HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Epa-Exo

 

Epacris

Ephedra

Epidendrum

Epifagus

Epilobium

Epimedium

Epipactis

Epiphyllum

Equisetum

Eragrostis

Eranthemum

Erechtites

Eremocitrus

Eremodaucus

Eremogone

Eremophila

Eremopogon

Eremopyrum

Eremosparton

Eremostachys

Eremurus

Eria

Erianthemum

Erianthus

Erica

Ericameria

Erigeron

Eriobotrya

Eriocephalus

Eriochloa

Eriocoma

Eriodendron

Eriogonum

Eriophorum

Eriophyllum

Eriosema

Eriosolena

Eriosorus

Erithalis

Erlangea

Erodium

Eruca

Erucago

Erucaria

Erucastrum

Ervatamia

Ervum

Erycibe

Eryngium

Erysimum

Erythraea

Erythrina

Erythrococca

Erythrodes

Erythrodontium

Erythronium

Erythroxylum

Escallonia

Eschscholzia

Etlingera

Eubotryoides

Eucalyptus

Euchlaena

Euclea

Eucommia

Eucrypha

Eugenia

Eulalia

Eulophia

Eunomia

Euodia

Euonymus

Eupatorium

Euphorbia

Euphoria

Euphrasia

Euptelia

Eurynchium

Eurohypnum

Eurotia

Eurya

Eurybia

Euryops

Euscaphis

Eustachys

Eustrephus

Euterpe

Euthamia

Eutrema

Eutrochium

Evodia

Exochorda

Exostema

Exothea

Exotheca

 

 

Epacris                                                         Ericaceae

      Epacris longiflora                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Ephedra                                                       Ephedraceae

      Ephedra alai (?alata)                    Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. alata ssp. alenda                       [Aphis craccivora]

       E. arvense (?)                                 Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. capitata (?)                                Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. ciliata = E. foliata                       

      E. distachya                                   Ephedraphis ephedrae, ephedrae ssp. taurica

       E. equisetina                                  Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. fedtschenkoae                           Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. foliata                                        Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. fragilis                                       Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. gerardiana                                Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. intermedia                                 Ephedraphis ephedrae, ephedrae ssp. taurica

       E. lomatolepis                                Ephedraphis ephedrae, ephedrae ssp. taurica

       E. major (incl. sssp. procera)              Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. monosperma                             Ephedraphis gobica

       E. nebrodensis = E. major

       E. ramosissimum (?)                     Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. regeliana                                   Ephedraphis ephedrae

       E. sinica                                         Ephedraphis gobica

       E. strobilacea                                 Ephedraphis ephedrae, ephedrae ssp. taurica                   

       Ephedra sp.                                   [Brachyunguis tamaricis (Lichtenstein) (as

                                                                  tamaricifoliae)];

                                                              Ephedraphis gobica ssp. xinjiangica, mongolica

Couplet for separating apterae of Ephedraphis spp.:-

1     Cauda rounded or helmet-shaped, as short as or shorter than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.8                                                                                                                                …..2

-      Cauda long and finger-like, much longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-c.2.5       

…..3

2     SIPH 0.13-0.27 mm, 2.1-3.1 Χ CAUDA                                         ..... Ephedraphis ephedrae

-      SIPH 0.08-0.12 mm, 1.3-1.8 Χ CAUDA                                       ..... Ephedraphis mongolica

3     ANT PT/BASE c.2.5                                                                 .....Ephedraphis gobica s. str.*

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.0                                            ......Ephedraphis gobica ssp. xinjiangica*

 

Epidendrum (including Anacheilium)                       Orchidaceae

      Epidendrum atropurpureum = Psychilis atropurpurea

       E. campylostalix = Prosthechea campylostalix

       E. cochleatum = Prosthechea cochleata

       E. crassifolium = E. ellipticum

       E. crassilabium = Prosthechea vespa

       E. difforme                                    Sitobion luteum

       E. ellipticum                                  Aphis fabae; Sitobion luteum

       E. fragrans = Prosthechea fragrans

       E. ibaguense                                  Myzus persicae; Sitobion anselliae

       E. phoeniceum = Encyclia phoenicea

       E. ramosum                                   Cerataphis orchidearum

       E. repens                                        Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       E. secundum                                 Aphis gossypii; Cerataphis orchidearum

       E. teretifolium = Jacquiniella teretifolia

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.

 

Epifagus                                                       Orobanchaceae

      Epifagus virginiana                       Prociphilus erigeronensis

 

Epilobium                                                    Onagraceae

      Epilobium adenocaulon = E.ciliatum                                       

       E. adnatum = E. tetragonum

       E. alpestre                                      Aphis epilobii

       E. alpinum = E. palustre

       E. alsinifolium                               Aphis fabae

       E. amurense ssp. cephalostigma   Aphis onagraphaga (= pollinaria?)

       E. angustifolium                            Aphis asclepiadis, epilobiaria, epilobii, fabae, frangulae,

                                                                  gossypii, grossulariae, mirifica, nasturtii, oenotherae,

                                                                  [onagraphaga], praeterita, salicariae, [triglochinis],

                                                                  varians, Aphis sp.(USA: Washington, BMNH colln,

                                                                   leg. D. Carroll);

                                                              [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                              Macrosiphum [cholodkovskyi], [chukotense], euphorbiae,

                                                                   fuscicornis, lisae, rosae, tinctum, valerianae;

                                                              Myzus persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon epilobii, [Uroleucon sp.(USA; Leonard 1968]

       E. billardierianum                         Aphis carverae

                 (incl. ssp. cinereum)

       E. brachycarpum                          Aphis sp. (western USA; BMNH collection, and see

                                                                  aphidtrek.org)

       E. cephalostigma = E. amurense ssp. cephalostigma

       E. ciliatum (incl. ssp. watsonii)          Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                              Aphis epilobii, grossulariae, nasturtii, oenotherae,

                                                                  Aphis sp. (USA: California, Oregon and Washington,

                                                                  BMNH colln), Aphis sp. (New Zealand; BMNH colln);

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus lythri, ornatus, persicae

       E. collinum                                    Aphis epilobii, grossulariae, pollinaria;

                                                              Macrosiphum tinctum

       E. coloratum                                  Aphis oenotherae, varians

       E. densiflorum = Boisduvalia densiflora

       E. denticulatum                             Casimira canberrae

       E. dodonaei                                   Aphis frangulae, oenotherae, [plantaginis of Passerini

                                                                  1863], praeterita

       E. fleischeri                                    Aphis sp. near mirifica (Italy; BMNH collection)

       E. franciscanum = E. ciliatum ssp. watsonii

       E. halleanum                                 Aphis oenotherae             

       E. herbaceum (?)                           Aphis epilobiaria

       E. hirsutum                                   Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, fluvialis, grossulariae, nasturtii,

                                                                  [pollinosa (nomen dubium)], praeterita;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, tinctum;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, lythri, persicae

       E. hirtigerum                                 Casimira canberrae

       E. junceum = E. denticulatum                                                                                                                                        

       E. lamyi = E. tetragonum ssp, lamyi

       E. lanceolatum                              Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, fabae, praeterita, salicariae;

                                                              Macrosiphum tinctum

       E. latifolium                                   Aphis nasturtii

       E. lineare = E. palustre

       E. minutiflorum                            Aphis epilobii, grossulariae

       E. molle = E. parviflorum

       E. montanum                                Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, frangulae, grossulariae,

                                                                  oenotherae, pollinaria, praeterita, spiraephaga;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, tinctum;

                                                         Myzus lythri, ornatus

       E. obscurum                                 Aphis epilobii, grossulariae, pollinaria, salicariae,

                                                                  spiraephaga

       E. palustre                                     Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, frangulae, grossulariae,

                                                                 oenotherae, pollinaria, praeterita, varians;

                                                              Macrosiphum tinctum

       E. paniculatum = E. brachycarpum

       E. parviflorum                               Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, fabae, frangulae, grossulariae,

                                                                  holmani, pollinaria, praeterita;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, tinctum;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus

       E. pubescens = E. parviflorum

       E. roseum                                      Aphis epilobii, grossulariae, pollinaria, praeterita;

                                                              Macrosiphum tinctum; Myzus lythri

       E. rotundifolium                            Aphis sp. (New Zealand; BMNH collection)

       E. tetragonum (incl. ssp. lamyi)         Aphis epilobiaria, epilobii, grossulariae, pollinaria,

                                                                   praeterita, spiraephaga;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, lythri

       E. tianshanicum                            Aphis grossulariae

       E. watsonii = E. ciliatum ssp. watsonii

       E. virgatum = E. obscurum

       Epilobium spp.                              Aphis [despecta (nomen dubium)], [malvae Walker of

                                                                 Buckton], nelsonensis, nivalis,

                                                                 [Aphis sp. (French Alps; Stroyan, 1984: 89)];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Eriosoma nigrum; [Macrosiphum pallidum]

Key to apterae on Epilobium:-

1     Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH consisting of shallow cones with sclerotic rims, their bases ringed by long hairs. Marginal wax glands on abdomen each consist of a ring of cells around a circular central area. Dorsum almost wholly sclerotic (on roots)                         …..Eriosoma nigrum

-      Eyes multi-faceted. SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or conical without a basal ring of hairs. No discrete wax glands. Dorsum membranous or with black sclerotic shield                         …..2

2     Head spiculose or nodulose. ANT tubercles well developed, SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                         …..3

-      Head without spicules or nodules. ANT tubercles variously developed or undeveloped, if well developed then SIPH have a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                     …..4

3     ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 2.4-3.0, and ANT III without rhinaria. Dorsal cuticle wrinkled or warty, and SIPH coarsely imbricated                                           …..Myzus lythri

-      ANT 1.1-1.3 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 4.0-5.5, and ANT III usually with 1-3 small rhinaria near base. Dorsal cuticle smooth, SIPH moderately imbricated                  …..Aulacorthum solani

4     ANT tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped. SIPH without polygonal reticulation

                                                                                                                                                  …..5

-      ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                       …..29

5     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                    …..6

-      Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform. At least ABD TERG 1, and usually also 7, with MTu                                                      …..7

6     Dorsum with an extensive solid black shield. SIPH dark, 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda                              

                                                                                                                  …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH pale, 1.1-1.3 Χ cauda       …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

7     ABD TERG 7 without MTu. First tarsal segments with 2-2-2 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.95-4.0, PT 1.2-1.8 Χ SIPH. (Al. with media of forewing once-branched)      …..Casimira canberrae

-      ABD TERG 7 with MTu. First tarsal segments with 3-3-2 or 3-3-3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-3.7, PT 0.6-1.4 Χ SIPH.  (Al. with media of forewing twice-branched)                           …..8

8     R IV+V with 6-12 accessory hairs                                                                                     …..9

-      R IV+V with only 2 accessory hairs                                                                                …..16

9     Hairs on ANT III very long, fine and wavy, the longest of them 1.8-4 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.0                                                                                           …..Aphis varians

-      Hairs on ANT III straight or curved, not fine and wavy, maximally 1-2 Χ BD III. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.4                                                                                                             …..10

10   ABD TERG 2-6 bearing in total 1-10 MTu (only less than 3 in some small specimens)

                                                                                                                       …..Aphis grossulariae

 -     ABD TERG 2-6 without Mtu                                                                                          …..11

11   R IV+V 0.17-0.20 mm long. Tarsi almost completely smooth. SIPH sometimes with a few fine hairs                                                                                                   …..Aphis epilobiaria

-      R IV+V 0.10-0.17 mm long. Tarsi with some imbrication, or if smooth then R IV+V is 0.10-0.12 mm. SIPH always without hairs                                                                              …..12

12   SIPH only 1.05-1.35 Χ R IV+V, 0.11-0.13 Χ BL and 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 9-11 accessory hairs                                                                                               …..Aphis fluvialis

-      SIPH 1.4-2.55 Χ R IV+V, 0.11-0.21 Χ BL and 0.9-2.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs                                                                                                                                  …..13

13   SIPH 0.9-1.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.05-1.30 Χ HT II. Cauda 1.5-2.0 Χ R IV+V. Tarsi almost completely smooth. Head, ANT and legs dusky

                                                            …..Aphis sp.(USA: California, Oregon; BMNH collection)

-      SIPH 1.05-2.1 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.27-1.80 Χ HT II. Cauda 1.05-1.75 Χ R IV+V. Tarsi with some imbrication                                                                                                              …..14

14   Cauda 1.35-1.75 Χ R IV+V and 0.95-1.30 Χ ANT BASE VI. RIV+V 0.105-0.142 mm long, 1.18-1.55 Χ HT II. Head, ANT and legs all rather dusky/dark                      …..Aphis epilobii

-      Cauda 1.05-1.35 Χ RIV+V and 1.25-1.95 Χ ANT BASE VI. R IV+V 0.125-0.17 mm long, 1.4-1.95 Χ HT II. Head, ANT and legs usually quite pale                                               …..15

15   ANT PT/BASE 2.55-3.70. ANT PT 1.8-2.6 Χ R IV+V and 0.85-1.45 Χ SIPH. R IV+V 0.125-0.145 mm long, 1.25-1.50 Χ HT II and 1.25-1.75 Χ ANT BASE VI

                                                                              …..Aphis sp. (New Zealand; BMNH collection)

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.90-2.55. ANT PT 1.1-1.6 Χ R IV+V and 0.60-0.95 Χ SIPH. R IV+V 0.145-0.175 mm long, 1.45-1.80 Χ HT II and 1.35-2.00 Χ ANT BASE VI

                                                                                                                         …..Aphis oenotherae

16   ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.7. SIPH 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda which bears 5-8 hairs       …..Aphis praeterita

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-3.5, if more than 3.2 then cauda bears 11-24 hairs                          …..17

17   Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.9 Χ BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter usually shorter than width of trochantro-femoral suture                                                                          …..18

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.9-3.6 Χ BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter usually longer than width of trochantro-femoral suture                                                                          …..27

18   SIPH only 0.4-0. 6 Χ cauda, which bears 8-15 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.32.

       Well-developed MTu usually present on all of ABD TERG 1-7                  …..Aphis holmani

-      SIPH 0.7-2.5 Χ cauda which bears 3-17 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-3.2. MTu only always consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                   …..19

19   ANT 5-segmented, in both apt. and al. SIPH short and rather thin, 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which has a marked constriction and bears only 3-5 hairs                                           …..Aphis nelsonensis

-      ANT usually 6-segmented (occasionally 5-segmented in small apt.). SIPH 0.7-2.5 Χ cauda which bears 4-17 hairs                                                                                                      …..20

20   R IV+V 0.65-092 Χ HT II.  SIPH 0.7-1.1 Χ cauda which bears 7-17 hairs

                                                                                                                       …..Aphis spiraephaga

-      R IV+V (0.82-)0.93-1.57 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.78-2.5 Χ cauda which bears 4-12 hairs        …..21

21   ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.7. SIPH short and thick, less than 2 Χ their basal widths,  0.78-0.95 Χ cauda                                                                                                                …..Aphis nivalis

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-3.2. SIPH more than 2 Χ their basal widths, 0.84-2.5 Χ cauda       …..22

22   SIPH less than 2 Χ ANT BASE VI (or BASE V when ANT 5-segmented). ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.2. SIPH 0.84-1.43 Χ cauda (Al. never with secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)         …..23

-      SIPH more than 2 Χ ANT BASE VI (or BASE V). ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.2. SIPH 0.85-2.5 Χ cauda (Al. with 0-7 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                   …..24

23   SIPH pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II    …..Aphis sp. (Washington, USA, BMNH collection)

-      SIPH dark. R IV+V 0.82-1.25 Χ HT II                                                                           …..25

24   SIPH 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda which bears 5-11 hairs                                               …..Aphis mirifica

-      SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda which bears 3-6 hairs                                                …..Aphis carverae 

25   ANT III 0.25-0.63 mm long, 2.5- 4.0 Χ R IV+V. HT I with 3 hairs (median sense peg present)                                                                                                    …..Aphis asclepiadis

-      ANT III 0.15-0.32 mm long, 1.3-2.6 Χ R IV+V. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg)        …..26

26   SIPH 0.85-2.2 Χ cauda which bears 4-11 hairs. (Al. with (0-)1-7 secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                             …..Aphis frangulae

-      SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda which bears 4-8 hairs. (Al. never with secondary rhinaria on ANT IV)

…..Aphis gossypii

27   SIPH usually rather distinctly and evenly curved outwards from base to flange. ANT III 1.5-2.6 Χ SIPH, 1.9-3.1 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.9-3.2 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 each with 6 spinopleural hairs, and ABD TERG 8 with 5-10 hairs. Cauda with 6-11 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                                                 …..Aphis salicariae

-      SIPH not appreciably curved. ANT III 0.8-1.6 Χ SIPH, 0.8-1.8 Χ cauda. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.75-2.15 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 1-4 with 2-4 spinopleural hairs, and ABD TERG 8 with 2-5 hairs. Cauda with 7-24 hairs                                                                              …..28

28   SIPH 0.4-0.84 Χ cauda, which is 2.0-2.2 Χ R IV+V and has 7-15 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with only 2 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                             …..Aphis pollinaria

-      SIPH 0.8-1.7 Χ cauda. Cauda 1.35-1.95 Χ RIV+V and bearing 6-24 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3-3-2 hairs                                      …..Aphis fabae group

29   ANT I and II dark                                                                                                           …..30

-      ANT I and II pale                                                                                                            …..31

30   ANT III with 10-36 rhinaria, not in a row                                           …..Macrosiphum rosae

-      ANT III with 4-9 rhinaria, in a row                                             …..Macrosiphum valerianae

31   SIPH less than 1.5 Χ cauda; dark with about basal 0.25 pale, and with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.25-0.35                                                            …..Uroleucon epilobii*

-      SIPH more than 1.6 Χ cauda, mainly pale or dusky, with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.08-0.2 of length                                                                                           …..32

32   SIPH more than 2.5 Χ cauda                                                      …..Macrosiphum fuscicornis*

-      SIPH 1.6-2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..33

33   Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.5 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.4-0.5 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.4

                                                                                                                      …..Macrosiphum lisae

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.3 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 4.6-6.5

                                                                                                                                                …..34

34   R IV+V 0.98-1.11 Χ HT II. Posterior part of  head (between eyes) usually with 1-2 small spinal tubercles (STu), and similar STu often also ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8 . Marginal tubercles (MTu) usually present on ABD TERG 2-4                        …..Macrosiphum tinctum

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.02 Χ HT II. STu and MTu absent or only irregularly present, and rarely on head                                                                                             …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

 

Epimedium                                                  Berberidaceae

      Epimedium koreanum                  Aulacorthum solani

 

Epipactis                                                      Orchidaceae

      Epipactis atropurpurea = E. atrorubens

         E. atrorubens                                 Aphis epipactis, fabae; Dtsaphis neostroyani                 

       E. consimilis = E. helleborine

       E. helleborine (incl. latifolia)            Aphis epipactis,  fabae, [ilicis]

      E. latifolia = E. helleborine              

       E. palustris                                     Aphis epipactis,  fabae

       E. persica                                       Aphis fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

       E. royleana                                    Aulacorthum solani

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Epiphyllum                                                  Cactaceae

      Epiphyllum ackermanii = Disocactus ackermanii                 

      Epiphyllum sp.                             Aphis craccivora, fabae, spiraecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Equisetum                                                    Equisetaceae

      Equisetum arvense                        Aphis equiseticola; Macrosiphum equiseti;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; [Paracletus cimiciformis];

                                                              Sitobion avenae

       E. fluviatile                                    Aulacorthum solani

       E. laevigatum                                Anoecia equiseti            

       E. pratense                                     Aphis equiseticola; Macrosiphum equiseti

       E. sylvaticum                                 Aphis equiseticola, gossypii; Macrosiphum equiseti;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion fragariae

       E. telmateia                                    Macrosiphum equiseti

       Equisetum sp.                                [Myzus cerasi]                  

Key to apterae on Equisetum:-

1     SIPH poriform. Cauda broadly rounded. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Hairs on body and appendages numerous, long and fine-pointed (on roots)                            .....Anoecia equiseti

-      SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue-or finger-like. ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Hairs shorter and sparser                                                                                                                                 .....2

2     SIPH without any subapical reticulation. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                        …..3

-      SIPH with subapical rows of polygonal reticulation, although these are sometimes rather ill-defined. Cauda with 7-11 hairs                                                                                         …..7

3     Head spiculose, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                      …..4

-      Head smooth, with ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu  …..5

4     Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation, including a U-shaped dorsal abdominal patch

…..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsum pale                                                                                          …..Aulacorthum solani

5     SIPH shorter than cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.5                                  …..Aphis equiseticola

-      SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-5.2                                                                 …..6

6     SIPH cylindrical for most of length, slightly swollen distally and with a subapical constriction. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.2                                                  …..Rhopalosiphum padi

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.2                        …..Aphis gossypii 

7     Head spinulose ventrally. SIPH pale or dusky, like cauda. Cauda 1.05-1.55 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 5-10 hairs                                                                    …..Macrosiphum equiseti

-      Head smooth. SIPH black. cauda pale, 0.75-1.05 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs

                                                                                                                     …..7

7     SIPH 1.0-1.4 Χ cauda, which tapers to an almost pointed apex                 …..Sitobion avenae

-      SIPH 1.7-2.7 Χ cauda, which is rounded at apex                                    .....Sitobion fragariae

 

Eragrostis                                                    Poaceae

      Eragrostis amabilis                        Tetraneura basui, fusiformis, radicicola, yezoensis

       E. arenicola                                   Aphis gossypii

       E. aspera                                        Aphis gossypii; Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. chariis = E. nutans

       E. cilianensis                                 Anoecia corni, vagans; Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Geoica utricularia; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; [Slavum lentiscoides];

                                                              Tetraneura caerulescens, ulmi

       E. ciliaris                                        Aphis gossypii; Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. curvula                                      Hysteroneura setariae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, avenae, graminis,

                                                                  [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

       E. echinochloidea                          Hysteroneura setariae

       E. elegans = E. japonica

       E. ferruginea                                 Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. gangetica                                   Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion graminis, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis, radicicola, yezoensis

       E. interrupta                                  Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. japonica                                    Aphis gossypii; Tetraneura ulmi

       E. macilenta                                  Sitobion neusi

       E. major = E. cilianensis

       E. megastachya  = E. cilianensis                                               

       E. minor                                        Anoecia corni, haupti, vagans; Colopha ulmicola;

                                                              Geoica utricularia; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sitobion avenae; [Slavum lentiscoides];

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; Tetraneura caerulescens, ulmi

       E. multicaulis                                Sitobion akebiae, avenae; Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. namaquensis = E. japonica

       E. nigra                                          Anoecia furcata, radiciphaga; Forda marginata;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga; Tetraneura fusiformis, sikkimensis

       E. niwahokori = E. multicaulis

       E. nutans                                       Hysteroneura setariae

       E. obtusa                                        Rhopalosiphum padi

       E. olivacea                                     Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion graminis;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis

       E. patula                                        Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, graminis, neusi, yakini

       E. pectinacea                                 Anoecia corni

       E. pilosa                                         Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sitobion africanum; Tetraneura ulmi

       E. plana                                         Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Sitobion graminis, [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)]

       E. poaeoides = E. minor                  

       E. squamata                                  Hysteroneura setariae

       E. superba                                     Sitobion miscanthi

       E. tef                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; Tetraneura ulmi

       E. tenella = E. amabilis

       E. tenuifolia = E. patula                  

       E. tremula                                      Aphis gossypii

       E. unioloides                                  Forda trivialis ssp. lambersi (= marginata?);

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae

       E. virescens                                    Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sitobion avenae

       Eragrostis spp.                              Anoecia fulviabdominalis; Aploneura lentisci;

                                                              Pseudoregma panicola; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sipha flava, maydis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

      

Eranthemum                                                Acanthaceae

      Eranthemum nervosum          Aphis gossypii

 

Erechtites                                                     Compositae

      Erechtites arguta = Senecio glomerata                                       

       E. hieraciifolia                               Aleurodaphis blumeae;

                                                              Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, [parvotuberculatum],

                                                                   pseudambrosiae

       E. prenanthoides                           Aphis fabae, lugentis, Aphis sp. (California, BMNH

                                                                   collection);

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

       E. quadridentata = Senecio quadridentatus

       E. valerianifolia                             Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon ambrosiae

       E. verbenifolia (?)                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

Key to aphids on Erechtites:-

1     Body flattened and dorsum sclerotic, with fused head and pronotum, fused ABD TERG 1-7, and a crenulate rim due to a continuous marginal row of wax glands. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                    …..Aleurodaphis blumeae

-      Body not flattened, segments not fused, no crenulate margin of wax glands. Cauda not knobbed, anal plate entire                                                                                                 …..2

2     SIPH dark with extensive subapical polygonal reticulation. Cauda long and pale           …..3

-      SIPH and cauda pale or dark, but if SIPH are dark then they lack polygonal reticulation

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

3     HT II rather long and thin, about 6 Χ its maximum thickness, and 0.9-1.1 Χ R IV+V

                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II shorter, less than 5 Χ its maximum thickness and 0.7-0.85 Χ R IV+V

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

4     SIPH pale, smooth and markedly clavate. ANT III with 7-24 secondary rhinaria (88% with 11 or more). ANT PT/BASE 5.2-7.3                                               …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      SIPH pale or dark, tapering/cylindrical or slightly clavate; if at all clavate then ANT PT/BASE less than 5.2. ANT III with 0-10 secondary rhinaria                                        …..5

5     ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                        …..6

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                                    …..9

6     Ventral hair on hind trochanter 12-19 μm, 0.2-0.4 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Large MTu regularly present on ABD TERG 1-4(-5) and 7. R IV+V 0.18-0.19 mm, with

        (3-)-4 accessory hairs; 1.11-1.43 Χ cauda, and 4.0-6.5 Χ distance between the 2 hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate   …..Aphis sp. ex E. prenanthoides, USA, BMNH collection

-      Ventral hair on hind trochanter more than 0.55 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5. R IV+V 0.07-0.17 mm, with 2 accessory hairs; 0.6-1.1 Χ cauda, and less than 3 Χ distance between the 2 hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate (unless many hairs are present)                                                                                  …..7

7     ANT III, IV and often V with sec. rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.4. Tibiae black. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present)                                                                            …..Aphis lugentis

-      ANT without sec. rhinaria (except in alatiforms).  ANT PT/BASE 2.1-5.3. Tibiae pale at least on basal half. HT I with only 2 hairs (no sense peg)                                                          …..8

8     SIPH 0.8-0.9 Χ cauda (both being black). ABD TERG 2-4 with 1-3 MTu in total

…..Aphis sp. ex E. arguti, USA, BMNH collection

-      SIPH (0.8-) 0.9-2.8 Χ cauda, which is pale or dark. ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with MTu, often without any               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

9     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                                            …..10

-      Cauda tongue or finger-like, longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                                                                            …..11

10   Dorsum with an extensive dark shield. BL 1.5-2.5 mm. SIPH dark, 0.19-0.32 mm, 2.3-3.0 Χ their basal diameters                                                                           …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsum without any dark markings. BL 0.9-1.5 mm. SIPH pale, 0.065-0.165 mm,

       0.9-2.0 Χ their basal diameters                                                      …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

11   ANT PT/BASE 5.9-7.5. ANT dark except at base, and SIPH dark except for basal 0.2-0.3 of length                                                                                          ..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 5.9. ANT mainly pale, SIPH uniformly dark or pale

…...go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

 

Eremocitrus                                                 Rutaceae

      Eremocitrus glauca                       Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Myzus persicae

                   (= Citrus glauca)

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Eremodaucus                                               Apiaceae

      Eremodaucus lehmannii              [Brachycaudus helichrysi]

 

Eremogone                                                  Caryophyllaceae

      Eremogone blepharophylla          Myzus ascalonicus

       E. saxatilis                                     [Macrosiphum chukotense]

 

Eremophila                                                  Scrophulariaceae

      Eremophila alternifolia                 Myzus persicae

       E. bignoniflora                              Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       E. gilesii                                         Aphis gossypii

       E. maculata                                   [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a, 100)]

       E. serrulata                                    Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Eremopogon  see  Dichanthium                                    Poaceae

 

Eremopyrum (or Eremopyron)                                   Poaceae

      Eremopyrum buonaepartis           Geoica lucifuga, utricularia; Paracletus bykovi

       E. orientale                                    Geoice [anchusae], setulosa, utricularia

       E. triticeum                                    Diuraphis noxia

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Eremosparton                                              Leguminosae

      Eremosparton aphyllum               Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivor, gossypii

See key to apterae on Ammodendron.

     

Eremostachys                                              Lamiaceae

      Eremostachys labiosa                    Brachycaudus cerasicola

       E. loasifolia                                    Aphis sp. (frangulae group; BMNH collection,

                                                                   Afghanistan)

       E. vacillans = E. loasifolia               

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      Dorsum with an extensive black sclerotic shield. Cauda semicircular to helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH shorter than R IV+V

                                                                                      ….. Brachycaudus cerasicola

-      Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Eremurus                                                     Asphodelaceae

      Eremurus comosus                       Dysaphis eremuri

       E. lactiflorus                                  Dysaphis eremuri

       E. olgae                                          Dysaphis eremuri, eremuri ssp. baisunensis

       E. regelii                                        Dysaphis eremuri

       E. robustus                                    Aphis craccivora

       E. stenophyllus                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Metopolophium dirhodum]

       E. tianschanicus                            Dysaphis eremuri

       Eremurus sp.                                 Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Eremurus:-

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width and much shorter than R IV+V

                                                                                                                        …..Dysaphis eremuri

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width and longer than R IV+V

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Eria                                                              Orchidaceae

      Eria bambusifolia                          Sitobion indicum, luteum

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Erianthemum                                               Loranthaceae

      Erianthemum dregei                     Sitobion sp. nr loranthi

      Erianthemum sp.                          Aphis gossypii

See key to apterae under Loranthus.

 

Erianthus  see  Saccharum                                               Poaceae

 

Erica                                                            Ericaceae

      Erica arborea                                Aphis arbuti, aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola,

                                                                  [Aphis sp. (Ilharco 1984)];

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

      E. australis                                     Aphis gossypii; Ericaphis ericae; Myzus ornatus

       E. azorica                                       Aphis aurantii, gossypii

       E. bauera                                       Aphis gossypii

       E. caffra                                         Aulacorthum solani; Ericaphis ericae

       E. carnea = E. herbacea

       E. cinerea                                      Aphis multiflorae; Ericaphis latifrons

       E. glandulosa                                Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       E. gracilis                                       Aphis fabae, spiraephaga; Ericaphis ericae

       E. herbacea                                   Ericaphis latifrons

       E. lusitanica                                   Myzus ornatus

       E. multiflora                                  Aphis aurantii, multiflorae

       E. regia                                          Aphis spiraecola

       E. scoparia                                     Aphis fabae, multiflorae, spiraecola, spiraephaga

       E. stricta = E. terminalis

         E. terminalis                                  Myzus ornatus

       E. tetralix                                       Ericaphis ericae

       E. umbellata                                  Ericaphis latifrons

       E. urceolata                                   Myzus ornatus

       E. verticillata                                  Aphis multiflorae

Key to apterae on Erica:-

1     SIPH uniformly dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                     …..2

-      SIPH pale or dusky, sometimes dark-tipped. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu            …..7

2     ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0. Stridulatory apparatus present            …..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-3.6 No stridulatory apparatus                                                            …..3

3     Black cauda, usually with an evident constriction at midlength, 0.9-1.2 Χ ANT III and bearing 7-15 hairs. Hind femur with long fine hairs similar in length to trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                                         …..Aphis spiraecola

-      Cauda pale or dark with no evident constriction, 1-2 Χ ANT III (if less than 1.2 Χ ANT III then cauda pale with 4-7 hairs and/or hind femur with only short hairs                            …..4

4     Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-3.4 Χ BD III, and longest hairs on hind femur longer than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 11-27 hairs                         …..Aphis fabae (or arbuti)

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.9 Χ BD III, and longest hairs on hind femur shorter than trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda with 4-17 hairs                                                             …..5

5     SIPH 1.3-2.5 Χ cauda, which is paler than SIPH and bears 4-8 hairs. ANT PT/BASE

       2.1-3.2                                                                                                           …..Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH 0.7-1.1 Χ cauda, which is as dark as SIPH and bears 4-17 hairs. ANT PT/BASE

       1.4-2.3                                                                                                                                …..6

6     R IV+V 1.09-1.24 Χ HT II. Cauda with 4-7 hairs                                   …..Aphis multiflorae

-      R IV+V 0.65-0.92 Χ HT II. Cauda with 7-17 hairs                               …..Aphis spiraephaga

7     ANT 1.1-1.3 Χ BL. ANT III usually bearing 1-2 small rhinaria near base

                                                                                                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

-      ANT 0.5-1.0 Χ BL. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                   …..8

8     ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. SIPH slightly clavate                                            …..Myzus persicae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. SIPH tapering or cylindrical, often with an outward curve towards apex, and the aperture may be oblique                                                                               …..9

9     ANT tubercles well-developed, nodulose, with their inner faces very steep-sided, parallel or apically convergent. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental spots

                                                                                                                             …..Myzus ornatus

-      ANT tubercles rather low, spiculose or almost smooth, with inner faces divergent. Dorsal abdomen without any intersegmental spots                                                                     …..10

10   R IV+V 0.8-1.2 Χ HT II. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                   …..Ericaphis latifrons

-      R IV+V 1.3-1.7 Χ HT II. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                      …..Ericaphis ericae

 

Ericameria                                                   Compositae

      Ericameria bloomeri                     Pleotrichophorus lagacei

       E. nauseosa (incl.                            Aphis chrysothamni, chrysothamnicola, crypta, gregalis,

           graveolens, latisquamea)                     [hermistonii], ornata;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus elongatus, gregarius, neosporadicus,

                                                                 oestlundii, packi, packi ssp. brevis, palmerae,

                                                                 sporadicus, stroudi, utensis, wasatchii, xerozoous;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Uroleucon aaroni,[ambrosiae], erigeronense, escalantii

      Ericameria sp.                               [Pseudoepameibaphis sp. (Nevada, USA; A. Jensen,

                                                                  aphidtrek.org)]

Use key to apterae on Chrysothamnus.

                                                                                                       

Erigeron  (including Leptilon, Phalacroloma, Stenactis)      Compositae

      Erigeron acris (= acer)                    Acuticauda erigerontis; Acyrthosiphon malvae group;

                (incl. ssp. podolicus)                   Aphis erigerontis, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella [aktaschica], erigeronis;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Pleotrichophorus remaudierei;

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense, monticola, simile

       E. alpinus                                      Uroleucon simile

       E. annuus                                      Aphis craccivora, fabae, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella yomenae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon chrysopsidicola, erigeronense, gravicorne,

                                                                  luteolum, monticola, olivei, paucosensoriatum

       E. armerifolius                              Myzus persicae

       E. asteroides (?)                             Aphis craccivora

       E. aurantiacus                               Uroleucon calendulae, simile

       E. bonariensis  = Conyza bonariensis

       E. canadensis  = Conyza canadensis

       E. chinensis = Conyza laevigata

       E. crispus = Conyza bonariensis

         E. eximius                                      Uroleucon erigeronense   

         E. flahaultianus = Conyza bonariensis var. leiotheca

       E. floribundus                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       E. grandiflorus                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       E. jamaicensis                               Uroleucon erigeronense, gravicorne

       E. karvinskianus                           Myzus ornatus; Uroleucon gravicorne

       E. khorassanicus                           Macrosiphoniella erigeronis; Uroleucon simile

       E. lachnocephalus                         Uroleucon simile

       E. linifolius  = Conyza bonariensis

       E. oligocephalus = Chamaegeron oligocephalus

       E. peregrinus                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

       E. philadelphicus                           [Anoecia cornicola]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              [Geoica utricularia]; Illinoia goldamaryae;

                                                              Pemphigus sp.;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus ?patonkus (BMNH collection);

                                                              [Macrosiphum erigeron-philadelphicum (Rafinesque) –

                                                                   invalid name];

                                                              Protaphis middletonii; Uroleucon canadense, gravicorne

       E. podolicus = E. acris ssp. podolicus

       E. politus                                        [Macrosiphoniella aktaschica];

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense, simile

       E. pulchellus                                  Uroleucon erigeronense, gravicorne, simile

       E. ramosus = E. strigosus                

       E. simplex = E. grandiflorus

       E. speciosus                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                              Uroleucon simile

       E. strigosus (incl. var.                       [Aphis erigeron-strigosum Rafinesque – invalid name];

                        septentrionalis)                 Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Macrosiphum gibbosa (Rafinesque) – invalid name];

                                                              Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Uroleucon erigeronense, gravicorne

       E. subtrinervis                               Uroleucon erigeronense

       E. sumatrensis = Conyzus bonariensis var. leiotheca

       E. superbus = E. eximius

       Erigeron spp.                                Aphis lugentis; [Capitophorus formosartemisiae];

                                                              [Cedoaphis maxsoni]; [Eutrichosiphum pseudopasaniae];

                                                              [Impatientinum asiaticum ssp. dalhousiensis];

                                                              [Uroleucon asterophagum]; Pemphigus brevicornis;

                                                              [Sitobion miscanthi, sikkimenses, smilacicola];

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, astronomus, bereticum,

                                                                  brevitarsus, [cichorii], penae, simlaense,stoetzelae,

                                                                  [zymozionense],Uroleucon sp. (BMNH collection,

                                                                  California)

Key to apterae on Erigeron:-

1     SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 2-3 rows of closed polygonal cells)                 …..2

-      SIPH without any distinct subapical zone of reticulation (or SIPH absent)                  …..24

2     SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.15-0.5 of length, and comprising many small cells of maximum diameter less than 0.25 of diameter of SIPH at that point. Flange weakly developed                                                                                        …..3

-      SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over 0.03-0.2 of length, often somewhat constricted, and comprising large cells of diameter more than 0.3 of  diameter of SIPH at that point. Flange well developed                                                                   …..23

3     SIPH uniformly pigmented, dusky or dark                                                                       …..4

-      SIPH mainly dark but with a pale basal section                                                              …..18

4     SIPH less than 0.4 mm long, about as long as or a little shorter than cauda, with reticulation over about distal 0.5 of length. ANT III with only 1-4 rhinaria near base

…..Macrosiphoniella erigeronis*

-      SIPH more than 0.4 mm long, longer than cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.15-0.45 of length. ANT III usually with more than 5 rhinaria                                                            …..5

5     Conspicuous dark, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present                               …..6

-      No crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites                                                                    …..7

6     No large post-siphuncular sclerites. ANT III with 20-40 rhinaria. Cauda black. SIPH reticulated on distal c.0.4 of length                                           .....Macrosiphoniella yomenae

-      Large postsiphuncular sclerites present. ANT III with 10-23 rhinaria. Cauda pale/dusky. SIPH reticulated over distal c.0.3 of length                                   ..…Uroleucon calendulae*

7     Dorsal hairs arising from pigmented tubercles. R IV+V with more than 30 accessory hairs

                                                                            …..Uroleucon sp. (California, BMNH collection)

-      Dorsal hairs without raised bases. R IV+V with less than 20 accessory hairs                   …..8

8     Coxae with dark pigmentation. Cauda dusky or dark                                                       …..9

-      Coxae and cauda both pale, or only slightly dusky                                                         …..11

9     Cauda paler than SIPH. First tarsal segments with 3-5 hairs                                            .....10

-      Cauda dark like SIPH. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                 .....12

10   ANT III with more than 30 rhinaria. R IV+V with 4-5 accessory hairs. SIPH with reticulation over c.0.25 of length                                                         .....Uroleucon simlaense

-      ANT III with less than 15 rhinaria. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs. SIPH with reticulation over 0.37-0.43 of length                                                       .....Uroleucon penae*

11   R IV+V c.0.23 mm long, with 17-24 accessory hairs                      .....Uroleucon astronomus

-      R IV+V less than 0.20 mm long, with fewer than 15 accessory hairs                              .....13

12   SIPH 1.70-1.83 Χ cauda. ANT III with 38-44 rhinaria extending over 0.60-0.65 of length.

.....Uroleucon tschuense*

-      SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda. ANT III with 38-62 rhinaria extending over 0.67-0.95 of length.

.....Uroleucon simile

13   R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II, which is only 0.10-0.12 mm long     …..Uroleucon chrysopsidicola

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.3 Χ HT II, which is 0.13-0.18 mm long                                                    …..14

14   SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs long, pointed and rather numerous; ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs                                                                       .….Uroleucon monticola

-      SIPH 1.1-1.8 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or blunt; ABD TERG 8 with

       2-5 hairs                                                                                                                            .….15

15    Hind tibiae wholly dark. ANT I and II dark. ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria

                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon paucosensoriata

-      Hind tibiae with paler basal section. ANT I and II pale. ANT III with 7-50 rhinaria     …..16

16   Cauda pale, contrasting with dark brown to black SIPH and distal 0-25-0.5 of hind femur. ANT III with rhinaria often restricted to more swollen basal half of segment                .....17

-      Cauda dusky, not contrasting with dark SIPH and distal part of hind femur. ANT III with 15-35 rhinaria distributed over almost entire length of segment        …..Uroleucon bereticum

17   SIPH usually longer than (0.95-1.25 Χ) ANT III, and 0.29-0.35 Χ BL. Cauda with 21-36 hairs. ANT III with 7-17 rhinaria                                                              ..…Uroleucon olivei

-       SIPH usually shorter than (0.7-1.05 Χ) ANT III, and 0.21-0.29 Χ BL. Cauda with 12-27 hairs. ANT III with 8-35 rhinaria                                                     .….Uroleucon ambrosiae

18    Marginal abdominal tubercles (MTu) absent                                                                    .....19

-       MTu usually present on some abdominal segments                                                        …..20

19    SIPH 1.8-2.4 Χ cauda, which has 6-10 hairs, the most distal of which are shorter than the more proximal (lateral) hairs, and often blunt. HT II at least 0.11 mm long

…..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH 1.6-1.7 Χ cauda, which has 13-17 hairs, all long. HT II 0.11 mm or less

.....Uroleucon brevitarsus

20   Second tarsal segments with proximal ventral hairs normally developed                        .....21

-      Second tarsal segments with proximal ventral hairs absent, atrophied or minute            .....22

21   R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II                                                             …..Uroleucon macgillivrayae

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                      …..Uroleucon luteolum

22   ANT III with 11-32 rhinaria distributed over almost the whole length of segment

       …..Uroleucon gravicorne

-      ANT III with 5-21 rhinaria restricted to 0.8 of length of segment    …..Uroleucon stoetzelae

23   Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 Χ BD III. SIPH clearly somewhat swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH                                                                           …..Illinoia goldamaryae

-      Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest 0.5 Χ BD III or longer. SIPH cylindrical or very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is 0.13-0.2 of its total length  

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

24   Dorsal hairs with expanded or fan-shaped apices, and arising from tuberculate bases   …..25

-      Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, and without tuberculate bases                       …..26

25    SIPH shorter than cauda, which is about twice as long as its basal width

                                                                                                       …..Pleotrochophorus ?patonkus

-       SIPH about 2 or more Χ cauda, which is 1.2-1.4 Χ longer than its basal width

…..Pleotrichophorus remaudierei

26   ANT shorter than BL, and with secondary rhinaria at least on ANT III and/or IV        …..27

-      ANT longer or shorter than BL, but if shorter then without any rhinaria on ANT III-IV (except in alatiform specimens)                                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

27   ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH smooth, with a very marked subapical annular incision                                                                 …..Acuticauda erigerontis

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large MTu. SIPH with faint to moderate imbrication and without any subapical annular incision                                                                                          …..28

28   Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 13-23, IV 7-16, V 3-18, VI 1-4. SIPH 0.12-0.16 mm long                                                                                                           …..Aphis erigerontis

-      Sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 1-12, IV 0-11, V 0-5, VI 0. SIPH 0.13-0.28 mm long   …..29

29   ANT with more rhinaria on III than on IV. Tibiae with pale middle section. Cauda shorter than R IV+V                                                                                      …..Protaphis middletonii

-      ANT generally with more rhinaria on IV than on III. Tibiae entirely dark. Cauda longer than R IV+V                                                                                                          …..Aphis lugentis 

 

Eriobotrya                                                                             Rosaceae

      Eriobotrya deflexa                          Aphis gossypii

      E. dubia                                          Nippolachnus bengalensis;

                                                              Tuberolachnus sclerata

      E. japonica                                              Japanese Medlar, Loquat
                                                        Aphis aurantii, citricidus, craccivora, [eugeniae],

                                                                   gossypii, pomi, spiraecola, [verbasci];
                                                        Brachycaudus persicae; [Hyalomyzus eriobotryae];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [rosae]; Myzus persicae;
                                                        Nippolachnus himalayensis, piri, [xitianmushanus];
                                                        Pyrolachnus [macroconus], pyri;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]; [Smynthurodes betae];                                                                  Tuberolachnus macrotuberculatus, sp. nr sclerata

      E. pactata (?)                                  Tuberolachnus sclerata                                                      

      E. petiolata                                     Nippolachnus himalayensis;

                                                              Prociphilus sp. nr himalayensis;     Tuberolachnus sclerata

 

Key to aphids on Eriobotrya:-

 

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                                                                  .....2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                                                .....8

2    Body densely hairy. SIPH as large pores on hairy cones                                                   .....3

-     Body sparsely hairy. SIPH not on hairy cones                     .....Prociphilus sp. nr himalayensis

3    Legs pale. Body elongate oval, at least 2Χ its maximum width                                         .....4

-     Legs mainly dark. Body broadly oval, less than 2Χ its maximum width                           .....5

4    ANT PT/BASE 0.25-0.35, without any fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V

      0.14-0.18 mm long, 0.62-0.75 Χ HT II, and bearing 9-16 accessory hairs                                

                                                                                                            .....Nippolachnus bengalensis

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.45-0.75, with some long fine hairs distal to primary rhinarium. R IV+V 0.17-0.22 mm long, 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II, and bearing more than 20 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                         .....Nippolachnus piri

5    Hairs on antennae and frons very long and fine, maximally 3 or more Χ basal diameter of ANT III                                                                                      .....Nippolachnus himalayensis

-     Hairs on antennae and frons maximally 2.5 Χ basal diameter of ANT III or shorter          .....6

6    ABD TERG 4 with a large spinal tubercle                                                                         .....7

-     ABD TERG 4 without a large spinal tubercle                                           .....Pyrolachnus pyri

7    Spinal tubercle low and broad-based, less than 0.2 Χ higher than its basal width. SIPH cone with basal width 4.5-5.0 Χ diameter of pore                                    .....Tuberolachnus sclerata

-     Spinal tubercle tongue-shaped, as long as or longer than its basal width. SIPH cone small, its basal width 2-3 Χ diameter of pore                               .....Tuberolachnus macrotuberculatus*

8    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black shield. Cauda shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                   .....Brachycaudus persicae

-     Without that combination of characters                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Eriocephalus                                               Compositae

      Eriocephalus africanus                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

Eriochloa                                                     Poaceae

      Eriochloa polystachya                   Rhopalosiphum maidis

       E. punctata                                    Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha flava

       E. subglabra = E. polystachya

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Eriocoma   see  Oryzopsis  Poaceae

 

Eriodendron  see  Ceiba                                                  Malvaceae

 

Eriogonum                                                             Polygonaceae

      Eriogonum alatum                        Braggia eriogoni

       E. arborescens                               Braggia eriogoni ssp.californica; Myzus persicae

       E. arcuatum                                  Braggia eriogoni

       E. bakeri = E. arcuatum

       E. compositum                              Braggia columbiana, longicauda;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       E. corymbosum                             Braggia agathona, uncompahgrensis, urovaneta

       E. effusum                                     Braggia eriogoni

       E. elatum                                       Braggia columbiana, longicauda

       E. fasciculatum                             Braggia deserticola; eriogoni ssp. californica

                       (incl. var. polifolium)

       E. flavum                                       Uroleucon coloradense

       E. heracleoides                              Braggia eriogoni

       E. inflatum                                    Braggia eriogoni

       E. latifolium (incl. ssp. nudum)           Braggia urovaneta ssp. pachysiphon

       E. pyrolifolium                              Braggia columbiana, eriogoni

       E. racemosum                               Braggia urovaneta

       E. strictum                                     Braggia columbiana

       E. umbellatum                               Braggia agathona, columbiana, echinata, eriogoni

       Eriogonum spp.                            Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Braggia deserticola ssp. thanatophila, eriogoni ssp. atra;

                                                              Cedoaphis maxsoni; [Uroleucon martini];

                                                              [Pleotrichophorus amsinckii]

Key to apterae on Eriogonum:-

1     Cauda broadly conical, triangular or helmet-shaped, shorter than, or not more than 1.25 Χ its basal width (e.g. Fig.27a,c)                                                                                               …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-like, much longer than its basal width                                      …..10

2     Cuticle of head densely spiculose. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH more than 4 Χ their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 4-5               …..Cedoaphis maxsoni

-      Cuticle of head without spicules, often reticulate. ABD TERG 1, and usually also 7, with MTu. SIPH less than 3 Χ their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 1-2                                     …..3

3     Dorsal hairs very thick, with basal diameters often exceeding 6 mm, and arising from tuberculate bases more than 12 mm high (Fig.27e,f)                                                         …..4

-      Dorsal hairs thinner and without, or with only small low, tuberculate bases (Fig.27g)     …..5

4     Dorsal hairs rod-like, almost cylindrical, up to 50 mm long, with broad rounded apices (Fig. 27e)                                                                                                          …..Braggia echinata

-            Dorsal hairs tapering, 50-100 mm long, with thin blunt or rounded apices (Fig.27f)

                                                                                                          …..Braggia uncompahgrensis

5     Dorsal hairs maximally about as long as ANT BD III. SIPH very short, at most about as long as their basal widths. MTu usually absent from ABD TERG 7   …..Braggia deserticola s.lat.

-      Dorsal hairs mostly longer than BD III or, if shorter, then SIPH much longer than their basal widths. MTu present on ABD TERG 7                                                                             …..6

6     ANT III and IV, or III-V, usually with secondary rhinaria. Cauda less than 0.75 Χ its basal width (e.g. Fig.27a)                                                                                                           …..7

-      ANT usually without secondary rhinaria; if 1 or 2 secondary rhinaria are present, then cauda is more than 0.75 Χ its basal width (Fig.27c)                                                                     …..9

7     R IV+V 0.19-0.24 mm long. First tarsal segments all with 2 hairs (no medial sense pegs)

                                                                                                                    …..Braggia columbiana

-      R IV +V usually less than 0.19 mm long, but if borderline then at least the first tarsal segments of the fore tarsi have 3 hairs (2 subapical hairs and a medial sense peg)           …..8

8     First tarsal segments all with 2 hairs. Hairs on ANT III sparse, short and thin, maximally about 20 mm and shorter than BD III                                                     …..Braggia agathona

-      First tarsal segments all with 3 hairs, or with 3 hairs at least on fore tarsi. Hairs on ANT III maximally 25-35 mm, about as long as BD III                                 …..Braggia eriogoni s.lat.

9      Cauda 0.13-0.23 mm long. HT II 6-9 Χ longer than its midpoint width

                                                                                                                     …..Braggia longicauda

-      Cauda 0.08-0.12 mm long. HT II 3-6 Χ longer than its midpoint width

                                                                                                             …..Braggia urovaneta s. lat.

10   ANT tubercles weakly developed. Dorsum with an extensive black shield. SIPH and cauda both black                                                                                                  …..Aphis craccivora

-      ANT tubercles well developed. Dorsum without a black shield. SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale                                                                                                                                   …..11

11   Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles scabrous and apically convergent. SIPH pale, and slightly clavate, without subapical reticulation. ANT III without rhinaria               

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus persicae

-      Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH cylindrical over most of length, with polygonal reticulation over distal 0.3-0.4. ANT III with 1-40 rhinaria       …..12

12   SIPH mainly pale with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.21. ANT III with 1-7(-10) rhinaria on basal part                                                                   …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH mainly dark with paler basal part, and with polygonal reticulation over distal 0.3-0.4. ANT III with 18-40 rhinaria extending over most of segment    …..Uroleucon coloradense*

 

Eriophorum                                                 Cyperaceae

      Eriophorum angustifolium           Ceruraphis eriophori; Cavariella aquatica;

                                                              Colopha compressa; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis [scirpi], scirpi ssp. eriophori

       E. vaginatum                                 Ceruraphis eriophori; Colopha compressa;

                                                              Schizaphis scirpi ssp. eriophori; Vesiculaphis theobaldi

       Eriophorum spp.                           Anoecia pskovica; Metopolophium dirhodum

Use key to apterae on Carex; apterae running to Schizaphis scirpi are probably ssp. eriophori.

 

Eriophyllum                                                 Compositae

      Eriophyllum lanatum                    [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Washington, Oregon, California;

                                                                  A.Jensen, aphidtrek.org)];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus [amsinckii], longirostris;

                                                              [Uroleucon erigeronense]

       E. stoechadifolium                        Pleotrichophorus longirostris

       Eriophyllum sp.                             Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to apterae on Eriophyllum:-

-      Dorsum with fan-shaped hairs. R IV+V stiletto-shaped and similar in length to the short, thin SIPH                                                                                      …..Pleotrichophorus longirostris

-      Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Eriosema                                                      Leguminosae

      Eriosema affine                        Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       E. glomeratum                         Aphis craccivora

       E. griseum                                Aphis gossypii

       E. psoraloides                           Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Uroleucon compositae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Eriosolena see Daphne                                           Thymeliaeaceae

 

Eriosorus                                                     Adiantaceae

      Eriosorus aurita (?)                  Macromyzus maculatus

       E. peruviana                             Micromyzodium filicium

       Eriosorus spp.                          Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;

                                                         Micromyzus niger; Shinjia orientalis

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

 

Erithalis                                                       Rubiaceae

      Erithalis fruticosa                     Aphis spiraecola

 

Erlangea                                                      Compositae

      Erlangea cordifolia = Gutenbergia cordifolia                             

       E. longipes = Bothriocline longipes                                             

       E. rogersii = Bothriocline inyangana

       E. ugandensis = Bothriocline ugandensis

 

Erodium                                                       Geraniaceae

      Erodium aethiopicum                   Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis gossypii

       E. bipinnatum = E. aethiopicum

      E. botrys                                         Myzus persicae

       E. bryoniifolium = E. oxyrhinchum ssp. bryoniifolium

       E. cheilanthifolium                       Acyrthosiphon malvae

       E. chium                                        Acyrthosiphon malvae

       E. ciconium                                   Aulacorthum solani

       E. cicutarium                                 Acyrthosiphon [kondoi], malvae, malvae ssp. geranii;

               (incl. ssp. dunense)                      Aphis fabae, [urticaria Kaltenbach of Rusanova 1942];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pallidum;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri

       E. crispum                                     Acyrthosiphon malvae

       E. gruinum                                    Myzus persicae

       E. littoreum                                    Acyrthosiphon malvae

       E. malacoides                                Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis craccivora

       E. moschatum                               Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. geranii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       E. oxyrhinchum ssp.                            Aphis craccivora

                                  bryoniifolium

       E. trichomanefolium                     Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. geranii

       Erodium sp.                                   Myzus ascalonicus

Key to apterae on Erodium:-

1    Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria. Dorsum usually with a pattern of dark intersegmental pleural markings

                                                                                                                    …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-          Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-7.5. ANT III with 0-24 rhinaria. Dorsum with or without dark pigmentation                                                         …..2

2     SIPH dark except at bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III, and usually also tibiae, entirely dark. ABD TERG 7 and 8 each usually with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu)                                                                               …..Macrosiphum pallidum

-     Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 

 

Eruca                                                           Brassicaceae

      Eruca japonica (?)                         Aphis spiraecola

       E. vesicaria (incl. ssp. sativa)             Aphis gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi; Pemphigus populitransversus;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.

 

Erucago  see  Bunias                                                          Brassicaceae

 

Erucaria                                                      Brassicaceae

      Erucaria boveana = E. rostrata                                                

       E. hispanica                                   Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

       E. pinnata                                      Myzus persicae

       E. rostrata                                      Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Lipaphis erysimi;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Erucaria:-

1     ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria near base. SIPH 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda, with distal part thin and cylindrical. ANT VI BASE 2.0-2.6 Χ R IV+V                               …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH 0.65-2.5 Χ cauda, if much longer than cauda then with distal part somewhat swollen. ANT VI BASE less than 1.5 Χ R IV+V                                     …..2

2     Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent. SIPH 1.9-2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                            …..Myzus persicae

-      Head smooth, with ANT tubercles little developed. SIPH 0.65-1.5 Χ cauda                  …..3

3     ANT III 2.2-3.7 Χ SIPH. SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which is broadly triangular and bears 6-9 hairs.  ABD TERG 8 with 8-18 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark markings                

                                                                                                                  .....Brevicoryne brassicae

-      ANT III 1.0-1.8 Χ SIPH. SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda which is elongate triangular or tongue-shaped and bears 4-7 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-7 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                                             .....Lipaphis erysimi

 

Erucastrum                                                  Brassicaceae

      Erucastrum abyssinicum              Brevicoryne brassicae

       E. austroafricanum                       Lipaphis erysimi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       E. gallicum                                    Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

       E. nasturtiifolium                          Breviucoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi

       E. polichii = E. gallicum

Use key to apterae on Erysimum.

 

Ervatamia  see  Tabernaemontana                               Apocynaceae

 

Ervum  see  Vicia  (but Ervum lens =  Lens esculenta)        Leguminosae

 

Erycibe                                                        Convolvulaceae

      Erycibe grandiflora                       [Cervaphis rappardi, schouteniae]                               

 

Eryngium                                                    Apiaceae

       Eryngium alpinum                  Aphis eryngiiglomerata, fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       E. bourgatii (incl. ssp.                 Aphis fabae, solanella; Aulacorthum solani;

                                 heldreichii)        Myzus ornatus, persicae

       E. campestre                             Aphis craccivora, eryngiiglomerata, fabae, solanella;

                                                         Dysaphis apiifolia, foeniculus, Dysaphis sp. (Stroyan 1985);

                                                         Helosiphon eryngii; Hyadaphis coriandri;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Myzus cymbalariae];

                                                         Protaphis kvavadzei

       E. creticum                               Aphis spiraecola

       E. foetidum                               Aphis craccivora

       E. giganteum                            Aulacorthum solani

       E. heldreichii  see E. bourgatii

       E. incognitum = E. macrocalyx   

       E. macrocalyx                          Dysaphis foeniculus

       E. maritimum                           Aphis eryngiiglomerata; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                         Dysaphis apiifolia, foeniculus, Dysaphis sp. (Stroyan 1985);

                                                         Hyadaphis coriandri; Myzus ascalonicus

       E. nasturtiifolium                     Aphis craccivora

       E. paniculatum                        Aphis asclepiadis, fabae (as eryngii Blanchard)                      

       E. planum                                Aphis eryngiiglomerata, fabae,

                                                         [Aphis spp. (Bozhko 1976a, 71; Leonard 1973, 15)];

                                                         Macrosiphum gei

       E. serbicum                              Aphis eryngiiglomerata

       E. tricuspidatum                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       E. Χzabelii (?)                           Aphis fabae

       Eryngium sp.                           [Aphis dispar Walker, diversa Walker – nomina dubia]

Key to apterae on Eryngium:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a backward-pointing process above cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.25. SIPH clavate                                                                                       …..Cavariella aegopodii

-      No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.3. SIPH tapering, cylindrical

       or clavate                                                                                                                            …..2

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.0. SIPH 0.025-0.031 Χ BL                               …..Protaphis kvavadzei

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-7.1. SIPH 0.045-0.45 Χ BL                                                               …..3

3     Cauda as short as or shorter than its basal width                                                               …..4

-      Cauda much longer than its basal width                                                                            …..8

4     Cauda with 30-40 hairs. SIPH constricted apically, with a swollen hemispherical “collar” and a small aperture. Very large, flat marginal tubercles (MTu) are present on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent                                                                 …..Helosiphon eryngii

-      Cauda with 4-6 hairs. SIPH without a swollen “collar” and with aperture of normal size. MTu and STu present or absent                                                                                         …..5

5     SIPH smooth, pale, with subapical annular incision. No dark dorsal abdominal markings. MTu and STu rarely present                                                                  …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH imbricated, dark, without a subapical incision. Dark cross-bands usually present on ABD TERG 7 and 8. MTu regularly on ABD TERG 1-5, and STu usually on head and ABD TERG 8, or 7 and 8                                                                                                            …..6

6     SIPH 2.5-3.5 times longer than their basal width, 1.2-1.5 Χ R IV+V and 15-25  times as long as the very short, blunt and inconspicuous hairs on front of head           .....Dysaphis apiifolia

-      SIPH short and broad-based, rarely more than twice as long as their basal widths, 0.75-1.05 Χ R IV+V and 2.5-5.0 times as long as the long and fine hairs on front of head              .....7

7     ABD TERG 8 usually (mean 1.6) and 7 often (mean 0.5) with STu. (Al. with 18-39 rhinaria on ANT III at a density of 44-90 per mm, and with Stu on ABD TERG 7 and 8 occurring as in aptera)                                                                                                .....Dysaphis foeniculus

-      STu absent always from ABD TERG 7 and usually (mean 0.25) from 8. (Al. with 34-50 rhinaria at a density of 92-136 per mm, and STu usually absent from ABD TERG 7 and 8)                                                                                                  .....Dysaphis sp. (Stroyan 1985)

8     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth, with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent                                                                        …..9

-      SIPH without  polygonal reticulation. If head is smooth then ANT tubercles are absent or weakly developed                                                                                                            …..10

9     Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 38-63 ΅m, 0.6-1.4 Χ ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate usually (77%) with only 2 hairs (18% with 3, 5% with 4-6 hairs)

                                                                                                            .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 66-106 ΅m, 1.4-2.0 Χ ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-11 hairs, usually (77%) with 4-8 hairs                                   .....Macrosiphum gei

10   Well-developed marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4 as well as 1 and 7. Hairs on legs all short; e.g. those on hind femur maximally 15 μm, those on hind tibia maximally 25 μm                                                                            …..Aphis eryngiiglomerata

-       MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4, or irregularly present and small. If there are MTu on 1 and 7 then hairs on legs are much longer                                                                        …..11

11    SIPH short and thick, 1.6-2.7 Χ their minimum diameter on basal half and 0.9-1.3 Χ HT II. Small MTu often present on ABD TERG 5 (sometimes also on 4)

                                                                                                                   …..Hyadaphis coriandri

-       SIPH more slender, 1.5-7.5 Χ HT II. MTu irregularly present on ABD TERG 2-4, but very rarely on 5                                                                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Erysimum                                                    Brassicaceae

      Erysimum alliaria = Allliaria petiolate

       E. altaicum                                    Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi

       E. annus (?)                                   Anoecia corni; Brevicoryne brassicae

       E. aurantiacum (?)                        [Eumyzus impatiensae]

       E. canescens                                  Brevicoryne brassicae; Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi;

                                                              Smiela syreniae

       E. cheiranthoides                          Lipaphis turritella; Myzus cerasi, persicae

       E. Χcheiri                                       Aphis sp. (fabae group; England, BMNH collection);

                                                              [Brachycaudus cardui]; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus ornatus, persicae

       E. collinum                                    Lipaphis erysimi

       E. crepidifolium                             Lipaphis erysimi; Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi

       E. diffusum                                    Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, fritzmuelleri;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       E. glabrum = Turritis glabra

         E. graecum                                    Lipaphis erysimi

       E. humillimum = E. altaicum

       E. hungaricum                              Myzus persicae

       E. odoratum                                  Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus persicae;  

                                                              Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi

       E. officinale  see Sisymbrium officinale

       E. pannonicum = E. odoratum

       E. perowskianum                          Lipaphis erysimi

       E. pieninicum = E. hungaricum

       E. popovii                                       Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi

         E. pulchellum                                Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus ornatus

       E. quadrangulum                          Smiela syreniae

       E. repandum                                 Myzus persicae

       E. rupestre = E. pulchellum

         E. scoparium                                 Myzus persicae

       E. sessiliflorum = E. quadrangulum

         E. siliculosum                                Lipaphis jungarica; Smiela syreniae                                  

       E. vulgare = Sisymbrium officinale

       E. wahlenbergii = E. hungaricum

       E. wilczekianum                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       E. witmanniii                                 Myzus persicae

       Erysimum sp.                                Acyrthosiphon ilka

Key to apterae on Erysimum:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH as rather large pores on shallow hairy cones. Cauda very broadly rounded. Large flat rounded marginal tubercles (MTu) present on

       most segments                                                                                                …..Anoecia corni

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.8. SIPH barrel-shaped, tubular, or conical. Cauda tongue-shaped, helmet-shaped or triangular. MTu small or absent from most segments                            …..2

2     Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, not or hardly longer than its basal width in dorsal view. ANT tubercles undeveloped, so that front of head is straight or convex in dorsal view. ANT III more than 2.4 Χ SIPH                                                                                                   …..3

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, distinctly longer than its basal width. ANT tubercles at least somewhat developed; if low then the medial tubercle is also developed, so that front of head U- or W-shaped in dorsal view. ANT III 0.8-2.3 Χ SIPH                                                 …..5

3     SIPH tapering or barrel-shaped, longer than their basal widths. ANT without secondary rhinaria. Dorsum with paired dark markings                                    …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-      SIPH conical, shorter than their basal widths. ANT with secondary rhinaria on III, or III and IV. Dorsum without paired dark markings, either wholly dark or pale                              .....4

4     Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 long, 2-3 Χ ANT BD III, and slightly capitate. ANT PT/BASE

       0.9-1.5. SIPH cones large, dark and broad-based                                       .....Smiela syreniae

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 shorter than ANT BD III, with blunt or pointed apices. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.5. SIPH cones small and rounded apically      .....Pseudobrevicoryne erysimi

5     ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH and cauda black, SIPH tapering and similar in length to cauda which bears c.15 hairs

                                                                 …..Aphis sp. (fabae group, England: BMNH collection)

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. SIPH and cauda pale or dark, cauda with 4-9 hairs

                                                                                                                                                  …..6

6     ANT  1.05-1.4 Χ BL. ANT tubercles well-developed, with inner faces smooth, broadly divergent. SIPH tapering/cylindrical for most of length, broad-based, 1.0-1.25 Χ ANT III

                                                                                                                       …..Acyrthosiphon ilka

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                             …..7

7     Cuticle of head often rather rough, but without spicules. Front of head with median and ANT tubercles developed to a similar extent, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent

                                                                                                                                                  …..8

-      Cuticle of head spiculose. ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces steep-sided and apically convergent; median tubercle undeveloped                                                         …..11

8     ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle weakly developed. Dorsum with broad dark bands on all tergites. SIPH and cauda very dark                                    .….Lipaphis turritella

-      ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle moderately to well developed. Dorsum without dark bands or with dark bars only on ABD TERG VII and VIII. SIPH pale or dusky with dark apices, cauda pale or dark                                                                                           .....9

9     ABD TERG 8 with median process or tubercle. ANT III (of aptera) with 3-5 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                   …..Lipaphis jungarica

-      ABD TERG 8 without median process. ANT III without rhinaria                                 …..10

10   SIPH 0.15-0.17 mm, 1.0-1.3 Χ cauda                                                  …..Lipaphis fritzmulleri

-      SIPH 0.18-0.29 mm, 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda                                                        …..Lipaphis erysimi

11   SIPH strongly clavate, with greatest diameter of swelling 1.7-2.8 Χ minimum diameter of stem. ANT III usually with 1-7 rhinaria on basal half         …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only moderately clavate, with greatest diameter of swollen part 1.1-1.45 Χ minimum diameter of stem                                                                             …..12

12   SIPH slightly to moderately clavate (with a narrower basal part). Dorsum without any dark markings. ANT 0.7-1.0 Χ BL, PT/BASE 2.8-4.5                                        …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange. Dorsum with extensive pigmentation, or at least with dark pleural or marginal spots. ANT 0.5-0.7 Χ BL, PT/BASE 1.7-3.2                            …..13

13   Dorsum with extensive dusky/dark sclerotisation, and large dark marginal spots. SIPH dark, 0.22-0.27 Χ BL                                                                                                …..Myzus cerasi

-      Dorsum without extensive dusky/dark sclerotisation, but with a pattern of dark intersegmental pleural spots. SIPH pale or dusky, 0.17-0.22 Χ BL              …..Myzus ornatus

 

Erythraea  see Centaurium                                               Gentianaceae

 

Erythrina                                                                                Leguminosae

      Erythrina coralloides                     Aphis gossypii

      E. falcata                                        Aphis gossypii

      E. fusca                                          Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus, [Aphis sp.]

      E. indica = E. variegata

      E. lysistemon                                  Aphis gossypii

      E. ovalifolia = E. fusca

      E. variegata                                    Aphis odinae

      E. vespertilio                                   Aphis gossypii

      Erythrina spp.                                Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

 

Erythrococca                                               Euphorbiaceae

      Erythrococca bongensis                Aphis gossypii

       E. microcarpa (?)                          Aphis gossypii

 

Erythrodes                                                    Orchidaceae

       Erythrodes sp. (?)                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Erythrodontium see Eurohypnum                         Hypnaceae                  

      

Erythronium                                                Liliaceae

      Erythronium dens-canis               Myzus persicae

 

Erythroxylum                                              Erythroxylaceae

      Erythroxylum havanense              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      

Escallonia                                                    Escalloniaceae

      Escallonia Χlangleyensis = E. Χrigida

      E. pulverulenta                        Myzus persicae

      E. Χrigida                                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      Escallonia sp(p).                            Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Eschscholzia                                                Papaveraceae

      Eschscholzia californica               Myzus persicae

 

Etlingera (including Nicolaia, Phaeomeria)                     Zingiberaceae

      Etlingera coccinea                         Astegopteryx styracophila

      E. elatior                                        Pseudoregma [elatior?], nicolaiae

       E. hemisphaerica                          Pseudoregma sundanica

      E. speciosa = E. elatior

       Etlingera sp.                                  Pentalonia nigronervosa

Use key to apterae on Hedychium.

 

Eubotryoides see Leucothoe                                   Ericaceae                 

 

Eucalyptus                                                             Myrtaceae

     Eucalyptus camaldulensis             Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae;

                                                              [Pterochloroides persicae]; Toxoptera aurantii

     Eu. globulus                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

     Eu. gomphocephala                       Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

     Eu. grandis                                     Aphis fabae, gossypii

     Eu. macarthurii                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae

     Eu. macrandra                               [Macrosiphum sp. (Leonard, 1972a: 113)]

     Eu. melliodora                               Aphis gossypii

     Eu. robusta                                     Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              [Neophyllaphis brimblecombei]

     Eu. tereticornis                               Aphis gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Euchlaena  =  Zea                                                              Poaceae

 

Euclea                                                                     Ebenaceae

      Euclea crispa                          Aphis gossypii

 

Eucommia                                                    Eucommiaceae

      Eucommia ulmoides