(in alphabetical order)











































































































Cracca                                                          Leguminosae

      Cracca ambigua = Tephrosia florida

       C. spicata = Tephrosia spicata

          C. totta                                           Aphis craccivora


Crambe                                                        Brassicaceae

      Crambe abyssinica = C. hispanica ssp. abyssinica                       

       C. hispanica (incl. ssp.                     Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus persicae


       C. maritima                                   Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              [Lipaphis hedickei B๖rner 1951 – nomen nudum]

       C. orientalis                                   Brevicoryne brassicae, crambe, nigrisiphunculata

       C. tatarica                                      Brevicoryne crambe, nigrisiphunculata

Key to apterae on Crambe:-

1     ANT tubercles, and also ANT I and II, scabrous. ANT III 0.7-1.7 ื SIPH, which are 1.2-2.5 ื cauda                                                                                                                              …..2

-      ANT tubercles, ANT I and II fairly smooth. ANT III 2.5-3.7 ื SIPH, which are 0.65-1.0 ื cauda                                                                                                                                 …..3

2     ANT tubercles low, with median tubercle developed to similar extent. SIPH 1.2-1.6 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7                                                              …..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

-      ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces convergent apically; median tubercle much lower. SIPH 1.9-2.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5                               …..Myzus persicae

3     Cauda as dark as SIPH and broadly triangular, hardly as long as its basal width in dorsal view. Paired spinal and pleural dark sclerites often present on ABD TERG 1-7. Dorsal hairs pointed                                                                                             …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-      cauda pale or dusky and tongue-shaped or elongate triangular, clearly longer than its basal width. ABD TERG 1-7 usually without dark markings (except intersegmental muscle sclerites). Dorsal hairs short and fan-shaped, or long with blunt or slightly expanded apices


4     SIPH jet black, 0.65-0.8 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.7.  Dorsal hairs up to 2-2.5 ื BD III, with blunt or slightly capitate apices                                   …..Brevicoryne nigrisiphunculata

-      SIPH dark but not jet black, 0.8-1.2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.5.  Dorsal hairs

       fan-shaped or spatulate, maximally about as long as BD III              …..Brevicoryne crambe


Craspedia                                                     Compositae

      Craspedia ?chrysantha                 Aphis sp. (Australia, BMNH collection)


Crassocephalum                                          Compositae

      Crassocephalum biafrae = Solanecio biafrae                            

       C. bumbense = C. montuosum          

       C. crepidioides                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              [Myzus pileae]; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. guineense                                  Aphis gossypii

       C. mannii = Solanecio mannii             

       C. montuosum                              Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Sitobion autriquei; Uroleucon compositae

       C. rubens                                       Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Myzus persicae; Uroleucon compositae

       C. vitellinum                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Crassocephalum:-

-      Dorsum with an extensive dark shield, continuous over ABD TERG 1-6. ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria. SIPH black with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.12-0.19 of length. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                                                        …..Sitobion autriquei

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Crassula                                                       Crassulaceae

      Crassula coccinea                         Brachycaudus cardui; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. cultrata                                      Myzus persicae

       C. falcata = C. perfoliata var. falcata

       C. moschata                                  Myzus ascalonicus

       C. multicava                                  Myzus persicae

       C. perfoliata (incl. var. falcata)          Aphis fabae, gossypii

       C. perfossa = C. perfoliata

       C. portulacea                                 Aphis gossypii

       Crassula sp.                                   Aphis craccivora, sedi; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Crassula:-

1     SIPH pale or only dark at apices                                     …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                            …..2

2     Dorsum with an extensive dark shield                                                                              …..3

-      Dorsum without extensive dark sclerotisation                                                                  …..4

3     Cauda helmet-shaped. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. SIPH with a subapical annular incision                                                                                  …..Brachycaudus cardui

-      Without that combination of characters                                                   …..Aphis craccivora

4     Cauda black with 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and some dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femora with many fine hairs longer than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                 …..Aphis fabae

-      Cauda pale or dark with 4-8 hairs. Dorsal abdomen with or without dusky cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8, usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH. Femoral hairs all much shorter than trochantro-femoral suture                                                                    …..5

5     ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.3. SIPH 0.8-1.5 ื cauda, which bears 4-6 hairs and is usually rather dark, only a little paler than SIPH                                                                      …..Aphis sedi

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.2. SIPH 1.3-2.5 ื cauda, which bears 4-8 hairs and is usually pale/dusky, markedly paler than SIPH                                                         …..Aphis gossypii


Crataegomespilus                                                        Rosaceae

       Crataegomespilus dardari                         Bronvaux Medlar

                                                              Dysaphis angelicae, apiifolia ssp. petroselini, lauberti,


Use key to aphids on Crataegus.



Crataegus             Hawthorns, May Trees          Rosaceae


Numerous aphids utilise species of Crataegus as their primary hosts, so that the only morphs occurring are the fundatrix and her progeny in spring (often causing leaf deformation or galling) and the return migrants and sexuales in autumn. The key that follows the host list is applicable as indicated to the spring generations of such species, but cannot be used for the autumn presexual and sexual generations. Couplets 17-26 are based on the intensive work of Stroyan (1958) and the key to Dysaphis on Crataegus by Shaposhnikov & Marolev (1978); the species-level taxonomy of the genus Dysaphis is particularly difficult, and a series of specimens from a population will need to be examined before much reliance can be placed on any species determination. This part of the key only applies to alate spring migrants, but details of the appearance of the gall and the fundatrix in life (see next section), together with the species of Crataegus colonised, may help to confirm the identification.


Host plant records for Crataegus aphids:-

       Crataegus acclivis                         Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. alemanniensis                           Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi; Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. almaatensis                               Aphis pomi; Ovatus insitus; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. altaica                                       Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, crataegi ssp. pallida, lauberti,

                                                                  munire, ranunculi, sorbiarum;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. aronia                                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Ovatus crataegarius

       C. azarolus                                    Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia ssp. petroselini, crataegi;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius

       C. brainerdii                                  Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. bretschneideri = C. pinnatifida ssp. major

       C. calpodendron                            Aphis pomi

       C. calycina                                     Aphis pomi; Dysaphis angelicae

       C. canadensis                                Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. carrierei = C. lavallei

       C. champlainensis = C. submollis

       C. chlorosarca                               Aphis pomi; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. clara                                          Hyalomyzus eriobotryae

       C. coccinea                                    Aphis pomi; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              Nearctaphis crataegifoliae; Ovatus crataegarius;
                                                       Prociphilus (Neoparacletus) corrugatans;
                                                       Prociphilus (Stagona) pini; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. columbiana auct. = C. piperi      

       C. crusgalli                                    Aphis fabae, pomi; Eriosoma crataegi, lanigerum;

                                                              Hyalomyzus sensoriatus; Nearctaphis clydesmithi;
                                                       Prociphilus (Neoparacletus) corrugatans;
                                                       Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae; Utamphorophora crataegi

       C. cuneata                                     Aphis spiraecola; Eriosoma lanigerum;

                                                              [Ovatus malisuctus];
                                                       Prociphilus (Stagona) crataegicola, pini;
                                                       Rhopalosiphum ?oxyacanthae, [padi]

       C. curvisepala                                Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi, incognita;

                                                              Prociphilus (Stagona) pini; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. dahurica                                   Aphis pomi, spiraecola

       C. douglasii                                   Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi; Ericaphis gentneri;
                                                       Eriosoma lanigerum;
[Myzodium mimulicola];

                                                              Nearctaphis bakeri, sclerosa;

                                                              Prociphilus (Stagona) pini

       C. hissarica                                    Aphis pomi; Dysaphis sorbiarum;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus

       C. holmesiana var. amicta           Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. intricata                                     Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. korolkowii                                 Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, crataegi ssp. pallens, incognita,


                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. laevigata                                    Aphis fabae, pomi, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Dysaphis angelicae, crataegi, lauberti, ranunculi;

                                                              Ericaphis gentneri; Eriosoma lanigerum,[lanuginosum];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nearctaphis crataegifoliae;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus;    Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. lambertiana                            Dysaphis ranunculi; Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. langei                                      Dysaphis crataegi

       C. lavallei                                    Ericaphis gentneri; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                              Utamphorophora crataegi

       C. lucida                                        Aphis pomi

       C. macrocantha                            Aphis pomi; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. macrosperma                            Aphis spiraecola

       C. maximowiczii                            Aphis pomi, spiraecola; Muscaphis stroyani;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus, [malisuctus];

                                                              [Prociphilus kuwanai]; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. mexicana = C. pubescens

       C. mollis                                        Aphis pomi; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. monogyna                                 Aphis fabae, gossypii, pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;
                                                      Dysaphis angelicae, apiifolia ssp. petroselini, [bonomii],

                                                                   crataegi, lauberti, [plantaginea], ranunculi;

                                                              Macrosiphum nevskyanum;
                                                       Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;
                                                       Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, [padi], rufulum

       C. nigra                                         Aphis pomi

       C. orientalis                                   Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi ssp. heraclei, virgata;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius

       C. oxyacantha = C. laevigata   

       C. palmstruchii = C. laevigata   

       C. pedicellata = C. coccinea   

       C. pentagyna                                 Aphis pomi; Dysaphis angelicae, lauberti                          

       C. phaenopyrum                           Aphis pomi; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. pinnatifida (incl. var. major)         Aphis pomi, spiraecola; Muscaphis stroyani;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. piperi                                         Eriosoma lanigerum

       C. pontica                                      Aphis pomi;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, crataegi ssp. pallida, munire;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius

       C. praeformosa                             Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

       C. pringlei                                      Aphis pomi

       C. prunifolia                                Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. pseudoheterophylla                  Aphis pomi

       C. pubescens                                 Muscaphis mexicana;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, sanguinarium

       C. punctata                                    Eriosoma lanigerum; Muscaphis stroyani; [Myzus ornatus];
                                                       Nearctaphis crataegifoliae

       C. rivularis                                     Aphis pomi; Eriosoma lanigerum; Nearctaphis bakeri

       C. rotundifolia                               Aphis pomi

       C. sanguinea                                 Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crataegi, ranunculi; Ovatus insitus;

                                                              Prociphilus (Stagona) pini 

       C. sinaica                                    Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Ovatus insitus

       C. songorica                                  Aphis pomi, spiraecola;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi ssp. pallida, munirae;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Prociphilus (Stagona) pini;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. stevenii                                      Aphis pomi

       C. submollis                                   Aphis pomi; Dysaphis crategi, ranunculi;

                                                              Prociphilus (Stagona) pini; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

       C. succulenta                                 Aphis pomi; Nearctaphis crataegifoliae

       C. tanacetifolia                              Aphis pomi

       C. tomentosa                                 Aphis pomi; Eriosoma crataegi;

                                                              Prociphilus (Neoparacletus) corrugatans

       C. turkestanica                              Aphis craccivora, pomi;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, crataegi, ssp. pallida, munire;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus

       C. uniflora                                     Eriosoma lanigerum group; Hyalomyzus eriobotryae;
                                                       Schizoneurata tissoti; Utamphorophora crataegi

       C. vicana                                       Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

       C. viridis                                        Hyalomyzus sensoriatus

       Crataegus spp.                              [Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus];

                                                              Dysaphis [laserpitii], [ramani Das & Raychaudhuri 1983];
                                                       [Hyalomyzus collinsoniae]; Muscaphis canadensis;

                                                              [Myzodium mimulicola]; Nearctaphis nigrescens (?);

                                                              Prociphilus (Stagona) crataegistrobi;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nigrum


Key to aphids on Crataegus:-


1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Antenna of alata with narrow, transversely elongate of annular secondary rhinaria                                                                                                              .....2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. Antenna of alata with oval or circular secondary rhinaria



2     SIPH pores present, their rims partly sclerotised. Wax gland pore plates usually consisting of a ring of large facets around an undivided or partially divided central area (fig. 47C)


-     SIPH absent, at least in apterae. Wax gland pore plates with numerous small facets and no central area, or with a group of large facets including a few small separate clear areas


3     Aptera with greatest diameter of SIPH pore 0.08-0.16 mm. ANT III usually more than 1.25 ื more than ANT IV+V                                                                          .....Eriosoma crataegi

-     Aptera with maximum diameter of SIPH pore less than 0.06 mm. ANT III usually less than 1.25 ื more than ANT IV+V                                                              .....Eriosoma lanigerum

4     Wax pore plates (in immatures) comprising groups of 6-20 large facets often including a few small clear areas. Alata (=sexupara) with media of forewing once-branched (adult aptera not known)                                                                                                  .....Schizoneurata tissoti

-     Wax pore plates with more numerous small facets. Alata (= spring migrant) with media of forewing unbranched                                                                                                          .....5

5     Fundatrix with R IV+V longer than ANT BASE V. Spring migrant alata with pterostigma of normal length, extending about one third of distance from base of Rs to tip of wing, and with 0-4 rhinaria on ANT V

.....Prociphilus (Neoparacletus) corrugatans

-     Fundatrix with R IV+V shorter than ANT BASE V. Spring migrant alata with pterostigma elongate distally, extending about one half of distance from base of Rs to tip of wing, and with 3-11 rhinaria on ANT V

.....Prociphilus (Stagona) spp. (crataegicola, crataegistrobi, pini)

6     Cauda usually short, helmet-shaped or triangular, shorter than or about as long as its basal width in dorsal view; if tongue-shaped and up to 1.4 ื its basal width then SIPH have rows of minute nodules or spinules on closely-spaced imbrications                                                .....7

-     Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width; sometimes less than

       1.4 ื longer, but then SIPH do not have closely-spaced rows of minute nodules/spinules                                                                                                                                            .....28


7     Dorsal cuticle of aptera (fundatrix) very rough with numerous small denticulate or wart-like projections, and clothed with numerous long, fine, curved hairs mostly over 60 ตm long (fig. 42A). Alata without a solid black dorsal abdominal patch, and with SIPH more than 2 ื cauda                                                                                                                                   .....8

-     Dorsal cuticle of aptera (fundatrix or subsequent generation) smooth, with fewer, shorter hairs (maximally 50 ตm). Alata usually with a solid black dorsal abdominal patch, or if without then SIPH less than 2 ื cauda                                                                            .....10

8     SIPH of aptera (fundatrix) 0.25-0.28 mm long, 1.6-2.0 ื ANT V BASE. Alata with 12-22 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 6-11 on IV, 2-5 on V, and ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.6

                                                                                                                    .....Muscaphis mexicana

-     SIPH of fundatrix 0.33-0.45 mm long, 2.2-3.0 ื than ANT V BASE. Alata with 25-50 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 15-33 on IV, 9-20 on V, and ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.5


9     Cauda of fundatrix bluntly triangular (fig. 42B). SIPH of fundatrix 4-5 ื its minimum width, and that of alata 5-6 ื its minimum width                                        .....Muscaphis canadensis

-     Cauda of fundatrix helmet-shaped, with a pointed apex (fig. 42C). SIPH of fundatrix 7-8 ื its minimum width, and of that of alata 6.5-8.5 ื its minimum width

                                                                                                                      .....Muscaphis stroyani

10   SIPH with closely-spaced rows of imbrications bearing numerous small nodules or

       spinules (fig. 42M)                                                                                                            .....11

-     SIPH normally imbricated, the imbrications sometimes spinulose but not in regular

       closely-spaced rows                                                                                                          .....16

11   Dorsum of aptera with a solid black central sclerite covering ABD TERG 3-5, or 3-6, and transverse bars on more posterior tergites                                                                         .....12

-     Dorsum of aptera with separate transverse bars on ABD TERG 5-8, and with irregular broken sclerites on more anterior tergites                                                                                      .....14

12   Tibiae black. Aptera with dorsal patch extending laterally to marginal sclerites, at least on ABD TERG 4-5                                                                              .....Nearctaphis clydesmithi

-     Tibiae mainly pale with black apices. Aptera with dorsal patch not extending laterally to marginal sclerites                                                                                                               .....13

13   Alata with a solid black patch on ABD TERG 3-5, partially fused with bar on 6

                                                                                                                .....Nearctaphis nigrescens

 -    Alata without a solid black dorsal patch, only with transverse bars or dashes on ABD

       TERG 5-8                                                                                            .....Nearctaphis sclerosa

14   R IV+V 0.14-0.18 mm long, usually with 4 accessory hairs. Alata without a solid black dorsal abdominal patch                                                                                                     .....15

-     R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long, usually with 2 accessory hairs. Alata with a solid black patch covering ABD TERG 3-5, or 3-6                                                           .....Nearctaphis bakeri

15   Head of aptera blackish-brown, and SIPH darker than cauda. Alata has transverse dark bars on ABD TERG 6-8, or 7 and 8                             .....Nearctaphis crataegifoliae ssp. occidentalis

-     Head of aptera pale, and SIPH paler than cauda. Alata with a complete transverse dark bar only on ABD TERG 8                                  .....Nearctaphis crataegifoliae ssp. crataegifoliae

16   Spinal tubercles usually present and well developed on head, prothorax and all abdominal segments. SIPH of aptera pale or dusky, less than 0.14 mm long        .....Dysaphis sorbiarum

-     Spinal tubercles only on head and ABD TERG 7-8, rarely on other segments. SIPH dark, more than 0.14 mm long                                                                                                   .....17

17   Spring migrant alata (henceforth “s.m.a.”) with marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 7 in most specimens, frequently on both sides. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are usually 10-25 ตm long                                                                                         .....Dysaphis apiifolia ssp. petroselini

-     S.m.a. without marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 in most specimens, and very rarely on both sides. Hairs on ABD TERG 8 30-70 ตm long                                                          .....18

18   S.m.a. with total number of secondary rhinaria on both ANT V combined 7-35, or if 5-6 then a transverse dark bar is present on ABD TERG 2                                                               .....19

-     S.m.a. with usually only 0-5 secondary rhinaria on both ANT V combined, rarely up to 6 or 7. ABD TERG 2 without a dark bar                                                                                 .....21

19   ABD TERG 1 and 2 of s.m.a. without dark bars, at most they have small scattered circular scleroites                                                                                                 .....Dysaphis angelicae

-     ABD TERG 2, or both 1 and 2, of s.m.a. with a transverse dark bar, sometimes partly broken into irregular sclerites                                                                                                        .....20

20   ANT III of s.m.a. with 44-75 secondary rhinaria, ANT IV with 15-35 and ANT V with 3-19. R IV+V with 4-7 accessory hairs                                                           .....Dysaphis ranunculi

-     ANT III of s.m.a. with 37-47 secondary rhinaria, ANT IV with 10-19 and ANT V with 2-6. R IV+V with 2-3 accessory hairs                                                               .....Dysaphis virgata

21   ANT III of s.m.a. usually with 74-125 secondary rhinaria per mm of length                  .....22

-     ANT III of s.m.a. usually with 130-192 secondary rhinaria per mm of length                .....24

22   HT I of s.m.a. with 3 hairs (medial sense peg present). R IV+V with 5-9 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                          .....Dysaphis munire

-     HT I of s.m.a. with 2 hairs (medial sense peg absent). R IV+V usually with 2-4 accessory hairs                                                                                                                                   .....23

23   R IV+V of s.m.a. 1.01-1.25 ื HT II. Hairs on ANT III blunt or weakly capitate, 9-21 ตm long, those on ABD TERG 3 12-23 ตm long                                         .....Dysaphis incognita

-     R IV+V of s.m.a. 0.83-0.98 ื HT II. Hairs on ANT III mostly pointed, 20-29 ตm long, those on ABD TERG 3 25-35 ตm long                                          .....Dysaphis crataegi ssp. pallida

24   S.m.a. with hairs on ABD TERG 2 and 3 pointed, the longest 20-57 ตm long, but rarely less than 25 ตm                                                                                                .....Dysaphis lauberti

-     S.m.a. with hairs on ABD TERG 2 and 3 blunt, the longest 9-29 ตm, but rarely more than 25 ตm                                                                                                                                     .....25

25   S.m.a. with SIPH 2.9-3.5 ื their middle diameter              .....Dysaphis crataegi ssp. heraclei

-     S.m.a. with SIPH 3.6-5.7 ื their middle diameter                                                           .....26

26   S.m.a. with dorsal abdominal patch on ABD TERG 3-6 interrupted by narrow gaps or lacunae between 3-4 and 4-5, as well as 5-6 (fig. 42F). Anterior part of subgenital plate with 4-10 hairs                                                                                .....Dysaphis crataegi ssp. kunzei

-     S.m.a. with dorsal abdominal patch on ABD TERG 3-6 almost entire, except for a narrow central gap between 5 and 6 (fig. 42G). Anterior part of subgenital plate with 2-7 hairs .....27

27   (Requires large samples) Most s.m.a. with at least 1 antenna bearing 1 (or more) secondary rhinaria on ANT V [mean number per antenna 0.53 (UK) - 1.1 (Russia)]

                                                                                                               .....Dysaphis crataegi s. str.

-     Most s.m.a. without any secondary rhinaria on ANT V of either antenna [mean number 0.32 per antenna (UK)]                                                                 .....Dysaphis crataegi ssp. aethusi

28   Antennal tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. SIPH of aptera dark or, if only dark at apex, then short (less than 0.25 mm). Cauda and anal plate dusky to dark                  .....29

-     Antennal tubercles moderately to well developed. SIPH of aptera pale or dusky, or dark only at apices and then over 0.3 mm long                                                                                 .....35

 29 SIPH slightly swollen or cylindrical on at least basal 0.7 of length, narrowing only towards apex, and with a well-developed apical flange (e.g. fig. 42L). Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posteriodorsad of spiracle, and usually smaller at base than the spiracular opening (fig. 42H)                                                                                                             .....30

-     SIPH tapering from base to apex, and flange only moderately developed. Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 placed posterioventrad of spiracle and usually larger than spiracular aperture                                                                                                                             .....32

30   Tibiae wholly dark                                                                           .....Rhopalosiphum nigrum

-     Tibiae mainly pale or dusky, sometimes dark at apices                                                     .....31

31   ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0 in fundatrix, and less than 2.5 in subsequent generations (apterae and spring migrant alatae). SIPH of alata usually less than 0.2 mm long

       (fig. 42L)                                                                                        .....Rhopalosiphum rufulum

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0 in fundatrix, and more than 2.5 in subsequent generations. SIPH of alata usually more than 0.2 mm long

                                                         .....Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (or sanguinarium – see text)  

32   Aptera with transverse bars on ABD TERG 7 and 8 and at least some dark spino-pleural markings anterior to siphunculi. Alata with a series of dorsal abdominal transverse bars

                                                                                                                                   .....Aphis fabae

-     Aptera without any dark dorsal markings, alata usually with only marginal abdominal sclerites anterior to siphunculi                                                                                           .....32

33   Cauda of aptera paler than SIPH, without any trace of a constriction, and bearing 4-8 hairs (fig. 121U)                                                                                                      .....Aphis gossypii

 -    Cauda of aptera as dark as SIPH, with a slight constriction near its midpoint, and bearing

       7-19 hairs (fig. 121T)                                                                                                        .....34

34   Marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13).R IV+V more than 0.130 mm                                                                       .....Aphis pomi

-     Marginal tubercles absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V less than 0.125 mm                                                               .....Aphis spiraecola

35   Aptera with inner faces of antennal tubercles convergent in dorsal view (e.g. fig. 42I)


-     Aptera with inner faces of antennal tubercles parallel or divergent in dorsal view (e.g. figs 42J,K)                                                                                                                                .....41

36   SIPH slightly to moderately swollen over distal 0.5 to 0.7 of length. ANT PT/BASE less than 5                                                                                                                                .....37

-     SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange. ANT PT/BASE more than 5                    .....40

37   ANT PT/BASE 2.5 or less                                                              .....Hyalomyzus sensoriatus

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 3.0                                                                                         .....38

38   R IV+V less than 1.1 ื HT II. Cauda with 6-11 hairs (usually 7). Alata with a black dorsal abdominal patch                                                                                            .....Myzus persicae

-     R IV+V more than 1.1 ื HT II. Cauda with 4-6 hairs. Alata without a black dorsal abdominal patch                                                                                                               ..... 39

39   SIPH of aptera moderately swollen, and only moderately imbricated (fig. 42N). ANT PT less than 1.1 ื ANT III. Alata with 40 or more secondary rhinaria on ANT III

                                                                                                               .....Hyalomyzus eriobotryae

-     SIPH of aptera only slightly swollen, and coarsely imbricated (fig. 42O, as tissoti). ANT PT more than 1.2 ื ANT III. Alata with 11-25 (-39) secondary rhinaria on ANT III

                                                                                                                  .....Hyalomyzus jussiaeae

40   Spring migrant alata with 60-83 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 36-52 on IV and

       13-22 on V                                                                                                      .....Ovatus insitus

-     Spring migrant alata with 22-49 rhinaria on ANT III, 5-20 on IV and 0-10 on V

                                                                                                                       .....Ovatus crategarius

41   SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (fig. 121C). Longest hairs on ANT

       III more than 0.5 ื basal diameter of segment                                                                 .....42

-     SIPH without any polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III all less than 0.5 ื basal diameter of segment                                                                                                                         .....43

42   Alata with ANT c.1.75 ื BL, and with ANT III bearing 30-34 rhinaria. (Aptera are undescribed)                                                                            …..Macrosiphum nevskyanum*

-     Alata with ANT less than 1.5 ื BL, and ANT III with 12-21 rhinaria

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

43   SIPH swollen on about distal 0.5 of length (fig. 42P). Alata without dark dorsal abdominal markings                                                                                      .....Utamphorophora crataegi

-     SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only slightly swollen subapically (e.g. fig. 42Q). Alata with dark dorsal abdominal markings                                                                                       .....44

44   SIPH more than 2 ื cauda, and in aptera often dark-tipped (fig. 121K). Dorsal abdomen of alata with transverse dark bars                                                               .....Aulacorthum solani

-      SIPH less than 2 ื cauda, not dark-tipped in aptera (fig. 42Q). Dorsal abdomen of alata with an almost solid dark patch across ABD TERG 4-5 or 3-5                      .....Ericaphis gentneri

Craterispermum                                                               Rubiaceae

       Craterispermum laurinum            Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae; Sitobion sp


Crateva                                                        Capparaceae

      Crateva religiosa                           Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Cratoneurum                                               Amblystegiaceae

      Cratoneurum filicinum                 Muscaphis utahensis; Pemphigus hydrophilus

Use key to apterae of moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Cratoxylum                                                            Hypericaceae

      Cratoxylum celebicum                  Greenideoidea (Neogreenideoida) philippensis

      C. cochinchinense                         Aphis aurantii, gossypii

      C. polyanthum  = C. cochinchinense


Key to species:-


-      Body elongate. SIPH almost as long as body with numerous long hairs

                                                           ….. Greenideoidea (Neogreenideoida) philippensis

-      Body oval. SIPH shorter and without hairs                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids



Crepidiastrum                                              Compositae

      Crepidiastrum lanceolatum          Myzus lactucicola

       C. sonchifolium                             Uroleucon formosanum

Use key to apterae on Ixeris.


Crepis                                                           Compositae

      Crepis alpestris                              Uroleucon cichorii, hypochoeridis

       C. aspera                                       Uroleucon picridis

       C. atribarba                                   Uroleucon erigeronense

       C. aurea                                         Nasonovia ribisnigri

       C. biennis                                      Aphis crepidis, fabae; Aulacorthum palustre, solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hyperomyzus picridis;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Trama troglodytes; Uroleucon cichorii, grossum

       C. blattarioides  = C.pyrenaica

       C. bursifolia                                   Aphis crepidis

       C. capillaris (incl. virens)                  Aphis crepidis, fabae, nasturtii; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                              Hyperomyzus lactucae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Nasonovia [compositellae ssp. nigra],  ribisnigri;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Trama maritima,[mordvilkoi], troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum, murale, sonchi

       C. conyzifolia                                 Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui;  Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum

       C. foetida (incl. ssp.                          Aphis (Protaphis) sp.; Uroleucon cichorii


       C. grandiflora = C. conyzifolia

       C. haenseleri  = C. vesicaria ssp. taraxacifolia

       C. hieracioides = C. mollis ssp. succisiifolia

       C. japonica = Youngia japonica       

       C. leontodontoides                         Uroleucon grossum

       C. marschallii                                Uroleucon picridis

       C. mollis ssp. succisiifolia              Uroleucon grossum

       C. neglecta                                     Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon picridis

       C. nicaeensis                                 Uroleucon cichorii

       C. palaestina                                  Nasonovia ribisnigri

       C. paludosa                                   Hyperomyzus picridis; [Jacksonia papillata];

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum, riparium

       C. parviflora                                  [Uroleucon picridis (misidentified cichorii?)]

       C. praemorsa                                 Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon cichorii

       C. pulchra                                     Nasonovia ribisnigri; Uroleucon sonchi

       C. pyrenaica                                  Uroleucon cichorii

       C. rhoeadifolia = C. foetida ssp. rhoeadifolia

       C. sancta                                        Aphis crepidis; Uroleucon sonchi

       C. sancta ssp. obovata                   Uroleucon cichorii

       C. setosa                                        Hyperomyzus picridis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, [cirsii], grossum

       C. sibirica                                      Aphis fabae; [Cryptomyzus ribis]; Hyperomyzus picridis;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum, picridis

       C. taraxacifolia = C. vesicaria ssp. taraxacifolia

       C. tectorum                                    Aphis crepidis, seneciocrepiphaga;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Hyperomyzus lactucae, sandilandica;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella crepidis; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Trama troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum, riparium, sonchi

       C. tenuifolia                                   Acyrthosiphon crepidis; Macrosiphoniella crepidis

       C. triasii                                         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi; Hyperomyzus lactucae

       C. vesicaria                                    Aphis crepidis, gossypii,[intybi]; Aulacorthum solani;

               (incl. haenseleri,                         Hyperomyzus lactucae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                       taraxacifolia)                    Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                              Uroleucon cichorii, grossum, sonchi

       C. virens = C. capillaris

       C. viscidula                                    Nasonovia ribisnigri

       Crepis spp.                                    [Aphis septentrionalis]; Uroleucon adenocaulonae

Key to apterae on Crepis:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                                                                            …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                                             …..4

2      HT II normal. Body sparsely hairy. Wax glands present on posterior abdomen

                                                                                                                  …..Pemphigus bursarius

-      HT II very elongate. Body densely hairy. No wax glands                                               …..3

3      Eyes with 3 facets. SIPH absent                                                           …..Trama troglodytes

-      Eyes with many facets. SIPH present as pores on shallow cones            …..Trama maritima

4     SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 4 rows of polygonal cells)    …..5

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                               …..16

5     SIPH pale, with reticulation consisting of large cells on distal 0.08-0.2 of length. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH wholly or mainly dark, with reticulation of numerous small cells on distal 0.16-0.55 of length. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 or 5-5-5 hairs                                                      …..6

6     Cauda dark                                                                                                                        …..7

-      Cauda pale                                                                                                                         …..8

7     SIPH 0.9-1.2 ื cauda with reticulation on distal 0.45-0.55. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 ื HT II. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                                 …..Macrosiphoniella crepidis

-      SIPH 1.5-2.1 ื cauda with distal 0.16-0.23 reticulated. R IV+V 1.1-1.2 ื HT II. First tarsal segments with 5-5-5 hairs                                                                    …..Uroleucon riparium

8     Crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present (sometimes subdivided)                     …..9

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites absent                                                                                      …..11

9     R IV+V 1.45-1.85 ื HT II. Coxae pale like basal parts of femora       …..Uroleucon picridis

-      R IV+V 0.84-1.35 ื HT II. Coxae dusky or dark, darker than the basal parts of femora


10   R IV+V 0.84-1.08 ื HT II (rarely more than 1). Cauda with 14-24 hairs (usually about 17)                                                                                                     …..Uroleucon hypochoeridis

-      R IV+V 1.04-1.35 ื HT II. Cauda with 18-33 hairs

                                                                                   …..Uroleucon cichorii group (incl. grossum)

11   SIPH with pale basal part contrasting with dark distal part         …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH entirely dark or only paler in middle                                                                     …..12

12   Coxae dark. SIPH often slightly paler in middle. Dorsal hairs not arising from pigmented scleroites

                                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Coxae pale. SIPH wholly dark. Dorsal hairs with or without pigmented scleroites at bases


13   ANT III with rhinaria distributed over at least 0.9 of length. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II

                                                                                                                       …..Uroleucon murale

-      ANT III with rhinaria on basal 0.5-0.7. R IV+V 1.05-2.2 ื HT II                                …..14

14   SIPH 1.7-2.1 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.9-2.2 ื HT II                      …..Uroleucon adenocaulonae

-      SIPH 1.1-1.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.45 ื HT II                                                           …..15

15   HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more ื longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 ื R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II less than 5 ื its maximum thickness and 0.70-0.85 ื R IV+V

                                                                                                                 …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

16   Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width. SIPH conical or tapering, with a subapical annular incision                                                                                                …..17

-      Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular, longer than its basal width. SIPH varying, if tapering then without a subapical annular incision                                                                        …..18

17   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 ื cauda                                       

                                                                                                                  ......Brachycaudus cardui

-      Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

18   Head spiculose both dorsally and ventrally, with spiculose or scabrous, almost parallel or apically convergent ANT tubercles                                                                                                                                                  …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      Head not spiculose, or only spiculose on ventral side. ANT tubercles undeveloped, or if developed then with inner faces almost smooth, and divergent                                     …..19

19   ANT III with 1-40 rhinaria; if a small number then they are on basal half only. ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                      …..20

-      ANT III usually without rhinaria, if with 0-4 then these are distributed over its length. ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu  …..25

20   SIPH clavate, swollen to at least 1.2 of minimum diameter on basal half                      …..21

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or only slightly swollen towards apex                                  …..23

21   SIPH pale. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. (Al. with a dark trapezoid dorsal abdominal patch)

                                                                                                                …..Hyperomyzus lactucae

-      SIPH dusky or dark at least on distal part. R IV+V 1.05-1.7 ื HT II. (Al. without a dark dorsal abdominal patch)                                                                                                 …..22

22   R IV+V 1.05-1.25 ื HT II. SIPH lightly imbricated, 2.0-2.4 ื cauda, with maximum diameter of swollen part 1.3-1.5 ื minimum diameter on basal half

                                                                                                         …..Hyperomyzus sandilandica

-      R IV+V 1.5-1.7 ื HT II. SIPH smooth, 1.5-1.65 ื cauda, with maximum width of swollen part 1.5-2.0 ื minimum width on basal half                                     …..Hyperomyzus picridis

23   Thoracic spiracular apertures large and rounded, much larger than abdominal ones. Dorsal abdomen with dark intersegmental markings. Hairs on ANT III up to 0.7-1.1 ื BD III

                                                                                                                   …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      Thoracic spiracular apertures not unusually large. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. Hairs on ANT III very short, maximally c.0.25 ื BD III      …..24

24   R IV+V 0.6-0.7 ื HT II. SIPH 1.15-1.45 ื cauda                      …..Acyrthosiphon crepidis*

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.3 ื HT II. SIPH 1.8-2.5 ื cauda                              …..Aulacorthum palustre

25   ANT PT/BASE c. 1.0 or less                                                             …..Aphis (Protaphis) sp.

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.9                                                                                                   …..26

26   Tibiae entirely dark. Hairs on ANT III 1.7-3.3 ื BD III          …..Aphis seneciocrepiphaga*

-      Tibiae dark only distally. Hairs on ANT III 0.3-1.7 ื BD III                                        …..27

27   Most or all of ABD TERG 2-5 usually with dome-shaped MTu. Posterior hair on hind trochanter blunt, 0.3-0.5 ื diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ANT III 0.25-0.55 ื BD III. ANT III sometimes with up to 6 secondary rhinaria   …..Aphis crepidis

-      ABD TERG 2-5 rarely with MTu. Posterior hair on hind trochanter pointed, 0.55-1.54 ื diameter of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ANT III 0.47-0.8 ื BD III.  ANT III without secondary rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens)

                                                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24 


Crescentia                                                    Bignoniaceae

      Crescentia cujete                           Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus


Crinodendron                                              Elaeocarpaceae

      Crinodendron patagua                  Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Crinum                                                        Amaryllidaceae

      Crinum careyanum = C. zeylanicum

          C. zeylanicum                               Aphis gossypii


Cristaria see Gaya                                                  Malvaceae

      Cristaria corchorifolia = Gaya parviflora


Critesion  see Hordeum                                                     Poaceae


Crithmum                                                     Apiaceae

      Crithmum maritimum                  Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis crithmi;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                              Macrosiphum ?centranthi - (Ilharco 1984)

                                                              [Uroleucon cichorii]

Key to apterae on Crithmum:-

1      ANT tubercles well developed, smooth, divergent. SIPH elongate (0.3-0.45 ื BL), with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                          …..Macrosiphum ?centranthi

-      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed. SIPH relatively shorter and without polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                        …..2

2     ABD TERG 8 with a backward-pointing process above cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.25

                                                                                                                  …..Cavariella aegopodii

-      No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-4.0                                                              …..3

3     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, with 4-5 hairs. Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 usually with spinal tubercles (STu)                 …..Dysaphis crithmi

-      Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width., with 6-25 hairs. No STu               …..4

4     SIPH cylindrical or tapering. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). Cauda with 11-25 hairs                                                                                                …..Aphis fabae

 -     SIPH clavate. MTu usually present on ABD TERG 5, but absent from 1 and 7. Cauda with 6-9 hairs                                                                                               …..Hyadaphis foeniculi


Critonia                                                        Compositae

      Critonia portoricensis                    Uroleucon ambrosiae


Crocion  see Viola                                                   Violaceae

      Crocion nutallii see Viola nutallii


Crocosmia                                                    Iridaceae

      Crocosmia crocosmiiflora           Aphis fabae


Crocus                                                          Iridaceae

      Crocus atticus = C. sieberi ssp. atticus

      C. “carduchorum” = C. kotschyanus

       C. kotschyanus                              Dysaphis tulipae

      C. sativus                                       Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus

       C. sieberi ssp. atticus                     Myzus persicae

      Crocus spp.                                   Aphis gossypii; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis];

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

Key to apterae on Crocus:-

-      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spinal tubercles (STu) usually present, at least on head and ABD TERG 8                                …..Dysaphis tulipae

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width. STu rarely present, and never on head                                                                                 ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids


Cronartium                                                  Mycetales

      Cronartium fusiforme                   Cinara cronartii (in lesions of Pinus)


Croomia                                                       Stemonaceae

      Croomia heterosepala                   Aphis spiraecola

       C. japonica                                    Aphis spiraecola


Crossandra                                                   Acanthaceae

      Crossandra infundibuliformis      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Crossopteryx                                         Rubiaceae

      Crossopteryx febrifuga                  Aphis gossypii; Sitobion halli



Crossostephium see Lepidolopsis                                Compositae


Crotalaria                                                    Leguminosae

      Crotalaria alata                             Aphis gossypii

       C. anagyroides = C. micans

       C. atrorubens                                 Aphis gossypii

       C. barkae                                       Aphis gossypii

       C. brownei = C. pallida

       C. capensis                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum

       C. comosa                                      Aphis gossypii

       C. glauca                                       Aphis gossypii

       C. goreensis                                   Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       C. hyssopifolia                               Aphis gossypii

       C. juncea                                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

       C. laburnifolia                               Myzus persicae

       C. lanceolata                                  Aphis craccivora

       C. longirostrata                              Aphis craccivora

       C. madurensis                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       C. mesopontica                              Aphis craccivora

       C. micans                                       Brachycaudus helichrysi

       C. mucronata = C. pallida

       C. naragutensis                             Aphis gossypii

       C. ochroleuca                                Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       C. pallida                                       Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Schizaphis rotundiventris]

       C. reptans                                      Aphis craccivora

       C. retusa                                        Aphis gossypii

       C. rogersii                                      Aphis craccivora

       C. saltiana                                      Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi

       C. spectabilis                                  Aphis craccivora

       C. stipularia                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       C. striata = C. pallida                      

       Crotolaria spp.                              Aphis nasturtii; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              Sitobion nigrinectarium

Key to apterae on Crotalaria:-

1     SIPH black with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                …..Sitobion nigrinectarium

-      SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation                                        …..2

2     ANT VI BASE 0.25-0.4 mm, 1.8-2.3 ื R IV+V. SIPH very attenuate distally, with minimum diameter less than 0.25 ื width of cauda at midlength in dorsal view                    

                                                                                                                   …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      ANT VI BASE less than 0.2mm, less than 1.5 ื R IV+V. SIPH clavate, cylindrical or tapering but not attenuate and of diameter more than 0.3 ื width of cauda at midlength

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Croton                                                          Euphorbiaceae

      Croton bonplandianus                  Myzus persicae

      C. congestus = Xylosma congesta

      C. floribundus                               Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

      C. humilis                                      Aphis spiraecola

       C. lobatus                                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       C. macrostachys                            Eonaphis crotonis; Myzus persicae

      C. subgratissimus                     Eonaphis crotonis

      C. tiglium                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii                                                 

       Croton spp.                                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Sinomegoura citricola

Key to species on Croton:-

-       Aptera and alata with very large spine-like processes, 4 per segment, longer than the short, black, conical SIPH which have a subapical ring of 4 hairs (fig. 43)  .....Eonaphis crotonis

-      Aptera and alata without spine-like processes. SIPH tubular or tapering, longer than basal width, without hairs                                              .....go to key to polyphagous aphids



Cruciata                                                       Rubiaceae

      Cruciata glabra                             Myzus cerasi; Uhlmannia singularis

       C. laevipes                                      Aphis galiiscabri; Myzus cerasi

       C. taurica                                       Dysaphis reaumuri

Use key to apterae on Galium.       


Crupina                                                        Compositae

      Crupina vulgaris                           Aphis fabae; Macrosiphoniella papillata

       Crupina sp.                                    Macrosiphoniella riedeli

Key to apterae on Crupina:-

1     SIPH thick and dark with distal polygonal reticulation, a very long pointed cauda, R IV+V about equal to HT II, and dorsal hairs arising from tuberculate bases                               …..2

-      Without that combination of characters                                                            …..Aphis fabae

                                                                                                   (or use key to polyphagous aphids)

2     ANT and legs almost wholly jet black, except for base of ANT III and basal 0.1-0.2 of femora. ANT III with 20-34 rhinaria                                        …..Macrosiphoniella papillata

-      ANT and legs are mainly dark, but basal parts of ANT IV and V are paler, as well as base of III, tibiae are usually paler in middle, and femora are pale on basal 0.4-0.6. ANT III with

       34-51 rhinaria                                                                                …..Macrosiphoniella riedeli



Cryosophila                                                                          Arecaceae

      Cryosophila warscewiczii               Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.


Cryptocarya                                                                          Lauraceae

        Cryptocarya alba                          Aphis sp. near martinae (BMNH collection, Chile)



Cryptocoryne                                               Araceae

      Cryptocoryne ciliata                      Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Cryptogramma                                             Pteridaceae

      C. crispa                                         Macrosiphum woodsiae

       Cryptogramma sp. (?)                   Macrosiphum clydesmithi

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Cryptolepis                                                   Apocynaceae

      Cryptolepis transvaalensis             Aphis gossypii



Cryptomeria                                                           Taxodiaceae

      Cryptomeria japonica               [Brachycaudus helichrysi];

                                                 Cinara fresai, [greeni (Schouteden 1905)]



Cryptostegia                                                 Apocynaceae

      C. grandiflora                                Aphis asclepiadis, aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, nerii,


       C. madagascariensis                     Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nerii, spiraecola

Use key to aphids on Asclepias.


Cryptostemma   see  Arctotheca                            Compositae


Cryptotaenia                                                Apiaceae

      Cryptotaenia africana                   Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       C. canadensis                                Aphis asclepiadis, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, japonica, oenanthi, salicicola;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; [Pemphigus sp.];

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei

       C. japonica                                    Aphis gossypii, [mitsubae Shinji ( = spiraecola?)],


                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella japonica, oenanthi, salicicola;

                                                              Amphorophora  cryptotaeniae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Semiaphis heraclei

Key to apterae on Cryptotaenia:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda; in some species this is reduced to a small, warty, knob in the centre of ABD TERG 8, with 2 associated hairs  .....2

-      No supracaudal process, nor are there are 2 hairs on ABD TERG 8  close together and associated with a warty knob                                                                                              .....5

2     SIPH clavate; swollen on distal half to at least 1.2 ื narrowest part of basal half            .....3

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, or with slight subapical swelling                                          .....4

3     Supracaudal process longer than (1.2-1.5 ื) cauda. SIPH coarsely imbricated and stout, less than 5 ื longer than the maximum width of the swollen part             .....Cavariella salicicola

-      Supracaudal process almost always shorter than (0.75-1.05 ื cauda. SIPH weakly imbricated and  more than 5 ื longer than maximum width of swollen part

                                                                                                                    .....Cavariella aegopodii

4     Femoral hairs numerous, long and fine, longer than 0.5 ื width of hind femur

                                                                                                                      .....Cavariella oenanthi

-      Femoral hairs sparse, short and rigid, shorter than 0.5 ื width of hind femur

                                                                                                                      .....Cavariella japonica

5     SIPH very small and flangeless; less than 0.5 ื cauda and often not much longer (1.0-1.8 ื) than their diameter at midlength                                                            …..Semiaphis heraclei

-      SIPH more than 0.6 ื cauda, and with a flange                                                                …..6

6     SIPH tapering or cylindrical                                            ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

-      SIPH swollen or clavate                                                                                                     …..7

7     Head smooth or slightly rugose with ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-3.0. R IV+V 0.7-1.05 ื HT II. SIPH dark (or pale in summer dwarfs), and 0.9-1.4 ื cauda            

                                                                                                                      .....Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      Head spiculose with ANT tubercles well developed. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-5.1. R IV+V 0.9-1.7 ื HT II. SIPH pale and  1.7-3.0 ื cauda                                                                          …..8

8     SIPH strongly clavate, with swollen part maximally 1.8-2.1 ื minimum width on basal part, and with a subapical constriction bearing 2-3 rows of tranverse striae below the well-developed flange. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 ื HT II. Apex of ANT PT pointed

                                                                                                     …..Amphorophora cryptotaeniae

-      SIPH slightly clavate, with swollen part less than 1.5 ื minimum width of basal part, and without a distinct subapical constriction. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II. Apex of ANT PT not fine-pointed                                                                                                 …..Myzus persicae



Cucubalus                                                    Caryophyllaceae

      Cucubalus baccifer = Silene baccifera                                       


Cucumis                                                       Cucurbitaceae

      Cucumis anguria                          Aphis gossypii

       C. dipsaceus                                   Protaphis middletonii

       C. ficifolius                                    Aphis gossypii

       C. figarei = C. ficifolius

       C. hirsutus                                     Aphis gossypii

       C. melo                                          [Acyrthosiphon cyparissiae];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Brevicoryne brassicae];

                                                              [Cavariella salicicola]; [Macrosiphoniella sanborni];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

       C. moschatus = C. melo

       C. myriocarpus                              Aphis gossypii

       C. sativus                                       [Acyrthosiphon cyparissiae];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani, spinacaudatum;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae;                                                                                                       Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                              [Rhopalospihum rufiabdominale]; Sinomegoura citricola

Use key to apterae on Cucurbita.


Cucurbita                                                     Cucurbitaceae

      Cucurbita ficifolia                         Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       C. maxima                                     Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                              Dysaphis crataegi, [crataegi ssp. kunzei];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

       C. moschata                                   Aphis gossypii, nerii, [ruborum ssp. longisetosus];

                                                              Aulacorthum [linderae Shinji (Agarwala et al. 1982)],


                                                              Dysaphis crataegi; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

       C. pepo                                           Acyrthosiphon malvae, [pisum], [vasiljevi];

                                                              Aphis craccivora, fabae, frangulae, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani, spinacaudatum;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Dysaphis crataegi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon]; Smynthurodes betae

       Cucurbita spp.                               [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]

Key to apterae on Cucurbita (and Cucumis):-

For keys to the common aphids on cultivated Cucurbitaceae see Blackman & Eastop (2000).

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                         …..Smynthurodes betae

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present                                                                       …..2

2     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                               …..3

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-like, clearly longer than its basal width                                      …..4

3     SIPH pale, truncate conical, 1.1-1.3 ื cauda. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                                                                                       …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH dark, tapering, 1.8-2.3 ื cauda. Spiracular apertures reniform     …..Dysaphis crataegi

4     Head dark and SIPH mainly pale but contrastingly dark at apices                                   …..5

-      Head pale or dark, but if dark then SIPH are also wholly dark                                               

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

5     SIPH slightly to moderately clavate. Hind tibia dark except for basal 0.1-0.2 of length

                                                                                                         …..Pseudomegoura magnoliae

-      SIPH tapering, sometimes with slight swelling of distal half,  but  no constriction on basal half. Hind tibia dark on about distal half of length                                                                                                                                                                  …..Aulacorthum spinacaudatum


Cudrania = Maclura


Cullen                                                          Leguminosae

      Cullen corylifolium                       Acyrthosiphon kondoi; Aphis craccivora                            

       C. drupaceum                                Aphis craccivora           

Use key to apterae on Caragana.     


Cuminum                                                     Apiaceae

      Cuminum cyminum                      Aphis gossypii; Hyadaphis coriandri; Myzus persicae

       C. sativum = C. cyminum            

Key to aphids on Cuminum:-

1     Head spiculose, with well-developed scabrous ANT tubercles, their inner faces converging apically. SIPH slightly to moderately clavate, about 2 ื cauda                  …..Myzus persicae

-      Head not spiculose, ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. SIPH swollen and shorter than cauda, or tapering and longer than cauda                                                      …..2

2     SIPH pale or dusky-tipped, swollen and a little shorter than cauda                                         

                                                                                                                   …..Hyadaphis coriandri

-      SIPH dark, tapering and longer than cauda                                                  …..Aphis gossypii 


Cunninghamia                                                                   Taxodiaceae

       Cunninghamia sp.                        Mindarus keteleerifoliae


Cuphea                                                         Lythraceae

      Cuphea aequipetala                      Impatientinum americanum

       C. appendiculata                           Impatientinum chiriquense

       C. bustamanta                               Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       C. calophylla                                  Impatientinum paranaense

       C. ignea                                         Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

       C. infundibulum = C. appendiculata

       C. micropetala                               Aphis gossypii

       C. platycentra = C. bustamanta

       C. procumbens                              Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

       C. ืpurpurea                                 Myzus persicae

       Cuphea spp.                                  Acyrthosiphon malvae group;

                                                              Impatientinum holmani, oaxacense

                                                              Smynthurodes betae

Key to apterae on Cuphea:-

Couplets 2-5 are based on Nieto Nafrํa et al. (2012).

1     SIPH black, with 2-3 rows of transverse striae subapically, or with a few closed polygonal cells, or if with more extensive subapical polygonal reticulation then there is an extensive dark dorsal shield. Head with moderately developed ANT tubercles, with divergent inner faces, and a well developed (but lower) median tubercle                                                  …..2

-      SIPH pale, dark or absent; if dark then there are no subapical transverse striae and the ANT tubercles are weakly developed, or there is more extensive polygonal reticulation but no extensive dark dorsal shield                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2     ANT III-VI mainly or entirely dark                                                                                   …..3

-      ANT III, IV and V mainly or entirely pale                                                                        …..4

3     ANT I and I as dark as ANT III-VI. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid dark shield. HT II at most 0.09 mm, 1.6-1.9 ื R IV+V, which bears 15-18 accessory hairs. Dorsal cephalic hairs 37-55 μm                                                                         …..Impatientinum chiriquense*

-      ANT I and II much paler than ANT III-VI. Dorsal abdomen without a solid dark shield. HT II at least 0.10 mm long, 1.4-1.6 ื R IV+V, which bears 19-33 accessory hairs. Dorsal cephalic hairs 27-37 μm                                                             …..Impatientinum paranaense

4     SIPH with an extensive, well-defined reticulation; at least 6 rows extending over distal 0.25 of length. R IV+V with less than 10 accessory hairs (based on 1 specimen)

 …..Impatientinum oaxacense*

-      SIPH with much less extensive and less well-defined reticulation; at most 5 rows extending over distal 0.13 of length. R IV+V with 10-22 accessory hairs                                        …..5

5     Femora with distal parts dark, nearly as dark as tarsi and distal parts of tibiae. BL 3.64-4.75 ื longer than SIPH. R IV+V with 17-22 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments mostly with 4 or 5 hairs                                                                                        …..Impatientinum holmani*

-      Femora pale. BL 4.50-5.50 ื longer than SIPH. R IV+V with 10-18 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments mostly with 3, rarely 4, hairs                           …..Impatientinum americanum


Curculigo                                                     Hypoxidaceae

      Cuculigo capitulata = Molineria capitulata


Cupressocyparis                                                   Cupressaceae

      Cupressocyparis leylandii             Cinara cupressi, fresai; Illinoia morrisoni

Use key to aphids on Cupressus.

Cupressus (incl. Platycladus)      Cypresses               Cupressaceae


Cupressus has a small but diverse aphid fauna, with no evidence of host specificity at the species level. The only possible confusion is between the Cinara species, which are all in the subgenus Cupressobium.

      Cupressus arizonica                     Cinara cupressi, fresai; Illinoia morrisoni;

                 (incl. var. glabra)              Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. bakeri                                       Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. benthamii   see C. lusitanica

      C. brunniana see C. macrocarpa

      C. funebris                                    Aphis craccivora; Cinara louisianensis, tujafilina;                                                                       Illinoia morrisoni

      C. glabra see C. arizonica

      C. goveniana                                 Cinara cupressi

      C. guadalupenis                            Cinara fresai; Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. lambertiana = C. macrocarpa

      C. lusitanica (incl. var.                Cinara cupressi, fresai; Illinoia morrisoni;

                        benthamii)              [Sanbornia juniperi]; Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. macrocarpa (incl. var.             Cinara cupressi, fresai; Illinoia morrisoni;
brunniana)            Siphonatrophia cupressi; Stomaphis cupressi

      C. pygmea                                     Cinara fresai; Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. sabiniana (?)                            Cinara fresai

      C. sargentii                                    Siphonatrophia cupressi

      C. sempervirens                            Cinara cupressi, fresai, tujafilina; Illinoia morrisoni;

                                                   Siphonatrophia cupressi;

                                                   Stomaphis cupressi, cupressi ssp. caucasica

      C. torulosa                                    Cinara cupressi, fresai; Illinoia morrisoni;

                                                   Siphonatrophia cupressi

      Cupressus sp.                                Cinara louisianensis

Key to the aphids on Cupressus:-


1    ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width


-     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Cauda broadly rounded                                                      .....4

2    ANT PT/BASE about 1.0. SIPH pores on very small, shallow cones (fig. 44A)

                                                                                                               .....Siphonatrophia cupressi

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.3. SIPH tubular, longer than basal width                        .....3

3    Body spindle-shaped, without dark dorsal markings. SIPH long and markedly swollen on distal half                                                                                .....Illinoia morrisoni

-     Body oval, dorsal abdomen with an extensive black patch in aptera and transverse bars in alata. SIPH tapering from base to flange                                         .....Aphis craccivora

4    Rostrum much longer than body                                                            .....Stomaphis cupressi

-     Rostrum much shorter than body                                                                                         .....5

5    Femora pale, and tibiae wholly pale or dark only at apices (sometimes very localised pigmentation at tibio-femoral joints)                                                                   .....6

-     Distal parts of femora and bases of tibiae dusky or dark                                                   .....7

6    BL often more than 2.4 mm. Aptera with dark sclerites on thorax and ABD TERG 8. Apices of tibiae dark. ANT VI BASE with 8-14 hairs                                   .....Cinara tujafilina

-     BL less than 2.4 mm. Aptera without dark dorsal sclerites. Apices of tibiae pale or dusky. ANT VI BASE with 5-6 hairs                                                 .....Cinara louisianensis

7    ANT VI BASE with 4-6 (-7) hairs restricted to basal half (fig. 44B). R IV with 2-4 accessory hairs. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 0.9-1.2 mm. Alata with 1-6 rhinaria restricted to distal half of ANT III                                                                              …..Cinara cupressi

-     ANT VI BASE with 7-12 hairs not restricted to basal half (fig. 44C). R IV with 5-7 accessory hairs. Length of sclerotised part of stylet groove 1.3-1.6 mm. Alata with 6-11 rhinaria extending over most of ANT III                                             …..Cinara fresai


Curcuma                                                      Zingiberaceae

      Curcuma domestica = C. longa

       C. longa                                         Aphis gossypii; Pentalonia kalimpongensis, nigronervosa;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]

Use key to aphids on Hedychium.


Cuscuta                                                        Convolvulaceae

      Cuscuta approximata                    Aphis gossypii

      C. epithymum                                Aphis cuscutae; Myzus persicae

       C. europaea                                   Aphis hederae

       C. japonica                                    Aphis gossypii; Sinomegoura citricola

       C. lehmanniana                            Brachyunguis cuscutae

       C. lupuliformis                              Aphis fabae

       C. monogyna                                 Aphis craccivora, hederae; Brachyunguis cuscutae

       C. reflexa                                       Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [Aphis sp.; Remaudi่re

                                                     & Etienne 1989);

                                                              [Melanaphis meghalayensi]; Myzus persicae

       C. subinclusa                                 Aphis fabae

       C. trifolii = C. epithymum

       C. umbellata                                  Macrosiphum cuscutae

Key to apterae on Cuscuta:-

1     ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                 …..2

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                 …..7

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.0. SIPH very short, hardly longer than their basal widths, and about equal in length to the short, broadly conical cauda, which is about as long as its basal width

                                                                                                              …..Brachyunguis cuscutae*

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.3-3.0. SIPH clearly longer than their basal widths, 0.9-2.8 ื cauda, which is tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width                                                                    …..3

3     Dorsum with an extensive black shield                                                     …..Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsum without an extensive black shield                                                                        …..4

4     Cauda as dark as SIPH, with 9-18 hairs                                                                            …..5

-      Cauda paler than SIPH , with 4-9 hairs                                                                             …..6

5    R IV+V 0.9-1.3 ื HT II. Marginal tubercles infrequent on ABD TERG 2-4   …..Aphis fabae

-      R IV+V 1.35-1.7 ื HT II. Marginal tubercles frequently present on ABD TERG 2-4

                                                                                                                              …..Aphis hederae

6     SIPH 0.9-2.5 ื cauda, which bears 4-8 hairs (usually 5-6). No postsiphuncular sclerite. Longest hair on ANT III 0.4-0.8 ื BD III                                                   …..Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH 2.5-2.9 ื cauda, which bears 6-9 hairs (usually 7-8). SIPH with a dark sclerotic area just posterior to the base. Longest hair on ANT III 0.8-1.0 ื BD III         …..Aphis cuscutae

7     Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent.  SIPH mainly pale and slightly clavate                                                                                      …..Myzus persicae

-      Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH dark at least on distal half and cylindrical/tapering                                                                                                      …..8

8     SIPH wholly dark, contrasting with and distinctly longer than the pale cauda.  SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.11-0.16 of length                       …..Macrosiphum cuscutae

-      SIPH pale on about basal third, not longer than cauda, which is black. SIPH without any distal polygonal reticulation                                                                       …..Sinomegoura citricola



Cussonia                                                       Araliaceae

       Cussonia natalensis                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       C. paniculata                                Aphis odinae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)]; Myzus persicae

       C. spicata                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii, odinae

       C. umbellifera = Schleffera umbellifera

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)


Cutandia                                                      Poaceae

      Cutandia maritima                        Sipha maydis


Cyamopsis                                                    Leguminosae

       Cyamopsis psoraloides  =  C. tetragonolobus

       C. tetragonolobus                          Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora, gossypii

Key to apterae on Cyamopsis:-

1     Body spindle-shaped. ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH pale, very long and thin,

       0.33-0.50 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda                                               …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      Body oval. ANT tubercle weakly developed. SIPH dark and much shorter                    …..2

2     Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Cauda black like SIPH              …..Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsum pale. Cauda paler than SIPH                                                           …..Aphis gossypii


Cyanotis                                                       Commelinaceae

      Cyanotis axillaris                           Aphis fabae, gossypii

       C. vaga                                           [Anoecia similiradiciphaga]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Cyanus  see Centaurea                                     Asteraceae

      Cyanus segetum see Centaurea cyanus



Cyathea                                                        Cyatheaceae

      Cyathea aquilina                           Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

       C. araneosa                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       C. arborea                                      Aphis spiraecola; Macrosiphum ptericolens

       C. balanocarpa                              Aphis spiraecola; Macrosiphum cyatheae

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Cyathula                                                      Amaranthaceae

      Cyathula prostrata                         Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

       C. tomentosa                                  Aphis raji

       C. uncinulata                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Cyathula:-

-      R IV+V 0.19-0.23 mm long, narrow and pointed, with R V elongated, so that most distal primary hairs are placed 0.04 mm or more from apex. ANT and legs with long, fine-pointed hairs. SIPH dark, 0.6-1.15 X R IV+V, and 1.2-2.0(-2.4) x longer than the short dark triangular cauda                                                                                                    …..Aphis raji

-      Without this combinaton of characters                            …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Cycas                                                            Cycadaceae

      Cycas circinalis                              Cerataphis brasiliensis

      Cycas sp.                                        Aphis gossypii

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      Body dorsoventrally flattened, almost circular, wholly sclerotic with a distinct crenulate margin. Head with a pair of anteriorly directed horns. SIPH as pores

                                                                                                               ….. Cerataphis brasiliensis

-      Body oval, of normal aphid form. Head without horns. SIPH tubular        …..Aphis gossypii


Cyclamen                                                     Primulaceae

      Cyclamen cilicium                         Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      C. europaeum                                Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. indicum                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. persicum                                   Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       Cyclamen spp.                               Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, [langei]; Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

Cyclobalanopsis see Quercus                              Fagaceae



Cycloloma                                                              Chenopodiaceae

      Cycloloma atriplicifolium              Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Cyclophorus  see  Pyrrosia                                    Polypodiaceae


Cyclosorus                                                   Thelypteridaceae

      Cyclosorus acuminatus                 Macromyzella polypodicola

       C. aridus                                        Macromyzella polypodicola

       C. parasitica                                   Macromyzella polypodicola


Cyclospermum                                             Apiaceae

      Cyclospermum leptophyllum        Dysaphis apiifolia


Cydonia                        Quinces                  Rosaceae

      Cydonia japonica = Chaenomeles japonica

       C. malus (= oblonga?)                      Aulacorthum solani

       C. oblonga                                     Anuraphis farfarae;

                                                              Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, pomi,


                                                              [Aploneura ampelina]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus persicae; Dysaphis plantaginea, pyri;

                                                              Eriosoma flavum, lanigerum, lanuginosum, pyricola;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Nearctaphis bakeri, crataegifoliae;

                                                              Ovatus crataegarius, insitus; Phorodon humuli;

                                                              Pterochloroides persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, [padi]; [Sappaphis piri];

                                                              Sitobion avenae; Watabura nishiyae

       C. sinensis = Chaenomeles sinensis

       C. vulgaris = Cydonia oblonga

       Cydonia sp.                                    [Prociphilus corrugatans]

Key to apterae on Cydonia:-

[See Blackman & Eastop (2000) for a key to the more common aphids on Quince. Distinguishing characters of apterae of Watabura nishiyae are presumed, as this species is only known from alate sexuparae.]

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent, pore-like or as pigmented hairy cones             .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular                                                                       .....7

2     SIPH in form of large pores on large pigmented cones bearing numerous hairs. Abdomen

       with a double row of large dark spinal tubercles                          .....Pterochloroides persicae

-      SIPH pore-like surrounded by a single ring of hairs, or absent. No dark spinal tubercles


3     SIPH absent. R IV+ V shorter than HT II           …..Watabura nishiyae (a Prociphilus sp.?)*

-      SIPH present as pores with partially sclerotized rims. R IV+V longer than HT II           …..4

4     Distinct dorsal abdominal wax pore plates present, consisting of groups of cells each enclosing a very small, narrow or subdivided central area (on roots, trunk or branches)         

                                                                                                                     .....Eriosoma lanigerum

-      Dorsal abdominal wax pore plates absent or present, if present then each consists of a ring of cells around a large central undivided area (on roots only)                                                .....5

5     BL 2.0-2.7 mm. R IV+V 0.22-0.25 mm. (Cauda with 2-4 hairs)

                                                                                                                .....Eriosoma lanuginosum

-      BL 1.0-1.9 mm. R IV+V 0.10-0.18 mm                                                                             .....6

6     BL 1.0-1.3 mm. R IV+V 0.10-0.12 mm. Cauda with 2-4 hairs                .....Eriosoma flavum

-      BL 1.3-1.9 mm. R IV+V 0.12-0.18 mm. Cauda with 5 or more hairs

                                                                                                                        .....Eriosoma pyricola

7     ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed                                                           …..8

-      ANT tubercles well-developed                                                                                         .....20

8     SIPH short, with closely spaced rows of spinules or nodules                                            .....9

-      SIPH longer, with sparser, normal imbrication,or if short then smooth                           .....11

9     Cauda broadly rounded, much shorter than its basal width. Most segments with paired spinal tubercles (STu). (Leaf galls containing fundatrix and emigrant alatae only)

                                                                                                                      ......Anuraphis farfarae

-      Cauda 0.6-1.3 times as long as its basal width. STu absent. (Not forming leaf galls)      .....10

10    SIPH 0.8-1.1 ื cauda, which is 1.0-1.3 ื its basal width and bears 6-7 hairs. R IV+V

        0.10-0.13 mm long, and usually with 2 accessory hairs. (Al. with a solid black dorsal

        abdominal patch)                                                                                    .....Nearctaphis bakeri

-      SIPH 1.1-1.6 ื cauda, which is 0.6-1.0 ื its basal width, and bears 8-12 hairs. R IV+V

       0.14-0.18 mm long, and usually with 4 accessory hairs. (Al. without a solid black dorsal

       abdominal patch)                                                                        .....Nearctaphis crataegifoliae

11   Cauda short and broad, helmet-shaped                                                                           ......12

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width in dorsal view                        .....15

12   SIPH pale, smooth, truncate, less than 1.4 ื cauda                     …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH dark, imbricated, tapering, more than 1.5 ื cauda                                                …..13

13   Dorsum covered with an extensive black shield, extending to marginal sclerites. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent from head, rarely present on ABD TERG 8 only

                                                                                                               …..Brachycaudus persicae

-      Dorsum without an extensive black shield. STu usually present on head and ABD TERG

       7-8                                                                                                                                    …..14

14   SIPH 0.14-0.20 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 3.6-5.7                                …..Dysaphis plantaginea

-      SIPH 0.07-0.12 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.2-3.2                                             …..Dysaphis pyri

15   SIPH cylindrical over much of length, slightly swollen distally, with a constriction just

       proximal to flange                                                                   .....Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange                                                                                    ....16

16   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black patch                                         .....Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen unpigmented or with only scattered dark markings                              .....17

17   ANT PT/BASE more than 3.5. Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of ventrolateral

        ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6 and a row of peg-like hairs on each hind tibia            

                                                                                                          ......Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 3.5. No stridulatory apparatus                                                 .....18

18   Cauda paler than SIPH, with usually 4-8 hairs (usually 5-6)                        ......Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda and SIPH both dark, and cauda with 7-19 hairs                                                   .....19

19   Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 10-19 hairs (rarely less than 13). R IV+V more than 130μm long                                                        …...Aphis pomi

-      MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs (rarely more than 12). R IV+V

        less than 120μm long                                                                                ......Aphis spiraecola

20    Head smooth, with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. SIPH with a subapical zone of

        polygonal reticulation                                                                                                      …..21

-      Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or convergent. SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                                                       .....23

21   SIPH 1.1-1.4 ื cauda with reticulation on distal 0.19-0.35 of length. Hairs on ANT III

       0.3-0.5 ื BD III                                                                                         …..Sitobion avenae

-      SIPH 1.7-2.4 ื cauda with reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length, hairs on ANT III

       0.6-1.1 ื BD III                                                                                                              …..22

22   Head and SIPH dark. ANT III with 10-35 rhinaria                            …..Macrosiphum rosae

-      Head and SIPH pale.  ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria                     …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

23   Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view. ANT III usually with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                                                          .....Aulacorthum solani

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent, or bearing scabrous rounded or finger-like processes. ANT III without any rhinaria                                                                          .....24

24   Inner faces of ANT tubercles bearing long, finger-like processes           …..Phorodon humuli

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles without finger-like processes                                           …..25

25   Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE

       1.7-2.8                                                                                                            .....Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without any dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-8                      ......26

26   SIPH slightly clavate. ANT VI pale, with PT/BASE 2.8-4.5                      .....Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange. ANT VI dark, with PT/BASE 5-8                           .....27

27   Al. (spring emigrant) with 60-83 rhinaria on ANT III, 36-42 on IV and 13-22 on V

                                                                                                                               .....Ovatus insitus

-      Al. (spring emigrant) with 22-49 rhinaria on ANT III, 5-20 on IV and 0-10 on V

                                                                                                                     .....Ovatus crataegarius


Cylactis  see Rubus                                                              Rosaceae

      Cylactis pubescens see Rubus pubescens


Cymbalaria                                                  Plantaginaceae

      Cymbalaria alpina                   Myzus cymbalariae

       C. muralis                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Dysaphis gallica;

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, [certus], ornatus, persicae

       C. pallida                                  Myzus ascalonicus                 

Key to apterae on Cymbalaria:-

1    Cauda short, helmet-shaped or pentagonal not more than 1.2 ื its basal width in dorsal view


-      Cauda tongue- or finger-like, more than 1.3 ื its basal width in dorsal view

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2    SIPH smooth, pale 0.8-2.0 ื cauda. Head smooth with ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle undeveloped. Spiracular apertures large and rounded     …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-     SIPH imbricated, dark at least towards apices, 2.4-3.3 ื cauda. Head with evident ANT tubercles and a scabrous median frontal tubercle. Spiracular apertures small and reniform                                                                                                                     …..Dysaphis gallica


Cymbaria                                                     Orobanchaceae

      Cymbaria borysthenica                 Macrosiphoniella cymbariae


Cymbidium                                                  Orchidaceae

      C. aloifolium                                  Cerataphis orchidearum

       C. densiflorum = C. elegans

       C. eburneum                                 Neomyzus circumflexus; Sitobion indicum, pseudoluteum

       C. elegans                                      Sitobion indicum, pseudoluteum

       C. ensifolium var. munroniamum Sitobion indicum

       C. grandiflorum = C. hookerianum

         C. hookerianum                            Cerataphis orchidearum; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. iridifolium = C. madidum

       C. longifolium = C. elegans

       C. lowianum                                  Aphis fabae; Cerataphis orchidearum; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Sitobion indicum

       C. luteum =Chloraea gravilu

       C. madidum                                   Sitobion indicum

       C. montanum = Dilomilis montana

       C. munronianum = C. ensifolium var. munronianum

       C. tracyanum                                 Sitobion indicum

       Cymbidium sp.                              Aphis gossypii, nasturtii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Myzus ornatus

Key to apterae on Cymbidium and most other orchid genera:-

(For a key to the common aphids on cultivated orchids see Blackman & Eastop 2000)

1     Body dorso-ventrally flattened, almost circular, wholly sclerotic, with a continuous marginal fringe of wax glands, and a pair of horns projecting forward anteriorly (Fig.25a). SIPH as large round pores raised on shallow cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed

                                                                                                             …..Cerataphis orchidearum

-      Body oval, not wholly sclerotic, without marginal wax glands or horns. SIPH tubular, Cauda helmet- or tongue-shaped, anal plate entire                                                                       …..2

2     SIPH wholly dark, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (sometimes only a few closed polygonal cells)                                                                                                      …..3

-      SIPH pale or dark, but if dark then without any trace of subapical polygonal reticulation


3     Dorsal hairs long and conspicuous, those on anterior ABD TERG 1.0-1.8 ื ANT BD III. Longest hair on ANT III 0.5-1.0 ื BD III. SIPH 1.1-1.33 ื cauda, and only reticulated on less than 0.14 of length. ABD TERG 1-5 usually with dark sclerotisation extending to margins                                                                                                                                .....4

-      Anterior dorsal abdominal and ANT hairs very short and inconspicuous, less than 0.4 ื BD III. SIPH 1.4-2.3 ื cauda, and reticulated on distal 0.2 or more of length. ABD TERG 1-5 either unsclerotised or with a central dark patch not extending to margins                       .....5

4     First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-1.0 ื BD III

                                                                                                               .....Sitobion pseudoluteum*

-      First tarsal segments usually with 3 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.7 ื BD III

                                                                                                               .....Sitobion orchidacearum

5     Abdominal tergum membranous. SIPH 1.9-2.3 ื cauda                                                    .....6

-      Abdominal tergum with a dark patch. SIPH 1.4-2.0 ื cauda                                            .....7

6     ANT shorter than BL, and pale except for apices of segments III-V and PT. ANT PT/BASE 3.9-6.2. Cauda 0.17-0.23 mm long, 1.2-1.6 ื its basal width                   .....Sitobion anselliae

-      ANT much longer than BL, and dark except for I-II and base of III. ANT PT/BASE 6.2-8.0. Cauda 0.26-0.35 mm long, 1.6-2.0 ื its basal width                              .....Sitobion eulophiae

7     Cauda with 6-8 hairs. Dorsal abdominal patch broadly oval with only small marginal indentations (Fig.25b). ANT III slightly constricted at base in comparison to rhinariated part

                                                                                                                             .....Sitobion luteum

-      Cauda with 9-13 hairs. Dorsal abdominal patch very irregular in outline with large intersegmental indentations (Fig.25c). ANT III as thick at base as at rhinariated part

                                                                                                                           .....Sitobion indicum

8     Dorsum with a distinctive pattern of black markings, comprising paired pleuro-spinal and marginal sclerites on prothorax, metanotum and ABD TERG 1-7, and a medial sclerite on ABD TERG 8 (Fig.25d). SIPH asymmetrically swollen on distal half