HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Dab-Dig

 

Daboecia

Dactylicapnos

Dactylis

Dactyloctenium

Dactylorhiza

Daemea

Daemonorops

Dahlia

Dalbergia

Dalea

Damnacanthus

Danae

Danhatchia

Danthonia

Daphne

Darlingtonia

Dasiophora

Dasypyrum

Datura

Daubentonia

Daucus

Davallia

Daviesia

Davilla

Debregeasia

Decaspermum

Decodon

Deinandra

Delphinium

Dendranthema

Dendriopterium

Dendrobium

Dendrocalamus

Dendropanax

Dendrophtho๋

Dendrostellera

Dendrotrophe

Dennstaedtia

Dentaria

Dentella

Deparia

Deplanchea

Deschampsia

Descurainia

Desmanthus

Desmazeria

Desmodium

Desmoncus

Desmostachya

Deutzia

Dianella

Dianthus

Diarrhena

Diarthron

Diascia

Dicentra

Dichaea

Dichanthium

Dichilus

Dichondra

Dichrocephala

Dichromena

Dichrostachys

Dicksonia

Dicliptera

Dicranella

Dicranopteris

Dicranum

Dictamnus

Dictyosperma

Didymocarpus

Didymopanax

Dieffenbachia

Diervilla

Dieteria

Dietes

Digitalis

Digitaria

Digraphis

 

Daboecia                                                      Ericaceae

       Daboecia cantabrica                     Aphis multiflora, [nasturtii]; Ericaphis ericae;

                        (incl. polifolia)                 [Illinoia lambersi]

Use key to apterae on Erica

 

Dactylicapnos  see Dicentra                                  Papaveraceae

      Dactylicapnos scandens see Dicentra thalictrifolia

      

Dactylis                                                        Poaceae

      D. glomerata                                 [Acyrthosiphon ignotum];

                                                              Anoecia corni, haupti, krizusi, vagans; Aphis craccivora;

                                                              Aploneura lentisci; Atheroides serrulatus;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Baizongia pistaceae;

                                                              Carolinaia howardii; Diuraphis mexicana, noxia;

                                                              Forda formicaria, marginata, pawlowae;

                                                              Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Hyalopteroides humilis;

                                                              Jacksonia papillata; Laingia psammae;

                                                              Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                              Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum, festucae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Paracletus cimiciformis;

                                                              Rhopalomyzus lonicerae, poae; Rhopalosiphoninus solani;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, [musae], oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum;

                                                              Sipha elegans, flava, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                              [Takecallis arundinariae];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?), ulmi,

                                                                   yezoensis;

                                                              Utamphorophora humboldti

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Dactyloctenium                                           Poaceae

      Dactyloctenium aegyptium           Aphis gossypii; Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              [Micromyzodium dasi];  [Micromyzus niger];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Schizaphis hypersiphonata; Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Dactylorhiza                                                Orchidaceae

      Dactylorhiza aristata                     Aulacorthum solani

       D. majalis                                      Aphis fabae

      D. sambucina                                Aphis solanella; Aulacorthum solani

       D. viridis                                        Aphis fabae

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

      

Daemea                                                        Apocynaceae

      Daemea cordata                            Aphis nerii

      D. tomentosa                                 Aphis nerii

 

Daemonorops                                               Arecaceae

       Daemonorops geniculatus            Astegopteryx nipae

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

 

Dahlia                                                          Compositae

      Dahlia hybrida = D. pinnata      

      D. jaurezii                                      Aphis fabae

       D. pinnata                                     Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypi, solanella, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              Uroleucon ambrosiae, [jaceae]

       D. rosea = D. pinnata

       D. variabilis = D. pinnata

       Dahlia spp. (cult., hybrids)           Aphis [exsors], nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus; Protaphis knowltoni

Key to apterae on Dahlia:-

-      R IV+V similar in length to the black, bluntly triangular cauda. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotic areas. ANT III and IV, or III-V, with secondary rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 ื BD III                                                                                  …..Protaphis knowltoni

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Dalbergia                                                     Leguminosae

No aphids are recorded from commercially important rosewoods such as D. nigra and D. stevensonii.

      Dalbergia candenatensis              Anomalosiphum tiomanense

      D. ferruginea = D. stipulacea

     D. hancei                                       Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) dalbergicola

     D. hupeana                                    Anomalosiphum scleroticum; Chuansicallis chengtuensis;
                                                       Quednaucallis nigropunctata; Uroleucon compositae

     D. millettii                                      Anomalosiphum takahashii                                                             

     D. sissoo                                         Acyrthosiphon pisum;

                                                              Aphis aurantii, craccivora, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Greenidea sp.];

                                                              [Lachnus similis]; Myzus persicae

      D. stipulacea                                 Anomalosiphum philippinense

       D. torta = D. candenatensis

Key to aphids on Dalbergia:-

1    SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs. Aptera (where known) with long thin hair-bearing processes on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and alata with processes at least on ABD TERG 8   .....2

-     SIPH without hairs. ABD TERG 7 and 8 with or without processes                                .....5

2    Apterae and/or alatae with R IV+V 1.20-1.44 ื HT II                                                     …..3

-     Alatae (the only morph known in the case of A. scleroticum), but probably applicable also to apterae) with R IV+V 1.05-1.15 ื HT II                                                                          …..4

3    Apterae with paired processes on ABD TERG 7 (not including apical hairs) c.0.9 ื as long as those on ABD TERG 8. Frontal hairs c.34 μm long. Dorsal hairs of embryos c.15 μm long

…..Anomalosiphum philippinense

-     Apterae with paired processes on ABD TERG 7 0.6-0.78 ื as long as those on ABD TERG 8. Frontal hairs not more than c.23 μm long. Dorsal hairs of embryos only 4-6 μm long

…..Anomalosiphum takahasii*

4    Alata with ANT V lacking secondary rhinaria. ABD TERG 7 with a pair of short conical marginal processes bearing long hairs, these processes about one third of length of the paired spinal processes on ABD TERG 8, which are about 57 μm long. Sclerite on ABD TERG 7 encompassing bases of marginal processes and joined anteriorly across ABD TERG 7 to the central brown patch on ABD TERG 3-5                                …..Anomalosiphum scleroticum

-     Alatae with 1-3 secondary rhinaria on ANT V. ABD TERG 7 without paired processes or long hairs, and spinal processes on ABD TERG 8 are 28-32 μm long. Sclerite on ABD TERG 7 separate from the central brown patch on ABD TERG 3-5

…..Anomalosiphon tiomanense

 5   All adult viviparae alate. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH as small truncate cones. ANT PT/BASE less than 2                                                                                                  .....6

-     Adult viviparae apterous and alate. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. SIPH tubular. ANT PT/BASE more than 2                                                                                  .....8

6    ABD TERG 2 with a pair of very large black finger-like spinal processes united at base by a large sclerotic cross-bar that extends laterally into pleural regions, and ABD TERG 1 with a pair of similar but smaller processes. ANT PT/BASE c.1.7

.....Tinocallis (Orientinocallis) dalbergicola

-     ABD TERG 1 and 2 with or without small pale spinal processes. ANT PT/BASE slightly less than 1                                                                                                                                   .....7  

7    ABD TERG 1 and 2, and 7 and 8, bearing small pale conical spinal processes, with traces of such processes also on ABD TERG 3-6.  Forewing veins pale. Legs mainly pale. Secondary rhinaria on thickened dark basal two-thirds of ANT III       ..... Quednaucallis nigropunctata

-     Abdominal spinal processes not developed; ABD TERG 1 and 2 with dusky slightly raised spinal sclerites with wax pores. Forewing veins narrowly dark-bordered. Legs mainly dark. Rhinaria distributed along entire length of wholly dark ANT III

.....Chuansicallis chengtuensis

8    SIPH pale except at tips, tapering from a broad base, thin on distal part, without any subapical reticulation. Antennal tubercles well developed, smooth, with inner faces divergent in dorsal view. Cauda long and pale                                                                  .....Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

Dalea                                                            Leguminosae

      Dalea carthagenensis                    Aphis craccivora

      D. dominguensis = D. carthagenensis

                                                        

Damnacanthus                                            Rubiaceae

      Damnacanthus indicus                 Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus;

                                                              [Cinara paxilla, subapicula (presumed vagrants from

                                                                    Pinus)];

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Danae                                                           Asparagaceae

      Danae racemosa                           Myzus persicae

 

Danhatchia                                                  Orchidaceae

      Danhatchia australis                     Aulacorthum sp. (New Zealand, BMNH collection,

                                                                     leg. R. Sunde)

 

Danthonia                                                    Poaceae

      Danthonia carphoides = Rytidosperma carphoides

         D. decumbens                                Anoecia furcata; Forda formicaria; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sitobion avenae

      D. spicata                                       Geoica utricularia; Prociphilus erigeronensis

       Danthonia spp.                             Geoica lucifuga; Schizaphis graminum; Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Daphne (including Eriosolena)                                      Thymelaeaceae

      Daphne alpina                         Acyrthosiphon daphnidis

      D. burkwoodii                        Macrosiphum daphnidis

               (incl. var. “Somerset”)

         D. cannabina = D. papyracea

       D. cneorum (var. eximia)            Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae

       D. gnidium                               Acyrthosiphon daphnidis, [Acyrthosiphon sp. (Lampel 2001)];

                                                         [Siphonophora gnidii Lichtenstein 1884 – nomen dubium]

       D. indica                                   Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae

       D. involucrata                          Aphis nasturtii

       D. laureola                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae

       D. mantensiana                     Macrosiphum daphnidis

       D. mezereum                            Macrosiphum daphnidis, euphorbiae

       D. odora                                   Acyrthosiphon argus; Myzus persicae;

                                                         Pseudomegoura magnoliae

       D. papyracea                            Aphis craccivora

       D. striata                                   Macrosiphum daphinidis

       D. tangutica                              Myzus persicae

       Daphne spp.                             [Aphis kurosawai], [Aphis (Pergandeida) spp. (BMNH

                                                             collection; China, Kashmir)]

Key to apterae on Daphne:-

1     SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length                                           …..2

-      SIPH without a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                       …..3

2     Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 43-71 μm, and on vertex 61-92 μm. Cauda with 10-19 hairs

…..Macrosiphum daphinidis

-      Longest hair on ABD TERG 3 is 21-37 μm, and on vertex 28-48 μm. Cauda with 8-13 hairs

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3     ANT tubercles well developed, with smooth, divergent inner faces. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). ANT III with 1-47 rhinaria                                        …..4

-      Either ANT tubercles well developed, but with inner faces scabrous or spiculose and parallel or apically convergent, or ANT tubercles weakly developed, and ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. ANT III with 0-2 (-4) rhinaria                             ……go to key to polyphagous aphids

       (but note that specimens running to Aphis craccivora may be one of the undescribed Aphis (Pergandeida) species collected on Daphne in China and Kashmir)

4     ANT III (of apt.) with 25-47 secondary rhinaria extending over most of its length. ANT PT/BASE 5.3-7.1. R IV+V 0.67-0.80 ื HT II. (Al. with 43-55 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)

…..Acyrthosiphon argus

-      ANT III with 1-5 rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 3.3-4.4. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 ื HT II. (Al. with 13-17 secondary rhinaria on ANT III)                                …..Acyrthosiphon daphnidis

 

Darlingtonia                                                Sarraceniaceae

      Darlingtonia californica                Macrosiphum sp. near jeanae (California, BMNH

                                                                    collection, leg. D.W. Nielsen)

 

Dasiophora   see  Potentilla                                            Rosaceae

 

Dasypyrum                                                             Poaceae

      Dasypyrum villosum                     Sitobion avenae

 

Datura                                                          Solanaceae

      D. aegyptiaca = D. metel

      D. alba = D. metel

       D. arborea = Brugmansia arborea     

       D. ืcandida = Brugmansia ืcandida

       D. fastuosa = D. metel

       D. ferox                                          Myzus persicae

       D. innoxia                                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       D. metel                                         Aphis fabae, gossypii, odinae, solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;

                                                              [Hyperomyzus carduellinus]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

       D. meteloides = D. innoxia                                                                                                                                              

       D. sanguinea = Brugmansia sanguinea

       D. stramonium                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus cardui];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              [Nasonovia ribisnigri]; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

       D. suaveolens = Brugmansia suaveolens

       D. tatula = D. stramonium

       Datura spp.                                   [Acyrthosiphon daturae Rusanova 1942 (nomen nudum)];

                                                              Aphis spiraecola; [Hyalopterus pruni];

                                                              [Uroleucon orientale]

Key to apterae on Datura:-

-      ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.9, with PT usually curved                                                                   …..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-      ANT usually 6-segmented, if 5-segmented then bearing much shorter hairs and with ANT PT/BASE less than 4                                                       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Daubentonia  see  Sesbania                                           Leguminosae

 

Daucus                                                         Apiaceae

      Daucus carota (incl. maximus,          Aphis asclepiadis, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, lambersi,

                                   sativus)                     spiraecola, [umbelliferarum];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, aspidaphoides, pastinacae,

                                                                   [theobaldi];

                                                              Dysaphis [affinis], apiifolia, crataegi,  foeniculus,

                                                                   [malidauci], [tulipae];

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri, [foeniculi], passerinii;

                                                              [Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus [gairi], [passeki], phenax, [populinigrae];

                                                              Protaphis middletonii; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum maidis];

                                                              Semiaphis [anthrisci], dauci, heraclei

       D. muricatus                                  Dysaphis apiifolia (?); Semiaphis dauci

       D. pusillus                                      Aphis fabae; Hyadaphis foeniculi

Key to apterae on Daucus:-

(For an illustrated key to common aphids on D. carota see Blackman & Eastop, 2000.)

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                           .....Pemphigus phenax

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. SIPH present                                                                   .....2

2      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda                                   …..3

-       Supracaudal process absent                                                                                               .....5

3      Supracaudal process very large, cowl-like, completely covering cauda in dorsal view

…..Cavariella aspidaphoides

-       Supracaudal process smaller, conical or finger-like, not covering cauda in dorsal view

…..4

4     ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.25. Supracaudal process 0.75-1.05 ื cauda

…..Cavariella aegopodii

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0. Supracaudal process 0.15-0.33 ื cauda   …..Cavariella pastinacae

5     SIPH very small and flangeless, only about 0.5 ื cauda or less, with their apertures slanted

       towards mid-line                                                                                                                .....6

-      SIPH at least 0.67 ื cauda                                                                                                .....7

6     Hairs very short; posterior hair on hind trochanter rarely exceeding 20μm, less than 0.5 ื diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                                       .....Semiaphis dauci

-      Posterior hair on hind femur up to 60 μm long, more than 0.5 ื diameter of the trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                        .....Semiaphis heraclei

7     Head spiculose. ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces convergent or parallel-sided in dorsal view                                                                                                                     .....8

-      Head not spiculose. ANT tubercles weakly developed                                                   .....11

8      SIPH black and very strongly clavate                                  .....Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

-       SIPH tapering or slightly clavate                                                                                       .....9

9      ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel in dorsal view. ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria near base. Siphunculi tapering and straight                             .....Aulacorthum solani

-       Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent in dorsal view. ANT III without any rhinaria.

        Siphunculi slightly clavate, or tapering with a slight S-curve                                          .....10

10    SIPH slightly clavate.  No dorsal abdominal pigmentation. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5

.....Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering, with a slight S-curve.  Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8                                               .....Myzus ornatus

11   Cauda helmet-shaped in dorsal view, a little shorter than its basal width, with an angular  apex. Spinal tubercles (STu) usually present, at least on head and ABD TERG 8         .....12

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, at least as long as its basal width in dorsal view, with rounded apex. STu absent                                                                                                                      …..14

12    Hairs on front of head long and pointed. SIPH 1.6-2.4 ื longer than their basal widths

.....Dysaphis foeniculus

-      Hairs on front of head short and blunt. SIPH 2.5-3.5 ื longer than their basal widths

        .....13

13    Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.24-0.56 (rarely more than 0.5) ื length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm, rarely longer than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 often with a pair of marginal tubercles (MTu)                         …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-       Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.42-1.00 (rarely less than 0.5) ื length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 25-80 μm, rarely shorter than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu                                                                       …..Dysaphis crataegi

14    SIPH shorter than or of similar length to cauda, if a little longer then clavate               .....15

-       SIPH tapering, usually longer than cauda                                                                       .....16

15   SIPH  0.88-1.20 ื cauda, 1.7-3.1 ื R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 ื longer than their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                        …..Hyadaphis passerinii

-      SIPH 0.6-0.82 ื cauda, 0.9-1.6 ื R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 ื their smallest diameter on basal half

…..Hyadaphis coriandri

16  Appendages short, SIPH less than 0.1 ื BL, shorter than R IV+V.  ANT PT 1.0-1.5 ื R IV+V. ANT III often with 1-12 rhinaria                                            .....Protaphis middletonii

-     Appendages longer, SIPH usually 0.1-0.25 ื BL and longer than R IV+V.  ANT PT 1.7-3.2 ื R IV+V. ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform or parasitized specimens)       .....17

17  Large marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7. Longest femoral hairs only about half as long as trochantro-femoral suture               .....Aphis lambersi

-     MTu usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7; if any are present on ABD TERG 2-5 then the

      femoral hairs are as long as the trochantro-femoral suture or longer

.....polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

                                                                                                                                                     

Davallia                                                        Davalliaceae

      Davallia bullata                             Idiopterus nephrelepidis

       D. canariensis                                Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      D. chaerophylloides = D. denticulata                                         

       D. denticulata                                Burundiaphis autriquei;

                                                              Micromyzella davalliae, pterisoides

       D. platyphylla = Microlepia platyphylla

       D. solida = D. subsolida                   

       D. subsolida                                   Macrosiphum walkeri

Key to apterae on Davallia:-

1     SIPH black on basal 0.25-0.33, contrasting with total lack of pigmentation distally (Fig.43i)

….. Idiopterus nephrelepidis

-      SIPH pale or more uniformly pigmented                                                                          …..2

2     SIPH pale, with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 3-4 rows of closed cells)

…..Macrosiphum walkeri

-      SIPH dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                        …..3

3     Head, ANT I and ANT II without nodules or spinules. ANT III a little shorter than IV, with 2-5 rhinaria on distal part. ABD TERG 1-5 membranous              …..Burundiaphis autriquei

-      Head, ANT I and ANT II nodulose or spinulose. ANT III longer than IV, without any rhinaria. ABD TERG 1-5 extensively sclerotised                                                             …..4

4     ANT III much paler than II. Cauda pale or dusky                      …..Micromyzella pterisoides

-      ANT III as dark as II. Cauda dark                                                 …..Micromyzella davalliae

(or try key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium)

 

Daviesia                                                       Leguminosae

      Daviesia divaricata                        Meringosiphon paradisicum (?)

 

Davilla                                                         Dilleniaceae

      Davilla rugosa                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Debregeasia                                                 Urticaceae

      Debregeasia longifolia                  Neomyzus circumflexus; Myzus debregeasiae

       Debregeasia sp.                             Aphis fabae, [paraverbasci]

Use key to apterae on Wendlandia.

 

Decaspermum                                              Myrtaceae

      Decaspermum fruticosum            Greenidea decaspermi; Taiwanaphis decaspermi

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-     Siphunculi tubular, with numerous long hairs. Cauda rounded, with a median papilla

.....Greenidea decaspermi

-     Siphunculi as very short hairless cones. Cauda knobbed            ..... Taiwanaphis decaspermi 

 

 

Decodon                                                       Lythraceae

      Decodon verticillatus                     Myzus lythri

 

Deinandra  see  Hemizonia                                              Compositae

 

Delphinium                                                  Ranunculaceae

      Delphinium ajacis = Consolida ajacis

       D. ืbarlowii                                   Delphiniobium junackianum

       D. brachycentrum

                 ssp. maydellianum              Nasonovia wahinkae ssp. robinsoni

       D. confusum                                  Brachycaudus aconiti; Nasonovia salebrosa

       D. consolida = Consolida regalis

       D. ืcultorum                                 Brachycaudus aconiti

       D. cuneatum                                  Brachycaudus aconiti

       D. denudatum                               Nasonovia jammuensis

       D. dictyocarpum                            Brachycaudus aconiti

       D. elatum                                       Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli;

                                                              Delphiniobium hanla, junackianum;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia heiei, salebrosa

       D. grandiflorum                            [Acyrthosiphon dauricum]

       D. iliense                                        [Nasonovia alativica]

       D. maackianum                            Aphis craccivora; Delphiniobium hanla

       D. occidentale                                Brachycaudus rociadae;

                                                              Nasonovia wahinkae, wahinkae ssp. robinsoni

       D. rotundifolium                           Brachycaudus aconiti

       D. sapellonis                                  Brachycaudus rociadae

       D. tricorne                                     Brachycaudus rociadae; Delphiniobium junackianum

       D. trolliifolium                               Delphiniobium junackianum

       D. vestitum                                     Nasonovia jammuensis

       Delphinium spp.                            Aphis fabae, gossypii; Macrosiphum minatii;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Delphinium:-

1     Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. Dorsum usually with an extensive dark sclerotic shield (e.g. Fig.6c)                                                                                                .....2

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. Dorsum usually without a dark shield

.....4

2     ANT III usually without rhinaria, and with longest hairs shorter than BD III (Fig.6a)

…..Brachycaudus rociadae

-      ANT III usually with rhinaria, and with longest hairs as long as or longer than BD III (e.g. Fig.6b)                                                                                                                                …..3

3     SIPH 0.31-0.55 ื ANT III.  ANT VI BASE 0.5-0.7 ื HT II.  R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II       

.....Brachycaudus napelli

-      SIPH 0.57-1.0 ื ANT III.  ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.1 ื HT II.  R IV+V 1.2-1.6 ื HT II

..…Brachycaudus aconiti

4     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of complete, closed cells)                                                                                                                                   …..5

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                                 …..8

5     ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria, which are not protruberant. SIPH pale. Cauda pale

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      ANT III with 12-65 protruberant rhinaria. SIPH wholly dark or pale basally and dark over at least distal 0.3. Cauda pale or dark                                                                                    …..6

6     SIPH cylindrical, wholly dark. Longest hair on ANT III 1.07-1.72 ื BD III, and longest hair on ABD TERG 3 about 2.4-3.0 ื BD III. First tarsal segments with 4-4-4 hairs

…..Macrosiphum minatii*

-      SIPH usually somewhat swollen in middle, and pale basally (e.g. Fig.6i). Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 3 about 0.9-1.0 ื BD III. First tarsal segment with 3-3-3 hairs    

…..7

7     SIPH 1.1-1.3 ื cauda and 0.15-0.19 ื BL, and mainly dark except at their bases.  Cauda with 6-18 hairs                                                                         .....Delphiniobium junackianum

-      SIPH 1.3-1.55 ื cauda and 0.20-0.25 ื BL, and dark on 0.5-0.75. Cauda with 6-8 (usually 6) hairs                                                                                                ......Delphiniobium hanla

8     ANT III without rhinaria, or if present they are not strongly protruberant. Spiracular apertures on thorax similar in size to those on abdomen                                                           

                                                                                                .….go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      ANT III with 6 or more strongly protruberant rhinaria (e.g. Fig.6d). Spiracular apertures on thorax larger than those on abdomen (Fig.6e)                                                                  …..9

9     Dorsal abdomen with raised, pigmented hair-bearing sclerites. SIPH 0.8-1.3 ื cauda

…..10

-      Dorsal abdomen without raised, hair-bearing sclerites; either wholly pale or with extensive sclerotisation. SIPH 2.2-3.4 ื cauda                                                                               …..13

10   Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with a single hair (Fig.6f). R IV+V with 8-12 accessory hairs                                                                             ……Nasonovia wahinkae

-      Spinal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly with 2 hairs (as in Fig.6g). R IV+V bearing

       13-c.20 accessory hairs                                                                                                     …..11

11   ANT III with 14-57 rhinaria, usually scattered over most of length of segment, and 6-10 on ANT IV                                                                       …..Nasonovia wahinkae ssp. robinsoni

-      ANT III with 6-17 rhinaria, on basal part, and 0 on IV                                                  …..12

12   SIPH shorter than cauda, which bears 9-10 hairs                             …..Nasonovia salebrosa*

-      SIPH longer than cauda, which bears 7-8 hairs                                 …..Nasonovia alatavica*

13   Dorsum extensively sclerotised and pigmented. Longest hair on ANT III only c. 0.5 ื BD III or less. R IV+V 0.9-1.0 ื HT II, with 18-20 accessory hairs. SIPH 2.5-3.4 ื cauda, which is helmet-shaped, hardly longer than its basal width                     …..Nasonovia heiei*

-      Dorsum membranous. Longest hair on ANT III is 0.7-1.0 ื BD III.  R IV+V 1.05-1.15 ื HT II, with 8-10 accessory hairs. SIPH 2.2-2.4 ื cauda., which is finger-like, much longer than its basal width                                                                                    …..Nasonovia jammuensis* 

 

 

Dendranthema                                             Compositae

      Dendranthema arcticum = Arctanthemum arcticum

       D. indicum = Chrysanthemum indicum

       D. japonense =  D. occidentali-japonense

      D. lavandulifolium                        Macrosiphoniella sanborni

       D. morifolium = Chrysanthemum morifolium

       D. occidentali-japonense               Macrosiphoniella sanborni

       D. ornatum                                    Macrosiphoniella sanborni

       D. sinense = Chrysanthemum morifolium

       D. yezoense = D. zawadskii              

       D. zawadskii                                  [Aleurodaphis blumeae]; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella absinthii, sanborni

       Dendranthema spp.                      Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae;

                                                              [Myzus pileae, siegesbeckicola (exules of a

                                                                  Tuberocephalus?)];

                                                              Uroleucon formosanum

See under Chrysanthemum for a key to apterae on both Chrysanthemum and Dendranthema.

 

Dendriopterium   see  Sanguisorba                            Rosaceae

 

Dendrobium                                                 Orchidaceae

      Dendrobium bigibbum                  Sitobion luteum

      D. chrysotoxum                             Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      D. densiflorum                              Sitobion luteum

       D. gracilicaule                               Cerataphis orchidearum

       D. heterocarpum                           Sitobion luteum

       D. kingianum                                Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion indicum, luteum

       D. longicornu                                Myzus ornatus; Sitobion luteum

       D. moschatum                               Sitobion luteum

       D. mutabile                                    Sitobion luteum, orchidacearum

       D. phalaenopsis = D. bigibbum

       D. stratiotes                                    Myzus persicae

       D. sulphureum                              ?Micromyzus sp. (New Guinea; BMNH collection, leg. J.

                                                                  Keesing)

       Dendrobium sp.                            Neomyzus dendrobii

Use key to apterae of orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.

 

Dendrocalamus                                           Poaceae

      Dendrocalamus giganteus            Astegopteryx bambusae; Pseudoregma bambucicola

       D. latiflorus                                    Astegopteryx bambucifoliae, bambusae, formosana;

                                                              Ceratoglyphina bambusae; Chucallis bambusicola;

                                                              Glyphinaphis bambusae; Pseudoregma alexanderi

       D. pulverulentus                            Pseudoregma bambucicola

       D. strictus                                       Pseudoregma alexanderi

       Dendrocalamus spp.                     Astegopteryx minuta, singaporensis;

                                                              Pseudoregma [albostriata], baenzigeri, carolinensis,

                                                                   [dendrocalami];

                                                              [Schizaphis graminum]; [Takecallis arundinariae]

Use key to apterae on bamboos under Bambusa.

 

Dendropanax  (including Gilibertia)                           Araliaceae

      Dendropanax arboreus                 Cavariella araliae            

      D. dentiger                                     Cavariella gilibertiae

      D. trifidus                                       [Aphis sp. (BMNH collection, Java)];

                                                              Cavariella gilibertiae

Couplet for separating the two Cavariella spp.:-

-      SIPH without a distinct flange. Process on ABD TERG 8 similar in length to cauda

       …..Cavariella gilibertiae

-      SIPH with a distinct reflexed flange. Process on ABD TERG 8 distally attenuate, much longer than cauda                                                                                    …..Cavariella araliae

 

Dendrostellera see Diarthron                          Thymelaeaceae        

 

Dendrophtho๋                                              Loranthaceae

      Dendrophtho๋  pentandra             Aphis aurantii, spiraecola; Mesothoracaphis rappardi;

                                                              Sinomegoura citricola; Tuberaphis cerina

Key to apterae on Dendrophtho๋:-

1     Eyes multifaceted. SIPH tubular. Anal plate entire          .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      Eyes of only three facets (triommatidium). SIPH pore-like. Anal plate bilobed                .....2

2     Head, thorax and abdominal segment I fused to form pill box-like prosoma. ANT greatly reduced, 3-segmented, 0.07-0.09 ื BL                                     …..Mesothoracaphis rappardi

-      Head fused to prothorax only. ANT 5-segmented, 0.25-0.29 ื BL      …..Tuberaphis cerina

 

Dendrotrophe                                              Santalaceae

      Dendrotrophe frutescens               Tuberaphis dendrotophe

 

 

Dennstaedtia                                                Dennstaedtiaceae

      Dennstaedtia adiantoides = D. bipinnata

      D. appendiculata                           Myzus filicis                      

      D. bipinnata                                   Idiopterus nephrelepidis

 

Dentaria   see  Cardamine                                                                                                 

 

Dentella                                                       Rubiaceae

      Dentella repens                              Aphis gossypii

 

Deparia                                                        Dryopteridaceae

      Deparia petersenii                         Macromyzus maculatus

      D. pycnosora                                 Amphorophora ampullata; Micromyzus nikkoensis

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.

 

Deplanchea                                                  Bignoniaceae

      Deplanchea formosana                 Aulacorthum solani

 

Deschampsia                                                Poaceae

      Deschampsia ambigua = D. cespitosa

       D. antarctica                                  Rhopalosiphum padi

       D. berteroana                                Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

       D. cespitosa                                    Anoecia furcata, nemoralis;

                                                              Atheroides brevicornis, doncasteri, hirtellus, serrulatus;

                                                              Baizongia pistaciae; Chaetosiphella berlesei;

                                                              Colopha graminis, ulmicola (as  Tetraneura graminis);

                                                              Forda formicaria; Geoica utricularia; Laingia psammae;

                                                              Metopolophium festucae; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Sipha glyceriae, Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                              Tetraneura longisetosa, ulmi

       D. flexuosa                                    Anoecia furcata, vagans;

                                                              Atheroides doncasteri, serrulatus; Baizongia pistaciae;

                                                              Chaetosiphella berlesei; Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                              Geoica setulosa; Jacksonia papillata;

                                                              Metopolophium albidum, festucae, frisicum, tenerum;

                                                              [Myzus cerasi]; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Schizaphis sp. near graminum (Ossiannilsson 1959);

                                                              Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                              Tetraneura longisetosa, ulmi

       Deschampsia sp.                           Sitobion graminearum

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Descurainia  (including Sophia Adams nec. L.)              Brassicaceae

      Descurainia appendiculata           Myzus persicae

       D. bourgaeana                              Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus persicae  

       D. filipiae (?)                                  Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

       D. incisa                                         Aphis nasturtii

       D. millefolia                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi

       D. pinnata                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       D. sophia                                       Acyrthosiphon gossypii, [ilka];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, solanella;

                                                              Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Landisaphis davisi; Lipaphis erysimi; Myzus persicae;

                                                              [Sitobion avenae]

       Descurainia spp.                           Protaphis middletonii; [Rhopalosiphum padi]

Key to apterae on Descurainia:-

-       ABD TERG 6-8 with median rugose conical processes, each bearing a pair of short (c. 20μm) club-shaped hairs. SIPH distinctly clavate, with diameter of swollen part c.1.5 ื that of stem                                                                                                    .....Landisaphis davisi

-      ABD TERG 6 and 7 without median processes, and if ABD TERG 8 has a projection then SIPH are only weakly if at all clavate                               .....go to key to apterae on Brassica

 

Desmanthus                                                 Leguminosae

      Desmanthus virgatus                    Aphis craccivora

 

Desmazeria see Catapodium                                  Poaceae

      Desmazeria marina = Catapodium marinum

 

Desmodium  (including Meibomia)                              Leguminosae

      Desmodium adscendens               Microparsus olivei, venezuelensis ssp. meridensis

       D. canadense                                 Microparsus desmodiorum, variabilis

       D. canescens                                  Microparsus desmodiorum, variabilis

       D. canum = D. incanum

       D. gangeticum                               Aphis gossypii

       D. gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius

       D. heterocarpon                            Aphis craccivora

       D. heterophyllum                          Aphis craccivora

       D. incanum                                   Microparsus olivei

       D. intortum                                    Aphis [citricidus], craccivora, glycines;

                                                              [Brachycaudus rumexicolens]; Sitobion africanum

       D. laburnifolum = Ohwia cordata

       D. marilandicum                           Microparsus variabilis

       D. paniculatum                             Microparsus desmodiorum

       D. perplexum                                 Microparsus desmodiorum, olivei

       D. scorpiurus                                 Microparsus olivei

       D. sericophyllum                           Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                              Microparsus olivei, venezuelensis ssp. meridensis

       D. supinum = D. incanum

       D. triflorum                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; [Megoura lespedezae]

       D. uncinatum                                Microparsus venezuelensis

       D. viridiflorum                               Microparsus desmodiorum, olivei

       Desmodium spp.                           [Capitophorus hippophaes, mitegoni];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Acyrthosiphon rubi];

                                                              [Sitobion rosaeiformis]

Key to apterae on Desmodium:-

1     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                       …..2

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                          …..3

2     SIPH black. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark markings. Hairs on ANT III all less than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                            …..Sitobion africanum

-      SIPH pale. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 ื BD III      

…..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3     ANT tubercles well developed, divergent. ANT PT/BASE more than 5. ANT III with 1-2 (- 4) rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                     …..4

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed. ANT PT/BASE less than 5. ANT III without rhinaria. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                         …..8

4     Head densely spiculose ventrally and over inner faces of ANT tubercles. SIPH slightly swollen on distal 0.7 of length, paler at base, about 2 ื the dusky/dark triangular cauda (e.g. Fig 26a,b)                                                                                                                           …..5

-      Head smooth or with only a few spicules ventrally. SIPH tapering, sometimes with flared apices, usually wholly dark, similar in length to the pale cauda, which is slightly swollen on basal half and acutely pointed at apex (Fig.26e)                                                               …..6

5     Dorsal abdomen with paired dark submarginal intersegmental sclerites (Fig.26a)                   

       …..Microparsus venezuelensis ssp. meridensis

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental sclerites

       ….. Microparsus venezuelensis ssp. venezuelensis

6     Tibiae and ANT III almost wholly dark                                   …..Microparsus desmodiorum

-      Tibiae with at least middle section pale, and ANT III with paler basal section                …..7

7     Large black presiphuncular and postsiphuncular sclerites, joined to form broad rings around bases of SIPH (Fig.26c)                                                                         …..Microparsus olivei

-      Only small, dusky presiphuncular sclerites are present                    …..Microparsus variabilis

8     Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6 and a row of peg-like hairs on each hind tibia. Cauda with 10-28 hairs

….. Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      No stridulatory apparatus. Cauda with 2-9 hairs                                                               …..9

9.    Cauda as dark as SIPH                                                                                                    ..…10

-      Cauda paler than SIPH                                                                                                    ..…11

10   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield                              ..…Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                   ..…Aphis spiraecola

11    Cauda 0.08-0.135 ื BL (only more than 0.12 ื BL in very small specimens with BL less than 1 mm), and 0.8-1.25 ื ANT V; pale to dusky, without a constriction, less than 3 ื longer than its width at midlength, and bearing 4-7 (usually 5-6) hairs       …..Aphis gossypii

-       Cauda 0.12-0.175 ื BL, and 1.05-1.7 ื ANT V; very pale, usually with a slight mid-way constriction, more than 3 ื longer than its narrowest width at midlength, and bearing 5-10 (usually 7-9) hairs                                                                                         ..…Aphis glycines

 

Desmoncus                                                   Arecaceae

       Desmoncus leptoclomus (?)         Cerataphis brasiliensis    

       D. polyacanthos                            Cerataphis brasiliensis

       D. pycnacanthos = D. polyacanthos

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

 

Desmostachya                                              Poaceae

      Desmostachya bipinnata               Hysteroneura setariae

(or use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Deutzia                                                         Hydrangeaceae

      Deutzia corymbosa                        [Acyrthosiphon ignotum]; Myzus persicae

      D. crenata                                      Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola, utsigicola;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus ribis]; [Hyperomyzus lactucae];

                                                              Myzus ornatus, philadelphi; Nippodysaphis deutziae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

       D. discolor                                     Myzus persicae

       D. gracilis                                      Aphis craccivora, fabae, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macromyzus woodwardiae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               [Neotoxoptera abeliae]; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae, hydrangeae

       D. hybrida (?)                                [Aphis spp. (Davletshina 1964; Leonard 1972a)]

       D. ืkalmiiflora                              Myzus ornatus

       D. rosea                                       [Illinoia spiraeae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

       D. scabra                                       Aphis fabae; Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

       D. scabra var. sieboldiana            Aphis utsigicola                

       D. vilmorinae = D. discolor

       Deutzia spp.                                   [Aphis celastrii]; Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

Key to apterae on Deutzia:-

(Apterae of  Macromyzus woodwardiae, Nippodysaphis deutziae, Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae and Rh. deutzifoliae on Deutzia in spring are all fundatrices, all their progeny being emigrant alatae.)

1      Dorsal body hairs at apices of long tapering processes that are up to 0.54 mm long (Fig.32b).  (BL c. 3.1-3.2 mm)                                                                 …..Macromyzus woodwardiae*

-       Dorsal body hairs not arising from long tapering processes. BL often less                      …..2

2     SIPH very markedly inflated, with diameter of balloon-like swollen part 2.0-4.5 ื minimum diameter of basal part                                                          .....Rhopalosiphoninus deutzifoliae

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical, or moderately swollen with diameter of swollen part less than 2 ื minimum diameter of basal part                                                                                         …..3

3     SIPH pale, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Head smooth, without spicules, and with well-developed ANT tubercles. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria, and longest hairs

       0.7-1.0 ื BD III                                                                          …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH pale or dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation. If ANT tubercles are well developed then at least ventral side of head is spiculose. ANT III with 0-3 rhinaria; if with any rhinaria then hairs are all shorter than 0.5 ื BD III                                                    …..4

4     Head nodulose or spiculose on at least the ventral side. ANT tubercles well developed  …..5

-      Head smooth or somewhat wrinkled, without spicules or nodules. ANT tubercles weakly developed                                                                                                                         …..10

5     R IV+V 1.4-1.6 ื HT II, and bearing 7-8 accessory hairs    …..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.3 ื HT II, and bearing 2-7 accessory hairs                                                …..6

6     SIPH strongly swollen near midlength where they are maximally c.1.5 ื minimum diameter nearer base, and c.3 ื width of flange; pale for most of length but dusky near tips (Fig.32c). Legs mainly pale                                                                …..Rhopalosiphoninus hydrangeae

-      SIPH tapering or somewhat swollen; if swollen then either legs are mainly dark, or swelling is greatest on distal 0.7, and is no more than 1.25 ื minimum diameter of basal part and little more than width of flange                                                                                                 …..7

7     Femora dark over at least half of length (ANT and legs usually mainly dark). SIPH somewhat swollen, pale or dark                                                                                         …..8

-      ANT and legs mainly pale. SIPH tapering or slightly swollen, pale                                  …..9

8     SIPH wholly dark. Cauda triangular, only a little longer than its basal width. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                       …..Myzus philadelphi

-      SIPH pale with dark apices. Cauda tongue-shaped, about 2 ื its basal width. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                                      …..Pseudomegoura magnoliae

9     SIPH slightly swollen, moderately imbricated. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings                                                         …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH  tapering, with a slight S-curve, coarsely imbricated (squamous). ANT PT/BASE

       1.7-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark intersegmental markings            …..Myzus ornatus

10   Cauda triangular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. SIPH cylindrical over most of length or slightly swollen on distal part with a subapical constriction and a well-developed flange (Fig.32d). ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)

…..Nippodysaphis deutziae

-      Cauda longer than its basal width. SIPH tapering, without a subapical constriction. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                                 …..11

11   SIPH about 2 ื cauda which is dark, has a midway constriction and bears c.10 hairs. Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-10, IV 5-6, V 0-1           …..Aphis utsigicola*

-      Without this combination of characters

                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

 

Dianella                                                       Xanthorrhoeaceae

      Dianella tasmanica                       Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Dianthus                                                      Caryophyllaceae

      Dianthus alpinus                           Macrosiphum stellariae

       D. arenarius                                  Aphis sambuci; Myzus certus

       D. armeria                                     Aphis craccivora, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

      D. asper = D. seguieri                       Myzus certus

       D. barbatus                                    Aphidura picta; Aphis sambuci; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [gei], stellariae;

                                                              Myzus certus, persicae

       D. brachyanthus = D. pungens ssp. brachyanthus

       D. carthusianorum                        Aphidura pujoli; Aphis fabae; Myzus certus

       D. caryophyllus                             Aphidura picta, pujoli; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae;

                                                              Myzus [antirrhinii], certus, dianthicola, persicae, [polaris];

                                                              Smynthurodes betae; [Wahlgreniella nervata]

       D. chinensis                                   Aphis craccivora, sambuci; [Chucallis bambusicola];

                                                              [Melanaphis bambusae];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae; Neotoxoptera oliveri

       D. commutatus = D. carthusianorum ssp. latifolius                       

       D. crinitus                                      Aphidura picta; Aphis craccivora

       D. deltoides                                    Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, certus, ornatus;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       D. gracilis                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, certus

       D. graniticus                                  Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus

       D. gratianopolitanus                     Myzus certus

       D. hungaricus = D. plumarius ssp. praecox

         D. hybridus = D. armeria

       D. hyssopifolius                             Aphidura pujoli

       D. kitaibelii = D. petraeus

         D. lumnitzeri = D. plumarius ssp. lumnitzeri

         D. lusitanus                                   Aphis gossypii

       D. microlepis                                 Myzus ascalonicus

       D. monspessulanus = D. hyssopifolius

       D. myrtinervius                              Myzus cymbalariae, persicae

       D. petraeus                                    [Volutaphis sp. (Holman and Pintera 1981)]

       D. plumarius (incl. sspp.                  [Anuraphis subterranea]; Aphis sambuci;

                 lumnitzeri, praecox)                 Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, certus, persicae

       D. pungens (ssp. brachyanthus)           Myzus cymbalariae

       D. repens                                       Aphis dianthiphaga

       D. rupicola                                     Aphidura pujoli

       D. seguieri                                     Myzus certus

       D. serotinus                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus certus

       D. simonkaianus                           [Volutaphis sp. (Romania: Holman & Pintera 1981)]

       D. subacaulis                                 Myzus cymbalariae

       D. superbus                                   [Macrosiphum chukotense]

       Dianthus spp.                                Aphidura pakistanensis; 

                                                              Aphis [citricidus], [plantaginis], spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Cranaphis formosana];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Key to apterae on Dianthus:-

(See Blackman & Eastop 2000 for an illustrated key to common aphids on pinks and carnations.)

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent                  …..Smynthurodes betae

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifaceted. Tubular SIPH present                          …..2

2     SIPH pale with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). ANT tubercles with inner faces smooth and divergent. ANT III with 1-13 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.6-1.2 ื BD III                                                                                            …..3

-      SIPH pale or dark, without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles if well-developed then with inner faces spiculose and steep-sided (parallel or apically convergent). ANT III with

       0-3 rhinaria, if with any then longest hairs less than 0.5 ื BD III                                    …..4

3     Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair

       26-56 μm, usually as long as or longer than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2-13 hairs in addition to those on posterior margin                                              .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-      Femora pale or only slightly dusky at apices. ABD TERG 2-3 with longest hair 21-37 μm, usually shorter than ANT BD III. Subgenital plate with 2(-4) hairs on anterior part

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

4     Head not spiculose, with ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, or with median tubercle similarly developed, so that ANT tubercles do not project much beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                                               …..5

-      Head spiculose, with well-developed, steep-sided ANT tubercles                                 …..12

5      ANT 5-segmented, bearing long hairs up to 4-5 ื BD III…..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-      ANT usually 6-segmented, with much shorter hairs                                                          …..6

6     Cauda helmet-shaped. SIPH short, pale, conical, almost smooth, with a subapical annular incision below the flange. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                           

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda triangular or tongue-shaped. SIPH pale or dark, imbricated, with or without some subapical transverse striae, but without a distinct subapical incision. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                                                                              …..7

7     ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH subcylindrical or slightly swollen. Anterior part of mesosternum with a pair of closely-spaced, rough-surfaced mammariform processes (sometimes inconspicuous)                                                          .....8

-      ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH tapering from base to flange, with no trace of swelling. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                               ......10

8     Cauda as long as its basal width or shorter. SIPH not longer than 0.20 mm and no more than 0.6 ื ANT III. Mesosternal processes small and pale, sometimes inconspicuous. Abdomen without dorsal pigmentation                                                            .....Aphidura pakistanensis

-      Cauda longer than its basal width. SIPH longer than 0.26 mm and more than 0.60 ื ANT III. Mesosternal processes pale or pigmented, always conspicuous. Abdomen pale or variably pigmented                                                                                                                          ......9

9     SIPH dark and 1.0-1.2 ื ANT III.  R IV+V 0.94-1.25 ื HT II. Abdomen with a variably developed dorsal black patch, sometimes fragmented or (often in small specimens) absent

.....Aphidura picta

-      SIPH pale and 0.65-0.95 ื ANT III.  R IV+V 0.78-0.92 ื HT II. Abdomen with little or no dorsal pigmentation                                                                                      .....Aphidura pujoli

10   ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5 as well as 1 and 7 with large flat MTu                                       …..11

-      ABD TERG 2-4 without MTu, or occasionally with small papilliform MTu

                     …..polyphagous Aphis spp.; go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

11   SIPH 1.0-1.2 ื cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs                                      …..Aphis dianthiphaga*

-      SIPH more than 2 ื cauda, which bears more than 10 hairs                        …..Aphis sambuci

12   SIPH strongly swollen on distal 0.7, with maximum diameter of swelling 1.7-2.9 ื minimum diameter nearer base. SIPH about as long as or longer than head width across eyes and 2.2-3.2 ื cauda which bears only 5 hairs. ANT III usually with 1-4 rhinaria near base

…..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or with slight, moderate or strong swelling distally, but if strongly swollen then SIPH are relatively shorter and if at all swollen then ANT III is without rhinaria

…..13

13   SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange. ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base

…..Aulacorthum solani

-      SIPH slightly to moderately swollen distally. ANT III without rhinaria                        …..14

14   SIPH 0.54-0.81 ื ANT III                                                                                              …..15

-      SIPH 0.82-1.34 ื ANT III                                                                                              …..17

15   Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view. "Stem" of SIPH narrow, its minimum diameter slightly less than diameter of  hind tibia at its midpoint

                                                                                                                       …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles with convergent apices. "Stem" of SIPH thicker, its minimum diameter exceeding diameter of  hind tibia at its midpoint                                             …..16

16   SIPH with swollen part only lightly imbricated and with apical flange well developed. Dorsal cuticle not rugose. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins, and with a black central dorsal abdominal patch)                                                                                 …..Neotoxoptera oliveri 

-      SIPH with swollen part scabrous (coarsely imbricated), and with apical flange only weakly developed. Dorsal cuticle very rugose. (Al. with wing veins not black-bordered, and with separate transverse bars on abdominal tergites)                                     .....Myzus cymbalariae

17   R IV+V in most specimens with only one pair of lateral accessory hairs (plus 0-3 ventral accessory hairs). Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 0.80-1.52, but rarely more than 1.25 except in small specimens (those with ANT III less than 0.32 mm)

…..Myzus persicae

-      R IV+V in most specimens with two pairs of lateral accessory hairs. Value of function CAUDA/(ANT III ื PT) in range 1.2-2.7 (rarely less than 1.25)                                   …..18

18   ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.7 (mostly less than 3.25). R IV+V 0.87-1.28 ื HT II (rarely less than 0.9 ื HT II), or value of function (306 ื R IV+V) minus (127 ื HT II) is more than 17

…..Myzus certus

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.0 (mostly more than 3.25). R IV+V 0.78-0.98 ื HT II (rarely more than 0.9 ื HT II), or value of function (306 ื R IV+V) minus (127 ื HT II) is less than 17

…..Myzus dianthicola

 

Diarrhena                                                    Poaceae

      Diarrhena mandshurica               Paracletus bykovi ssp. uzbekistanicus

 

Diarthron                                                                               Thymelaeaceae

       Diarthron arenaria                       Brachyunguis dendrostellerae, [Brachyunguis sp.

                                                                   (Kadyrbekov 2014e)]

        D. lessertii                                     Brachyunguis sp. (Iran: BMNH collection)

       D. stachyoides                               Brachyunguis dendrostellerae

Key to apterae on Diarthron:-

(Both species have ANT PT/BASE c.0.5 and very short siphunculi, less than 0.35 ื CAUDA.)

-      SIPH dark                       …..Brachyunguis sp. (Iran: BMNH collection, leg. G. Remaudi่re)

-      SIPH pale brown                                                                …..Brachyunguis dendrostellerae*

 

Diascia                                                         Scrophulariaceae

       Diascia rigescens                           Myzus ornatus

 

Dicentra (including Dactylicapnos, Lamprocapnos)           Papaveraceae

      Dicentra formosa                          Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum dicentrae, euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

       D. spectabilis                                  Aphis fabae

           (= Lamprocapnos spectabilis)

       D. thalictrifolia                              Neomyzus dicentrae

            (= Dactylicapnos scandens)

Key to apterae on Dicentra:-

1     SIPH and cauda dark, the latter bearing 11-24 hairs. ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                  …..Aphis fabae

-      SIPH and cauda pale (SIPH sometimes dark at apices); cauda with 5-12 hairs. ANT tubercles moderately to well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                  …..2

2     SIPH clavate, 0.55-0.75 ื ANT III, with thin “stem” about as thick as hind tibia at midlength, and swollen part not imbricated                                           …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      SIPH cylindrical or tapering, if at all swollen on distal half then longer relative to ANT III, stem thicker, and swollen part imbricated                                                                         …..3

3     Inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). Hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 ื BD III

…..4

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles spiculose or scabrous, and steep-sided. SIPH with subapical transverse striae, but without polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 ื BD III

…..5

4     R IV+V 0.6-0.8 ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 often bearing marginal tubercles (MTu) that are as large as or larger than the spiracular apertures                                …..Macrosiphum dicentrae

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 sometimes with MTu, but these are usually very small, not much larger than hair bases                                         …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

5     Dorsum with paired dark pleural and marginal (or fused pleuromarginal) sclerites. SIPH as thick as or thicker than cauda, which bears 5 hairs.  R IV+V 0.6-0.9 ื HT II. ANT tubercles rather low, scabrous                                                                             …..Neomyzus dicentrae

-      Dorsum without dark markings. SIPH for most of length thinner than cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 ื HT II. ANT tubercles high and spiculose                                             …..Aulacorthum solani 

 

Dichaea                                                        Orchidaceae

      Dichaea glauca                             Aulacorthum solani

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)

 

Dichanthium  (including Eremopogon)                       Poaceae

      Dichanthium annulatum              Aphis gossypii; Forda riccobonii; Geoica lucifuga;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus persicae; Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, avenae, graminis, miscanthi;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)

       D. bladhii = Bothriochloa bladhii

         D. caricosum                                 Hysteroneura setariae; Sipha flava;

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)

       D. foveolatum                                Sitobion lambersi

       D. insculptum = Bothriochloa insculpta

       D. ischaemum = Bothriochloa ischaemum

       Dichanthium spp.                         Forda hirsuta; Rhopalosiphum maidis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Dichilus                                                       Leguminosae

      Dichilus villosus (?)                       Aphis craccivora, cytisorum

 

Dichondra                                                    Polygonaceae

      Dichondra repens                          Pemphigus tartareus

                     var. carolinensis         

 

Dichrocephala                                             Compositae

      Dichrocephala bicolor = D. integrifola

      D. chrysanthemifolia                     Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Hysteroneura setariae};

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Uroleucon compositae

       D. integrifolia                                Aphis gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus,, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       D. latifolia = D. integrifolia

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Dichromena   see  Rhynchospora                                 Cyperaceae                     

 

Dichrostachys                                                       Leguminosae

      Dichrostachys cinerea                   Aphis gossypii

 

Dicksonia                                                     Dicksoniaceae

      Dicksonia sp.                                 Macrosiphum walkeri

 

Dicliptera                                                     Acanthaceae

      Dicliptera verticillata                     Aphis gossypii

 

Dicranella                                                    Dicranaceae

      Dicranella crispa                           Myzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Dicranopteris                                               Gleicheniaceae

One aphid species, Idiopteris nephrelepidis, is recorded from four Dicranopteris spp.; bifida,  cordata, leonina and radicans.

 

Dicranum                                                     Dicranaceae

      Dicranum fuscescens                [Pachypappa sacculi]

      D. scoparium                                 [Jacksonia papillata]; Melaphis rhois;

                                                  Muscaphis escherichi; [Pachypappa sacculi];

                                                              [Prociphilus xylostei]; Pseudacaudella rubida

       Dicranum sp.                                Myzodium modestum

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.

 

Dictamnus                                                    Rutaceae

      Dictamnus albus                           Aphis gossypii

       D. dasycarpus = D. albus

 

Dictyosperma                                                                     Arecaceae

      Dictyosperma album (var. rubra) Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.

      

Didymocarpus                                              Gesneriaceae

      Didymocarpus pedicellatus           [Micromyzodium filicium]

       Didymocarpus sp.                         Aphis spiraecola

 

Didymopanax  see  Schefflera                                        Araliaceae

 

Dieffenbachia                                              Araceae

      Dieffenbachia amoena                  Aphis gossypii

      D. macrophylla                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      D. maculata = D. seguine                

       D. magnifica = D. seguine

       D. picta = D. seguine

       D. seguine                                      Aphis gossypii; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pentalonia nigronervosa;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

       Dieffenbachia spp.                        Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to apterae on Dieffenbachia:-

1      SIPH pale on basal half and dark on distal half, and usually slightly swollen subapically. SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. (Al. with dark-bordered wing veins, with radius and costa fused for part of lengths to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma                                                                                   …..Pentalonia nigronervosa

-      SIPH either mainly pale or mainly dark; tapering, cylindrical, or clavate. SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. (Al. with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)                                                                                                                  …..2

2     ANT 5-segmented, with hairs up to 4-5 ื BD III. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-5.9, with PT usually curved                                                                                …..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-      ANT usually 6-segmented, if 5-segmented then with much shorter hairs and with ANT PT/BASE less than 4                                                                                                          …..3

3     SIPH, cauda and legs all dark. SIPH somewhat swollen on distal half. R IV+V 1.2-1.8 ื ANT BASE VI. Dorsum with a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons, with 1 or more  spinules in the centre of each polygon                                     …..Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      Cauda pale, ANT and legs at least partially pale, SIPH pale or dark. SIPH cylindrical, tapering or clavate. R IV+V 0.6-1.3 ื ANT BASE VI. Dorsum without a pattern of spinules arranged in polygons                                                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Diervilla                                                       Caprifoliaceae

      Diervilla japonica see Weigela japonica

       D. lonicera                                    Aphis gossypii, [Aphis diervillalutea Rafinesque – invalid

                                                                      name];

                                                              Macrosiphum diervillae; [Pemphigus diani Ferrari, 1872]

       D. lutea = D. lonicera                      

       D. middendorfiana                       Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

Key to apterae on Diervilla:-

1     ANT 1.5-1.9 ื BL. SIPH long and thin, more than 14 ื longer than their width at midlength, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation          ….. Macrosiphum diervillae

-      ANT less than 1.5 ื BL. SIPH shorter and thicker, less than 14 ื their middle width    …..2

2     R IV+V 1.4-1.6 ื HT II, and bearing 7-8 accessory hairs. (Al. with thick, dark clavate SIPH)

…..Rhopalosiphoninus celtifoliae

-      R IV + V 1.0-1.4 ื HT II, with 2 accessory hairs                                        …..Aphis gossypii

                                                                                                   (or try key to polyphagous aphids)

 

Dieteria                                                        Compositae

      Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt.       [Acyrthosiphon malvae]; Atarsos grindeliae;

          (incl. var. leucanthemifolia)               Uroleucon erigeronense, zymozionense

       D. viscosa = D. canescens       

Use key to apterae on Aster.

 

Dietes                                                           Iridaceae

      Dietes robinsoniana                      Dysaphis tulipae

 

Digitalis                                                       Plantaginaceae

      Digitalis amandiana = D. purpurea var. amandiana

      D. ambigua = D. grandiflora     

       D. ferruginea (ssp. schischkinii )        Aphis fabae

       D. grandiflora                               Aphis armata, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum melampyri

       D. lanata                                       Aphis fabae, kosarovi, nerii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus persicae

        D. lutea (incl. ssp. australis)              Aphis armata, fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

        D. micrantha = D. lutea ssp. australis

          D. obscura                                    Aphis fabae

        D. purpurea (incl. var.                     Acyrthosiphon malvae; [Amphorophora rubi];

                              amandiana)                Aphis armata, fabae, kosarovi, nerii,

                                                                   [pilosa Walker, 1849)], solanella;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae, [dycei]

        D. schischkinii = D. ferruginea ssp. schischkinii

        Digitalis spp.                                 Aphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Digitalis:-

1     ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. SIPH and cauda both black, the latter bearing 9-24 hairs                                                                                                               …..2

-      ANT tubercles well developed, or if not then cauda is not black and bears 4-8 hairs       …..5

2     Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerites. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.1. SIPH 1.7-2.7 ื cauda

…..Aphis nerii

-      Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bars on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and usually with other dark markings. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. SIPH 0.7-1.8 ื cauda                                                …..3

3     Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-0.6 ื BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter shorter than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                           …..Aphis kosarovi*

-      Longest hair on ANT III (0.6-) 0.8-2.65 ื BD III. Posterior hair on hind trochanter as long as or longer than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                           …..4

4     Longest hair on ANT III 1.5-2.65 ื BD III. R IV+V 1.04-1.25 ื HT II     …..Aphis armata

-      Longest hair on ANT III 0.6-2.20 ื BD III. R IV+V 0.88-1.10 ื HT II        …..Aphis fabae

5     SIPH dark on distal part, paler towards bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Femora with distal 0.2 of length black. R IV+V 0.65-0.8 ื ANT VI BASE

…..Macrosiphum melampyri

-      SIPH pale or only dark at apices, with or without subapical polygonal reticulation; if with, then femora without black apices and R IV+V 0.8-1.1 ื ANT VI BASE

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Digitaria  (including Syntherisma, Trichachne)                Poaceae

       Digitaria abyssinica                       Hysteroneura setariae; Kugegania ageni;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, graminis, neusi

       D. adscendens = D. ciliaris             

       D. chinensis                                   Rhopalosiphum maidis

       D. ciliaris                                       Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis; Aphis gossypii;

                                                              Geoica lucifuga; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                              Kaochiaoja arthraxonis; Micromyzodium spinulosum;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum (as mehijiwae), hypersiphonata;

                                                              Sipha flava;

                                                              Sitobion akebiae, kamtshaticum, lambersi, [rosaeiformis];

                                                              Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?), yezoensis

       D. compacta                                  Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

       D. corymbosa = D. compacta

       D. decumbens = D. eriantha ssp. pentzii                                      

       D. didactyla                                    Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

       D. distichum                                  Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

       D. ekmanii                                     Hysteroneura setariae

       D. eriantha                                    Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sipha flava

       D. eriantha ssp. pentzii                  Asiphonella dactylonii; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                              Sipha flava; Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (or fusiformis?)

       D. filiformis                                   Forda marginata

       D. horizontalis  see D. sanguinalis

       D. humifusa = D. ischaemum

       D. insularis                                    Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis

       D. ischaemum                               Anoecia corni, cornicola, vagans; Forda marginata;

                                                              Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha maydis; Sitobion akebiae; 

                                                              [Tychea panici Thomas – an Anoecia?]

       D. leptorachis                                Hysteroneura setariae

       D. longiflora                                  Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii Hysteroneura setariae

       D. marginata = D. ciliaris

       D. microbachne = D. setigera

       D. paspalodes = D. distichum

       D. polybotria = D. leptorachis

       D. pruriens = D. setigera

       D. radicosa                                    Hysteroneura setariae; Kaochiaoja arthraxonis;

                                                              Sitobion lambersi

       D. sanguinalis                               Anoecia corni, cornicola, vagans;

             (incl. D. horizontalis)                      Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                              Ceratovacuna nekoashi; Diuraphis noxia;

                                                              Hysteroneura setariae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Paracletus cimiciformis; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum, hypersiphonata;

                                                              Sipha flava, maydis;

                                                              Sitobion africanum, akebiae, avenae, graminis,

                                                                  [rosaeiformis];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?), ulmi,

                                                                  yezoensis

       D. scalarum = D. abyssinica

       D. setigera                                      Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis

       D. smutsii = D. eriantha

       D. timorensis = D. radicosa

       D. velutina                                     Hysteroneura setariae; [Sitobion sp. (Millar 1994)];

                                                              Tetraneura fusiformis (or nigriabdominalis?)

       D. violascens                                  Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion akebiae

       Digitaria spp.                                 Sitobion miscanthi

Key to apterae on Digitaria and other genera of herbaceous Poaceae:-

More than 250 aphid species feed on grasses. Some are found only on grasses living in certain habitats, but very few are specific to a particular grass genus or species. The key is subdivided to make it less cumbersome; the main key enables direct identification of individual species and those in small genera, and also leads to a series of subsidiary keys separating species with particular morphological features. Aphids on Miscanthus are treated in a separate key, as there are nine Melanaphis spp. that appear to be specific to that genus.

       Numerous other aphid species are found on bamboos, and are treated under the genus names Bambusa and Arundinaria. For simplified, illustrated keys to the aphids most commonly found on cereal crops, and on the grasses of temperate and tropical pastures, consult Blackman & Eastop (2000).

Main key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids

1     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.4 (but if less than 0.65 then body markedly elongate)         .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.2-0.5. Body globose, broadly oval or spindle-shaped                         .....29

2     ABD TERG 8 with a pair of very large, densely nodulose, backwardly-directed conical processes, and with or without similar but thinner spinal and marginal processes on other tergites                                                                                                                                .....3

-      ABD TERG 8 without large paired conical processes (sometimes with a median process)

.....6

3     Conical processes only on ABD TERG 8. SIPH with swollen part bent towards midline, nearly at a right angle to the pedunculate basal part                            .....Israelaphis lambersi

-      A greater number of  conical processes present, both spinal and marginal. SIPH straight       

.....4

4     Spinal processes present on all segments from head to ABD TERG 8, and marginal processes on meso- and metathorax, ABD TERG 1-4 and 6-7 (40-42 in total)

       .....Israelaphis ilharcoi

-      Spinal amd marginal processes usually limited to ABD TERG 5-8 or 6-8, only occasionally with small processes on more anteror tergites                                                                     .....5

5     ANT PT 4.6-8.2 ื R IV+V, which is 0.43-0.50 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.04-3.32

.....Israelaphis carmini

-      ANT PT 4.4-4.5 ื R IV+V, which is 0.50-0.53 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.33-2.57

.....Israelaphis alistana

6     Cauda either very broadly rounded (less than 0.5 ื longer than its basal width) or with a conical base and a midway constriction delimiting the apical part as a rounded knob. SIPH either stump-shaped, conical or poriform. ANT 4- or 5-segmented, often very short. Dorsal cuticle often sclerotic, and dorsal hairs usually thick and spine-like or with expanded apices

                                                                                                                 .....Siphini: go to KEY A

-      Cauda triangular, helmet-shaped, lanceolate, tongue- or finger-shaped, much more than 0.5 ื its basal width, sometimes with a midway constriction but the apical part is not a rounded knob. SIPH tubular, flask-shaped, conical, mammariform or poriform. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, short or long. Dorsal cuticle with or without sclerotisation, dorsal hairs not thick and spine-like; blunt or pointed, or with expanded apices                                                 .....7

7     SIPH mammariform, or poriform, or as very short tubes or broad-based cones, as short as or shorter than their basal widths and usually less than 0.35 ื cauda

.....go to KEY B (mainly Diuraphis spp.)

-      SIPH tubular; flask-shaped, conical, cylindrical or swollen, long or short but if less than 0.4 ื cauda, then longer than their basal widths                                                                         .....8

8     SIPH with a subapical zone of reticulation, comprising one or more complete rows (rings) of clearly-defined closed cells (if with only 1-3 rows then tergum sclerotic)

             .....go to KEY C (mainly Sitobion spp.)

-      SIPH without any clearly-defined subapical reticulation; in some species there is some ill-defined subapical reticulation that may include 1-3 rows of almost complete cells, or interconnected transverse striae, in which cases the tergum is not sclerotic                       .....9

9     ANT 5-segmented with PT/BASE less than 2. SIPH slightly to distinctly clavate         .....10

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented, but if 5-segmented then PT/BASE is rarely less than 2. SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate                                                                                          .....13

10   Body markedly elongate. Front of head between ANT bases markedly convex. Dorsum with polygonal glandular facets on pigmented sclerites. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.8

.....Pentamyzus tenuis

-      Body oval. Front of head sinuate in dorsal view, with ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle weakly to moderately developed. Dorsal sclerites pale and without any distinct glandular facets. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.9                                                                         .....11

11   ANT III 1.25-1.60 ื ANT IV. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 ื HT II, and without accessory hairs. Cauda tapering, c.2 ื its basal width in dorsal  view                                    .....Pentamyzus graminis

-      ANT III 1.8-2.6 ื ANT IV. R IV+V 0.8-1.2 ื HT II, and bearing (1-) 2-6 accessory hairs. Cauda thick, parallel-sided basally and convex-sided distally, about 1.5 ื its basal width in dorsal view                                                                                                                        .....12

12   ANT PT/BASE 1.5-1.9. R IV+V less than 1.5 ื its basal width, 0.5-0.8 ื ANT PT. SIPH markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part c. 2 ื width at flange

.....Pentamyzus falklandicus

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.69-1.48. R IV+V 1.9-2.5 ื its basal width, 1.0-1.33 ื ANT PT. SIPH less strongly clavate, maximum width of swelling less than 1.5 ื width at flange

.....Pentamyzus fueginus

13   Head densely spiculose or nodulose, or with rows of small spicules, either both dorsally and ventrally, or at least ventrally                                                                         .....go to KEY D

-      Head cuticle smooth or rugose, without spicules or nodules, or with only very few spicules on ventral surface, not forming rows                                                                                .....14

14   Dorsal hairs very long with expanded apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. Tergum sclerotic and dark-pigmented                                                                                           .....15

-      Dorsal hairs if long then with pointed apices and without tuberculate bases. Tergum membranous or sclerotic                                                                                                   .....16

15   Hairs on ANT III 1.6-2.1 ื BD III. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 ื HT II, and 0.85-0.95 ื ANT BASE VI

       .....Cryptaphis bromi

-      Hairs on ANT III shorter and more variable in length, 0.3-1.3 ื BD III. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II and 0.55-0.65 ื ANT BASE VI                                                      .....Cryptaphis poae

16   SIPH clavate, i.e. with swollen distal part and narrower basal part                                 .....17

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, or somewhat swollen proximal to a subapical constriction, but without any narrowing of basal part                                                                                 .....25

17   ABD TERG 8 with a bluntly conical very rugose medial process (Fig.35b). ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.3. SIPH flangeless, rounded at apex, with a small terminal aperture (Fig.35a). Dorsal cuticle very rugose                                                                                 .....Cavariella aquatica

-      No medial process on ABD TERG 8. ANT PT/BASE more than 1.3. SIPH with a flange and large terminal aperture. Dorsal cuticle smooth, spiculose or rugose                                 .....18

18   Dorsal cuticle with a pattern of spicules arranged in polygons, each polygon surrounding one or two additional spicules. R IV+V 1.0-1.5 ื HT II               .....Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

-      Dorsal cuticle without spicules, smooth or wrinkled. R IV+V 0.6-1.0 ื HT II               .....19

19   SIPH smooth and swollen on distal half to 1.5-1.9 ื their minimum width basad. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 ื HT II. Head with smooth divergent ANT tubercles. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 35-65, IV 16-28, V 0-5)                                                           .....Rhopalomyzus lonicerae

-      SIPH swollen to 1.2-1.6 ื their minimum width basad (if swollen to more than 1.4 ื minimum width then R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II). ANT tubercles variably developed, smooth or somewhat scabrous. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 4-29, IV 0-5, V 0)                 .....20

20   ANT III usually with 1-3 rhinaria on slight swelling near base. Head usually with some spicules posterioventrally. ANT tubercles rather well developed, steep-sided, somewhat scabrous                                                                                                                           …..21

-      ANT III without rhinaria. Head without spicules. ANT tubercles variably developed  …..22

21   ANT PT/BASE 3.1-3.5. R IV+V.0.67-0.70 ื HT II.  Tergum coarsely corrugated. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 4-9, V 0-1)                                               …..Utamphorophora vibei

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.5. R IV+V 0.78-0.88 ื HT II. Tergum not coarsely corrugated. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 15-29, IV 0-5)                          .....Utamphorophora humboldti

22   ANT tubercles rather well developed, projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 5.0-7.5 (Al. with 8-27 sec. rhin. on ANT III)

                                                                                                        .....Utamphorophora bromicola

-      ANT tubercles very weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-5.0 (Al. with 4-12 sec. rhin. on ANT III)                    .....23

23   ANT 1.1-1.3 ื BL. SIPH 0.26-0.29 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 4-5. RV+V heart-shaped

.....Carolinaia howardii

-      ANT shorter than BL. SIPH less than 0.25 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE less than 4. R IV+V not heart-shaped                                                                                                                      .....24

24   Dorsal abdomen dark. Tibiae pale. SIPH 1.4-1.8 ื cauda. ANT PT 1.15-1.75 ื ANT III

.....Carolinaia setariae

-      Dorsal abdomen pale. Tibiae dark. SIPH 2.0-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT 0.90-1.17 ื ANT III

.....Carolinaia rhois

25   Cauda helmet-shaped, somewhat constricted at base, not longer than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH short, pale, smooth, conical, with an annular incision proximal to the well-developed flange. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ANT tubercles undeveloped

.....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-or finger-shaped or bluntly triangular, with 4-24 hairs. SIPH various, usually imbricated. Spiracular apertures not large and rounded. ANT tubercles variably developed

.....26

26   SIPH very small, thin and almost flangeless, 0.3-0.55 ื cauda (if more than 0.4 ื cauda then 2-3 ื longer than their basal widths)                                                                                .....27

-      SIPH 0.5-2.5 ื cauda (if less than 0.55 ื cauda then less than 2 ื longer than their basal widths)                                                                                                                              .....28

27   ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria. SIPH and cauda pale, SIPH broad-based. Cauda with 5-12 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                 .....Hyalopteroides humilis

-      ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH (at least distally) and cauda dusky/dark. SIPH not broad-based. Cauda with 5-6 hairs. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with (small) MTu

.....Hyalopterus sp. (amygdali, pruni or persikonus – see text)

28 ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with inner faces divergent; sometimes low, but always better developed than (more than twice as high as) middle part of front of head  or median frontal tubercle, so that there is a frontal sinus. SIPH uniformly pale or dusky or becoming darker towards apices cauda pale/dusky. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                              .....go to KEY E (mainly Metopolophium spp.)

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed or, if rather well developed then widely separated and with middle part of front of head convex, or with median frontal tubercle projecting to a similar extent. SIPH sometimes pale but more often entirely dark or with dark apices, cauda pale or dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 almost always with MTu (in some species these are very small, and they are absent in 2 spp.)

.....go to KEY F (mostly Melanaphis, Rhopalosiphum and Schizaphis spp.)

29 Front of head with a pair of short conical horns between antennal bases. Head and prothorax fused                                                                                                                                   .....30

-     Front of head without horns. Head and prothorax not fused                                            .....38

30  Sclerotised areas of cuticle warty, with especially warty areas at posterior margin of prothorax. SIPH pores slightly raised on dusky or dark-pigmented cones, with a few surrounding hairs                                                                                                                .....31

-     Sclerotised areas of cuticle smooth or wrinkled, not warty. SIPH pores not placed on raised cones and without any surrounding hairs                                                                          .....32

31  Body oval. Horns broadly rounded at apices. Spinal and marginal wax glands often present on all or most tergites                                                                        .....Pseudoregma panicola

-     Body elongate oval. Horns not broadly rounded at apices. Wax glands usually only present on ABD TERG 6-8                                                                            .....Pseudoregma alexandrae

32    Meso- and metathorax and ABD TERG 1-7 with paired or single groups of spinal wax glands as well as marginal ones                                                                                                   .....33

-       Thorax and ABD TERG 1-7 without spinal wax glands, only marginal ones                 .....34

33    Wax glands on ABD TERG 5 and 6 fused across midline, forming transverse bands consisting of 22-24 rounded cells. Dorsal cephalic hairs maximally 2-3 ื ANT BD III, and longest hair on ANT III about equal to BD III                   ….. Ceratovacuna perglandulosa

-       Wax glands on ABD TERG 5 and 6 with paired separate pleurospinal wax glands as on ABD TERG 1-4, each with 6-8 cells. Dorsal cephalic hairs 0.8-1.4 ื ANT BD III, and longest hair on ANT III 1.5-2.1 ื BD III                                 ….. Ceratovacuna cynodonti*

34    ANT 4-segmented (but this based on only 3 specimens) with distinctly spinulose imbrication extending over whole of ANT III and IV. ABD TERG 8 with a group of c.12 wax glands

                                                                                                             .....Ceratovacuna spinulosa*

-       ANT 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT III very weakly imbricated and with at most a few minute spinules on the imbrication of distal part of ANT III (if 4-segmented) or on IV (if

        5-segmented). ABD TERG 8 with a group of 5-40 wax glands                                     .....35

35    ABD TERG 1-3 each with 8-19 spinopleural hairs. ANT entirely dusky/dark                       .

.....Ceratovacuna graminum

-       ABD TERG 1-3 each with 3-8 spinopleural hairs. ANT pale, or dark only distally        .....36

36    Head with longest anterior dorsal hairs 55-81 μm long, usually as long as or longer than frontal horns which are 48-68 μm long. ABD TERG 8 with a group of 5-20 wax glands. Each lobe of anal plate with 6-8 (-9) hairs                                          .....Ceratovacuna panici

-       Head with longest anterior dorsal hairs 46-71 μm long, often shorter than frontal horns which are 55-136 μm long. ABD TERG 8 with a group of 15-40 wax glands. Each lobe of anal plate with (8-) 9-12 hairs                                                                                           .....37

37    Frontal horns symmetrical, straight-sided, 55-100 μm long, broad-based, 1.5-2.2 ื their basal widths. First instars with siphuncular pores                                    .....Ceratovacuna lanigera

-       Frontal horns with apices somewhat curved distally, 96-140 μm long, slightly constricted at base and 2.5-3.5 ื their basal widths. First instars without siphuncular pores

        .....Ceratovacuna nekoashi group (nekoashi, oplismeni, orientalis, subtropicana)

(for discrimination see text under these names and Aoki et al. 2013, Table 4)

38    SIPH present as pores placed on shallow cones which are pigmented and/or surrounded by hairs                                                                             .....KEY G (Anoecia and Tetraneura)

-     SIPH either completely absent or (rarely) as very small pores, not placed on cones

                                 .....KEY H (Colopha, Pemphigini and Fordini)

KEY A – Apterae of Siphini on grasses

1     Cauda with a conical base and a rounded, knobbed apex                                                  .....2