     Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, but without extensive sclerotisation anterior to SIPH                                                                           ….Aphis fabae

-      Dorsal abdomen with extensive dark sclerotisation, with a pale reticulate pattern           …..7

7     Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 Χ BD III. Cauda with 20-26 hairs         …..Aphis hedysari

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.8 Χ BD III. Cauda with 4-9 hairs          …..Aphis craccivora


Heinsia                                                        Rubiaceae

      Heinsia crinita                               Aphis odinae


Helenium                                                     Asteraceae

      Helenium autumnale                    Aphis gossypii, vernoniae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Trama troglodytes; Uroleucon tardae

       H. flexuosum                                 Myzus persicae

       H. hoopesii = Hymenoxys hoopesii

         H. nudiflorum = Helenium flexuosum

       H. tenuifolium                               Protaphis middletonii (as maidiradicis)

Key to apterae on Helenium and Hymenoxys:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Body and appendages densely hairy           …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular. Not densely hairy                           …..3

2     HT II elongate, more than 0.5 of length of hind tibia. ANT 6-segmented

                                                                                                                       …..Trama troglodytes

-      HT II of normal length. ANT 5-segmented                                         …..Smynthurodes betae

3     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles well developed    …..4

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles poorly developed or undeveloped …..7

4     ANT, tibiae and SIPH pale or only dark distally                        …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      ANT, tibiae and SIPH wholly or mainly dark                                                                   …..5

5     ANT III with 3-8 rhinaria. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.12-0.17 of length

                                                                                                             …..Macrosiphum valerianae

-      ANT III with 11-c.30 rhinaria. SIPH retticulated on distal 0.27-0.37 of length               …..6

6     SIPH 0.42-0.60 mm long.  ANT III with 11-20 rhinaria (usually less than 15). ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.7                                                                                     …..Uroleucon tardae

-      SIPH 0.81-1.33 mm long. ANT III with c. 30 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.9

                                                                                                                     …..Uroleucon martini*

7    SIPH pale, 6.5-11.2 Χ their width at midlength, constricted at base and cylindrical or slightly flared on distal half, and almost flangeless (Fig.57d). ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.9

                                                                                                                           …..Aphis vernoniae

-     SIPH pale or dark, not constricted at base, and of different form. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.5

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Heleocharis   see  Eleocharis                                         Cyperaceae


Helianthella                                                Asteraceae

      Helianthella uniflora                     [Illinoia sp. (Washington, USA;];

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense  

      Helianthella sp.                             Aphis asclepiadis


Helianthemum                                             Cistaceae

      Helianthemum alpestre                 Aphis helianthemi; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       H. appeninum                               Aphis [cisti Lichtenstein of del Guercio 1911 (nomen

                                                                  nudum)], helianthemi;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       H. canum = H. oelandicum spp. incanum

       H. chamaecistus see  H. nummularium

         H. cinereum                                   Aphis cisticola

       H. grandiflorum                            Aphis helianthemi; Myzus ascalonicus

       H. hirtum                                       Aphis cisticola, helianthemi

       H. italicum                                     Aphis helianthemi ssp. thermophila

       H. nummularium                          Aphis cliftonensis, fabae, gossypii, helianthemi, helianthemi

       ,        (incl. H. chamaecistus?)                  ssp. thermophila, nasturtii;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

       H. nummularium ssp. obscurum = H. ovatum

       H. obovatum                                  Aphis helianthemi

       H. obscurum = H. ovatum

       H. oelandicum ssp. alpestre          Aphis helianthemi

       H. oelandicum ssp. incanum         Aphis helianthemi, helianthemi ssp. thermophila;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       H. ovatum                                      Aphis helianthemi, helianthemi ssp. obscura;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus

       H. salicifolium                               Aphis helianthemi

       H. songaricum                               [Brachycaudus (Thuleaphis) sp. (Kadyrbekov 2014e)]

       H. stevenii                                      Aphis helianthemi

       H. syriacum                                   Aphis helianthemi ssp. thermophila

       H. violaceum                                 Aphis cisticola

       H. vulgare ssp. obscurum = H. ovatum

Key to apterae on Helianthemum:-

1     ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH imbricated, cauda finger-like. Spiracles reniform                         …..2

-      Either ANT tubercles are well-developed or other characters do not apply

                                                                                               …...go to key to polyphagous aphids

2     ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 all with flattish, subconical MTu. Longest hairs on ANT III only 4-5 μm, and posterior hair on hind trochanter less than 10 μm  …..Aphis cliftonensis

-      ABD TERG 2-5 mostly without MTu. Longest hairs on ANT III 7-13 μm, and posterior hair on hind trochanter 30-50 μm                                                                                             …..3

3     R IV+V with blunt apex, 1.0-1.2 Χ HT II. Cauda pale, SIPH usually pale with dark apices

                                                                                                                             …..Aphis nasturtii

-      R IV+V tapering to a rather acute apex, 1.2-2.1 Χ HT II. Cauda dusky/dark, SIPH dark, dusky or pale with darker apices                                                                                        …..4

4     SIPH variably pigmented, rarely entirely dark, and 0.7-1.4 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with faint and inconspicuous cross-bands                                     …..Aphis helianthemi group

-      SIPH entirely dark, 1.1-3.6 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with clearly defined dark

       cross-bands                                                                                                    …..Aphis cisticola


Helianthus                                                   Asteraceae

      Helianthus annuus                        Aphis asclepiadis, [cornifila del Guercio, nomen dubium],

                                                                  craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [kurosawai],

                                                                  nasturtii, nerii, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Bipersona ochrocentri];

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              [Brachyunguis harmalae]; [Eriosoma antennieurfum];

                                                               [Hyadaphis coriandri]; Illinoia masoni;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, helianthi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae, [siegesbeckicola];

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Pemphigus sp. (Ivanoskaya, 1977, as lichtensteini);

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                              Protaphis debilicornis, middletonii; Protrama longitarsus;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi];

                                                              [Sitobion miscanthi]; Trama penecaeca, rara, troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, budhium, compositae, illini,

                                                                  [rudbeckiae], [tanaceti],

                                                                  Uroleucon sp. (California, BMNH collection)

       H. argophyllus                               Aphis gossypii

       H. atrorubens                                Uroleucon helianthicola, parvotuberculatus

       H. debilis                                        Aphis asclepiadis, fabae; Myzus persicae

       H. divaricatus                                Aphis asclepiadis; Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. giganteus                                  Aphis asclepiadis, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Prociphilus erigeronensis; Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. grosseseratus                            Aphis asclepiadis; Protaphis debilicornis;

                                                              Uroleucon helianthicola,

                                                                   [Uroleucon sp. (Rogers et al. 1978)]

       H. heterophyllus                            Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. hirsutus                                     Aphis asclepiadis;

                                                              Uroleucon helianthicola, obscuricaudatum

       H. longifolius                                 Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. maximiliani                              Uroleucon maximilianicola,

                                                                   [Uroleucon sp. (Rogers et al. 1978)]

       H. microcephalus = Pappobolus microphyllus                             

       H. neglectus                                   Aphis asclepiadis

       H. nuttallii                                      Illinoia masoni; Protaphis debilicornis

       H. occidentalis                               Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. paradoxus                                 Illinoia masoni

       H. petiolaris                                   Aphis asclepiadis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, [Uroleucon sp. (Rogers et al. 1978)]

       H. pumilus                                     Protaphis middletonii

       H. rigidus                                       Aphis asclepiadis

       H. silphioides                                 Uroleucon helianthicola

       H. strumosus = H. hirsutus

       H. tuberosus                                  Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Dysaphis radicola];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Protaphis debilicornis, middletonii;

                                                              Protrama longitarsus; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Trama [helianthemi (Westwood 1944)], penecaeca,

                                                                  troglodytes, rara;

                                                              Uroleucon compositae, gobonis, helianthicola, illini

                                                                  pseudotanaceti, [nigrotuberculatum]

       Helianthus spp.                             [Kurisakia indica]; Pleotrichophorus ohioensis;

                                                              Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensis;

                                                              Uroleucon [erigeronense], illini, [rurale]                           

Key to apterae on Helianthus:-

[Simpified keys to the aphids on H. annuus and H. tuberosus can be found in Blackman & Eastop (2000).]

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent or present only as pores on flat pigmented cones


-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.8. SIPH present, tubular                                                      …..7

2      HT II greatly elongated, more than 0.5 Χ length of hind tibia. Body and appendages with numerous fine hairs                                                                                                           …..3

-       HT II of normal length. Hairs on body and appendages short and rather sparse             …..6

3      SIPH present as small flat pigmented cones                                                                     …..4

-       SIPH completely absent                                                                                                    …..5

4     BL 3.8-5.0 mm, and ANT III 1.10-1.15 mm. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotic markings except on ABD TERG 7 and 8, or on 8 only                          …..Trama penecaeca

-      BL 2.8-3.8 mm, and ANT III 0.50-0.75 mm. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark sclerotic cross-bands                                     …..Protrama longitarsus (incl. ssp. sclerodensis)

5     HT II 0.84-0.92 Χ length of hind tibia. Eyes with many facets                        …..Trama rara

-      HT II 0.60-0.73 Χ length of hind tibia. Eyes with only 3 facets            …..Trama troglodytes

6     R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, a little shorter than last ANT segment  (incl. PT), and without any accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments short and thick

                                                                                                                         …..Pemphigus sp(p).

-      R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, as long as or longer than last ANT segment and bearing 4-8 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of hind tibiae and first tarsal segments long and fine

                                                                                                            …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

7     ANT tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped. SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Head  not spiculose                                                                                                            …..8

-      ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH with or without polygonal reticulation (if without then cuticle of head is spiculose)                                                                                            …..11

8     Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width, with 5-8 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                    …..9

-      Cauda triangular, tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width or, if about equal in length to basal width, then with more than 10 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu   …..10

9     Dorsum with an extensive black shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II                                                          …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH pale, smooth-surfaced, 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda. ANT III

       0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II                                                     …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

10   SIPH very short, only 0.5-0.75 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 1.5 Χ BD III                                                                     …..Protaphis debilicornis

-      SIPH at least 0.8 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.4. Longest hairs on ANT III often less than 1.5 Χ BD III                  …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

11   Dorsal hairs with fan-shaped apices                                       …..Pleotrichophorus ohioensis*

-      Dorsal hairs blunt or pointed                                                                                           …..12

12   SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells). Inner faces of  ANT tubercles, divergent, not spiculose or scabrous                                                       …..13

-      SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation (unless they are very markedly swollen in middle). Inner faces of antennal tubercles parallel or apically convergent, and spiculose or scabrous                                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

13   SIPH slightly swollen on distal half, with subapical reticulated region extending less than 0.1 of length. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.3 Χ BD III                       …..Illinoia masoni

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering, with reticulated region extending more than 0.1 of length. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                         …..14

14   SIPH reticulated over about distal 0.2 of length (or less). Cauda pale with 8-18 hairs


-      SIPH usually reticulated over more than 0.2 of length but, if less, then cauda is dark and has 20 or more hairs                                                                                                               …..17

15   SIPH pale, sometimes darker towards apices. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria restricted to basal part                                                                                              …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH dark. ANT III with more than 20 rhinaria extending over more than half of segment


16   R IV+V short, similar in length to HT II. ANT III with 20-30 small rhinaria scattered over entire length. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                            …..Macrosiphum helianthi*

-      R IV+V elongate, 1.8-2.3 Χ HT II. ANT III with 32-67 rather large rhinaria concentrated on basal 0.7. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                         …..Uroleucon budhium

17   Coxae dark                                                                  …..Uroleucon compositae (or gobonis)

-      Coxae pale                                                                                                                       …..18

18   Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. Cauda dark                                      …..19

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites absent or fragmented. Cauda pale, dusky or dark                  …..20

19   SIPH with reticulation extending over distal 0.2-0.25 of length. Cauda with more than 20 hairs. ANT III with 19-35 rhinaria, dark except at base               …..Uroleucon helianthicola

-      SIPH with reticulation extending over more than 0.3 of length. Cauda with 7-13 hairs. ANT III with 8-18 rhinaria, dark only on rhinariated part                                  …..Uroleucon illini

20   Cauda pale. ANT III with 10-46 rhinaria                                                                        …..21

-      Cauda dusky or dark, or darker towards apex. ANT III with 5-18 rhinaria                   …..23

21   SIPH 2.4-3.0 Χ cauda, which bears only 5-10 hairs                   …..Uroleucon pseudotanaceti

-      SIPH 1.1-1.8 Χ cauda, which bears 13-32 hairs                                                              …..22

22   HT II rather long and thin, about 6 Χ its maximum thickness, and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V

                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II shorter, less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.7-0.95 Χ R IV+V

                                                                              …..Uroleucon ambrosiae or U. maximilianicola

23   Cauda dusky, with 13-19 hairs. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.27-0.32 of length

…..Uroleucon sp. (California, BMNH collection)

-      Cauda dusky or dark, with 22-32 hairs. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.29-0.40 of length


24   Cauda dark, almost as dark as SIPH. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ ANT BASE VI. Small, pale marginal tubercles (MTu) sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4

                                                                                                      …..Uroleucon parvotuberculatus

-      Cauda dusky, much paler than SIPH. R IV+V 0.75-0.95 Χ ANT BASE VI. MTu absent

                                                                                                       …..Uroleucon obscuricaudatum


Helichrysum                                                Asteraceae

        Helichrysum amoenum = Helichrysum nudifolium var. oxyphyllum

        H. angustifolium                        [Macrosiphoniella sp. (as absinthii)]

        H. arenarium                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, [Aphis (Protaphis) sp.

                                                                (Kadyrbekov 2003c)];

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Brachyunguis tigrahaudus;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella helichrysi, hillerislambersi, janckei,


                                                            Myzus ascalonicus; Pleotrichophorus helichrysi;

                                                            [Staticobium gmelini]; [Thripsaphis caespitosae];

                                                            Xerobion barsukense, desertorum

        H. argyrosphaerum                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Uroleucon compositae

        H. armenium                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella nikolajevi, remaudierei; Xerobion alba

        H. aureum                                  Uroleucon compositae

        H. bellidioides = Anaphalloides bellidioides

        H. bracteatum                             Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                 (incl. H. chrysanthum)                Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae; Ovatus inulae

        H. chilense                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi

        H. crispum = Helichrysum patulum

        H. cymosum                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ornatus

        H. diosmifolium = Ozothamnus diosmifolius

        H. graveolens                              Macrosiphoniella helichrysi

        H. italicum (incl. sspp.                   Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                   picardi, serotinum)               Macrosiphoniella aetnensis, helichrysi

        H. luteoalbum                             Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; Oedisiphum compositarum, soureni;

                                                            Uroleucon [ambrosiae], compositae, gobonis, sonchi

        H. maracandicum                      Macrosiphoniella nikolajevi; [Macrosiphum multipilosum]

        H. mechowianum                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus; Sitobion autriquei;

                                                            Uroleucon compositae

        H. melaleucum                           Macrosiphoniella madeirensis

        H. microphyllum = Helichrysum parvifolium

        H. nudifolium                             Macrosiphoniella helichrysi

                 (var. oxyphyllum)

        H. odoratissimum                       Aphis fabae, spiraecola; Macrosiphoniella helichrysi;

                                                            Micromyzella eliei; Uroleucon compositae

        H. oligocephalum                       Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphoniella helichrysi

        H. parvifolium                            Myzus persicae

        H. patulum                                 Macrosiphoniella helichrysi                                                  

        H. punctatum (?)                        [Macrosiphoniella olgae]; [Macrosiphum multipilosum]

        H. saxatile                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella helichrysi

        H. serotinum = Helichrysum italicum ssp. serotinum

        H. setosum                                  Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus; Sitobion autriquei, hirsutirostris;

                                                            Uroleucon compositae

        H. stoechas                                 Aphis craccivora, fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella aetnensis, helichrysi;

                                                            Protaphis pseudocardui; Rectinasus buxtoni

        H. suaveolens (?)                        Macrosiphoniella paradoxa

        H. thianschanicum                     Aulacorthum solani

        H. virgineum                              Uroleucon russellae

        Helichrysum spp.                       Uroleucon cichorii, helichrysi

Key to apterae on Helichrysum:-

1      ANT 5-segmented, with ANT V BASE very long, more than 15 Χ longer than the short peg-like PT (Fig.31a). R IV+V extremely long, similar in length to hind femur (Fig.31b)

                                                                                                                       …..Rectinasus buxtoni

-       ANT 5- or 6-segmented, base of last segment and R IV+V relatively much shorter       …..2

2      ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.2. SIPH very short, less than 0.07 Χ BL, clearly shorter than the short triangular or tongue-shaped cauda                                                                                    …..3

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH at least 0.07 Χ BL and as long as or longer than cauda


3      R IV+V shorter than (c.0.8-0.9 Χ) HT II. SIPH pale              …..Brachyunguis tigrahaudus*

-       R IV+V 1.2-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH dark                                                                                …..4

4      SIPH tubular, longer than their basal width (Fig.31c)                  …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-       SIPH conical, very broad-based, much shorter than their basal width (e.g. Fig.31d)      …..5

5      R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                   .....Xerobion desertorum*

-       R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II                                                                                                    .....6

6      Marginal tubercles (MTu) only on ABD TERG 1 and 7. ANT of aptera with secondary rhinaria (distributed III 0-8, IV 1-5 and V 0-1). R IV+V 1.7-1.8 Χ HT II  …..Xerobion alba

-       MTu present on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7. ANT of aptera without secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.5-1.65 Χ HT II                                                                               .....Xerobion barsukense*

7     SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells)       …..8

-      SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation                                                                     …..23

8     SIPH reticulated over distal 0.21-0.65 of length                                                               …..9

-      SIPH reticulated over distal 0.1-0.2 of length                                                                 …..21

9     First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.33-0.65 of length      …..10

-      First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. SIPH reticulated over distal 0.21-0.30 of length       …..18

10   ANT III with 45-76 rhinaria. Cauda with c.15-20 hairs         .....Macrosiphoniella nikolajevi*

-      ANT III with 3-46 rhinaria. Cauda with 4-14 hairs                                                         .....11

11   Cauda triangular, tapering from its base to its nearly acute apex, and bearing 4-8 hairs (e.g. Fig.31e)                                                                                                                           …..12

-      Cauda finger-like, blunt at apex, with 9-23 hairs (e.g. Fig.31f,m)                                  …..15

12   Dorsal body hairs very short, only about 0.1-0.25 Χ BD III (Fig.31i)

                                                                                               …..Macrosiphoniella hillerislambersi

-      Dorsal body hairs more than 0.7 Χ BD III                                                                      …..13

13   All dorsal body hairs long and fine-pointed (Fig.31j). R IV+V 1.9-2.1 Χ HT II

…..Macrosiphoniella medvedevi

-      Some or all dorsal body hairs with fan-shaped or furcate apices (Fig.31k). R IV+V 1.39-1.85 Χ HT II                                                                                                                             …..14

14   R IV+V 1.39-1.63 Χ HT II. ANT III with 23-26 rhinaria       …..Macrosiphoniella paradoxa

-      R IV+V (Fig.31g) 1.66-1.85 Χ HT II. ANT III with 9-22 rhinaria

                                                                                                            …..Macrosiphoniella janckei

15   R IV+V 1.05-1.36 Χ HT II. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.45-0.53, and 1.23-1.89 Χ cauda. If there are scleroites at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs and antesiphuncular sclerites then they are weakly pigmented. Cauda only weakly constricted, tapering on distal half (Fig.31m)  …..16

-      R IV+V 1.20-1.75 Χ HT II. SIPH reticulated on distal 0.50-0.65, and 0.94-1.46 Χ cauda. Large dark scleroites present at bases of all dorsal abdominal hairs, often fused into broad bars on anterior tergites. Cauda with a very marked constriction and somewhat swollen distal half (Fig.31f)                                                                                                                    …..17

16   Abdomen with distinct but weakly pigmented scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs, and crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites. Coxae and trochanters dark, and distal two-thirds of femora entirely dark. Cauda almost as dark as SIPH          …..Macrosiphoniella aetnensis

-      Dorsal abdomen entirely pale. Coxae and trochanters weakly pigmented. Femora with distal halves mainly dark, but each with a pale subapical spot. Cauda much paler than SIPH

…..Macrosiphoniella remaudierei*

17   SIPH 1.04-1.46 Χ cauda. R IV+V (Fig.31h) 1.20-1.56 Χ HT II. ANT IV 0.97-1.29 Χ ANT V ((Al. with 32-68 rhinaria on ANT III and ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0)

                                                                                                         .....Macrosiphoniella helichrysi

-      SIPH 0.94-1.15 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.43-1.75 Χ HT II. ANT IV 1.22-1.45 Χ ANT V ((Al. with 60-82 rhinaria on ANT III and ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.7)

                                                                                                   .....Macrosiphoniella madeirensis*

18   R IV+V 1.8-2.3 Χ HT II. Coxae pale                                                  …..Uroleucon russellae

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.6 Χ HT II. Coxae dark                                                                             …..19

19   SIPH 1.2-1.6 Χ cauda, which is pale. Antesiphuncular sclerites present

                                                                                                                      …..Uroleucon cichorii

-      SIPH 1.5-2.1 Χ cauda, which is dark. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent                         …..20

20   SIPH 1.8-2.1Χ cauda, which has 11-20 hairs              …..Uroleucon compositae (or gobonis)

-      SIPH 1.5-1.7Χ cauda, which has 20-28 hairs                                     …..Uroleucon helichrysi

21   SIPH pale, or only dusky towards apices, 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH dark, 1.5-1.8 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.0-1.3 Χ HT II                                                    …..22

22   Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation, continuous over ABD TERG 1-6. R IV+V with 5-7 accessory hairs. ANT III with 1-7 small rhinaria                              …..Sitobion autriquei

-      Dorsum without dark sclerotisation. R IV+V with 11-12 accessory hairs. ANT III with 5-29 rhinaria                                                                                               …..Sitobion hirsutirostris

23   R IV+V with a pair of very long accessory hairs near base, at least 4-5 Χ longer than primary hairs (Fig.31l). Dorsal hairs very numerous, with fan-shaped apices  (Fig.31n)

                                                                                                         …..Pleotrichophorus helichrysi

-      R IV+V with accessory hairs of normal length. Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices


24   Cauda helmet-shaped, slightly constricted near base, shorter than or not clearly longer than its basal width, and bearing 4-6 hairs                                                                              …..25

-      Cauda bluntly conical, tongue- or finger-shaped, either distinctly longer than its basal width or bearing more than 10 hairs                                                                                          …..28

25   Spiracular apertures large and rounded. RIV+V 1.1-2.0 Χ HT II                                   …..26

-      Spiracular apertures small and reniform. R IV+V more than 2 Χ HT II                         …..27

26   Dorsum with an extensive black shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 Χ cauda. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 Χ HT II                                                          …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH pale, smooth-surfaced, 0.8-1.5 Χ cauda. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 Χ HT II                                                     …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

27    Longest hairs on ANT III 12-15 μm, shorter than ANT BD III, and longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 15-36 μm, less than 2 Χ ANT BD III                        …..Oedisiphum compositarum

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 18-21 μm, as long as or longer than ANT BD III, and longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 50-60 μm, more than 2 Χ ANT BD III           …..Oedisphum soureni

28    ANT III (apt.) with 13-22 secondary rhinaria, IV with 13-22 and V with 3-11. Dorsum with a solid black shield. SIPH long, black and clavate, contrasting with pale cauda

                                                                                                                        …..Micromyzella eliei

-       ANT III with 0-4 secondary rhinaria, IV and V with none. Other characters also do not apply                                                                                                                                …..29

29    R IV+V 2.3-3.0 Χ HT II, and bearing 17-26 accessory hairs. Head smooth, except for a well-developed rather scabrous median frontal tubercle, and divergent ANT tubercles, each bearing a rounded, scabrous process                                                             …..Ovatus inulae

-      R IV+V less than 1.6 Χ HT II, and bearing less than 15 accessory hairs. Head either smooth with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or spiculose with ANT tubercles well developed                                                                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Helicia                                                         Proteaceae

      Helicia attenuata                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       H. hainanensis                              Mollitrichosiphum rhusae

-     SIPH densely clothed in long hairs                                             ….. Mollitrichosiphum rhusae

-     SIPH without hairs                                                                    ….. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

        (or try key to polyphagous aphids)


Heliconia                                                    Heliconiaceae

One aphid species, Pentalonia caladii, has been recorded from the following Heliconia spp.; aurantiaca, bahai, caribaea, latispatha, metallica, stricta. (It is possible that some of these records should be applied to P. nigronervosa; see Footit et al. 2010 and couplet 6 of key to apterae on Hedychium.)


Helicteres                                                    Malvaceae

      Helicteres isora                           Aphis aurantii, gossypii

        Helicteres sp.                               [Hyalomyzus raoi]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Helictotrichon  (including Avenastrum, Avenula)         Poaceae

      Helictotrichon desertorum            Metopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion fragariae

        H. hookeri                                     Tetraneura nigriabdominalis ssp. shanxiensis

        H. pratense                                    Geoica utricularia group; Sipha elegans

        H. pubescens                                 Anoecia corni; Atheroides serrulatus; Forda marginata;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha elegans;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, miscanthi; Tetraneura ulmi 

      H. schellianum = H. hookeri

        H. versicolor                                  Sitobion avenae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Heliocereus  see Disocactus                                           Cactaceae


Heliomeris                                                   Asteraceae

      Heliomeris multiflora                   Uroleucon ambrosiae


Heliophila                                                   Brassicaceae

      Heliophila amplexicaulis              Brevicoryne brassicae

        H. crithmifolia                              Brevicoryne brassicae

        H. dessecta                                    Brevicoryne brassicae


Heliopsis                                                     Asteraceae

      Heliopsis helianthoides                 Aphis nerii; Uroleucon [leonardi], obscuricaudatum

        H. laevis = Bidens laevis

        H. scabra = Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra                           

Key to apterae on Heliopsis:-

-       SIPH black with distal polygonal reticulation extending 0.33-0.40 of length. Cauda dusky with 22-32 hairs. ANT and tibiae wholly dark, ANT III bearing 5-14 rhinaria

                                                                                                       …..Uroleucon obscuricaudatum

-       Without this combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Heliotropium                                               Boraginaceae

      Heliotropium angiospermum       Aphis gossypii

        H. arborescens                              Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Smynthurodes betae

        H. bacciferum                               Myzus persicae

        H. europaeum                               Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

        H. indicum                                    Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

        H. laevis (?)                                   Neomyzus circumflexus

        H. lasiocarpum                             Aphis gossypii; Smynthurodes betae

        H. peruvianum = Heliotropium arborescens

        H. procumbens                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        Heliotropium sp.                           [Acyrthosiphon kondoi, pisum]; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Heliotropium:-

-       Dorsum with an extensive solid black shield. Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. R IV+V 1.5-2.0 Χ HT II                                                        …..Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsum pale, or with a U-shaped patch, or if with an extensive solid black shield then cauda is tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width, and R IV+V is 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II

                                                                                                 …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Helipterum                                                  Asteraceae

      Helipterum rosea                           Aphis fabae, spiraephaga; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [stellariae]

                                                              Pemphigus mordvilkoi

       H. stricta                                        Aphis fabae

       Helipterum sp.                               Myzus antirrhinii

Key to apterae on Helipterum:-

1      SIPH black, 0.7-1.6 Χ the equally black cauda which bears 7-27 hairs                            …..2

-       Without this combination of characters                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids,

(but note that specimens running to Myzus persicae may be M. antirrhinii)

2      R IV+V 0.65-092 Χ HT II. SIPH 0/7-1.1 Χ cauda. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.9 Χ basal diameter of segment                                                                              …..Aphis spiraephaga

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.7-1.8 Χ cauda. Longest hair on ANT III 0.8-2.2 Χ basal diameter of segment                                                                                         …..Aphis fabae


Helleborus                                                   Ranunculaceae

      Helleborus foetidus                       Aphis fabae; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              Macrosiphum [euphorbiae], hellebori

       H. kochii                                       Macrosiphum hellebori

       H. lividus (incl. ssp. corsicus)             Macrosiphum hellebori; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       H. niger                                         Macrosiphum hellebori; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       H. odorus                                      Macrosiphum hellebori

       H. orientalis                                  Macrosiphum hellebori; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       H. purpurascens                           Macrosiphum hellebori                                                      

        H. viridis                                        Macrosiphum hellebori

        Helleborus sp.                               [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1974)]

Key to apterae on Helleborus:-

-     SIPH 1.9-2.6 Χ cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation. Apices of femora and reticulated section of SIPH are dark. ANT PT/ BASE 4.6-7.9                         …..Macrosiphum hellebori

-     SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation and/or other characters do not all apply

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Helminthotheca see Picris Asteraceae

      Helminthotheca echioides see Picris echioides

        H. comosa ssp. lusitanica see Picris spinifera


Hemerocallis                                               Hemerocallidaceae

      Hemerocallis alba = Hosta plantaginea

        H. aurantiaca = Hemerocallis fulva var. aurantiaca

        H. citrina                                       [Aphis sp. (China, as elongata; Zhang 1999)];

                                                              Indomegoura indica; Myzus hemerocallis

        H. disticha = Hemerocallis fulva var. angustifolia

        H. dumortieri                                Indomegoura indica; Myzus hemerocallis

        H. esculenta                                  Indomegoura indica

        H. flava L. = Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus

        H. fulva (incl. vars aurantiaca,          Indomegoura indica; Myzus hemerocallis;

                                   angustifolia)          Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

          H. kwanso = Hemerocallis fulva

        H. lilioasphodelus                         Indomegoura indica; Myzus hemerocallis

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        H. littorea                                      Indomegoura indica

        H. middendorffii                           Indomegoura indica; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        H. minor                                       Myzus hemerocallis         

        Hemerocallis sp.                           Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Hemerocallis:-

(See Blackman & Eastop, 2000, Fig. 40, for illustrations of siphunculi of Hemerocallis-feeding aphids.)

1      SIPH markedly swollen on distal 0.7, with maximum diameter of swollen part 1.5-2.0 Χ minimum diameter of basal narrow part. Dorsal abdomen with dark spinal paired patches or interrupted cross bands on all tergites                                 …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-       SIPH not or only moderately swollen distally. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings …..2

2      Head, ANT, legs and SIPH all dark. SIPH thick, swollen or cylindrical over most of length, narrowing distally, with subapical polygonal reticulation                   …..Indomegoura indica

-       Head, ANT, legs and SIPH mainly pale. SIPH thin, without polygonal reticulation       …..3

3      SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, more than 2.5 Χ cauda, with coarse imbrication. (Al. without a black dorsal abdominal patch)                                      …..Myzus hemerocallis

-       SIPH slightly to moderately swollen on distal half, less than 2.5 Χ cauda, with normal imbrication. (Al. with a black dorsal abdominal patch)                              …..Myzus persicae


Hemichaena                                                Phrymaceae

     Hemichaena fruticosa                  Brachycaudus helichrysi


Hemidioidia  see  Diodia                                                Rubiaceae


Hemigraphis                                               Acanthaceae

      Hemigraphis indicus (?)          Myzus persicae


Hemiptelea                                                             Ulmaceae

      Hemiptelea davidii                                 Simu
                                                 [Myzus dycei]; Pseudochromaphis coreana;
                                                 Tinocallis takachihoensis

Key to species on Hemiptelea:-


-       Forewing membrane extensively mottled with dark pigment (fig. 51A, as Tinocallis coreanus). Head and prothorax pigmented dorsally with a pale spinal stripe and large pale areas around the hair bases. Dorsal abdomen without finger-like tubercles but with dark markings. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. ANT III with about 6-8 widely-spaced oval secondary rhinaria                                                      .....Pseudochromaphis coreana

-       Forewing membrane with fuscous bordering distal branches of media and patches at ends of Cu1a and Cu1b (fig. 51B). Head and prothorax rather uniformly dark. Dorsal abdomen pale, with finger-like spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 1 and 2. ANT PT/BASE about 1 or more. ANT III with 14-18 secondary rhinaria                                       .....Tinocallis takachihoensis

Hemistepta                                                  Asteraceae

      Hemistepta lyrata                          Aphis craccivora; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Capitophorus elaeagni;

                                                              Uroleucon [cepalonopli],  formosanum, [giganteum],


                                                              [Tetraneura triangula]

Use key to apterae on Saussurea.


Hemizonella                                                Asteraceae

     Hemizonella minima                    Hyperomyzus nigricornis


Hemizonia                                                   Asteraceae

      Hemizonia fasciculata                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Heptapleurum  see  Schefflera                                      Araliaceae

      Heptapleurum octophyllum = Schefflera heptaphylla


Heracleum                                                  Apiaceae

      Heracleum antasiaticum (?)         Cavariella pastinacae

      H. asperum M. Bieb.                    Aphis fabae; Cavariella pastinacae

        H. austriacum                               Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella theobaldi;

                                                               Dysaphis newskyi

        H. barbatum                                 Semiaphis heraclei

        H. candicans                                 [Cavariella biswasi]

        H. canescens                                 Hyadaphis foeniculi

        H. chorodanum                            Anuraphis subterranea; Dysaphis lauberti

        H. dissectum                                 Anuraphis subterranea; Aphis fabae; Avicennina almatina;

                                                              Cavariella archangelicae, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis lauberti, newskyi; Paramyzus heraclei

        H. dulce                                         Cavariella konoi, sapporoensis

        H. laciniatum                                Aphis fabae; Cavariella pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Hyadaphis passerinii; Macrosiphum gei

        H. lanatum                                    Anuraphis subterranea;

                                                              Aphis asclepiadis, decepta, fabae, [heraclicola], spiraecola;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, heraclei, [kamtshatica], konoi,

                                                                  nipponica, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi; Myzus ornatus; Paramyzus heraclei

        H. lanatum ssp. asiaticum = H. lanatum                                 

        H. lehmannianum                        Anuraphis subterranea; Cavariella theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi ssp. heraclei, sp. nr lauberti

        H. leskovii                                     Anuraphis subterranea; Dysaphis lauberti

        H. mantegazzianum                     Anuraphis subterranea; Aphis fabae;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis lauberti; Paramyzus heraclei

        H. maximum                                Aphis decepta; Paramyzus heraclei; Semiaphis heraclei

        H. moellendorffii                          Aphis fabae;

                                                              Cavariella angelicae, heraclei, japonica, konoi,

                                                                 nipponica, sapporoensis;

                                                              Paramyzus heraclei; Semiaphis heraclei

        H. palmatum                                 Cavariella pastinacae, theobaldi

        H. pastinacifolium                        Dysaphis crataegi ssp. heraclei

        H. persicum                                  Aphis fabae; Cavariella pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis lauberti; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei; Paramyzus heraclei

        H. pubescens                                 Dysaphis lauberti; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei

        H. pyrenaicum                              Anuraphis subterranea; Cavariella theobaldi                    

        H. sibiricum                                  Anuraphis subterranea;

                                                              Aphis brohmeri, fabae, grosmannae;

                                                              Cavariella [cicutae],  pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis lauberti, newskyi, newskyi ssp. aizenbergi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Paramyzus heraclei; Semiaphis [anthrisci], sphondylii

        H. sosnowskyi                               Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii

        H. sphondylium                            Anuraphis subterranea;

                  (incl. ssp. sibiricum)            Aphis asclepiadis, brohmeri,  fabae, [grosmannae] ;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, pastinacae,


                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, lauberti, newskyi; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Paramyzus heraclei; Semiaphis heraclei, sphondylii

        H. stevenii                                     Aphis fabae; Cavariella theobaldi

        H. transiliense = Semenovia transiliensis

        H. villosum                                    Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              [Pilobtusaphis dsengei Rusanova 1942 (nomen nudum)]

        Heracleum sp.                              [Brachycaudus umbelliferarum]; [Cavariella kamtshatica];

                                                              Macrosiphum pallidum

Key to apterae on Heracleum:-

1      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda; in some species this is reduced to a small, warty, knob in the centre of ABD TERG 8, with 2 associated hairs (Figs.10f-i)                      .....Cavariella spp.; use couplets 2-14 of key to apterae on Angelica

-       No supracaudal process, nor are there 2 hairs on ABD TERG 8  close together and associated with a warty knob                                                                                             .....2

2      SIPH very small, much shorter and thinner than cauda                                                     .....3

-       SIPH as thick and/or as long as, or longer than, cauda                                                      .....4

3      Cauda triangular in dorsal view. SIPH about twice (1.8-2.2) times as long as their diameter at midlength (Fig.10j)                                                                         .....Semiaphis sphondylii

 -      Cauda tongue shaped, with rounded apex. SIPH 1.0-1.8 Χ their diameter at midlength (Fig.10k)                                                                                                 .....Semiaphis heraclei

4      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Head and ABD TERG 8 or 7-8 usually with spinal tubercles (STu)                                                                     …..5

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. Head without, and ABD TERG 7-8 usually without, STu                                                                                                    ….9

5      SIPH with close-set rows of  fine spinules. Cauda with 11-12 hairs                                       

                                                                                                                …..Anuraphis subterranea

-       SIPH with normal imbrication. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                       …..6

6      Hairs on ABD TERG 2-3 acute, fine-pointed, maximally 27-65 μm long

                                                                                                                         …..Dysaphis lauberti

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 2-3 blunt, maximally 5-20 μm long                                               …..7

7      Hairs on ANT III fine-pointed, maximally 29-56 μm long, 1.2-2.0 Χ BD III                         

                                                                                                                        …..Dysaphis newskyi

-       Hairs on ANT III blunt, maximally 3-18 μm long, 0.3-0.8 Χ BD III                               …..8

8      Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 2-3 maximally only 3-10 μm long, 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III. Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-7. All apt. with secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and sometimes on ANT IV

                                                                                                …..Dysaphis newskyi ssp. aizenbergi

-       Hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 2-3 maximally 7-19 μm long, 0.5-0.9 Χ BD III. MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5, usually absent from ABD TERG 7. Apt. usually without secondary rhinaria                                                                        …..Dysaphis crataegi group

9      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not or hardly projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. SIPH and cauda dark                                                   …..10

-       ANT tubercles well-developed. SIPH at least basally pale, cauda pale                          …..17

10   SIPH swollen on distal 0.7, and 0.85-1.4 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without (but 5 usually with) marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                            .....11

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, 0.8-2.2 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu


11   Prosternal sclerite 1.36-2.6 Χ wider than long, often convex posteriorly. SIPH 1.05-1.4 Χ cauda. (Al. often with sec. rhinaria on ANT V)                                 …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      Prosternal sclerite 2.2-3.6 Χ wider than long, with posterior margin often straight. SIPH 0.85-1.2 Χ cauda. (Al. rarely with sec. rhinaria on ANT V)              …..Hyadaphis passerinii

12   ANT III 0.9-1.23 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, and usually no dark cross-band. Cauda usually with a distinct midlength constriction, and bearing 7-15 (mostly 8-12) hairs

                                                                                                                         …..Aphis spiraecola

-      ANT III 1.25-2.8 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with (2-)3-11 hairs, usually on or just posterior to a dark cross-band. Cauda usually without a constriction, and bearing 10-31 hairs        …..13

13    R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 only. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2(-3) hairs. (ANT III of al. with 35-67 rather tuberculate rhinaria)

                                                                                                                              …..Aphis decepta

-       R IV+V 0.8-1.4 Χ HT II, but if more than 1.1 Χ HT II then there are at least some MTu on ABD TERG 2-4. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-14 hairs. (ANT III of al. with

        7-40 rhinaria)                                                                                                                  …..14

14   HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). ANT III 1.05-1.95 Χ PT, (1.6-)2.0-4.0 (-5.0) Χ R IV+V, and 1.5-2.5 (-2.8) Χ cauda. SIPH 1.5-2.9 Χ cauda. (Al. with 14-40 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                            .....Aphis asclepiadis

-       HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). ANT III 0.65-1.3 Χ PT, 1.2-2.6 (-3.0) Χ R IV+V and 1.2-1.6 (-1.9) Χ cauda. SIPH 0.7-1.6 Χ cauda. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5(-7) hairs. (Al. with 6-23 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                         .....15

15    ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 0-3 small MTu                                           …..Aphis fabae

-       ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 5-9 often rather large MTu                                      …..16

16    Longest hairs on ANT III 1.7-2.1 Χ BD III. Cauda with 20-31 hairs       …..Aphis brohmeri

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.6 Χ BD III. Cauda with 12-15 hairs  …..Aphis grosmannae

17    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cuticle of head smooth             …..18

-       SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Cuticle of head smooth or spiculose                   …..20

18    Front of head dusky to dark. SIPH dark, or pale only at bases. ABD TERG (1-) 2-4 (-6) with evident marginal tubercles (MTu)                                         …..Macrosiphum pallidum

-       Front of head pale, SIPH pale or dark only towards apices. ABD TERG 1-6 usually without MTu, occasionally with very small MTu on some of ABD TERG 2-4                           …..19

19    Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 38-63 μm, 0.6-1.4 Χ ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate usually (77%) with only 2 hairs (18% with 3, 5% with 4-6 hairs). SIPH pale or dusky at apices                                                                       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 66-106 μm, 1.4-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-11 hairs, usually (77%) with 4-8 hairs. SIPH dark at apices

                                                                                                                         …..Macrosiphum gei

20    BL 3.7-5.6 mm. Head with inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent. ANT III with 16-35 secondary rhinaria. Cauda with 20-28 hairs                      ….Avicennina almatina

-       BL 1.0-2.3 mm. Head with inner faces of antennal tubercles gibbous and spiculose. ANT III without secondary rhinaria. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                           .....21

21    SIPH coarsely imbricated, tapering, with a slight S-curve. Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark spots. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                     …..Myzus ornatus

-       Siph moderately or weakly imbricated, and slightly to moderately swollen on distal half. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-6.1                           …..22

22    ANT III with 4-15 rhinaria on basal half. ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.1      .....Paramyzus heraclei

-       ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5                                                         …..23

23    SIPH less than 0.75 Χ ANT III, almost smooth-surfaced, with minimum width on basal half less than midlength diameter of hind tibia. Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel-sided                                                                                          …..Myzus ascalonicus

-     SIPH more than 0.75 Χ ANT III, moderately imbricated, with minimum width of basal half greater than midlength width of hind tibia. Inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus persicae


Herderia                                                      Asteraceae

     Herderia sp.                                    Sitobion sp. (van Harten 1972a)


Hernandia                                                              Hernandiaceae

     Hernandia sonora                          Aphis gossypii


Herniaria                                                    Caryophyllaceae

      Herniaria besseri  = H. incana

          H. incana                                      Aphis herniariae


Herpetica  see  Cassia                                                       Fabaceae


Hertia                                                          Asteraceae

      Hertia cheirifolia                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Hesperantha                                                Iridaceae

      Hesperantha coccinea                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hesperis                                                      Brassicaceae

      Hesperis matronalis                      Aphis gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              [Dysaphis pavlovskyana]; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae (ssp. tulipaellus)

Key to apterae on Hesperis:-

1      SIPH weakly to markedly clavate (i.e. swollen on distal half, narrower on basal half)    …..2

-       SIPH not clavate (i.e. not thinner on basal half than on distal half)                                 …..4

2      Dorsum with dark markings. ANT III with 0-7 small rhinaria near base

                                                                                                    …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-       Dorsum without dark markings. ANT III without rhinaria                                              …..3

3      SIPH 0.82-1.34 Χ ANT III. SIPH with a narrow basal stem, its narrowest part thinner than, or as thin as, hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V (1.3-)1.4-1.6 Χ HT II, with 7-15 accessory hairs                                                                                                       ….. Myzus ascalonicus

-       SIPH 0.54-0.81 Χ ANT III.  Narrowest part of SIPH not narrower than hind tibia at midlength. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 (-1.2) Χ HT II, with 2-7 hairs                         …..Myzus persicae

4      ANT III 2.2-3.7 Χ SIPH. SIPH short and thick, 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which is broad and triangular. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark sclerites anterior to SIPH

                                                                                                                 …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-       ANT III 0.9-1.8 Χ SIPH. SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda, which is tongue-shaped. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerites anterior to SIPH                                                                             …..5

5      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles. SIPH tapering from base to flange, without any trace of swelling distally, and darker than cauda                                  …..Aphis gossypii

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles. SIPH cylindrical or slightly swollen on distal half, with similar pigmentation to cauda                                         …..Lipaphis erysimi


Heteranthera                                               Pontederiaceae

      Heterantha limosa                        Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Heterocaryum                                             Boraginaceae

      Heterocaryum rigidum = H. szovitsianum

        H. szovitsianum                            Aphis craccivora

      Heterocaryum sp.                         Brachycaudus helichrysi

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Heteromeles see Photinia                                     Rosaceae

      Heteromeles salicifolia see Photinia arbutifolia


Heteromorpha                                             Apiaceae

      Heteromorpha trifoliata                Aphis spiraecola; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Heteropanax                                               Araliaceae

      Heteropanax fragrans                  [Aiceona titabarensis]

(Try key to aphids on Aralia.)


Heteropappus                                              Asteraceae

      Heteropappus altaicus                  Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) aktaschica


Heteropogon                                               Poaceae

      Heteropogon contortus                 Forda hirsuta; Sitobion graminis, miscanthi

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)


Heteropyxis                                                 Myrtaceae

      Heteropyxis natalensis                  Aphis gossypii


Heterosmilax                                               Smilacaceae

      Heterosmilax  gaudichaudiana    Sitobion smilacifoliae



Heterotheca                                                Asteraceae

      Heterotheca grandiflora               Uroleucon erigeronense

      H. inuloides                                   Uroleucon heterothecae, paucosensoriatum, [penderum]

        H. subaxillaris                               Uroleucon ambrosiae

        H. villosa                                       Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Illinoia grindeliae];

                                                              Pleotrichophorus villosae; Uroleucon carberriense

Key to apterae on Heterotheca:-

1     Dorsal body densely clothed in fan-shaped hairs. SIPH pale, about as long as cauda, without any polygonal reticulation                                                           …..Pleotrichophorus villosae

-      Dorsal body hairs not fan-shaped. SIPH pale or dark, longer than cauda, with or without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                            …..2

2      ANT tubercles undeveloped. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH pale, truncate, without polygonal reticulation. Cauda, helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs                                                                                        …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      ANT tubercles well developed. Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH dark at least apically, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda finger-shaped with 6-27 hairs          …..2

3      SIPH wholly dark                                                                                                              .....4

-       SIPH pale at least at base                                                                                                  …..5

4      Tibiae entirely dark. ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria                 .….Uroleucon paucosensoriatum

-       Tibiae with paler section on basal half. ANT III with 8-35 rhinaria                                        

…..Uroleucon ambrosiae

5      ABD TERG 2-5 with conical marginal tubercles (MTu)             .....Uroleucon heterothecae*

-      ABD TERG 2-5 without MTu                                                                                           .....6


6      SIPH dark on at least distal half, pale basally, less than 0.4 Χ BL. Distal parts of femora and most of tibiae dark. Cauda with some apical hairs short, and often blunt or capitate

                                                                                                             ….. Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH dark only at apices, and more than 0.4 Χ BL. Femora and tibiae pale except at apices. Cauda with all hairs of similar length                                            …..Uroleucon carberriense


Heterotrichum                                            Melastomataceae

      Heterotrichum sp.                         Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Heuchera                                                    Saxifragaceae

      Heuchera americana                  Aphis spiraecola; Nasonovia heucherae, [tiarellae]

        H. glabra                                     Nasonovia cynosbati

        H. hartwegii                                Nasonovia davidsoni, heucherae

        H. hirsuticaulis                           Nasonovia heucherae

        H. hispida                                    Nasonovia heucherae

        H. longiflora                               Nasonovia heucherae

        H. micrantha (incl. var.                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                  diversifolia)                Nasonovia davidsoni, heucherae

        H. richardsonii                            Nasonovia borealis

        H. rubescens                               Nasonovia cynosbati

        H. sanguinea                              [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1973, 17)]

        H. villosa                                     Nasonovia smithi

Key to apterae on Heuchera:-

(Note: apterae of  Nasonovia tiarellae are unknown.)

1    Thoracic spiracular apertures much larger than abdominal ones. ANT III with 1-44 secondary rhinaria, and secondary rhinaria also often on ANT IV, or IV and V. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually longer than ANT BD III, and with expanded apices. R IV+V 1.4-2.2 Χ HT II. Cauda pale, finger- or tongue-shaped, with 4-7 (usually 5) hairs                                                   …..2

-     Thoracic spiracular apertures similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT III with 0-10 secondary rhinaria, none on IV or V. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually shorter than ANT BD III. R IV+V usually less than 1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda if pale and tongue- or finger-shaped then usually with more than 5 hairs                                                               .….go to key to polyphagous aphids

2    Dorsal abdomen pale or with indistinct sclerotisation                                                        …..3

-     Dorsal abdomen with dark marginal sclerites and/or dark spino-pleural sclerites, or cross-bars, or a patch or shield                                                                                                              …..4

3    SIPH 1.2-2.3 Χ cauda, and 0.14-0.20 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-9.7. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 1-44, IV 0-15, V 0-4                                           …..Nasonovia cynosbati

-     SIPH 1.0-1.2 Χ cauda, and 0.11-0.14 Χ BL. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-5.6. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 24-54, IV 0-26, V 0-13                                         …..Nasonovia borealis

4    Longest hair on ANT III 0.4-0.8 Χ BDIII. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 7-21, IV

      0-9, V 0-1                                                                                                  …..Nasonovia smithi

-     Longest hair on ANT III 0.8-1.3 Χ BD III. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 26-37, IV 10-15, V 0-7                                                                                                                        …..5

5    Dorsal abdomen usually with dark marginal sclerites and spino-pleural sclerites or cross-bars, seldom with a larger more solid pigmented area. R IV+V with 7-11 accessory hairs (usually

      8-10). ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.9                                                            …..Nasonovia heucherae

-     Dorsal abdomen with a solid black shield. R IV+V with 10-13 accessory hairs. ANT PT/BASE about 6.5-7.8                                                                       …..Nasonovia davidsoni


Hexachlamys                                              Myrtaceae

      Hexachlamys edulis                      Aphis gossypii


Hibbertia                                                     Dilleniaceae

      Hibbertia obcuneata                     Myzus ornatus

        H. pancheri                                   Aphis gossypii

        H. scandens                                  Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Hibiscus  (including Bamia)                                        Malvaceae

      Hibiscus abelmoschus = Abelmoschus moschatus

          H. acetosella                                  Aphis gossypii

        H. arnottianus                               Aphis gossypii

        H. asper                                         Aphis gossypii

        H. boryanus = H. rosa-sinensis

        H. calyphyllus                               Aulacorthum solani

        H. cannabinus                              Aphis craccivora, gossypii, umbrella

        H. coccineus = Malvaviscus arboreus

        H. eetveldeanus = H. acetosella

        H. esculentus = Abelmoschus esculentus

        H. furcellatus                                Aphis gossypii

        H. hamabo                                    Aphis gossypii

        H. liliflorus                                    Aphis gossypii

        H. ludwigii                                    Aphis gossypii

        H. manihot = Abelmoschus manihot

        H. moschatus = Abelmoschus manihot

          H. moscheutos ssp. palustris         Aphis craccivora

       H. mutabilis                                  Aphis eugeniae, gossypii;

                                                              [Macrosiphum sp.; Leonard 1972a];

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        H. palustris = H. moscheutos ssp. palustris

        H. panduriformis                          Aphis gossypii

        H. pedunculatus = Pavonia candida

        H. rosa-sinensis                            Aphis aurantii, coreopsidis, craccivora, eugeniae, fabae,

                                                                 gossypii, nasturtii, odinae, spiraecola, umbrella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;  [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              [Eutrichosiphum pseudopasaniae];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              [Nasonovia ribisnigri]; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                              [Schoutedenia ralumensis]; [Sitobion rosaeiformis]

        H. schizopetalus                            Aphis gossypii

        H. sabdariffa                                 Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

        H. squamosus                               Aphis gossypii                  

        H. sterculiifolius                            Aphis gossypii

        H. surattensis                                Aphis gossypii

        H. syriacus                                    Aphis [albella], craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola,

                                                                  [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];

                                                              Myzus persicae; [Nasonovia ribisnigri];

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

        H. tiliaceus                                    Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii

        H. trionum                                    Aphis [albella], craccivora, gossypii, umbrella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani 

        Hibiscus ssp.                                 Acyrthosiphon gossypii, malvae; Aphis althaeae, solanella;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [ pechumani]

Key to apterae on Hibiscus:-

1    ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles             …..2

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles             …..3

2     SIPH pale, very long and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, 0.33-0.45 Χ BL and 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                           …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3    SIPH pale, or only dusky near apices                                                                                 <