HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Dil-Eny

 

Dilomilis

Dimeria

Dimocarpus

Dimorphandra

Dimorphocarpa

Dimorphotheca

Diodella

Diodia

Dioscorea

Diospyros

Dipcadi

Dipholis

Diplanthera

Diplazium

Diplocaulobium

Diplolophium

Diplopappus

Diplopterygium

Diplorhynchus

Diplotaxis

Dipogon

Dipsacus

Dipterocarpus

Disa

Discaria

Disocactus

Disperis

Disporum

Dissotis

Distichlis

Distictis

Distylium

Ditremexa

Dittrichia

Dizygotheca

Dodartia

Dodecatheon

Dodonaea

Doellingeria

Dolichandra

Dolicorrhiza

Dolichos

Dombeya

Dorema

Doronicum

Dorycnium

Dovyalis

Draba

Dracaena

Dracocephalum

Dracophyllum

Dregea

Drepanocladus

Drimia

Drimys

Droogmansia

Drosera

Dryas

Drymaria

Drymocallis

Drymoglossum

Drynaria

Dryopteris

Drypetes

Duabanga

Duboisia

Duchesnea

Ducrosia

Duggena

Duranta

Dyckia

Dypsis

Dyschoriste

Dysophylla

Dysoxylum

Dysphania

Dyssodia

Dystaenia

 

Ecballium

Eccoilopus

Echeveria

Echinacea

Echinocarpus

Echinochloa

Echinocystis

Echinodorus

Echinophora

Echinops

Echinopsilon

Echinopsis

Echinospartum

Echinospermum

Echites

Echium

Eclipta

Eclypta

Edgeworthia

Edraianthus

Egletes

Ehretia

Ehrharta

Eichhornia

Elaeagnus

Elaeis

Elaeocarpus

Elaeosticta

Elatinoides

Eleocharis

Elephantopus

Elettaria

Eleusine

Eleutheranthera

Eleutherococcus

Eleutherospermum

Elodea

Elsholtzia

Elymus

Elytranthe

Elytraria

Elytrigia

Emblica

Emelista

Emex

Emilia

Eminia

Empetrum

Encelia

Encephalartos

Enchylaena

Encyclia

Engelhardtia

Enhydra

Enkianthus

Ensete

Entada

Enteropogon

Enydra

 

Dilomilis  (including Octadesmia)                                 Orchidaceae

      Dilomilis montana                         Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cerataphis orchidearum; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Sitobion luteum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Dimeria                                                        Poaceae

      Dimeria ornithopoda                     Geoica lucifuga; Tetraneura fusiformis

                        (var. tenera)

Dimocarpus                                                 Sapindaceae

      Dimocarpus longan                      Aphis gossypii

 

Dimorphandra                                       Leguminosae

      Dimorphandra mollis                    Aphis gossypii

 

Dimorphocarpa                                           Brassicaceae

      Dimorphocarpa sp.                       [Uroleucon erigeronense]

 

Dimorphotheca                                            Compositae

      D. aurantiaca = D. sinuata         

       D. sinuata                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbia;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Diodella                                                       Rubiaceae

      Diodella teres                                 Aphis gossypii; Protaphis middletonii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Diodia                                                          Rubiaceae

      Diodia ocymifolia = Spermacoce ocymifolia

       D. teres = Diodella teres              

 

Dioscorea                     Yams                      Dioscoreaceae

      Dioscorea alata                              Aphis gossypii; [Macromyzus manoji];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       D. bulbifera                                   Aphis gossypii (as minuta)

       D. japonica                                    Pseudomegoura magnoliae; Sitobion miscanthi

       D. trifida                                        Geopemphigus floccosus

       Dioscorea spp.                               Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

Key to apterae on Dioscorea:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent. Anal plate displaced dorsally. Dorsal wax glands present                                                                                          …..Geopemphigus floccosus

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular. Anal plate in normal position. Wax glands not evident                                                                                                             …..2

2     SIPH dark, 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III                                                                       …..Sitobion miscanthi

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 

 

Diospyros                      Ebonies                   Ebenaceae

      Diospyros kaki                                Aphis aurantii, citricidus, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

      D. mespiliformis (= bicolor)             Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      Diospyros sp.                                  [Aphis diospyri Thomas 1879];
                                                         

(See key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Dipcadi                                                        Asparagaceae

      Dipcadi sp.                                     Aphis gossypii

 

Dipholis  see  Sideroxylon                                                 Sapotaceae

 

Diplanthera  see  Deplanchea                                        Bignoniaceae

 

Diplazium                                                    Woodsiaceae

      D. arboreum (var. unilobum)            Aphis spiraecola               

      D. esculentum                               Macromyzella polypodicola;

                                                              Macromyzus maculatus, woodwardiae

       D. japonicum                                 Macromyzella polypodicola

       D. laffanianum                              Idiopterus nephrelepidis

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

 

Diplocaulobium                                           Orchidaceae

      Diplocaulobium chrysotropis        Sitobion luteum

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

 

Diplolophium                                               Apiaceae

      Diplolophium buchananii             Dysaphis sp. (Remaudiθre & Autrique 1985: 131)

 

Diplopappus  see  Aster                                          Compositae

 

Diplopterygium                                            Gleicheniaceae

      Diplopterygium glaucum               Macromyzus woodwardiae

 

Diplorhynchus                                             Apocynaceae

      Diplorhynchus condylocarpon     Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii;

                                                              [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994, 83)]

      D. psilopus = D. condylocarpon   

 

Diplotaxis                                                    Brassicaceae

      Diplotaxis catholica                       Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       D. erucoides                                   Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae

      D. harra                                         Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

       D. muralis                                      Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, [turritella];

                                                              Myzus persicae

       D. siifolia                                       Aphis fabae; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae 

       D. tenuifolia                                   Brevicoryne brassicae; [Lipaphis rossi]; Myzus persicae

       D. tenuisiliqua                               Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                              Myzus persicae 

       D. viminea                                     Myzus persicae

       D. virgata                                       Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

Key to apterae on Diplotaxis:-

-      SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda and 0.33-0.5 Χ BL       …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      SIPH shorter (or absent)                                                  …..go to key to apterae on Brassica

 

Dipogon                                                       Leguminosae

      Dipogon lignosus                          Acyrthosiphon pisum

 

Dipsacus                                                      Dipsacaceae

      Dipsacus atropurpureus = D. inermis

         D. azureus = D. dipsacoides

         D. dipsacoides                                Macrosiphum rosae

       D. fullonum                                   Aphis confusa, [dipsacicola Holman (nomen nudum)],

                  (incl. var sylvestris)                         fabae, ochropus, solanella, thomasi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                              Myzus persicae; [Uroleucon rudbeckiae]

       D. gmelinii                                     Macrosiphum rosae

       D. inermis                                      Aphis eugeniae, [gossypii]; Macrosiphum rosae

       D. laciniatus                                  Aphis ochropus; Macrosiphum rosae

       D. mitis = D. inermis

       D. pilosus                                       Aphis ochropus; Macrosiphum rosae

       D. sativus                                       Macrosiphum rosae

       D. strigosus                                    Macrosiphum rosae

       D. sylvestris = D. fullonum

      Dipsacus sp.                                  Aphis cephalariae            

Key to apterae on Dipsacus:-

1     ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda pale, dusky or dark                                                                                                            …..2

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 7 without MTu. Cauda pale                      …..7

2     Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation varying from an almost solid carapace to broad cross-bands (the latter in small midsummer specimens). Longest hairs on ANT III 1.8-2.8 Χ BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 6-12 hairs and cauda with 12-20 hairs      …..Aphis cephalariae

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..4

3     Femoral hairs all much shorter than diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda pale, dusky or dark with 2-9 hairs                                                                                                        …..4

-      Many of femoral hairs long and fine, exceeding diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Cauda black with 10-24 hairs                                                                                            …..6

4     SIPH 2.0-2.8 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.7                              

…..Aphis ochropus

-      SIPH 0.8-2.3 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-3.3                       …..5

5    Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.2-0.5 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 0.2-0.5 Χ ANT BD III                                …..Aphis thomasi

-     Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.6-1.1 Χ diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Hairs on anterior half of subgenital plate 1.0-2.0 Χ ANT BD III                                 …..Aphis confusa

6     Dark cross-bands present on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often dark markings also on more anterior tergites. Hind tibia without a row of spine-like hairs. HT 1 usually with 2 hairs (no sense peg)                                                                      …..Aphis fabae group (incl. solanella)

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Hind tibia with a row of spine-like hairs. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present)                                                                          …..Aphis eugeniae

7     SIPH black, tapering/cylindrical, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. head dark, smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria

…..Macrosiphum rosae

-      SIPH pale, with or without subapical polygonal reticulation, and other characters do not apply                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

 

Dipterocarpus                                                                     Dipterocarpaceae

      Dipterocarpus tuberculatus           Cervaphis schouteniae

      Dipterocarpus sp.                           Greenidea sutepensis

(Dipterocarpaceae appear almost immune to attack by aphids.)

 

-     SIPH with many long stout hairs. Body hairs not on branched processes

                                                                                                                   .....Greenidea sutepensis

-      SIPH with a subapical ring of small hairs and a few other hairs more basad. Body with long branched hair-bearing processes (as in fig. 92A)                              .....Cervaphis schouteniae

 

 

Disa                                                              Orchidaceae

      Disa caulescens                             Aulacorthum solani

       D. uniflora                                     Aulacorthum solani

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

 

Discaria                                                       Rhamnaceae

      Discaria americana                       Aphis conflicta

      D. chacaye                                     Aphis conflicta

       D. crenata = D. chacaye

       D. trinervis = Ochetophila trinervis

(See key characters for A. conflicta under Condalia.)

 

Disocactus  (including Heliocereus, Nopalxochia)            Cactaceae

      Disocactus ackermannii                Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       Disocactus sp.                                Aphis craccivora

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Disperis                                                        Orchidaceae

      Disperis sp.                                    Aulacorthum solani

 

Disporum  see Prosartes                                         Asparagaceae

      Disporum hookeri = Prosartes hookeri

       D. smithii = Prosartes smithii      

 

Dissotis                                                         Melastomataceae

      Dissotis senegambiensis = Antherotoma senegambiensis

       D. trothae                                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Distichlis                                                      Poaceae

      Distichlis spicata                       Aphis craccivora; Pemphigus sp.; Schizaphis graminum

Use key to aphids on temperate grasses.

 

Distictis                                                        Bignoniaceae

      Distictis gnaphalantha = Amphilophium gnaphalanthum

 

Distylium                                                                Hamamelidaceae

Distylium spp. are primary hosts for many members of the Nipponaphidini, in the subfamily Hormaphinae. Takahashi (1962) and Sorin (1987) reviewed the species of this group that form galls on Distylium in Japan; Sorin illustrated the galls of 5 species, and the embryos from emigrant alatae of 12 species, but there are probably numerous other species in east and south-east Asia still undescribed. Determinations using the partial key below should therefore be treated very cautiously.

Host List:-

      Distylium racemosum                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Asiphonipponaphis vasigalla;

                (incl. var. chinense)                    [Dermaphis japonensis]; Dinipponaphis autumna;

                                                   Metanipponaphis cuspidatae, [rotunda];

                                                   Metathoracaphis isensis; Monzenia globuli, ihai;
                                                      Neothoracaphis yanonis; [Pseudomegoura magnoliae];

                                                              Nipponaphis distychii, distyliicola, loochooensis,

                                                                   machilicola, monzeni;
                                                      Quadrartus yoshinomiyai; Sinonipponaphis monzeni;

                                                   Tuberaphis” cymigalla]

      D. stellare                                      Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Distylaphis foliorum;

                                                              Greenidea flacourtiae; Neohormaphis calva;

                                                              Reticulaphis distylii;
                                                      Schizoneuraphis gallarum, longisetosa

Key to the aphids on Distylium:-

1     Apterae in free-living colonies on the tree                                                                         .....2

-      Alatae emerging from galls (other morphs not keyed)                                                        .....4

2     SIPH pore-like. Antennae very short, 3- or 4-segmented. Wax pore plates well developed

.....Distylaphis foliorum

-      SIPH tubular. Antennae 6-segmented. Wax pore plates not developed                           .....3

3     SIPH broadest at mid-length, with numerous long hairs. Cauda short and broad-based, with an apical papilla. No stridulatory apparatus                                      .....Greenidea flacourtiae

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange, without hairs. Cauda tongue-shaped, rounded at apex. Stridulatory apparatus present (fig. 122)                                    .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

4     Abdominal spiracles present on segments 2-6 (i.e., 5 on each side of abdomen)               .....5

-      Abdominal spiracles only present on segments 2-5 (4 on each side of abdomen)              .....6

5     Antennae 4-segmented (fig. 45A). SIPH present (as pores). Media of forewing

       once-branched                                                                              .....Quadrartus yoshinomiyai

-      Antennae 5-segmented. SIPH absent. Media of forewing unbranched

…..Asiphonipponaphis vasigalla

6     Media of forewing distinct for most of length, united with or almost meeting Cu1a at about 0.4 of its length from base, and Cu1a then united with or almost meeting Cu1b at about 0.2-0.3 of its length, so that all three veins share a common stem (e.g. fig. 46A)                               .....7

-      Media of forewing usually with basal part indistinct or absent, not united with Cu1a (figs. 46B-H)                                                                                                                                .....8

7     Media of forewing unbranched (fig. 46A). ANT III with 16-21 annular secondary rhinaria, IV with 11-15 and V with 8-11                                                           .....Neohormaphis calva

-      Media of forewing once-branched. ANT III with 12-16 annular secondary rhinaria, IV with 7-9 and V with 5-7                                                           .....Metathoracaphis isensis

8     Basal part of ANT III without rhinaria; distance between most proximal rhinarium and base of segment more than 1.5 times Χ longer than ANT II (fig. 45B) .....Dinipponaphis autumna

-      Distance between most proximal rhinarium on ANT III and base of segment equal to or less than length of ANT II                                                                                                         .....9

9     Wing membrane heavily infuscated, at least between vein Cu1b and base of forewing    ....10

-      Wing membrane between veins almost hyaline, or slightly but evenly pigmented           .....17

10   Antenna more than 2Χ longer than head width across (and including) eyes, ANT III being as long as or a little longer than fore tibia (e.g. fig.45C)                                                       .....11

-      Antenna less than 2Χ head width across eyes. ANT III clearly shorter than fore tibia    .....13

11   Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 54-73, IV 28-37, V 20-31

.....Nipponaphis loochooensis

-      Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 34-48, IV 16-25, V 10-19                        .....12

12   Ventral surface of head between eyes with 22-29 hairs                     .....Nipponaphis distychii

-      Ventral surface of head between eyes with 6-12 hairs               .....Nipponaphis machilicola*

13   ABD TERG 8 with 4-8 hairs                                        .....Metanipponaphis cuspidatae

-      ABD TERG 8 with 10 or more hairs                                                                               .....14

14   Greatest width of ANT II about the same as its greatest length (fig. 45G). Longest tibial hairs about 40 ΅m, not exceeding width of tibia at mid-point. Forewing vein Cu1b with a distinct shallow "S"-curve (fig. 46C)                                                    .....Distylaphis foliorum

-      Greatest width of ANT II at least 1.1 times more than its greatest length (figs 45H-J). Tibial hairs long and fine, mainly longer than 50 ΅m and exceeding width of hind tibia at mid-point. Forewing vein Cu1b straight or only slightly curved distally                                            .....15

15   Forewing with a clearly defined hyaline patch at the base of the media, and vein Cu1b slightly curved distally (fig. 46D). Abdominal spiracles with opercular sclerites almost completely surrounding the spiracular pores (fig. 45D)                              .....Schizoneuraphis longisetosa

-      Forewing membrane often slightly paler at base of media, but no clearly defined hyaline patch, and vein Cu1b virtually straight (e.g. fig. 46E). Abdominal spiracles with opercular sclerites extending not more than half way around spiracular pores (e.g. fig. 45E)         .....16

16   BL more than 2.8 mm. SIPH with a black sclerotic section (fig. 45F), and with basal diameter about equal to middle diameter of ANT III (including rhinaria)

.....Nipponaphis monzeni

-      BL less than 2.8 mm. SIPH pale and inconspicuous, with basal diameter much less than middle diameter of ANT III (including rhinaria)                          .....Nipponaphis distyliicola

17   Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b joined at their bases (e.g. fig. 46G)                                 .....18

-      Forewing veins Cu1a and Cu1b separate at their bases (e.g. fig. 46H)                               .....20

18   (Al. are emigrants, migrating to secondary host) Vein Cu1b in forewing distinctly thicker and darker than Cu1a                                                                              .....Neothoracaphis yanonis

-      (Al. are sexuparae, producing sexuales on Distylium leaves.) Vein Cu1b not noticeably thicker and darker than Cu1a                                                                                             .....19

19  Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 18-20, IV 8-9, V 4-6              .....Monzenia globuli

-     Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 21-28, IV 10-15, V 9-12              .....Monzenia ihai

20   Forewing rather narrow, more than 2.5 Χ longer than its greatest width, with veins (except media) dark and pterostigma blackish (fig. 46F)                         .....Schizoneuraphis gallarum

-      Forewing broad, less than 2.5 Χ longer than its greatest width, with veins pale (except sometimes Cu1b), and pterostigma dusky (fig. 46H)                              .....Reticulaphis distylii

 

Ditremexa   see  Cassia                                                         Leguminosae

 

Dittrichia                                                     Compositae

      D. graveolens                                 Capitophorus inulae; [Macrosiphum weberi]

      D. viscosa                                       Aphis fabae, frangulae, gossypii; spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Capitophorus inulae, pakansas;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Ovatus inulae; Uroleucon bifrontis, inulae, pulicariae

Use key to apterae under Inula.                                                     

 

Dizygotheca   see  Schleffera                                          Araliaceae

 

Dodartia                                                       Phrymaceae

      Dodartia orientalis                         Aphis gossypii

 

Dodecatheon                                                Primulaceae

      Dodecatheon lemoinei = D. meadia

       D. meadia                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       D. pauciflorum = D. meadia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Dodonaea                                                     Sapindaceae

      D. angustifolia see D. viscosa

      D. boroniifolia                               Myzus persicae

       D. humifusa                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       D. microzyga                                 Myzus persicae

       D. truncatiales                               Myzus persicae

      D. viscosa (incl. ssp.                         Aphis aurantii, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                      angustifolia)                      [Hysteroneura setariae];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Doellingeria                                                 Compositae

      D. scabra                                       Aulacorthum asteriphagum; Chitinosiphum doellingeriae;

                                                              Uroleucon asteriae, doellingeriae, [formosana], fuchuense

      D. umbellata                                  Uroleucon olivei, paucosensoriatum

Use key to apterae on Aster.

 

Dolichandra                                                 Bignoniaceae

      Dolichandra unguis-cati               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Dolichorrhiza                                              Compositae

      Dolicorrhiza renifolia                    Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Dolichos (including Lablab)                                         Leguminosae

      Dolichos biflorus = Vigna unguiculata

      D. gululu                                       Aphis craccivora

       D. kilimandscharicus                    Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       D. lablab (= Lalab purpureus)            Acyrthosiphon [caraganae], gossypii, pisum;

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Megoura crassicauda];

                                                              Microparsus brasiliensis; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

       D. lupiniflorus = D. kilimandscharicus

       D. malosanus = D. kilimandscharicus

       D. monachalis = Vigna unguiculata

       D. sesquipedalis = Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis

       Dolichos sp.                                   Sitobion nigrinectarium

Key to apterae on Dolichos:-

1     SIPH slightly clavate, with proximal half pale and distal half dark. (Forewing veins of alata with broad black borders)                                                             …..Microparsus brasiliensis

-     SIPH tapering/cylindrical, uniformly pale or dark, or dark only at apices. (Forewing veins of alata not black-bordered)                                                                                                   …..2

2     SIPH black with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation        …..Sitobion nigrinectarium

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation                                         .....3

3     SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths

…..4

-      SIPH pale or dark, not attenuated distally, not thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths                                                                         .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

4    SIPH 0.23-0.38 Χ BL, 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda                                              …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-     SIPH 0.42-0.50 Χ BL, 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda                                           …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

 

Dombeya                                                                 Sterculiaceae

     Dombeya dregeana = D. tiliacea

     D. natalensis = D. tiliacea

     D. rotundifolia                          Aphis aurantii, gossypii; [Sitobion sp.]

     D. tiliacea                           Aulacorthum solani

     D. wallichii                                [Sitobion sp.]

     Dombeya sp(p).                        Myzus persicae; Sitobion africanum

Key to aphids on Dombeya:-

-     SIPH of aptera long and black with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda long and pale                                                                               .....Sitobion africanum

-      Aptera without this combination of characters             .....go to key to polyphagous aphids
 

 Dorema                                                        Apiaceae

      Dorema ammoniacum            Aphis fabae; Swirskiaphis polychaeta

       D. ammomum (?)                    Aphis fabae

       D. aucheri                                Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Dorema:-

-      Dorsal body hairs numerous, long and thick, more than 0.5 Χ as long as SIPH. SIPH only 0.065-0.09 Χ BL, about 1 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3         …..Swirskiaphis polychaeta

-      Dorsal body hairs fine, less than 0.5 Χ as long as SIPH. SIPH 0.09-0.19 Χ BL and 1.3-2.6 Χ HT II. ANT PT/BASE (2.1-)2.4-3.4                                                                 …..Aphis fabae

 

Doronicum                                                   Compositae

      Doronicum austriacum                 Aphis cacaliasteris, fabae, solanella; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum doronicicola, euphorbiae;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon doronici

       D. carpaticum                                Uroleucon doronici

       D. carpetanum                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                  Macrosiphum doronicicola; Uroleucon doronici

       D. caucasicum                               Protrama longitarsus; Trama troglodytes

       D. clusii                                          Nasonovia ribisnigri

       D. columnae                                  Aulacothum solani (as doronici Bφrner 1950);

                                                              Uroleucon doronici

       D. cruentum see Pericallis cruenta

         D. glaciale                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi  

       D. grandiflorum                            Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       D. orientale                                    Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon doronici

       D. pardalianches                           Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                  Uroleucon doronici

       D. turkestanicum                           [Acyrthosiphon ilka]

       Doronicum spp.                            Brachycaudus tragopogonis; [Protrama radicis]

Key to apterae on Doronicum:-

1     HT much elongated, more than 0.5 Χ hind tibia. ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Body and appendages densely clothed in fine hairs                                                                           …..2

-      HT of normal length. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. SIPH present. Eyes multifacetted. Body and appendages less hairy                                                                                        …..3

2     SIPH absent.  ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25. ANT without sec. rhinaria and eyes with only 3 facets (except in rare alatiform apterae)                                                  .….Trama troglodytes

-      SIPH present as pores on slightly elevated, pigmented cones. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.25. Apterae typically alatiform, with secondary rhinaria on ANT and multifaceted eyes

..….Protrama longitarsus

3     SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed polygonal cells)                 …..4

-      SIPH without subapical reticulation                                                                                  …..6

4     SIPH and cauda dark. ANT III with more than 20 rhinaria                …..Uroleucon doronici

-      SIPH and cauda pale. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria                                                            …..5

5     R IV+V 1.05-1.38 Χ HT II, and bearing 12-17 accessory hairs

…..Macrosiphum doronicicola

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II, and bearing 7-10 accessory hairs       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

6     Head spiculose with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles                                    …..7

-      Head not spiculose and ANT tubercles undeveloped or moderately developed               …..8

7     Dorsal abdomen with a large, dark, roughly horseshoe-shaped patch. SIPH 0.7-1.0 Χ head width across (and including) eyes. Hind tibiae of immature fomrs densely spinulose             

…..Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH 1.0-1.4 Χ head width across eyes. Hind tibiae of immature forms smooth                                                                        …..Aulacorthum solani

8     ANT III with 8-42 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 8-11. Cauda much longer than its basal width and bearing 7(-8) hairs                                                                         …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.5-5.0. If cauda is much longer than its basal width then it bears 10-24 hairs                                                                                           …..9

9     Cauda dark, tongue-shaped, as long as or longer than its basal width, with 10-24 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Spiracular apertures reniform                …..10

-      Cauda pale or dark, helmet-shaped or semi-circular, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-9 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Spiracular apertures rounded …..11

10   ANT (of apt.) usually with rhinaria on III and IV, those on III being mostly on distal part of segment. Tibiae dark                                                                              …..Aphis cacaliasteris

-      ANT without rhinaria on III and IV. Tibiae mostly pale

                                      …..Aphis fabae (or A. solanella; see polyphagous aphids key, couplet 35)

11   R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with extensive dark sclerotisation, but with sclerites showing some division between segments. First tarsal segments each with 2 sense pegs (i.e. first tarsal chaetotaxy 4-4-4)                          …..Brachycaudus tragopogonis

-      R IV+V 1.2-2.0 Χ HT II. Dorsal abdomen either membranous or with a solid dark sclerotic shield, not divided segmentally. First tarsal segments each with  (0-)1 sense peg (first tarsal chaetotaxy 3-3-3 or 3-3-2)                                                                                              ….. 12

12   Dorsum membranous. SIPH pale and smooth, 0.9-1.6 Χ cauda. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                                …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with a solid dark shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.8-3.4 Χ cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes                                              …..Brachycaudus cardui

 

Dorycnium                                                   Leguminosae

      Dorycnium fulgurans                   Aphis ?loti

       D. germanicum = D. pentaphyllum ssp. germanicum  

       D. graecum                                    Aphis loti; Therioaphis loti

       D. hirsutum                                   Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis craccivora, loti;

                                                              Therioaphis bonjeaniae, litoralis, obscura

      D. pentaphyllum                            Acyrthosiphon caraganae, loti, pisum;

              (incl. sspp. germanicum,                     Aphis craccivora, loti, [Aphis sp. (Rumania: Holman &

                            herbaceum)                      Pintera 1981)];

                                                              [Macrosiphum rosae];

                                                              Therioaphis dorycnii, [hillerislambersi], litoralis, obscura

       D. rectum                                       Acyrthosiphon gossypii, loti, pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Therioaphis bonjeaniae, brachytricha

       D. sericeum = D. pentaphyllum ssp. germanicum  

See combined key to apterae on Dorycnium and Lotus, under Lotus.

 

Dovyalis                                                                                   Salicaceae

      Dovyalis caffra                               Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)

 Draba                                                          Brassicaceae

      Draba alpina                                 Brevicoryne brassicae

      D. borealis                                     Myzus ascalonicus

       D. fladnizensis                               Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae

       D. hispida                                      Myzus cerasi

       D. incana                                       Brevicoryne brassicae

       D. lanceolata                                 [Acyrthosiphon ilka]; Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       D. ruaxes                                       Myzus ascalonicus

Use key to apterae on Lepidium.

 

Dracaena                                                     Asparagaceae

      Dracaena spp.                               Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Dracaena:-

-      SIPH cylindrical over most of length, slightly swollen distally but with a smooth constricted region just proximal to the well-developed flange. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spicules arranged in polygons                                                                           …..Rhopalosiphum padi

-      SIPH without a smooth constricted region below flange. Dorsal cuticle without spicules arranged in polygons                                                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Dracocephalum                                           Lamiaceae

       Dracocephalum argunense     Aphis gossypii

       D. austriacum                          Aulacorthum solani

       D. bipinnatum                          Brachycaudus cerasicola

       D. foetidum                              Klimaszewskia dracocephali

       D. grandiflorum                       Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae;

                                                         Brachycaudus cerasicola, helichrysi;

                                                         Klimaszewskia katonica

       D. imberbe                                Brachycaudus cerasicola

       D. latifolium (?)                        Aphis spiraecola

       D. nodulosum                          Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae

       D. nutans                                  Aphis frangulae ssp. beccabungae, gossypii, nepetae;

                                                         Brachycaudus cerasicola; Ovatus crataegarius

       D. ruyschiana                           Aphis ballotae, [dragocephalus Bozhko (nomen nudum)],

                                                             frangulae ssp. beccabungae

       D. thymiflorum                        [Aphis serpylli]

       Dracocephalum sp.                  [Aphis narzikulovi (record based on misidentified host – see

                                                             Holman 1988, 43)]

Key to apterae on Dracocephalum:-

1     First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT tubercles well-developed, divergent, without spicules                                                                                                                                           …..2

-      First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs. ANT tubercles either weakly developed or with inner faces steep-sided and spiculose, or bearing rugose processes                                            …..3

2     ANT III with 31-33 rhinaria distributed over most of length. ANT PT/BASE less than 3.0. R IV with about 40 accessory hairs                                            …..Klimaszewskia dracocephali

-      ANT III with 0-2 rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.2. R IV with 10-14 accessory hairs                                                                                             ….. Klimaszewskia katonica*

3     Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. Cauda semi-circular, much shorter than its basal width. Spiracular apertures rounded                                   …..Brachycaudus cerasicola

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                             …..4

4     Inner faces of ANT tubercles themselves divergent but bearing rounded, rugose processes that project forward, inward and slightly upward                               …..Ovatus crataegarius

-      ANT tubercles either weakly developed or with inner faces steep-sided and spiculose but without rounded processes                                              …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

(but note that specimens running to A. gossypii could be a species of the frangulae group, which includes ballotae and nepetae)

 

Dracophyllum                                              Epacridaceae

      Dracophyllum palustre            Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)

       D. recurvatum                          Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)

       D. subulatum                           Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)

See Teulon et al. (2013) for further information.

 

Dregea                                                         Apocynaceae

      Dregea sinensis                             Aphis nerii

      D. volubilis                                    Aphis nerii

 

Drepanocladus                                            Amblystegiaceae

      Drepanocladus aduncus               Muscaphis cuspidata

(or try key to apterae on mosses under Polytrichum)

 

Drimia                                                          Asparagaceae

      Drimia maritima                           Smynthurodes betae

 

Drimys                                                          Winteraceae

      Drimys winteri                               Aphis nasturtii                  

 

Droogmansia                                               Leguminosae

      Droogmansia megalantha            Sitobion africanum

       D. vanderystii                                 Sitobion africanum

       Droogmansia sp.                           Aphis craccivora

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      Dorsum with variably developed, segmentally divided sclerotisation. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                               …..Sitobion africanum

-      Dorsum with an extensive solid black patch. SIPH without polygonal reticulation

…..Aphis craccivora

 

Drosera                                                        Droseraceae

      Drosera anglica                             Aphis triglochinis; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

       D. capillaris                                   Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

       D. intermedia                                 Aphis triglochinis

       D. longifolia                                   Aphis triglochinis

       D. loureirii                                     Aphis droserae                 

       D. peltata (incl. lanata)                  Aphis droserae

       D. rotundifolia                               Aphis nasturtii, triglochinis; [Cavariella aegopodii];

                                                              Myzus lythri

       Drosera spp.                                  Aphis frangulae

Key to apterae on Drosera:-

1     Head spiculose/nodulose, with rounded ANT tubercles. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale, 2.3-3.8 Χ cauda                                                      …..2

-      Head wthout spicules or nodules, ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view.  ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH pale or dark, 0.7-2.1 Χ cauda                                                                                   …..3

2     ANT 0.5-0.6 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.0. SIPH not clavate               …..Myzus lythri

-      ANT 1.1-1.3 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5. SIPH slightly clavate

…..Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

3     SIPH somewhat swollen on distal half, dark like cauda, ANT and legs. R IV+V 0.135-0.195 mm long, 1.3-1.7 Χ ANT BASE VI                                        …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering, pale or dark. Cauda pale or dark, ANT and legs at least partly pale. R IV+V usually shorter                                                                                             …..4

4     SIPH pale, sometimes dusky-tipped                                                                                  …..5

-      SIPH uniformly dark                                                                                                         …..6

5     ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)                                                                                                        …..Aphis triglochinis

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.0 (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT iii 8-16, IV 1-6, V 0-2)

…..Aphis nasturtii

6     SIPH and cauda both black. SIPH short, 0.11-0.15 Χ BL and 0.8-1.1 Χ cauda. ANT dark except for basal part of ANT III                                                                  …..Aphis droserae

-      Cauda paler than SIPH, which are usually more than 0.15 Χ BL (range 0.09-0.26) and usually more than 1.1 Χ cauda (0.85-2.16). ANT III-IV, and most of V, pale

…..Aphis frangulae group

 

Dryas                                                            Rosaceae

      Dryas integrifolia                           Acyrthosiphon brevicorne

      D. octopetala                                  Acyrthosiphon brevicorne, malvae, svalbardicum;

                                                              [Ericaphis latifrons]

      D. octopetala var. asiatica             Ericaphis wakibae

      D. punctata                             [Acyrthosiphon dryasae]

       Dryas sp.                                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae, rosae

Key to apterae on Dryas:-

1     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                       …..2

-      SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                  …..3

2     Head and SIPH black. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria                           …..Macrosiphum rosae

-      Head and SIPH pale or dusky. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria       …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3     Head densely spiculose. Dorsal abdomen sclerotic, usually with an ill-defined darker mid-dorsal region of varying extent                                                               …..Ericaphis wakibae

-      Head smooth or only sparsely spiculose. Dorsum without dark sclerotic pigmentation    …..4

4     ANT 0.9-1.5 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 4.4-7.5. SIPH 0.20-0.29 Χ BL

       …..Acyrthosiphon malvae group

 

-      ANT 0.6-0.8 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 1.2-2.4.  SIPH 0.15-0.22 Χ BL                                 …..5

5     ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.5. SIPH 0.16-0.22 Χ BL                      …..Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.4. SIPH 0.15-0.18 Χ BL                          …..Acyrthosiphon brevicorne

 

Drymaria                                                      Caryophyllaceae

       Drymaria cordata                          Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;               

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Lipaphis erysimi];

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sitobion pauliani]

       D. villosa                                        Aphis craccivora; Neomyzus circumflexus

       Drymaria sp.                                 Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Drymocallis  see  Potentilla                                   Rosaceae

 

Drymoglossum  see  Pyrrosia                                        Polypodiaceae

 

Drynaria                                                      Polypodiaceae

      Drynaria volkensii                         Micromyzella pterisoides

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

 

Dryopteris                                                    Dryopteridaceae

       Dryopteris abbreviata                    Idiopteris nephrelepidis

       D. arguta                                       Macrosiphum walkeri

       D. arida = Cyclosorus aridus            

       D. austriaca  = D. dilatata

       D. carthusiana                               Amphorophora ampullata; Idiopteris nephrelepidis;

                                                              Macrosiphum dryopteridis; Taiwanomyzus alpicola

       D. chrysocoma                              Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis

       D. cochleata                                   Micromyzodium filicium

       D. crassirhizoma                           Amphorophora ampullata; [Thomasia shidae Shinji 1922]

       D. cristata                                      Macrosiphum dryopteridis

       D. dentata = Thelypteris dentata       

       D. dilatata (incl. austriaca)                Amphorophora ampullata; Macrosiphum dryopteridis;

                                                              Taiwanomyzus filicis

       D. filix-mas                                   Amphorophora ampullata; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;

                                                              Macromyzus maculata, woodwardiae;

                                                              Macrosiphum dryopteridis; [Rhopalosiphum dryopterae]

       D. fuscipes                                     Macromyzus woodwardiae

        D. marginalis                                Macrosiphum miho

        D. molle (?)                                   Macromyzus maculatus

        D. monticola                                 Macromyzus woodwardiae

        D. nipponensis                              Idiopteris nephrelepidis

        D. oligocarpa = Thelypteris oligocarpa                                      

        D. paleacea = D. wallichiana                                                    

        D. parasitica = Christella parasitica 

        D.  patagonica = D. filix-mas          

        D. rigida                                        Idiopteris nephrelepidis

        D. spinulosa = D. carthusiana         

        D. thelypteris = Thelypteris palustris

        D. varia                                         Macrosiphum woodwardiae                                               

        D. wallichiana                              [Eutrichosiphum alnicola]

        Dryopteris sp.                                Shinjia orientalis

Use general key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Drypetes                                                       Putranjivaceae

      Drypetes lateriflora                        Aphis spiraecola

 

Duabanga                                                               Lythraceae

     Duabanga sonneratioides              Aphis fabae, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                              Eutrichosiphum sikkimense; Greenidea ficicola;

                                                              Greenidea (Trichosiphum) bucktonis, [fici], psidii;

                                                              Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) distincta, himalayensis

Key to species:-

1    Apterae or alatae. SIPH tubular, longer than basal width. Cauda tongue-shaped or rounded, anal plate entire                                                                                            .....2

-     All viviparae are alatae. SIPH as short, truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed

 .....6

2    SIPH without hairs                                                .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-     SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                                                           .....3

3    Antennae 5-segmented. Body elongate, more than 2Χ its maximum width. Abdominal tergum pale.  SIPH without any pale reticulation. Cauda without a medial papilla

.....Eutrichosiphum sikkimense

-     Antennae 6-segmented. Body pear-shaped, less than 2Χ its maximum width. Abdominal tergum dark. SIPH with pale reticulation, at least on basal part. Cauda with a median papilla

.....4

 

4    Siphunculi with pale reticulation throughout length except for spiculose subapical region

.....Greenidea ficicola

-     Siphunculi with pale reticulation confined to basal region                                                 …..5

5     ANT PT subequal to or slightly shorter than ANT III, less than 2Χ longer than R IV+V

.....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) bucktonis

-      ANT PT longer than ANT III, and more than 2Χ longer than R IV+V

.....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) psidii

6    Forewings with veins unbordered. ANT III-VI mainly dark, with III bearing 19-28 secondary rhinaria over c. 0.8 of length, ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs on dark conical processes

.....Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) distincta

-     Forewings with veins dark-bordered. ANT III-VI mainly pale, dark at joints and apically; III with 3-17 secondary rhinaria over 0.4-0.7 of length. ABD TERG 1-2 with spinal hairs on dark finger-like processes, those on ABD TERG 2 being much larger than those on 1

.....Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) himalayensis

 

Duboisia                                                      Solanaceae

      Duboisia myoporoides                  Myzus persicae

      

Duchesnea                                                   Rosaceae

      Duchesnea chrysantha                 Myzus persicae; [Sitobion akebiae]

      D. indica                                        Acyrthosiphon malvae group (as boreale);

                                                  Aphis nasturtii;

                                                              Matsumuraja sp. near formosana (as Chaetosiphon

                                                                  anguifragum Qiao & Zhang 1999);

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

        D. wallichiana = D. chrysantha

Key to apterae on Duchesnea:-

-      ANT I with a finger-like process (as in Fig. 47d). Dorsal body and antennal hairs capitate

…..Matsumuraja sp. near formosana

-      ANT I without a finger-like process. Hairs not capitate

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Ducrosia                                                      Apiaceae

      Ducrosia sp.                             Hyadaphis foeniculi

 

Duggena  see  Gonzalagunia                                           Rubiaceae

      D. brachyantha = Gonzalagunia brachyantha

          D. spicata = Gonzalagunia hirsuta

 

Duranta                                                        Verbenaceae

      D. ellisiae = D. erecta

        D. erecta                                        Aphis gossypii, nerii, odinae, punicae, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ornatus, persicae

        D. plumieri = D. erecta

        D. repens = D. erecta                      

        D. stenostachya                             Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Duranta:-

1      Head spinulose with well-developed, apically convergent ANT tubercles                       …..2

-      Head without spicules, ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                …..3

2      SIPH slightly clavate. Dorsum without dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5

…..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering, usually with a slight “S”-curve. Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                                                …..Myzus ornatus

3      Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH smooth, conical, with a subapical annular incision below the large flange. Spiracular apertures rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                       …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH imbricated, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu             …..4

4      SIPH and cauda both black                                                                                               …..5

-      SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale or dusky (paler than SIPH)                                              …..7

5      SIPH 0.4-0.6 Χ cauda. Stridulatory apparatus present. ABD TERG 2 usually, and 3 often, with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                       …..Aphis odinae

-      SIPH 0.9-2.7 Χ cauda. No stridulatory apparatus. ABD TERG 2 and 3 rarely with MTu

…..6

6      SIPH 0.9-1.7 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.9-2.8                                        …..Aphis spiraecola

-      SIPH 1.7-2.7 Χ cauda.  ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.1                                                …..Aphis nerii

7      SIPH often paler at base, and usually less than 1.5 Χ cauda. (Al. often with 1-3 rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                      …..Aphis punicae

-      SIPH uniformly dark, usually more than 1.5 Χ cauda. (Al. usually without rhinaria on ANT IV, rarely with 1 or 2)                                                                                  …..Aphis gossypii                                                                                                                                                    

Dyckia                                                          Bromeliaceae

      Dyckia breviflora                          Hysteroneura setariae

      D. floribunda                                Aphis fabae, gossypii

        D. rariflora                                    [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a: 100]; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Dyckia:-

-      Cauda pale, elongate and with only 4 hairs, contrasting with black, calf-shaped SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-6.7. (Al. with only 1 oblique vein in hind-wing)        .....Hysteroneura setariae

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Dypsis                                                           Arecaceae

      Dypsis lutescens                             Cerataphis brasiliensis    

      D. madagascariensis                     Aphis gossypii; Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

 

Dyschoriste                                                  Acanthaceae

      Dyschoriste heudelotiana             Aphis gossypii

        D. ?radicans                                  Aphis gossypii

 

Dysophylla  see  Pogostemon                                          Lamiaceae

 

Dysoxylum                                                                             Meliaceae

 

      Dysoxylum sp.                                Aphis odinae

[N.B. Records under Dysoxylum in Tao (1999) are presumably a printer’s error, and possibly all apply to Lithocarpus.]

 

Dysphania                                                    Amaranthaceae

      Dysphania aristata                        Hayhurstia atriplicis

 

Dyssodia                                                       Compositae

      Dyssodea tagetiflora                      Geopempigus sp. (blackmani?)

        Dyssodia sp.                                  Myzus persicae

Couplet for separating these species:-

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent. Anal plate displaced dorsally. Dorsal wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen. (On roots)                …..Geopemphigus (blackmani?)

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. SIPH present, tubular, slightly clavate. Anal plate in normal position. No discrete wax glands. (On aerial parts)                                   …..Myzus persicae

                                                                                                   (or use key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Dystaenia                                                     Apiaceae

      Dystaenia ibukiensis                Cavariella japonica

        D. takesimana                         Brachycaudus helichrysi

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      ABD TERG 8 with a small process bearing a pair of hairs. SIPH rugose, without a subapical annular incision, and 2.7-3.0 Χ cauda. Tergum pigmented, and with

        nodulose ornamentation. Spiracular apertures small and occluded      .....Cavariella japonica

-      ABD TERG 8 without a small hair-bearing process. SIPH short, smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Tergum unpigmented, smooth. Spiracular apertures

        large and rounded                                                                          .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

 

 

E

Ecballium                                                     Cucurbitaceae

       Ecballium elaterium                      Aphis [ecballii], gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.     

      

Eccoilopus  see  Spodiopogon                                       Poaceae

 

Echeveria                                                     Crassulaceae

      Echeveria crenulata                      [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a)]

       E. gibbiflora                                   Aphis sedi

       E. gigantea                                    Aphis sedi

      Echeveria sp.                                 Macrosiphum centranthi

Couplet for two species on Echeveria:-

-      Body spindle-shaped, BL 2.0-3.6 mm. ANT 1.3-1.6 Χ BL. SIPH pale with dark apices, 1.8-2.2 Χ cauda, with subapical polygonal reticulation. Rostrum (total length measured from base of protractor apodeme) less than 0.25 Χ BL                                 …..Macrosiphum centranthi

-      Body oval, BL 1.0-1.7 mm. ANT 0.5-0.8 Χ BL. SIPH uniformly dark, 0.8-1.4 Χ cauda, without polygonal reticulation. Rostrum total length 0.30-0.42 Χ BL                …..Aphis sedi

 

Echinacea                                                    Compositae

      Echinacea angustifolia                 Protaphis echinaceae

      E. purpurea                                   [Macrosiphum sp. (Ossiannilsson 1964a)];

                                                              [Uroleucon leonardi]

 

Echinocarpus  see  Sloanea                                           Elaeocarpaceae

 

Echinochloa                                                Poaceae

      Echinochloa colona                      Aphis gossypii; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Melanaphis indosacchari, sacchari;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis,padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sitobion miscanthi; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                              Tetraneura basui, caerulescens, fusiformis, javensis

       E. crus-galli                                   Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, major, [mirae],

                                                     setariae, vagans, zirnitsi;

                                                              Carolinaia rhois; Diuraphis frequens, noxia;

                                                              Forda marginata, pawlowae;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, utricularia;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Laingia psammae;

                                                              Melanaphis sacchari; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                              Paracletus bykovi, bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus,

                                                     cimiciformis;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii; [Pseudoregma alexanderi];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum, jaroslavi, pyri;

                                                              Sipha flava, maydis; Sitobion avenae, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura africana, basui, caerulescens, fusiformis,

                                                                  nigriabdominalis, triangula, radicicola, ulmi,

                                                      yezoensis

       E. frumentacea                              Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis;  

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                  Sipha flava;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis,nigriabdominalis, yezoensis

       E. pyramidalis                               Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Echinocystis                                                Cucurbitaceae

      Echinocystis fabacea = Marah fabaceus

       E. lobata                                        Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       Echinocystis sp.                             Macrosiphum echinocysti

Key to apterae on Echinocystis:-

1     Body oval. SIPH uniformly dark, shorter than distance between their bases, without polygonal reticulation. Cauda with 4-7 (-8) hairs                                          …..Aphis gossypii

-      Body spindle-shaped. SIPH pale (or dark-tipped ), longer than the distance between their bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda with 8-15 hairs                 …..2

2     ANT PT/BASE about 7. SIPH 0.35-0.4 Χ BL, with polygonal reticulation on distal

      0.17-0.25. SIPH 2.1-2.6 Χ cauda which bears 12-15 hairs          …..Macrosiphum echinocysti

-      ANT PT/BASE 5.3-6.5. SIPH 0.25-0.35 Χ BL, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.20.  SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda which bears 8-12 hairs                             …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

 

Echinodorus                                                Alismataceae

      Echinodorus berteroi                    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

       E. ranunculoides                           Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Echinophora                                                Apiaceae

      Echinophora platyloba              Anuraphis subterranea

      E.  tenuifolia                                 Anuraphis cachryos

               (incl. ssp. sibthorpiana)

Use key to apterae on Ferula.

 

Echinops                                                      Compositae

      Echinops albicaulis                       Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica, ssp. ruthenica;

                                                              Protaphis echinopis, echinopsicola;

                                                              Turanoleucon jashenkoi

      E. bannaticus                                Paczoskia longipes

      E. chantavicus                               Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica

       E. commutatus = E. exaltatus

       E. cornigerus                                 Uroleucon budhium

       E. dahuricus = E. latifolius

       E. dissectus                                    Aphis fabae

       E. echinatus                                   Myzus persicae; Uroleucon echinatum

       E. exaltatus                                    Aphis fabae; Paczoskia longipes

       E. galalensis                                  Paczoskia meridionalis

       E. galaticus = E. ossicus

         E. humilis                                      Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui                                     

       E. karatavicus                                Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica

       E. latifolius                                    [Aphis (Protaphis) sp. (Holman 1991, 48)]

       E. longifolius                                 Aphis gossypii

       E. maracandicus                           Paczoskia paczoskii

       E. microcephalus                          Paczoskia brevipilosa, major ssp. bulgarica

       E. ossicus                                       Paczoskia colchica

       E. ritro                                           Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Paczoskia brevipilosa, major, paczoskii;

                                                              Protaphis middletonii; Turanoleucon jashenkoi

       E. ritro ssp. ruthenicus                  Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                              Paczoskia paczoskii, paczoskii ssp. ruthenica

       E. ritro ssp. tenuifolius = E. ritro s. str.

       E. ruthenicum = E. ritro ssp. ruthenicus                                      

       E. sphaerocephalus                       Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Paczoskia major, paczoskii ssp. turanica;

                                                              Protaphis terricola

       E. spinosissimus                            Paczoskia meridionalis;

                                                              Protaphis echinopis, [pseudocardui];

       E. spinosus = E. spinosissimus                                                    

       E. tschimganicus                           Paczoskia paczoskii

       E. viscosus = E. spinosissimus

       Echinops spp.                                Paczoskia wagneri; [Protaphis anuraphoides]

Key to apterae on Echinops:-

Couplets 8-16 are based largely on Holman (1981).

1     Cauda short, bluntly triangular, semi-circular or helmet-shaped, shorter than or not clearly longer than (less than 1.3 Χ) its basal width in dorsal view                                               …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped or acutely triangular, clearly longer than (more than 1.4 Χ) its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                 …..6

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.1. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with (and 2-5 without) marginal tubercles (MTu). Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH dark. Cauda with 8-22 hairs                        …..3

-      ANT/BASE 2.4-5.1. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH pale or dark. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                           …..5

3     ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.1. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 Χ SIPH. Cauda with 8-16 hairs

                                                                                                                  …..Protaphis middletonii

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. R IV+V long, 1.5-2.5 Χ SIPH. Cauda with 16-22 hairs            …..4

4     Hairs on ANT III 12-20 μm long, 0.9-1.2 Χ BD III. Longest hairs on hind femur 18-35 μm long. R IV+V 1.8-2.6 Χ SIPH. SIPH 4-6 Χ longer than longest hair on ANT III

                                                                                                                     …..Protaphis echinopis

-      Hairs on ANT III 5-11 μm long, 0.4-0.8 Χ BD III. Longest hairs on hind femur 12-15 μm long. R IV+V 1.16-1.75 Χ SIPH. SIPH 8-16 Χ longer than longest hair on ANT III

…..Protaphis terricola or echinopsicola

5     Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. SIPH pale, smooth, abot 1.1-1.3 Χ cauda                

                                                                                                             …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsal abdomen with a solid dark shield. SIPH dark, imbricated, 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda

                                                                                   …..Brachycaudus cardui (incl. ssp. turanica)

6     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells)

                                                                                                                                                  …..7

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                               …..19

7     Conspicuous dark, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH long and thin , somewhat flared apically, with polygonal cells relatively large and few in number

                                                                                                                                                  …..8

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites absent. SIPH thicker, not flared apically, with polygonal cells small and very numerous                                                                                                           …..17

8     Hairs on ANT III only 0.2-0.3 Χ BD III. ANT I  0.30-0.35 Χ width of head across (and including) eyes                                                                                   …..Paczoskia brevipilosa

-      Hairs on ANT III 0.5 or more Χ BD III.  ANT I  0.35-0.53 Χ head width across eyes           

                                                                                                                                                  …..9

9     First tarsal segments always with 3 hairs.  R IV+V with 6-9 (mostly 6-7) accessory hairs

                                                                                                                                                …..10

-      First tarsal segments with 4-6 hairs (exceptionally 3 hairs on one or more tarsi). R IV+V with 8-28 accessory hairs                                                                                                         …..14

10   R IV+V 0.35-0.39 Χ head width, and 1.35-c.1.5 Χ HT II                                               …..11

-      R IV+V 0.41-0.51 (rarely less than 0.44) Χ head width, and 1.6-2.0 Χ HT II                …..12

11   Reticulation of SIPH consisting of 20-25 transverse rows of closed cells covering distal 0.35-0.4 of its length. ANT BASE VI 0.27-0.29 Χ head width. SIPH 1.3-1.4 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                      …..Paczoskia wagneri

-      Reticulation of SIPH consisting of 3-4 transverse rows of rather indistinct cells occupying less than 0.1 of length. ANT BASE VI 0.37-0.45 Χ head width. SIPH 1.7-1.9 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                      …..Paczoskia longipes

12   ANT BASE VI and ANT I are respectively 0.35-0.41 and 0.43-0.46 Χ head width. ABD TERG 3 with 9-15 hairs. ANT with base of IV (as well as III) paler

…..Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. ruthenica

-      ANT BASE VI and ANT I  are respectively 0.25-0.35 and 0.35-0.43 Χ head width or, if longer,  then ABD TERG 3 has 15-24 hairs, or ANT III-VI are uniformly dark pigmented except for base of III                                                                                                       …..13

13   ANT III-VI uniformly dark pigmented, except for pale/dusky base of III. ABD TERG 3 with 11-17 hairs (rarely more than 15)                                       …..Paczoskia paczoskii s. str.

-      ANT III and basal half of IV pale or dusky. clearly paler than apex of IV and V-VI. ABD TERG 3 wirh 15-24 hairs (rarely less than 17)

…..Paczoskia paczoskii ssp. turanica

14   ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.3. First tarsal segments mostly with 4 hairs (more rarely 3 or 5). R IV+V with 8-12 accessory hairs                                                            …..Paczoskia colchica

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.9-5.6. First tarsal segments usually with 5-6 hairs (rarely one or more tarsi with 4).  R IV+V with 11-28 accessory hairs                                                                  …..15

15   ANT VI BASE 0.24-0.30 Χ head width                                         …..Paczoskia meridionalis

-      ANT VI BASE 0.31-0.44 Χ head width                                                                         …..16

16   R IV+V 0.48-0.57 Χ head width, with 16-22 accessory hairs. Hind femur 2.35-2.60 Χ head width                                                                                                …..Paczoskia major s. str.

-      R IV+V 0.39-0.49 Χ head width, with 11-15 accessory hairs. Hind femur 1.95-2.35 Χ head width                                                                                 …...Paczoskia major ssp. bulgarica

17   R IV+V 1.1-1.2 Χ HT II                                                                    …..Uroleucon echinatum

-      R IV+V long and slender, 1.7-2.3 Χ HT II                                                                       .....18

18   Cauda pale. ANT tubercles well developed, median frontal tubercle undeveloped. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.14-0.17 of length                                             …..Uroleucon budhium

-      Cauda dark. ANT tubercles low, median tubercle developed. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.4-0.45 of length                                                                           .....Turanoleucon jashenkoi

19   SIPH wholly dark. Head smooth, with ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                                                      …..20

-      SIPH mainly pale, often darker at apices.  Head with spicules, ANT tubercles well developed, spiculose, steep-sided. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                          …..21

20   Cauda paler than SIPH and bearing 4-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Hairs on hind femur shorter than its basal diameter                                      …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda as black as SIPH, with 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG  7 and 8, and often with scattered dark markings anteriorly. Hairs on hind femur long and fine, mostly longer than its basal diameter                                       …..Aphis fabae group

21   SIPH slightly clavate. ANT III always without rhinaria                             …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH not clavate. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base

                                                                                                                     …..Aulacorthum solani

 

Echinopsilon  see  Bassia                                                           Amaranthaceae

 

Echinopsis                                                             Cactaceae

      Echinopsis chiloensis                    Aphis danielae

 

Echinospartum                                            Leguminosae

      Echinospartium barnadesii = E. lusitanicum ssp. barnadesii       

       E. horridum                                   Aphis craccivora

       E. lusitanicum (incl. sspp.                     Acyrthosiphum echinospartii, pisum; Aphis cytisorum

               barnadesii, dorsisericeum)

Key to apterae on Echinospartum:-

1     Oval aphid with ANT tubercles weakly developed, and ANT 0.5-0.8 Χ BL. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH and cauda dark                                                         …..2

-      Broadly spindle-shaped aphid with ANT tubercles very well developed, and ANT 0.9-1.6 Χ BL. Dorsum membranous. SIPH and cauda pale or dusky                                               …..3

2     R IV+V 0.88-1.16 Χ HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 Χ). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs                                                                                                          …..Aphis craccivora

 -      R IV+V  0.97-1.3 Χ HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 Χ). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)                                                                                   …..Aphis cytisorum

3      ANT I with 9-23 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.8. Cauda with 8-14 hairs                                 

                                                                                                                   …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      ANT I with 5-8 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-2.72.  Cauda with 5-8 hairs (the distal ones being very short and blunt)                                                              …..Acyrthosiphon echinospartii

 

Echinospermum  see  Lappula                                    Boraginaceae

 

Echites                                                         Apocynaceae

      Echites agglutinatus                      Aphis spiraecola

       E. arguta (?)                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi

       E. rubrovenosus                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       E. umbellatus                                Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Echium                                                        Boraginaceae

      Echium angustifolium                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

       E. auberianum                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

       E. bifrons                                       Brachycaudus cardui

       E. candicans                                  Brachycaudus cardui

      E. decaisnei                                   Aphis gossypii

       E. giganteum                                 Myzus persicae

       E. hierrense                                   Brachycaudus cardui

       E. italicum                                     Brachycaudus cardui, mordvilkoi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       E. judaeum                                    Myzus persicae

       E. lycopsis = E. plantagineum

       E. maculatum                                Brachycaudus cardui

       E. nervosum                                  Brachycaudus bicolor; Myzus ornatus, persicae

       E. plantagineum                            Brachycaudus helichrysi

       E. rubrum                                      Brachycaudus ?cardui (Bozhko 1976a, as B. symphyti

                                                                 Schrank)

       E. vulgare                                      Aphis fabae, solanella, symphyti; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus bicolor, cardui, helichrysi, mordvilkoi;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Ovatomyzus boraginacearum;

                                                              [Uroleucon jaceae]

       E. wildpretii                                   Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       Echium sp.                                    Nasonovia ribisnigri

Key to apterae on Echium:-

1     Cauda semi-circular or helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spiracular apertures rounded                                                                                             …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width                                 …..5

2     Dorsum without any dark markings. SIPH 0.9-1.5 Χ cauda. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                                …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Dorsum with a dark shield or extensive dark markings. SIPH 2.1-3.4 Χ cauda. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes                                                                      …..3

3     Broad, flat, pale marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1-7, larger than the spiracles and occupying almost the whole of the sclerites on which they are placed. ABD TERG 7 often, and 6-8 sometimes, with spinal tubercles (STu)        .....Brachycaudus bicolor

-      MTu irregularly present on ABD TERG 2-4, sometimes also on 1 and/or 5, but never on 6 and 7, and generally smaller than the spiracles. No STu                                                    …..4

4     Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 60-110 μm long. Genital plate with 25-42 hairs, of which 8-17 are on the anterior half. ANT III usually without rhinaria. (Al. with 21-35 rhinaria on ANT III and usually without, rarely with 1-2, on IV)                       …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 10-16 μm long. Genital plate with 16-23 hairs of which 2-5 are on anterior half. ANT III usually with 1-12 rhinaria. (Al. with 12-16 rhinaria on ANT III, and 2-3 on IV                                                                       …..Brachycaudus mordvilkoi

5     ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH uniformly dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu

                                                                                                                                                  …..6

-      ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH mainly pale. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu   …..8

6     Cauda black with 11-27 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with transverse dark bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and often with dark markings on more anterior tergites

                                  …..Aphis fabae (or A. solanella; see couplet 35 of polyphagous aphids key)

-      Cauda paler than SIPH, with 4-11 hairs. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings, or with only narrow bands on ABD TERG (7) – 8                                                                        …..7

7     Total length of rostrum (measured from base of protractor apodeme) 0.43-0.60 mm, 0.27-0.36 Χ BL. (Al. with 1-4 rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                   …..Aphis symphyti

-      Total length of rostrum 0.34-0.49 mm, 0.22-0.28 Χ BL. (Al. usually with 0, rarely with 1-2, rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                    …..Aphis gossypii

8     ANT III with 3-36 rhinaria on swollen basal part.  ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. SIPH cylindrical, almost smooth. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal spiracles

                                                                                                                    …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      ANT III with 0-10 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.75-6.2. SIPH cylindrical or slightly clavate, imbricated. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones                                      …..9

9     Cauda rather short, tongue-shaped with a slight basal constriction. ANT II with a large dorsal tubercle. ANT III broad-based, without any secondary rhinaria

.....Ovatomyzus boraginacearum

-      Without that combination of characters

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

 

Eclipta                                                         Compositae

      Eclipta alba = E. prostrata          

       E erecta = E. prostrata

       E. prostrata                                    Aphis fabae, gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Eclypta  see  Eclipta                                                Compositae

 

Edgeworthia                                                Thymelaeaceae

      Edgeworthia “grandii”                 Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum padi

                         (gardneri?)

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Edraianthus                                                 Campanulaceae

      Edraianthus croaticus = E. graminifolius

         E. graminifolius                            Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Uroleucon ?minosmartelli (Serbia: O Petrović,

                                                                  pers. comm.)

       E. jugoslavicus = E. graminifolius

       E. kitaibelii = E. graminifolius

       E. serpyllifolius                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Edraianthus:-

-      SIPH and cauda black, SIPH 1.5-1.8 Χ cauda and with polygonal reticulation on distal

       0.30-0.46 of length. Head smooth, and ANT III with 15 or more rhinaria extending over more than 0.5 of length                                                              …..Uroleucon ?minosmartelli

-      SIPH and cauda pale, SIPH 1.8-2.6 Χ cauda and without polygonal reticulation. Head spiculose, and ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                    …..Aulacorthum solani

      

Egletes                                                         Compositae

      Egletes viscosa                               Uroleucon ambrosiae

 

Ehretia (including Carmona)                                            Boraginaceae

     E. acuminata                                  Rhopalosiphoninus ehretis

     E. buxifolia = E. microphylla            

     E. hottentotica = E. rigida

     E. microphylla                                Aphis aurantii, gossypii

     E. rigida                                          Aulacorthum solani

Key to aphids on Ehretia:-

 

-     SIPH thick and strongly clavate, with narrower distal section spinulose. Dorsal body and appendages with numerous long hairs                                ......Rhopalosiphoninus ehretis

 

-      Without that combination of characters                      .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Ehrharta                                                      Poaceae

      Ehrharta calycina                         Rhopalosiphum maidis; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Eichhornia                                                   Pontederiaceae

      Eichhornia crassipes                     Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

Couplet for separating apterae of these two species:-

-      Head smooth with weakly developed ANT tubercles. SIPH clavate, with a smooth constricted region proximal to the flange. Dorsal cuticle ornamented with spinules arranged in polygons, without dark markings                                        …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      Head spinulose with well-developed ANT tubercles. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without a smooth subapical constriction. Dorsum with dark thoracic cross-bands and a roughly horseshoe-shaped abominal sclerite                                               ….. Neomyzus circumflexus

       (or, if neither combination applies, go to key to polyphagous aphids)

 

 

Elaeagnus                                                                              Elaeagnaceae

Elaeagnaceae are the primary hosts of the 10-11 species of Capitophorus known to have host alternation. One species (shepherdiae) seems to have a specific primary host association with Shepherdia (= Lepargyrea) argentea (which is not Elaeagnus argentea), but the other heteroecious species are apparently able to utilise either Elaeagnus or Hippophae, presumably depending on host availability.

Host Plant List

      E. angustifolia                                         Oleaster, Russian Olive

                                                              [Aphis craccivora];
                                                        Capitophorus archangelskii, elaeagni, [formosartemisiae],

                                                                  hippophaes, shepherdiae, pakansus, similis;
                                                        [Cryptomyzus korschelti]; [Protaphis middletonii]

      E. argentea = E. commutata

      E. canadensis = Shepherdia canadensis

      E. commutata                                 Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes, pakansus, similis

      E. crispa = E. umbellata

      E. glabra                                         [Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus];

                                                              Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes

      E. longipes = E. multiflora

      E. multiflora                                            Cherry Elaeagnus
                                                        Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes, hippophaes ssp.

                                                                   javanicus;
                                                        [Myzus gumi Shinji 1922b]

      E. occidentalis (?)                           Capitophorus archangelskii, elaeagni, hippophaes

      E. oldhamii                                     Capitophorus elaeagni; Sinolachnus niitakayamensis

      E. oxycarpa = E. angustifolia

      E. parvifolia                                    Sinolachnus niitakayamensis

      E. pungens                                     Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes ssp. javanicus,                

                                                                  pakansus;

                                                              [Mollitrichosiphum nigrum]

      E. umbellata                                   Capitophorus elaeagni, hippophaes ssp. javanicus, similis;
                                                        [Myzus gumi Shinji 1922b]

      Elaeagnus spp.                              Capitophorus [?inulae], meghalayensis;

                                                              Sinolachnus elaeagnensis

 

Key to aphids on Elaeagnus and Hippophae (apterae viviparae unless otherwise stated):-

 

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH on broad dark hairy cones. Dorsal hairs with pointed apices

      .....2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH long and tubular. Dorsal hairs with expanded apices

.....4

2    R IV almost cylindrical, not much narrower distally than at base; R V shorter than its basal width. Alata with c. 10 rather large secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and 2-3 on IV

.....Lachnus wichmanni

-     R IV tapering, only about half as wide at its junction with R V as at its base; R V longer than its basal width. Alata with very numerous, small protruberant secondary rhinaria scattered over ANT III and IV                                                                                                           .....3

3    Alata has forewings entirely pigmented and scaly, with media twice-branched and pterostigma without hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 275–280, IV 90–95, V 60–65, VI BASE 15–20                                                                         .....Sinolachnus elaeagnensis*

-     Alata has forewings only pigmented anteriorly, media once-branched and pterostigma with c.20 long hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed III 100+, IV c.40, V c.40, VI BASE 6–8

       .....Sinolachnus niitakayanensis

4    SIPH distinctly swollen subapically, particularly on inner sides                                        .....5

-     SIPH cylindrical or tapering, or only very slightly swollen (to less than 1.1 of minimum width) near apex, or (in alata) thinnest in middle and gradually thicker towards base and apex                                                                                                                                             .....9

5    ABD TERG 1-4 usually without submarginal hairs, so that there are only 3 complete longitudinal rows of hairs on each side; these hairs have fan-shaped apices and are usually longer than their maximum widths. SIPH less than 2.7 Χ cauda

.....Capitophorus hippophaes

-     ABD TERG 1-4 usually with submarginal hairs, so that there are 4 more-or-less complete longitudinal rows of hairs on each side; these hairs are either long and capitate, or have mushroom- or balloon-shaped apices. SIPH more than 2.7 Χ cauda                                   .....6

6    Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 long and capitate. Marginal hairs single

…..Capitophorus rhamnoides*

-     Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 have mushroom- or balloon-shaped apices. Marginal hairs usually duplicated                                                                                                                            .....7

7    Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 long, distinctly longer than their maximum widths. Cuticle in the marginal region smooth. Hairs on outer side of hind tibiae long and with fan-shaped apices

…..Capitophorus wojiechowskii*

 -    Hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 very short, with fan-shaped apices, shorter than their maximum widths. Cuticle in the marginal region rugose. Hairs on outer side of hind tibiae short and club-shaped                                                                                                                          .....8

8    ABD TERG 1-4 with pleural hairs usually single. BL probably more than 1.4 mm, and ANT PT/BASE probably more than 2.5 except in fundatrices. (The spring generations of this species on its primary host are not yet recorded)                                 .....Capitophorus xanthii

-     ABD TERG 1-4 with pleural hairs mostly duplicate. BL less than 1.4 mm, ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0                                                                                 .....Capitophorus shepherdiae

 

9    ABD TERG 1-4 each with 6-8 hairs (usually only one pair each of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs)                                                                                   .....Capitophorus elaeagni

-     ABD TERG 1-4 each with 10-26 hairs, due to duplication or multiplication of spinal, pleural and marginal hairs on each tergite                                                                                     .....10

10 SIPH short, tapering continuously from base to apex, less than 11 Χ longer than width at midpoint                                                                                    ......Capitophorus himalayensis

-     SIPH attenuated, almost cylindrical except at base, or with slight subapical swelling; more than 12 Χ width at midpoint                                                                                              .....11

11  Hairs on ANT III all short, thin and inconspicuous, 0.3-0.5 Χ basal diameter of segment. R IV+V 2.5-3.1 Χ HT II                                                            .....Capitophorus meghalayensis*

-     ANT III with 1-5 forwardly-directed thick clavate hairs like those on ANT II or a little shorter, 0.5-1.2 Χ longer than base of segment. R IV+V 1.5-2.6 Χ HT II                         .....12

12 Thick capitate hairs on ANT III all less than 0.8 Χ basal diameter of segment. (R IV+V

      1.5-2.1 Χ HT II)                                                                                    .....Capitophorus similis

-     Longest capitate hairs on ANT III more than 0.8 Χ basal diameter of segment. (R IV+V

      1.6-2.6 Χ HT II)                                                                                                                 .....13

13 ABD TERG 1-4 each with 18-26 capitate hairs. R IV+V 2.1-2.6 Χ HT II

.....Capitophorus pakansus

-     ABD TERG 1-4 each with 12-19 capitate hairs. R IV+V 1.6-2.1 Χ HT II

.....Capitophorus archangelskii  
 

Elaeis                       Oil  Palms                   Arecaceae

      Elaeis guineensis                            Astegopteryx nipae, rappardi, rhapidis;

                                                              Cerataphis brasiliensis; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Schizaphis rotundiventris

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

 

Elaeocarpus                                                                         Elaeocarpaceae

      E. japonicus                                   Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

      E. serratus                                      Acyrthosiphon elaeocarpi

      E. sikkimensis                                [Trichaitophorus recurvispinosus]

Key to aphids on Elaeocarpus:-

 

-       SIPH with numerous long hairs. R IV+V long and narrow        .....Eutrichosiphum pasaniae

-      SIPH without hairs. R IV+V short                                              .....Acyrthosiphon elaeocarpi

Elaeosticta                                                   Apiaceae

      E. bucharica                                  Dysaphis crataegi, munirae

       E. hirtula                                       Hyadaphis passerinii

       E. transitoria                                  Aphis craccivora

Key to apterae on Elaeosticta:-

1     SIPH swollen distally and about equal in length to the cauda

                                                                                              …..Hyadaphis passerinii (or foeniculi)

-      SIPH tapering/cylindrical and longer than cauda                                                             …..2

2     Cauda finger-shaped, much longer than wide. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerite. Head and ABD TERG 8 without spinal tubercles                     …..Aphis craccivora

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than wide. Dorsal abdomen without extensive sclerotisation. Head and ABD TERG 8 each with a pair of spinal tubercles                   …..3

3     HT I with 3 hairs (medial sense peg present, as on fore and mid-tarsi)

                                                                                                                       …..