(in alphabetical order)


























































































Coelia                                                           Orchidaceae

      Coelia spp.                                    Cerataphis orchidearum


Coeloglossum  see Dactylorhiza                                Orchidaceae

      Coeloglossum viride = Dactylorhiza viridis


Coelogyne                                                    Orchidaceae

      Coelogyne cristata                         Cerataphis orchidearum

      C. miniata                                     Sitobion luteum, orchidacearum

Use key to aphids on orchids under Cymbidium.


Coelorachis                                                  Poaceae

      Coelorachis glandulosa                Rhopalosiphum maidis


Coffea                                                          Rubiaceae

      Coffea arabica                               Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Neomyzus circumflexus

      C. canephora                                 Aphis gossypii

       C. racemosa                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       Coffea spp./hybrids                      Aphis aurantii, citricidus, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Sinomegoura coffeae

Key to apterae on Coffea:-

-      Head with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces smooth and divergent. Tibiae wholly black, and ANT black beyond basal part of ANT III. SIPH tapering from a broad base, mainly pale becoming gradually darker towards apices; 1.4-1.6 × cauda, which is pale or dusky                                                                                             …..Sinomegoura coffeae

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Coincya                                                        Brassicaceae

      Coincya nonensis ssp. cheiranthos     Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Brassica.                                                   


Coix                                                              Poaceae

      Coix lacrymi-jobi                          Rhopalosiphum maidis, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                              Sitobion [indicum], [rosaeiformis]; Tetraneura ulmi

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Coldenia                                                      Boraginaceae

      Coldenia procumbens                   Aphis gossypii


Colebrookea                                                Lamiaceae

      Colebrookea oppositifolia              Aphis raji; Subovatomyzus leucosceptri

Couplet to separate these two species:-

-      SIPH dark, tapering, 0.12-0.22 mm, shorter than or about equal to R IV+V (0.19-0.23 mm). ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.0                                                                                        …..Aphis raji

-      SIPH pale, weakly clavate. 0.33-0.48 mm, more than 2 × R IV+V (0.14-0.18 mm). ANT PT/BASE 5.8-7.9                                                                   ….. Subovatomyzus leucosceptri


Coleonema                                                   Rutaceae

      Coleonema album                        Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a: 99


Coleostephus                                               Asteraceae

      Coleostephus myconis                  Aphis craccivora,  fabae, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycauduscardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                                [Macrosiphoniella millefolii]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Coleus    see  Plectranthus                                                       Lamiaceae

      Coleus aromaticus = Plectranthus amboinicus

      C. blumei = Plectranthus scutellarioides

          C. hybridus = Plectranthus scutellarioides

          C. verschaffelti = Plectranthus scutellarioides                             


Colletia                                                        Rhamnaceae

      Colletia cruciata                            Aphis aurantii, [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a: 99]

        C. spinosissima                             Aphis conflicta

Use key under Condalia.                 


Collinsonia                                                  Lamiaceae

      Collinsonia canadensis                 Hyalomyzus collinsoniae

        C. grandiflora (?)                          Myzus ornatus, persicae

        C. serotina                                     Hyalomyzus orphnophlebos

Key to apterae on Collinsonia:-

1      Head posterioventrally with a pair of scabrous tubercles placed on either side of clypeus. SIPH dusky to dark, evidently clavate. (Al. with dark-bordered forewing veins and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 37-65, IV 10-40, V 0-9)                                                                  …..2

-      Head without posterioventral tubercles. SIPH tapering and dusky, or clavate and pale, (Al. with forewing veins not dark-bordered and sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 6-19, IV and V 0)


2      R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long, 1.3-1.5 × HT II, and usually bearing only 2 accessory hairs

                                                                                                             …..Hyalomyzus collinsoniae

-      R IV+V 0.13-0.15 mm long, 1.8-1.9 × HT II, and bearing 6 or more accessory hairs

                                                                                                         …..Hyalomyzus orphnophlebos

3      SIPH slightly clavate.  ANT PT/BASE (2.8-)3.1-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings                                                                               .....Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering with a slight “S”-curve.  ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings                                                      …..Myzus ornatus


Collomia                                                      Polemoniaceae

      Colomia linearis                      Nasonovia colloniae

        Collomia sp.                             Macrosiphum sp. (Oregon, USA; BMNH collection)

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      ANT III narrowed at base, bearing slightly capitate hairs which are maximally 1.0-1.5 × BD III, and 2-30 rhinaria on basal half. R IV+V 1.8-2.0 × HT II, with c. 20 accessory hairs.  First tarsal segments with 4-4-4 hairs. SIPH without subapical reticulation, 1.1-1.5 × cauda, which bears 5 hairs                                                                             …..Nasonovia collomiae

-      ANT III not narrowed at base, bearing blunt or pointed hairs maximally 0.8-0.95 × BD III, and about 3 rhinaria near base. R IV+V c.1.2 × HT II, with c. 9 accessory hairs. first tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs. SIPH with subapical reticulation, c.2 × cauda which bears c. 11 hairs                                                 …..Macrosiphum sp. (Oregon, USA; BMNH collection)


Colocasia                                                     Araceae

      Colocasia antiquorum see C. esculenta                                    

        C. esculenta (incl. var.                     Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                             antiquorum)                      Hysteroneura setariae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              Patchiella reaumuri; Pentalonia caladii, [nigronervosa];

                                                              Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi; Schizaphis scirpi;

        C. kotoensis                                   Aphis gossypii

        Colocasia spp.                               Aphis fabae, [punicae], [umbrella]

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Hydronaphis colocasiae;

                                                              Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Key to apterae on Colocasia:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of only 3 facets. SIPH absent. Dorsal wax pore plates present on all segments                                                                        …..Patchiella reaumuri

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. Eyes multifacetted. SIPH present. No dorsal wax pore plates


2      SIPH pale on basal half and dark on distal half, and usually slightly swollen subapically. SIPH and femora covered with irregular, transverse rows of spicules. (Alata with dark-bordered wing veins, and forewing with radius and costa fused for part of lengths to form a closed cell behind the pterostigma)                                                                                      …..Pentalonia caladii

-      SIPH either mainly pale or mainly dark; tapering, cylindrical, clavate, or flared apically. SIPH and femora smooth or imbricated, not markedly spiculose. (Alata with normal wing venation, veins not dark-bordered)                                                                                   …..3

3      Head spiculose with low, scabrous, divergent ANT tubercles. R IV+V 1.5-1.9 × HT II. SIPH 3.2-3.7 × cauda, strongly imbricated, cylindrical with somewhat flared apices. Dorsal cuticle with spiculose reticulation                                               …..Hydronaphis colocasiae*

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                            …..4

4      SIPH black, 1.6-2.3 × cauda which bears 5-9 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.2-5.7. ABD TERG 8 with (5-) 6-16 hairs that are 88-150 μm long                                             .....Schizaphis scirpi

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Colocynthis  see Citrullus                                                    Cucurbitaceae


Cologania                                                    Fabaceae

      Cologania broussonettii                Microparsus vignaphilus

      C. ovalifolia = C. broussonettii


Colquhounia                                                Lamiaceae

      Colquhounia coccinea                  Aphis raji


Columnea                                                    Gesneriaceae

      Columnea percrassa                     Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Colutea                                                        Fabaceae

      Colutea arborescens                     Acyrthosiphon caraganae, caraganae ssp. occidentale,


                                                              Aphis craccivora, cytisorum, [Aphis sp. - Leonard 1972a];

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus; Pemphigus vesicarius (as coluteae)

        C. halepica                                    Aphis craccivora

        C. istria (?)                                     Aphis craccivora

        C. media                                        Acyrthosiphon caraganae, caraganae ssp. occidentale

        C. melanocalyx = C. arborescens    

        C. orientalis                                   Acyrthosiphon caraganae

        C. persica                                      Acyrthosiphon caraganae, caraganae ssp. tadzhikistanicum,


                                                              Aphis craccivora

        Colutea sp.                                    Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis fabae

Key to apterae on Colutea:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Dorsal abdomen with wax pore plates

                                                                                                                  …..Pemphigus vesicarius

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present. No wax pore plates                                     …..2

2      Body oval, with dark dorsal sclerotisation. SIPH black, less than 4 × R IV+V. Cauda black


-      Body spindle-shaped, with dorsum membranous. SIPH pale, 4.75-8.5 × R IV+V. Cauda pale


3      Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8 and only scattered small sclerites on tergites anterior to SIPH. Cauda with 11-25 hairs                         …..Aphis fabae

-      Dorsal abdomen with much more extensive dark sclerotisation, which has a pale reticulation. Cauda with 4-13 hairs                                                                                                       …..4 

4      R IV+V 0.88-1.16 × HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 ×). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs. Cauda with 4-7(-9) hairs                                                                 …..Aphis craccivora

 -     R IV+V 0.97-1.3 × HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 ×). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2). Cauda with (6-)7-13 hairs                                         …..Aphis cytisorum

5     ANT I not longer than wide. SIPH not attenuate distally, thicker than hind tibia at midlength

                                                                                                            …..Acyrthosiphon caraganae

-      ANT I longer than wide. SIPH attenuate distally, thinner than hind tibia at midlength  …..6

6     SIPH very long, projecting backwards beyond cauda; 0.42-0.50 × BL and 2.5-3.5 × cauda                                                                                                            …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-       SIPH not projecting beyond cauda; 0.22-0.37 × BL and 1.2-1.9 × cauda

                                                                                                                   …..Acyrthosiphon pisum


Colvillea                                                      Fabaceae

       Colvillea racemosa                        Myzus persicae


Colysis                                                          Polypodiaceae

      Colysis elliptica                              Micromyzus katoi


Comandra                                                    Santalaceae

      Comandra umbellata                   Sitobion (Metobion) sp. (BMNH collection, Alberta)

                                    ssp. pallida


Comanthosphace                                         Lamiaceae

        C. japonica                                    Neomyzus circumflexus                                                      

      Comanthosphace sp.                    Aulacorthum phytolaccae

Key to apterae on Comanthosphace:-

-      Dorsum wholly dark sclerotic. Head spiculose. ANT III with 9-13 rhinaria. Longest hairs on ANT III 1.2-1.6 X BD III. R IV+V 1.3-1.4 X HT II                …..Aulacorthum phytolaccae

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Comarostaphylis                                          Ericaceae

      Comarostaphylis discolor             Aphis gossypii

       C. diversifolia                                [Tamalia cruzensis (Miller & Crespi 2003; nomen nudum)]


Comarum                                                                                Rosaceae

      Comarum palustre                       Acyrthosiphon boreale, malvae ssp. potha;

                                                               Anthracosiphon hertae;

                                                              Aphis comari, spiraecola, tormentillae;

                                                              [Cryptomyzus stachydis];

                                                              Macrosiphum [chukotense], euphorbiae, [gei]

Use key to apterae on Potentilla.


Combretum                                                  Combretaceae

Apart from a few polyphagous species, the known aphid fauna of Combretaceae and Burseraceae consists entirely of members of the genus Paoliella. Species of Paoliella are specific at least at the level of host genera (Combretum, Commiphora, Terminalia), with 9 known from Combretum. Three of these are only known as alate morphs, and one only from a single aptera, so apterae and alatae are keyed separately

Combretum aculeatum                Aphis gossypii

        C. angolense                                 Paoliella chiangae

        C. apiculatum                               Paoliella nachensis, papillata

        C. ghansalense                             Aphis gossypii

        C. glomeruliflorum                       Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

        C. gueinzii = C. molle

        C. krausii                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

        C. laxum                                       Paoliella laxutuberculata

        C. mechowianum                         Aphis gossypii

        C. molle                                         Aphis gossypii;
                                                      Paoliella browni, namaachae, papillata, wettsteini

        C. psidioides                                  Aphis gossypii;
                                                      Paoliella browni ssp. capinganae, chiangae,
                                                          monotuberculata, nachensis, papillata

        C. sericeum                                   Aphis gossypii

        C. zeyheri                                      Paoliella papillata

        Combretum sp.                             Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Paoliella longirostris

Key to aphids on Combretum:-


1    SIPH conspicuous, longer than their basal width. Dorsal processes absent. Cauda tongue-shaped or finger-like (sometimes with a mid-way constriction), without a knobbed

      apex. Anal plate entire                                                  .....see key to polyphagous aphids

-     SIPH not longer than basal width, inconspicuous except when pigmented. Cauda with an apical knob, anal plate bilobed. Often with conspicuous dorsal processes                         .....2

2    Apterous viviparous females (and intermediates)                                                                .....3

-     Alate viviparous females (aptera in several cases unknown)                                               .....6

3    Dorsal processes maximally about 5 × their middle diameter, cylindrical or club-shaped, with apex about as wide as base (fig. 40A)     .....Paoliella papillata

-     Dorsal processes very much longer, broad at base and tapering to much narrower apex    .....4

4    Spinal and pleural processes absent (although the long marginal processes on ABD TERG   2

      are displaced pleurally)                                                                 …..Paoliella laxutuberculata

-     Long spinal, pleural and marginal processes present                                                          …..5

5    ABD TERG 8 with two separate short finger-like processes. Knob of cauda clearly longer than its greatest width. First tarsal segments usually with 5-6 ventral hairs

                                                                                                                       .....Paoliella wettsteini

-     ABD TERG 8 with a median shallow protrusion bearing two hairs. Knob of cauda as wide as long. First tarsal segments usually with 2-3 ventral hairs                            .....Paoliella browni

6    Tip of forewing with a large dark spot, in addition to the dark spot at the end of Cu1b.

      ANT PT/BASE more than 2.5                                                                                             .....7

-     Tip of forewing without a dark spot, although such a spot often present at the end of Cu1b. ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0                                                                                              .....8


7    R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                                     .....Paoliella nachensis

-     R IV+V longer than HT II                                                                   .....Paoliella namaachae


8    Fore femora similar in size and thickness to mid and hind femora. Antenna 5-segmented


-     Fore femora much enlarged in comparison to mid and hind femora. Antenna 6-segmented (antenna of P. longirostris not seen)                                                                                 .....10


9    ANT PT/BASE 0.54-0.73. R IV+V 0.70-0.82 × HT II             .....Paoliella monotuberculata

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.31-0.55. R IV+V 0.82-0.96 × HT II   .....Paoliella browni ssp. capinganae


10    Spinal processes absent                                                                …..Paoliella laxutuberculata

-      Spinal processes present                                                                                                 …..11


11    Head, pterothorax, siphunculi and dorsal and marginal processes all pale. No pigmented dorsal abdominal sclerites                                                                     .....Paoliella wettsteini

-      Head, pterothorax, siphunculi and at least the bases of the marginal processes dusky to

        dark. Dark dorsal abdominal sclerites often present                                                        .....12

12    Dorsal processes almost cylindrical for most of length, or club-shaped, with broadly rounded apices (fig. 40B). R IV+V a little longer than (1.05-1.15 ×) HT II        .....Paoliella papillata

-      Dorsal processes tapering, conical or finger-like. R IV+V either shorter than or much longer than HT II                                                                                                                         .....13


13    Femora dark. R IV+V shorter than HT II. Spinal processes pigmented; those on ABD TERG 1 less than 3 × their basal widths (fig. 40C), and at least those on ABD TERG 3 and 4 have transverse sclerotic bars uniting their bases                                            .....Paoliella chiangae

-      Femora pale. R IV+V at least twice as long as HT II. Spinal processes pale, with basal sclerites pale or only weakly pigmented; spinal processes on ABD TERG 1 c.4 ×  their basal widths (fig.40D)                                                                                  .....Paoliella longirostris


Commelina                                                  Commelinaceae

     Commelina africana                    Aphis gossypii

       C. benghalensis                            Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                             Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                             Neomyzus circumflexus; [Rhopalosiphum maidis]

       C. coelestis                                    Neomyzus circumflexus; Utamphorophora commelinensis

       C. communis                                Aphis frangulae, gossypii, [rhamnicola]

       C. diffusa                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                             Utamphorophora commelinensis

       C. elegans = C. erecta

         C. erecta                                        Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Myzus persicae;

                                                             Utamphorophora commelinensis

       C. forskalaei                                  Aphis gossypii

       C. longicaulis = C. diffusa

       C. nigritana                                   Aphis gossypii

       C. nudiflora = Murdannia nudiflora

       C. subulata                                    Aphis gossypii

       Commelina sp.                             [Sitobion aulacorthoides]

Key to apterae on Commelina:-

-      SIPH markedly clavate, with maximum width of swollen part about twice minimum width of basal part. ANT PT/BASE 5.4-6.5                             …..Utamphorophora commelinensis

-      SIPH not markedly clavate (if somewhat clavate then ANT PT/BASE is less than 5)

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 


Commiphora                                                                       Burseraceae

This genus has a similar aphid fauna to Combretum, q.v., but with different species of Paoliella.

Commiphora africana                  Aphis gossypii; Paoliella delottoi

        C. angolensis                                Paoliella capeneri

        C. berryi                                        Aphis gossypii

        C. dulcis                                        Paoliella delottoi

        C. eminii ssp. zimmermanii           Aphis gossypii; Paoliella commiphorae, eastopi

        C. fischeri = C. mossambicensis         

        C. mildbraedii                               Paoliella commiphoroides

        C. mollis                                        Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

        C. mossambicensis                       Paoliella commiphorae ssp. persimilis

        C. neglecta                                    Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Paoliella delottoi

        C. pedunculata                             Paoliella ayari

        C. pilosa                                        Paoliella echinata, ufuasi

        C. savoiae                                      Paoliella hystrix

        C. zimmermanii see C. eminii         

        Commiphora sp. (?)                     Paoliella lepidosoma

Key to aphids on Commiphora:-


1    SIPH conspicuous, longer than their basal width. Dorsal processes absent. Cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire                                                    .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-     SIPH not longer than basal width, inconspicuous except when pigmented. Cauda with

      apical knob, anal plate bilobed. Often with conspicuous dorsal processes                          .....2

2    Apterous viviparous females (and intermediates)                                                                .....3

-     Alate viviparous females                                                                                                     .....9

3    Body without dorsal processes. (Alata unknown)                              …..Paoliella lepidosoma

-     Body with conspicuous dorsal processes                                                                            …..4

4    Dorsal processes maximally about 1.5 × their basal widths, with bluntly rounded apices

       (e.g. fig. 40E)                                                                                                                     …..5

-     Dorsal processes long and tapering, the longest at least 3 × their basal widths                  .....6

5    Dorsal processes without a basal constriction (fig. 40E). Fore tibiae often on distal part with rounded scent plaques. All femora pale brown                                           .....Paoliella delottoi

-     Dorsal processes conspicuously constricted at bases. Fore tibiae without scent plaques. Middle and hind femora blackish, for femora much paler                          .....Paoliella eastopi

6    Dorsal processes tapering towards their rounded or pointed apices, without a trace of apical swelling (fig. 40G,H)                                                                                                          .....7

-     Dorsal processes cylindrical or more-or-less expanded at their apices (figs 40I, J)            .....8

7    Pleural processes absent or much reduced; most segments with only spinal and marginal processes, which are maximally about as long as ANT III (fig. 40G). R IV+V about equal in length to HT II                                                                                              .....Paoliella ufuasi

-     Pleural processes present on anterior abdominal segments, and of similar length to spinal and marginal processes, which are maximally more than 2 × ANT III (fig. 40H). R IV+V

      1.1-1.2 × HT II. (Alata unknown)                                                               .....Paoliella hystrix

8    ANT PT/BASE 0.8-0.9. Dorsal processes strongly flared at apices (fig.40J), the longest less than 0.3 × BL                                                                                                .....Paoliella ayari

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.6. Dorsal processes only weakly expanded or cylindrical at apices (fig. 40I), the longest of them more than 0.3 × BL                                         .....Paoliella echinata

9    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.6. Fore femora not clearly thicker than mid or hind femora                                                                                                                                                      .....10


-     ANT PT/BASE at least 0.67.  Fore femora enlarged in comparison with mid and hind

      femora                                                                                                                                .....12

10    Head without processes. ANT III with 9-16 rhinaria. Fore tibiae often on distal part with rounded scent plaques                                                                              .....Paoliella delottoi

-       Head with tubercular processes. ANT III with 4-7 or 18-32 rhinaria. Fore tibiae without scent plaques                                                                                                                    .....11

11    ANT III with 18-32 rhinaria, scattered along one side of segment. Spinal processes on ABD TERG 8 are c. 90 μm long, much longer than SIPH                             ..... Paoliella echinata

-       ANT III with 4-7 rhinaria in a row.  Spinal processes on ABD TERG 8 are c.35 μm long, not or hardly longer than SIPH                                                                        .....Paoliella eastopi

12    Radial sector and media of forewing bordered with fuscous distally. Pronotum without spinal processes                                                                                                                .....13

-       Radial sector and media not bordered distally. Pronotum with spinal processes            .....14

13    ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5. Abdomen with tubercular spinal processes, all less than 2 × their basal widths (fig. 40F)                                                            .....Paoliella commiphorae

-       ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. Abdomen without spinal processes

                                                                                                            .....Paoliella commiphoroides

14    Head and thorax entirely pale. Forewing vein Cu1b not bordered             .....Paoliella ufuasi

-       Head and thorax dark or with dusky/dark markings. Forewing vein Cu1b bordered with fuscous                                                                                                                             .....15

15    Head and thorax dark. Mesothoracic dorsal processes dark and heavily spiculose (fig. 40K). ABD TERG 2-4 with long finger-like spinal processes, those on ABD TERG 5 shorter

                                                                                                                              .....Paoliella ayari

-       Head and pronotum with dark longitudinal stripes. Mesothoracic dorsal processes dusky and not heavily spiculose. ABD TERG 1-4 all with short spinal processes, those on ABD TERG 5 being longer                                                                                           .....Paoliella capeneri*



Comptonia                                                   Myricaceae

      Comptonia peregrina                    Calaphis myricae; Illinoia azaleae, borealis

Use combined key to apterae under Myrica.


Conandron                                                   Gesneriaceae

      Conandron ramondioides            Xenosiphonaphis conandri


Condalia                                                      Rhamnaceae

      Condalia microphylla                   Aphis conflicta, craccivora, gossypii

Key to apterae on Condalia (also Colletia):-

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.1. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed but often extensive dark sclerotisation. Cauda with 7-18 hairs. Marginal tubercles (MTu) often present on ABD TERG 2-4. Longest hairs on ANT III 20-50 μm                                          .....Aphis conflicta

-      Without that combination of characters                           .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Conioselinum                                              Apiaceae

      Conioselinum chinense                Hyadaphis foeniculi

       C. vaginatum                                Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, konoi;

                                                              Dysaphis foeniculus

Use key to apterae on Foeniculum.


Conium                                                        Apiaceae

       Conium chaerophylloides            Dysaphis apiifolia

       C. maculatum                               Anuraphis subterranea;

                                                              Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, [craccivora];

                                                              Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae, theobaldi;

                                                              Dysaphis apiifolia, apiifolia ssp. petroselini, crataegi,

                                                                   foeniculus, lauberti;

                                                              Hyadaphis foeniculi, passerinii;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei;

                                                              Myzus ornatus; Semiaphis coniumi, [dauci]

Key to apterae on Conium:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly directed process above cauda                                     …..2

-      No supracaudal process                                                                                                      …..4

2     SIPH tapering, not at all clavate                                                          …..Cavariella theobaldi

-      SIPH clavate                                                                                                                      …..3

3     ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.4                                                                      …..Cavariella aegopodii

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0                                                                     …..Cavariella pastinacae

4     ANT tubercles low or absent                                                                                             …..5

-      ANT tubercles well developed, greatly exceeding height of middle of front of head in dorsal view                                                                                                                                  …..14

5     SIPH very short, only about 0.5 × cauda, and flangeless   …..Semiaphis coniumi* (or dauci)

-      SIPH more than 0.8 × cauda, with a distinct flange                                                          …..6

6     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 8, and sometimes on other segments                           …..7

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. STu rare, and never on head


7     SIPH ornamented with close-set rows of spinules; about 1.5 × cauda, which bears 11-16 hairs. STu on all or most of ABD TERG 1-8. R IV+V 0.25-0.37 mm, 1.55-2.2 × HT II

…..Anuraphis subterranea

-      SIPH imbricated, without spinules, about 2 × cauda which bears 4-7 hairs. STu not usually present on ABD TERG 1-5, and often not on 6 or 7. R IV+V 0.14-0.19 mm, 1.05-1.5 × HT II


8     Most dorsal hairs with pointed apices; those on head longer than diameter of STu on head between eyes                                                                                                                      …..9

-      Most dorsal hairs short with blunt apices; those on head shorter than diameter of STu …..10

9     SIPH 0.17-0.29 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 26-58 μm long, 1.25-2.3 × BD III. R IV+V 0.16-0.19 mm                                                                                            .....Dysaphis lauberti

-      SIPH 0.10-0.17 mm. Longest hairs on ANT III 18-27 μm long, 0.8-1.2(-1.6) × BD III. R IV+V 0.13-0.16 mm                                                                             …..Dysaphis foeniculus

10   Ventral hair on hind trochanter 0.24-0.56 × (rarely more than 0.5 ×) width of trochantro-femoral suture (see Fig. 1). Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm long (rarely more than 30 μm). ABD TERG 7 frequently with marginal tubercles (MTu)                          

                                                                                                                        …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-      Ventral hair on hind trochanter 0.42-1.00 × (rarely less than 0.5 ×) width of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest spinal hair on ABD TERG 8 is 25-80 μm long (rarely less than 30 μm). ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu                                                      …..Dysaphis crataegi

11   SIPH clavate, 0.9-1.4 × cauda, which bears 5-8 hairs. Prosternum with a dark, approximately trapezoid sclerite                                                                                                              …..12

-      SIPH gradually tapering, 0.8-1.9 × cauda, which bears (7-) 9-24 hairs. Prosternum without a dark trapezoid sclerite                                                                                                      …..13

12   Prosternal sclerite 1.36-2.6 × wider than long, often convex posteriorly. SIPH 1.05-1.4 × cauda. (Al. often with sec. rhin. on ANT V)                                        .....Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      Prosternal sclerite 2.2-3.6 × wider than long, with straight posterior margin. SIPH 0.85-1.2 × cauda. (Al. rarely with sec. rhin. on ANT V)                                      .....Hyadaphis passerinii

13   ANT I dark, but ANT II pale or dusky, concolorous with basal half of III. Dorsal abdomen usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH (except for dark intersegmental muscle sclerites). ANT III 1.05-1.95 × PT, (1.6-)2.0-4.0 (-5.0) × R IV+V, and 1.5-2.5 (-2.8) × cauda. SIPH 1.2-2.5 (-2.8) × cauda. HT I with 3 hairs (sense peg present). ABD TERG 8

       with 2-11 hairs. (Al. with 14-40 rhinaria on ANT III)                             ..... Aphis asclepiadis

-      ANT I and II both dark, contrasting with III. Dorsal abdomen usually with some small dark markings anterior to SIPH (in addition to dark intersegmental muscle sclerites). ANT III 0.65-1.3 × PT, 1.2-2.6 (-3.0) × R IV+V and 1.2-1.6 (-1.9) × cauda. SIPH 0.7-1.6 × cauda. HT I with 2 hairs (no sense peg). ABD TERG 8 with 2-5(-7) hairs. (Al. with 10-23 rhinaria

       on ANT III)                                                                                                        .....Aphis fabae

14   SIPH without polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles spiculose or scabrous, steep-sided or apically convergent, bearing blunt hairs                                                                                    

                                                               …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles smooth, divergent, bearing pointed hairs                                                                                                        …..15

15   Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 38-63 µm, 0.6-1.4 × ANT BD III. Anterior half of subgenital plate usually (77%) with only 2 hairs (18% with 3, 5% with 4-6 hairs)

.....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 66-106 µm, 1.4-2.0 × ANT BD III. Anterior half of

       subgenital plate with 2-11 hairs, usually with 4-8 hairs                            .....Macrosiphum gei


Conopharyngia   see Tabernaemontana                           Apocynaceae

       Conopharyngia chippii = Tabernaemontana africana


Conopholis                                                   Orobanchaceae

        Conopholis americana                 Aulacorthum solani; Prociphilus longianus


Conopodium                                                Apiaceae

      Conopodium denudatum = majus

       C. majus                                        Aphis lambersi; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis crataegi;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to apterae on Daucus.


Conostegia                                                   Melostomataceae

      Conostegia subcrustulata         Aphis spiraecola


Conringia                                                     Brassicaceae

      Conringia orientalis                Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis rossi ssp. conringiae;

                                                        Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       C. planisiliqua                         Lipaphis rossi ssp. conringiae

Key to apterae on Conringia:-

1      Dorsum without dark sclerotisation. ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH pale, 1.7-2.5 × cauda                                                                                                                                 …..2

-      Dorsum with segmental dark markings. ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH dark, 0.8-1.6 × cauda                                                                                                                              …..3

2      Head spiculose, with scabrous antennal tubercles that are apically convergent. SIPH weakly clavate, without subapical polygonal reticulation                                       …..Myzus persicae

-      Head with smooth antennal tubercles, their inner faces divergent. SIPH tapering/cylindrical with subapical polygonal reticulation                                         …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

3      Dorsum with broad dark segmentally-separated cross-bands and large dark marginal sclerites. SIPH broad-based, 1.4-1.6 × cauda                        …..Lipaphis rossi ssp. coringiae

-      Dorsum with smaller spino-pleural sclerites separated in midline except on posterior tergites, and no dark marginal sclerites.  SIPH not broad-based, 0.8-1.0 × cauda

…..Brevicoryne brassicae


Consolida                                                     Ranunculaceae

      Consolida ajacis                      Brachycaudus napelli; Nasonovia jammuensis

      C. ambigua                              Nasonovia jammuensis

       C. regalis                                  Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli

       Consolida sp.                           Delphiniobium junackianum

Use key to apterae on Delphinium.


Convallaria                                                  Asparagaceae

      Convallaria keiskei                  Aulacorthum watanabei

       C. majalis                                 Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani, speyeri;

                                                        Illinoia wahnaga; Macrosiphum euphorbiae, pechumani;

                                                        Metopolophium dirhodum; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

Key to apterae on Convallaria:-

1     ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH dark, cauda pale or dusky, rarely dark                                                          …..Aphis gossypii

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu. SIPH and cauda variously pigmented, pale or dark                                                                                      …..2

2     Head almost smooth, without any spinules, with inner faces of  ANT tubercles divergent


-      Head spiculose, with inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or convergent                       …..6

3     SIPH without polygonal reticulation. Median frontal tubercle developed, so that front of head has W-shaped outline in dorsal view                                 …..Metopolophium dirhodum

-      SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (several rows of closed cells). Median frontal tubercle not developed, so that head has U- or V-shaped frontal sinus in dorsal view


4     Head, antennae, legs, SIPH and cauda all dark                          …..Macrosiphum pechumani

-      Head and all appendages pale, or dusky only at apices                                                     …..5

5     SIPH swollen proximal to reticulated zone, to 1.2-1.4  minimal diameter of basal half. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 × BD III. First tarsal segments each with 5 hairs

                                                                                                                         …..Illinoia wahnaga

-      SIPH not swollen. Hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

6     Dorsal thorax and abdomen with a distinctive and extensive pattern of dark markings. SIPH wholly dark, or dark at bases and apices                                                                           …..7

-      Dorsum without extensive dark markings. SIPH pale except at apices                             …..8

7     SIPH wholly dark, cauda pale. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark patches, sometimes partially fused across midline, but not extending laterally to join marginal sclerites

                                                                                                              …..Aulacorthum watanabei

-      SIPH dark at bases and apices, but middle section pale; cauda dusky or dark. Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation across ABD TERG 2-4, fused with marginal sclerites

                                                                                                                   …..Aulacorthum speyeri

8     SIPH tapering gradually from base to flange. ANT III usually with 1-2 small rhinaria near base                                                                                                       …..Aulacorthum solani

-      SIPH slightly to moderately clavate. ANT III never with rhinaria                                   …..9

9     SIPH clearly shorter than ANT III, with a narrow stem that is a little thinner at its narrowest point than hind tibia at midlength. Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view                                                                                             …..Myzus ascalonicus

-      SIPH as long as or longer than ANT III, with basal half at its narrowest point thicker than hind tibia at midlength. Inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent in dorsal view

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus persicae


Convolvulus                                                 Convolvulaceae

      Convolvulus althaeoides = C. thunbergii

       C. arvensis                                     Acyrthosiphon gossypii;

                                                              Aphis [convolvulicola (= gossypii?)],  fabae, gossypii,

                                                                  nerii, [sambuci], spiraecola;

                                                              Aulacorthum solani; [Brachycaudus amygdalinus];

                                                              Brachyunguis convolvulisucta;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [rosae]; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon; Smynthurodes betae

       C. betonicifolius                             Myzus persicae

       C. cneorum                                   Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. floridus                                      Myzus persicae

       C. major = Ipomoea purpurea

       C. minor = C. tricolor

       C. pseudocantabricus                    Uroleucon uyguricum

       C. sepium  = Calystegia sepium

       C. soldanella = Calystegia soldanella

       C. thunbergii                                 Aphis [convolvulicola (= gossypii?)]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       C. tricolor                                       Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae                                  

       Convolvulus spp.                           Aphis althaeae, aurantii, eugeniae;

                                                              [Macrosiphum ludovicianae];

                                                              [Neomyzus convolvulicola (Zhang 1992)]

Key to apterae on Convolvulus:-

1     Antennae 5-segmented. R IV+V very long (0.19-0.22 mm), narrow and pointed, 4-5 × its basal width and 1.6-2.1 × HT II                                                                   …..Aphis althaeae

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                             …..2

2     SIPH c.0.3 × BL, dark, with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.16 of length. ANT III with 15-21 rhinaria extending over 0.70-0.75 of length                    .....Uroleucon uyguricum

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, if dark then without polygonal reticulation. ANT III without or with fewer rhinaria                                                                                                          .....3

3     ANT PT/BASE c.0.5. SIPH c.0.8 × cauda                         .....Brachyunguis convolvulisucta*

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1, or less than 0.25. SIPH (if present) longer than cauda        .....4

4    SIPH pale and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibia at their respective midpoints, and 2.5-3.5 × cauda                                                                                 …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, thicker than hind tibia at their respective midpoints, and less than 2.5 × cauda                                                                                                                 …..5

5     Hind tibiae with a row of short, peg-like or spine-like hairs on basal 0.7, clearly differ-entiated from other tibial hairs, which are usually long and pointed. SIPH cylindrical or tapering and black, cauda black. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)    …..6

-      Hind tibiae without a row of peg-like “comb” hairs. SIPH (if present) and cauda pale or dark, ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without MTu                    …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

6     SIPH 1.0-1.8 × ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.5. HT I with 3 hairs. No sclerotic ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6                                                                         …..Aphis eugeniae

-      SIPH 0.5-0.9 × ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.3. HT I with 2 hairs. ABD TERG 5 and 6 with sclerotic (stridulatory) ridges                                                     …..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Conyza                                                         Asteraceae

      C. aegyptiaca                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon erigeronense

       C. angustifolia (?)                     Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi

       C. bonariensis                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                 (incl. var. leiotheca)               Illinoia goldamaryae; [Longisiphoniella subterranea];

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                         Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensis;

                                                         Uroleucon ambrosiae, bereticum, compositae, erigeronense, 

                                                             gravicorne, picridis

       C. canadensis                           Aphis craccivora, erigerontis, [euphorbiae], [exsors],

               (incl. var. pusilla)                      fabae, gossypii, lugentis, [meijigusae Shinji 1922],

                                                             nasturtii, [plantaginis], spiraecola;

                                                         Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Illinoia goldamaryae; [Longicaudus trirhodus];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella yomenae;

                                                         [Macrosiphum sp. – Leonard 1972b: 192];

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;  Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                         Neomyzus circumflexus; Prociphilus erigeronensis,

                                                         Protaphis middletonii;

                                                         Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensus;

                                                         Uroleucon ambrosiae, [cichorii], erigeronense,

                                                             gravicorne, macgillivrayae, [monticola],

                                                             pseudambrosiae, simile, [sonchi], [tschuense],

                                                             Uroleucon sp. (Oregon, BMNH collection)

       C. floribunda = bonariensis var. leiotheca

       C. gouanii (?)                           Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus

       C. hochstetterii                         Aulacorthum solani

       C. ivifolia = C. bonariensis          

       C. japonica                               Aphis gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                         [Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae]; Myzus ornatus

       C. laevigata                               Uroleucon gravicorne

       C. lyrata = Blumea viscosa

       C. notobellidiastrum                 Myzus ornatus

       C. primulifolia = Erigeron primulifolium

       C. scabrida                               Aphis gossypii

       C. steudelii                                Myzus ornatus; Uroleucon compositae

       C. stricta                                   Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Nasonovia rostrata;

                                                         [Sitobion sp.]; Uroleucon erigeronense

       C. sumatrensis                          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                         Myzus ornatus; Sitobion autriquei; Uroleucon compositae

       C. transvaalensis = C. aegyptiaca

       C. volkensii = C. steudelii

       Conyza sp.                                [Hyperomyzus lactucae]; Uroleucon remaudiereorum           

Key to apterae on Conyza:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 1. SIPH absent, or present as pores on low hairy cones            …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH tubular                                                                       …..3

2     Hind tarsi very elongate, more than 0.5 × hind tibiae. SIPH present as pores on hairy cones. Dorsum with pattern of dark sclerotisation. Cauda and anal plate not protrusive

…..Protrama sp. (longitarsus ssp. sclerodensus?)

-      Hind tarsus of normal length. SIPH absent. Dorsum without dark sclerotisation. Cauda and anal plate forming a protrusion at end of abdomen                     …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

3     SIPH with subapical reticulation (at least 2-3 rows of closed polygonal cells)                 …..4

-      SIPH without polygonal reticulation                                                                               …..19

4     SIPH entirely dark                                                                                                             …..5

-      SIPH pale or with a pale basal section                                                                             …..13

5     Dorsum with an extensive dark shield, continuous over ABD TERG 1-6. ANT III with 1-7 rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.12-0.19 of length

                                                                                                                        …..Sitobion autriquei

-      Dorsum without extensive dark sclerotisation, at most with scleroites at base of hairs. ANT III with 8-97 rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.19-0.4 of length                                                                                                                                 …..6

6     Cauda and coxae dark                                                                                                       …..7

-      Cauda and coxae pale, or somewhat dusky                                                                       …..9

7     SIPH 0.8-1.2 × cauda. Large, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present

                                                                                                         …..Macrosiphoniella yomenae

-      SIPH 1.3-2.3 × cauda. Antesiphuncular sclerites absent                                                   …..8

8     SIPH 1.3-1.6 × cauda, with distal 0.19-0.23 reticulated. Cauda with 11-14 (-17) hairs

                                                                                                                         …..Uroleucon simile

-      SIPH 1.7-2.3 × cauda, with distal 0.20-0.35 (mostly at least 0.25) reticulated. Cauda with 13-20 hairs                                                                                        …..Uroleucon compositae

9     SIPH usually at least 1.6 × cauda, which is 0.24-0.35 mm long and bears 7-12 hairs

.....Uroleucon tucumani

-      SIPH usually at most 1.6 × cauda, which is 0.30-0.83 mm long and bears 9-31 hairs     .....10

10   Cauda 0.35-0.47 mm long, and somewhat dusky, not contrastingly pale in comparison with SIPH and distal parts of hind femora. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs very pale and inconspicuous                                                                                     …..Uroleucon bereticum

-      Cauda 0.46-0.85 mm long, and contrastingly pale compared with SIPH and distal parts of hind femora. Dorsal hairs mostly arising from small dusky or dark scleroites                         …..11

11   R IV+V very long, 1.45-1.85 × HT II                                                   …..Uroleucon picridis

-      R IV+V 0.90-1.43 × HT II                                                                                              …..12

12   HT II rather long and thin, about 6 × its maximum thickness, and 0.9-1.1 × R IV+V                                                                                                              …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      HT II shorter, less than 5 × its maximum thickness and 0.7-0.85 × R IV+V

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

13   SIPH dark distally, with pale basal section, and polygonal reticulation on 0.21-0.45 of length. ANT III with 5-37 rhinaria. Cauda tapering to a very thin apex, with subapical hairs usually shorter and often blunter than lateral hairs                                                                      …..14

-      SIPH entirely pale, or dusky only towards apices, and reticulation on distal 0.03-0.20. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. Cauda tapering or finger-like, not very thin at apex, with any subapical hairs similar to lateral hairs                                                                                                       …..18

14   SIPH 1.9-2.5 × cauda. MTu absent from ABD TERG 1-5                                             …..15

-      SIPH 1.1-1.7 × cauda. MTu usually present on some of ABD TERG 1-5                      …..16

15   ANT III with 15-25 rhinaria extending over 0.6-0.8 of length. R IV+V with 12-17 accessory hairs                                                                                        .....Uroleucon remaudiereorum*

-      ANT III with 8-20 rhinaria not extending beyond basal 0.6 of length. R IV+V with 6-9 accessory hairs                                                                                .....Uroelucon erigeronense

16   Second tarsal segments with proximal ventral hairs atrophied. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 × HT II

…..Uroleucon gravicorne

-      Second tarsal segments with proximal ventral hairs fully developed. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II


17   SIPH 1.9-2.1 × cauda and reticulated over distal 0.28-0.32, the length of the reticulated section being 1.7-1.9 × HT II. Diameter of secondary rhinaria about half diameter of ANT III, and thin-walled, with a lumen more than half their outer diameter

                                                                 …..Uroleucon sp., (Michigan, USA, BMNH collection)

-      SIPH 1.1-1.6 × cauda and reticulated over distal 0.15-0.35, the length of the reticulated section being 0.65-1.2 × HT II. Secondary rhinaria smaller, 0.25-0.4 × diameter of ANT III, and thick-walled, with a lumen about half their outer diameter

                                                                                                           …..Uroleucon macgillivrayae

18   Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 × BD III. SIPH clearly somewhat swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH  (Fig.49a)                                                           …..Illinoia goldamaryae

-      Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest 0.5 × BD III or longer. SIPH cylindrical or very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is 0.13-0.2 of its total length  

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

19   Spiracular pores on thorax very large and rounded, more than 4 × larger than those on abdomen                                                                                                                           …..20

-      Spiracular pores on thorax not distinctly larger than those on abdomen                         …..21

20   R IV+V 0.16-0.19 mm long, 1.2-1.6 × HT II, and bearing 8-12 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                    …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      R IV+V 0.21-0.33 mm long, about 2 × HT II, and bearing 22-30 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                      …..Nasonovia rostrata

21   Spiracular pores large and rounded. Cauda helmet-shaped, a little shorter than its basal width, with 4-6 hairs. SIPH smooth, pale, conical, with a subapical circumcision below the flange                                                                                            …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Spiracular apertures reniform. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, or if short then bluntly triangular with more than 10 hairs. SIPH imbricated, and without a subapical circumcision


22   ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                             …..23

-      ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu

…..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

23   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black sclerite centred on ABD TERG 4-5. Cauda black like SIPH, tongue-shaped, rather pointed and bearing 4-7 hairs     .....Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings, but without an extensive solid black

       sclerite. Cauda pale or dark, but if black then usually with more than 7 hairs                 .....24

24   ANT with secondary rhinaria on III-V, and usually also on VI (distributed III (5-)13-30, IV 7-21, V 3-18, VI 0-7)                                                                                …..Aphis erigerontis

-      ANT III and IV without or with fewer secondary rhinaria, and none on V or VI         …..25

25   SIPH mainly pale or dusky, only dark towards apices                                 …..Aphis nasturtii

-      SIPH uniformly dark                                                                                                       …..26

26   Cauda bearing 4-7 hairs and much paler than SIPH                                     …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda bearing 7-25 hairs, and black like SIPH                                                               …..27

27   Tibiae wholly dark. ANT III and IV usually with rhinaria. ABD TERG 8 with 5-10 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.9                                                                                 .…..Aphis lugentis

-      Tibiae mainly pale, darker at apices. ANT III and IV with or without rhinaria. ABD TERG 8 with 2-7 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-3.7                                                                            …..28

28   ANT III and IV often with rhinaria. Cauda bluntly triangular, about as long as its basal width, shorter than R IV+V                                                              …..Protaphis middletonii

-      ANT III and IV without rhinaria. Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width, 1.5-2.5 × R IV+V                                                                                                                         …..29

29   ANT III 0.9-1.2 × cauda, which usually has a distinct midlength constriction and bears 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings             .....Aphis spiraecola

-      ANT III 1.2-1.9 × cauda which is usually without any constriction and bears 11-24 hairs. Dorsal abdomen usually with scattered dark markings anterior to SIPH and dark cross-bands on ABD TERG 7 and 8                                                                                    …..Aphis fabae



Copernicia                                                                             Arecaceae

       Copernicia prunifera                     Cerataphis brasiliensis

Use key to apterae on palms under Calamus.


Coprosma                                                               Rubiaceae

      Coprosma crassifolia                     Aphis coprosmae

       C. grandifolia                                Aulacorthum solani

       C. repens                                        Myzus persicae

       C. rigida                                         Aphis coprosmae

       C. rubra                                         Aphis coprosmae

       Coprosma sp.                                ?Staegeriella sp. (Tasmania: BMNH collection and                                                                          Tasmania Department of Agriculture)

Key to apterae on Coprosma:-

1     Head smooth, with ANT tubercles undeveloped. ANT PT only 0.9-1.1 × ANT V, and PT/BASE 1.3-1.5. (Al. with 0-1 rhinaria on ANT III)                            …..Aphis coprosmae

-      Without that combination of characters                                                                             …..2

2     Head smooth, with ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH dark, clavate, c.1.0-1.2 × the long, dark, finger-like cauda. SIPH c.0.15 × BL, and c.0.4 × ANT PT. PT/BASE c.3.6

…..?Staegeriella sp. (Tasmania, BMNH collection, leg. M Williams)

-      Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Corallorhiza                                                 Orchidaceae

      Corallorhiza maculata                  Macrosiphum corallorhizae

         C. multiflora = C. maculata

       C. striata                                        Macrosiphum corallorhizae, euphorbiae

Couplet to separate apterae of these two species:-

(Both are spindle-shaped aphids with SIPH having  subapical zone of polygonal reticulation.)

-      SIPH 0.25-0.35 × BL. ANT 0.9-1.4 × BL                                  …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH 0.45-0.52 × BL. ANT 1.5-1.6 × BL                               …..Macrosiphum corallorhizae


Corchorus                                                                              Tiliaceae

      Corchorus capsularis                     Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon compositae

      C. fascicularis                                 Aphis gossypii

      C. olitorius                                      Aphis gossypii; [Uroleucon sp. (“jaceae”)]

      C. tridens                                        Aphis gossypii

      Corchorus sp.                                 [Indomegoura regiosetosa Zhang 1992 – vagrant alatae?]

Use key to polyphagous aphids


Cordia                                                                                       Boraginaceae

      Cordia abyssinica = C. africana

      C. africana                                      [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972)];

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

      C. alba                                            Aphis spiraecola

      C. alliodora                                     Aphis aurantii, spiraecola

      C. corymbosa = C. polycephala          

      C. dentata = C. alba

      C. gerascanthus                              Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii

      C. macrostachya                             Aphis gossypii

      C. myxa                                          Aphis gossypii

      C. nitida                                          Aphis spiraecola

      C. polycephala                                Uroleucon ambrosiae

      C. trichotoma                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae


Use key to polyphagous aphids.



Cordyline                                                     Asparagaceae

      Cordyline australis                        Rhopalosiphum padi

       C. fruticosa                                    Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

      C. indivisa                                      Rhopalosiphum padi

      C. obtecta                               [Rhopalosiphum sp. “x” of Valenzuela et al. 2009 (in

                                                      New Zealand; see Teulon et al. 2013)]

      C. terminalis = C. fruticosa              

       Cordyline spp.                               Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Coreopsis  (including Leptosyne)                             Asteraceae

      Coreopsis aristosa  = Bidens aristosa

       C. auriculata                                  Uroleucon ambrosiae

       C. crassifolia = C. lanceolata

       C. grandiflora                                Aphis fabae

       C. lanceolata                                  Aphis coreopsidis

       C. major                                         Aulacorthum solani; Uroleucon reynoldense

       C. tinctoria                                     Aphis fabae; [Uroleucon jaceae (misident. compositae?)]

       C. tripteris                                      Uroleucon ambrosiae, reynoldense

       C. verticillata                                  Aphis fabae

       Coreopsis spp.                               [Aphis andreinii del Guercio – nomen dubium];

                                                              [Cavariella capreae];

                                                              Geopemphigus sp. (North Carolina, USA; BMNH

                                                                  collection, leg. R. Chalfont));

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus;

                                                              [Pemphigus indicus Kieffer (Wilson & Vickery 1918];

                                                              Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Coreopsis:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Eyes of only 3 facets                                    .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present, tubular. Eyes multifaceted                           .....3

2     R IV without accesssory hairs. HT II with only 4 accessory hairs. Hind tibiae and HT I with short thick distal hairs c.0.3 × diameter of tibia and much shorter than HT I

                                                                                                                              .....Pemphigus sp.

-      R IV with 2 accessory hairs. HT II with 8-15 accessory hairs. Hind tibiae and HT I with fine distal hairs more than 0.5 × diameter of tibia and as long as or longer than HT I

.....Geopemphigus sp.

3     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT tubercles well developed, smooth, divergent. ANT III with rhinaria                                                                         …..4

-      SIPH without subapical reticulation. ANT tubercles weakly developed, or if well developed then head spiculose. ANT III with or without rhinaria                                                     …..7

4     SIPH pale, with reticulation on distal 0.1-0.2 of length. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria

                                                                                                           …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH black, with reticulation on more than 0.2 of length. ANT III with 8-37 rhinaria    …..5

5     SIPH 1.7-2.3 × cauda, which is dark                                               …..Uroleucon compositae

-      SIPH maximally 1.5 × cauda, which is pale or dusky                                                       …..6

6     Tibiae uniformly black                                                                    …..Uroleucon reynoldense

-      Tibiae with paler section on basal half                                              …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

7     Head spiculose with well-developed, steep-sided or apically convergent ANT tubercles. SIPH pale or dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                           

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      Head without spicules, ANT tubercles weakly developed. SIPH dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                                                                            .....8

8     SIPH 0.24-0.40 × BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda.  Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT. Longest hair on ANT III less than 0.4 × BD III                                                                                    ..….Aphis coreopsidis

-      SIPH less than 0.2 × BL. Cauda black. Head dusky and ANT I-II dark, ANT III-V mainly pale, VI darker. Longest hair on ANT III 0.8-3.4 × BD III                             …..Aphis fabae


Coriandrum                                                 Apiaceae

      Coriandrum sativum                     Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Cavariella aegopodii, theobaldi;

                                                              Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi; Macrosiphum gei;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                              [Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale]; Semiaphis heraclei

Key to apterae on Coriandrum:-

1     ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly directed process above cauda                                     …..2

-      No supracaudal process                                                                                                      …..3

2     SIPH tapering, not at all clavate. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-3.5                  …..Cavariella theobaldi

-      SIPH clavate. ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.4                                               …..Cavariella aegopodii

3     SIPH very small and flangeless, only about 0.5 of length of cauda or less, with aperture slanted towards midline                                                                         …..Semiaphis heraclei

-      SIPH at least 0.6 of length of cauda, and with a distinct flange                                       …..4

4     SIPH cylindrical and with polygonal reticulation over distal 0.09-0.17 of length. Cauda with 11-21 hairs. Subgenital plate with 2-11 (usually 4-7) hairs on anterior half

                                                                                                                         …..Macrosiphum gei

-      SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation and/or cauda and anterior half of subgenital plate with fewer hairs                                                                                                                 …..5

5     SIPH 0.6-1.4 × cauda, slightly swollen distally, with a constriction proximal to the flange


-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate; if swollen distally then more than 1.5 × cauda and without a constriction proximal to flange                        …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

6     SIPH  clavate, 0.88-1.4 × cauda, 1.7-3.1 × R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 × longer than their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                          …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      SIPH barrel-shaped, 0.6-0.82 × cauda, 0.9-1.6 × R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 × their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                         …..Hyadaphis coriandri 


Coriaria                                                       Coriariaceae

       Coriaria arborea                            Brachycaudus helichrysi

      C. japonica                                    Aphis gossypii;

                                                              [Macrosiphum coriariae Shinji 1922 – nomen dubium]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Coridothymus                                              Lamiaceae

      Coridothymus capitatus = Thymbra capitata


Corispermum  (including Coryspermum)                     Amaranthaceae

      Corispermum aralocaspicum       Brachyunguis harmalae, [zygophylli]

       C. korovinii                                    Aphis craccivora

       C. lehmannianum                         [Brachyunguis cynanchi]

      C. marschallii                                Aphis craccivora, vladimirovae; Semiaphis coryspermi

      C. orientale                                    Semiaphis coryspermi

Key to apterae on Corispermum:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                 …..Brachunguis harmalae

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                           …..2

2     SIPH c. 0.5 × cauda. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent                  …..Semiaphis coryspermi*

-      SIPH 1.1-2.1 × cauda. MTu present at least on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7       …..2

3     Large conical MTu present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7. R IV+V 1.5-1.62 × HT II

       Dorsal abdomen with only sparse or broken sclerites                         …..Aphis vladimirovae*

-       MTu only ABD TERG 1 and 7. R IV+V 0.85-1.2 × HT II. Dorsal abdomen usually with a solid black shield                                                                     …..Aphis craccivora


Cornus                       Dogwoods                 Cornaceae

Cornus is the primary host of the genus Anoecia, and the primary or only host of seven species of Aphis. In both these genera some species are difficult to separate, and identifications made with the following key need to be treated with caution. The North American Cornus-feeding species of the genus Aphis were reviewed by Robinson & Chen (1969). For Anoecia only the alatae (i.e., the spring migrant fundatrigeniae leaving Cornus in spring, and the sexuparae returning to it in autumn) are keyed, as in several species the only apterous morphs on Cornus are the fundatrix in spring and the sexuales in autumn.

      Cornus alba                                  Anoecia corni, major, oenotherae, vagans; Aphis salicariae;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae

      C. alternifolia                               Anoecia corni; Macrosiphum hamiltoni

      C. amomum (incl ssp. obliqua)        Anoecia corni, cornicola, oenotherae;

                                                            Aphis cornifoliae, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

      C. asperifolia                                Anoecia corni;  [Aphis cirsiioleracei];

                                                            Pseudasiphonaphis corni

      C. australis                                   Anoecia corni, vagans; Aphis salicariae

      C. baileyi                                       Anoecia corni

      C. brachypoda                              Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis; Macrosiphum cornifoliae

      C. bretschneideri                          Anoecia corni

      C. candidisssima                          Aulacorthum solani

      C. capitata                                    Myzus ornatus

      C. chinensis                                  Myzus persicae

      C. controversa                              Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, [ilicicola], japonica,


                                                            Aphis odinae; Macrosiphum cornifoliae;

                                                            [Siphocoryne cornicolum Matsumura 1918]

      C. coreana                                    Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis; Aphis odinae

      C. florida                                      Anoecia corni; Aphis cornifoliae

      C. foemina                                    Anoecia corni

      C. glabrata                                    Anoecia corni

      C. iberica                                      Anoecia corni

      C. kousa                                       Anoecia tanakai; Macrosiphum cornifoliae

      C. macrophylla                             [Anoecia ?himalayensis]

      C. mas                                          Anoecia corni, [cornimaris Bozhko 1957];

                                                            Aphis asclepiadis, gossypii, salicariae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      C. microcarpa = C. asperifolia

      C. obliqua = C. amomum ssp. obliqua           

      C. officinalis                                 Anoecia tanakai; Aphis odinae

      C. paniculata                                Anoecia oenotherae; Aphis cornifoliae, [maculatae?]

      C. poliophylla = C. schindleri ssp. poliophylla

      C. pubescens = C. sericea ssp. occidentalis

      C. pumila = C. alba

      C. racemosa                                            Grey Dogwood

                                                            Aphis caliginosa, impatientis; Myzus persicae

      C. rugosa                                      Anoecia corni

      C. sanguinea                                           Bloodtwig Dogwood

                                                            Anoecia corni, [cornimaris], [furcata], [haupti], major,


                                                            Aphis asclepiadis, cornifoliae, fabae, salicariae, spiraecola


      C. schindleri (ssp. poliophylla)         Anoecia corni


      C. sericea (incl ssp.                                     Red-Osier Dogwood

             occidentalis)                             Anoecia corni, cornicola, oenotherae;

                                                            Aphis asclepiadis, cornifoliae, fabae, maculatae,

                                                                neogillettei, nigratibialis, salicariae, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, hamiltoni, manitobense,

                                                                [Macrosiphum sp. (British Columbia)];

                                                            Myzus persicae

      C. stolonifera = C. sericea              

      Cornus sp.                                    Anoecia fulviabdominalis ssp. similis, takahashii;

                                                            Prociphilus cornifoliae


Key to aphids on Cornus (cannot be applied to fundatrices or sexual morphs):-


1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                                                                              .....2

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.0 or more                                                                                             .....14

2      Well-developed wax pore plates present on head, thorax and abdomen. SIPH pores absent. BL of adult aptera more than 3 mm, and dorsum pale. Forewing of alata with unbranched media and pterostigma much longer than wide                           .....Prociphilus cornifoliae

-       Wax pore plates not developed. SIPH present as pores on low hairy cones (fig. 41A). BL of adult aptera less than 3mm, and dorsum dark or at least with dark cross-bands. Forewing of alata with once-branched media and short, wide, black pterostigma. (Only spring and autumn migrant alatae are keyed to species)                                                                      .....3

3      Large, flat, round marginal tubercles situated near spiracles on ABD TERG 1-7, including 5 and 6 (anterioventral and posterioventral to SIPH, dorsal to spiracles; arrowed in fig. 41A), although sometimes reduced in size, and occasionally missing on one or more segments


-       Large, flat, round marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 1-4 and 7, but usually absent from 5 and always absent from 6                                                                                                   .....7

4      Alata without a large dark dorsal abdominal patch       .....spring migrant of Anoecia vagans

-       Alata with a large dark dorsal abdominal patch                                                                .....5

5      Alata usually without secondary rhinaria on ANT V, and never on VI. ABD TERG 3-5 often with one or more short spatulate hairs                .....autumn migrant of Anoecia vagans

-       Alata with 1-4 secondary rhinaria on ANT V, and 0-2 on ANT VI. ABD TERG 3-5 with only acute hairs                                                                                                                   .....6

6      ANT III of alata with 9-17 rhinaria. R IV+V usually less than 0.9 × HT II .....Anoecia corni

-       ANT III of alata with 13-22 rhinaria. R IV+V usually more than 0.9 × HT II

                                                                                                                              .....Anoecia major

7      Alata with 0-3, often small, secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and without a solid dark dorsal abdominal patch (but often in autumn with cross bands on ABD TERG 4-6)

                                                                                                                      .....Anoecia oenotherae

-       Alata with 4 or more, usually large, secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and with a solid dark patch on ABD TERG 4-6 (except spring migrant of A. cornicola?)                                  .....8

8      Alata with all hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 small, similar in size to those on ABD TERG 4-6

                                                                                                                         .....Anoecia cornicola

-       Alata with hairs on at least ABD TERG 1 and 2 mostly long and fine, often more than

        twice as long as those on the dark patch on ABD TERG 4-6                                          .....9

9      R IV+V with 16-24 accessory hairs            …..Anoecia tanakai (autumn migrant sexupara)*  

-       R IV+V with 6-12 accessory hairs (spring migrant alatae)                                             …..10

10    R IV+V 0.16-0.18 mm long, with 10-12 accessory hairs. Marginal tubercles very large, those on ABD TERG 7 about twice the diameter of the SIPH aperture

…..Anoecia takahashii (spring migrant)

-       R IV+V 0.12-0.17 mm long, with 5-8 accessory hairs. Marginal tubercles usually smaller, those on ABD TERG 7 less than twice diameter of SIPH aperture                          …..11

11    Hairs on dorsal abdominal patch maximally 18-30 μm long. R IV+V 0.14-0.17 mm long

…..Anoecia japonica* (spring migrants)

-       Hairs on dorsal abdominal patch maximally 32-90 μm long. R IV+V 0.11-0.13 mm long


13    Hairs on dorsal abdominal patch maximally 32-47 μm long

                                                                         …..Anoecia fulviabdominalis s.str. (spring migrant)

-       Hairs on dorsal abdominal patch maximally 73-91 μm long

…..Anoecia fulviabdominalis ssp. similis (spring migrant)*

14    SIPH very small, papillate. Marginal tubercles well developed, longer than wide, of similar size on all of ABD TERG 1-7 (fig. 41B)                                     .....Pseudasiphonaphis corni

-       SIPH tubular, tapering or cylindrical. Marginal tubercles absent or weakly developed on ABD TERG 2-6; if present then smaller than on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7   .....15

15    Antennal tubercles weakly developed or undeveloped                                                   .....16

-       Antennal tubercles well developed                                                                                 .....27

16   Hairs on ANT III more than 2 × longer than basal diameter of segment. SIPH clearly shorter than cauda. Closely-spaced spinulose ridges present on ABD sternites 5 and 6

                                                                                                                                .....Aphis odinae

-      Hairs on ANT III less than 2 × longer than basal diameter of segment. SIPH usually as long as or longer than cauda. No evident spinulose ridges on ABD sternites 5 and 6            .....17

17    Hairs on ANT III short, maximally 35 µm, shorter than or about equal to middle diameter

        of segment                                                                                                                        .....18

-       Hairs on ANT III long, maximally 35-75 µm, all or most clearly exceeding middle diameter of segment                                                                                                                        .....23

18    Marginal tubercles present on prothorax and on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7; those on prothorax, 1 and 7 being exceptionally large and broad-based (fig. 41C)

                                                                                                                           .....Aphis caliginosa

-       Marginal tubercles usually present only on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7, and these

        are not unusually large                                                                                                     .....19

19    Cauda finger-like, with a slight constriction basad of midpoint, the distal part elongate oval (fig. 121T)                                                                                                  .....Aphis spiraecola

-       Cauda tongue-shaped or bluntly triangular, without elongate oval distal part               .....20

20    Aptera with ANT III usually more than 1.3 × PT (except in very small specimens). Alata with 15-36 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, and usually none (sometimes 1-2) on ANT IV

                                                                                                                          .....Aphis asclepiadis

-       Aptera with ANT III usually less than 1.3 × PT. Alata with 3-17 secondary rhinaria

        on ANT III, and 0-10 on ANT IV                                                                                  .....21

21    Hind femora pale (aptera) or pale on basal third (alata); SIPH dark, cauda pale or dusky. SIPH tapering and usually rather straight                                                     .....Aphis gossypii

-       SIPH and cauda all uniformly dark, hind femora dark or only pale near base. SIPH tapering or cylindrical, and often curved outwards                                                                       .....22

22    SIPH 1.2-2.0 × cauda, hardly broader at base than at apex (fig. 41D). Longest hairs on ANT III are 7-16 μm. Presiphuncular sclerites absent                                       .....Aphis cornifoliae

-       SIPH 0.9-1.6 × cauda, and much broader at base than at apex. Hairs on ANT III maximally 4-13 μm. Presiphuncular sclerites present                                                 .....Aphis impatientis

23    Tibiae of cleared specimens uniformly dark                                            .....Aphis nigratibialis

-       Tibiae of cleared specimens pale, or dark only apically                                                  .....24


24    SIPH long, about 0.25 of BL. Aptera with 15-22 secondary rhinaria on ANT III

                                                                                                                           .....Aphis maculatae

-       SIPH much less than 0.25 of BL. ANT III of aptera usually without secondary rhinaria (rarely 1-4)                                                                                                                        .....25

25    Cauda with 11-27 hairs. Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 usually less than 40 µm long. SIPH usually rather straight (fig. 121R)                                                                      .....Aphis fabae

-       Cauda with 6-11 hairs. Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-6 usually long, more than 40 µm. SIPH often curved outwards distally (figs 41E,F)                                                          .....26

26    ABD TERG 8 with 3-6 hairs. SIPH of aptera about 5 × longer than their width at base (fig. 41E). Alata without dark dorsal markings on ABD TERG 1-6              .....Aphis neogillettei

-       ABD TERG 8 with 6-12 hairs. SIPH of aptera only 2-3 × longer than their width at base (fig. 41F). Alata with dark bars or sclerotic patches on ABD TERG 1-6  .....Aphis salicariae

27    Antennal tubercles with inner faces divergent in dorsal view (fig. 42K). SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                          .....28

-       Antennal tubercles with inner faces parallel or convergent in dorsal view (figs 42I,J). SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                          .....31

28    Cauda long and finger-like, 0.14-0.2 of BL. Hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 of middle diameter of segment                                                                                                         .....29

-       Cauda short, about 0.1 of BL. Hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 of middle diameter of

        segment                                                                                                                            .....30

29    SIPH 1.5-2.1 × cauda and reticulated over distal 13-25%. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 × HT II

                                                                                                            .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH 2.3-2.5 × cauda and reticulated over distal 6-11%. R IV+V 1.05-1.20 × HT II

                                                                                                               .....Macrosiphum hamiltoni

30    ANT BASE VI less than 0.2 mm, much shorter than ANT I + II measured together

                                                                                                          .....Macrosiphum manitobense

-       ANT BASE VI about 0.3 mm, as long as ANT I + II measured together

                                                                                                             .....Macrosiphum cornifoliae

31    Antennal tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel in dorsal view (fig. 42J). ANT III of aptera usually with a single rhinarium near base. SIPH straight, tapering from base to flange (fig. 121K)                                                                                 .....Aulacorthum solani

-       Antennal tubercles with inner faces convergent in dorsal view (fig. 42I). ANT III of aptera never with any rhinaria. SIPH tapering with a slight S-curve, or slightly swollen on

      distal half                                                                                                                           .....32

32    ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5. Aptera with a dorsal intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation (fig. 121J). SIPH coarsely imbricated, with a slight S-curve. Alata with dark transverse bands on dorsal abdomen                                                             .....Myzus ornatus

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 3.0. Aptera without any clear dorsal markings. SIPH slightly swollen on distal half (fig. 121H). Alata with a solid dark dorsal patch     .....Myzus persicae


Coronaria   see Lychnis                                                     Caryophyllaceae


Coronilla                                                      Fabaceae

      Coronilla coronata                        Acyrthosiphon pisum; [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a, 99];

                                                              Myzus persicae

      C. emerus = Hippocrepis emerus       

       C. glauca = C. valentina ssp. glauca

         C. minima                                      Aphis craccivora; Therioaphis langloisi

       C. montana = C. coronata

       C. pusilla (?)                                  Aphis coronillae

       C. rostrata = Securigera parviflora

       C. valentina                                   Acyrthosiphon caraganae; Myzus ornatus

       C. valentina ssp. glauca                 [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1972a, 99]; Myzus persicae;

                                                              Therioaphis langloisi

       C. varia = Securigera varia               

Key to apterae on Coronilla (also includes aphids found on Hippocrepis and Securigera):-

1     ANT PT/BASE about 0.5. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH as small pores on

       dark shallow cones                                                                                                             …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE much more than 1. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. SIPH tubular                                                                                                                                …..3

2     Dorsal abdominal hairs hardly discernible, much shorter than ANT BD III, without tuberculate bases. Dorsal sclerotisation in transverse bands                                 …..Therioaphis langloisi

 -     Dorsal abdominal hairs conspicuous, mostly on separate dark sclerites, and with tuberculate bases                                                                                                       …..Therioaphis trifolii

3     Dark aphids with dorsal dark sclerotisation and weakly developed ANT tubercles         …..4

-      Pale aphids without dorsal sclerotisation, with well-developed ANT tubercles               …..8

4     SIPH 0.7-1.1 × cauda                                                                                    …..Aphis craccae

-      SIPH 1.2-2.0 × cauda                                                                                                        …..5

5     ABD TERG 2-6 (as well as 1 and 7) with rather large marginal tubercles (MTu)

                                                                                                                          …..Aphis coronillae

-      ABD TERG 2-6 without or rarely with small MTu                                                           …..6

6     Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.15-0.4 × width of trochantro-femoral suture

                                                                                                                                  …..Aphis vineti

-      Posterior hair on hind trochanter (0-4-)0.5-1.1 × width of trochantro-femoral suture      …..7

7     R IV+V 0.88-1.16 × HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 X). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs                                                                                                           …..Aphis craccivora

-      R IV+V  0.97-1.3 × HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 X). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)                                                                                    …..Aphis cytisorum

8     Head spiculose with inner faces of ANT tubercles almost parallel or convergent apically. ANT III with or without rhinaria                                                                                       .….9

-      Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III usually with 1 or more rhinaria near base                                                                                                              …..11

9     Inner faces of antennal tubercles almost parallel. ANT III usually with 1 or 2 small rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5                                                         .....Aulacorthum solani

-      Inner faces of antennal tubercles apically convergent. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.75-4.5                                                                                                            .....10

10   SIPH slightly clavate.  ANT PT/BASE (2.8-)3.1-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings                                                                               .....Myzus persicae

-      SIPH tapering with a slight “S”-curve.  ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings                                                       …..Myzus ornatus

11   SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 × BD III                                                                                         …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III short and blunt, the longest 0.2-0.4 × BD III                                                                                                                           …..12

12   ANT I longer than wide and bearing 9-23 hairs. SIPH attenuate distally, thinner than hind tibia at midlength                                                                                …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-     ANT I not longer than wide, bearing 6-10 hairs. SIPH not attenuate distally, as thick as or thicker than hind tibia at midlength                                                                                  …..13

13  SIPH gradually tapering from base to flange, 1.5-2.1 × cauda and 4.7-7.7 × R IV+V (which is 0.126-0.143 mm long)                                                                 …..Acyrthosiphon caraganae

-     SIPH tapering from base but almost cylindrical on distal half; 1.2-1.7 × cauda and 4.3-4.9 × R IV+V (which is 0.112-0.128 mm long)                                                    …..Acyrthosiphon loti


Coronopus  see Lepidium                                       Brassicaceae

       Coronopus didymus = Lepidium didymum                                  

       C. pinnatifidus = Lepidium didymum

       C. procumbens = Lepidium coronopus

         C. squamatus = Lepidium coronopus


Correa                                                          Rutaceae

      Correa glabra                           Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Cortaderia                                                    Poaceae

      Cortaderia richardii                 Sitobion miscanthi

       C. selloana                                Hyalopterus pruni; Sitobion fragariae

       Cortaderia sp.                           Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Cortusa                                                        Primulaceae

      Cortusa matthioli                     Anuraphis cortusae; [Macrosiphum chukotense]


Corybas   (including Corysanthes)                                 Orchidaceae

      Corybas rotundifolius              Neomyzus circumflexus

(or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium)


Corydalis                                                      Fumariaceae

      Corydalis aurea                             Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum corydalis, dicentrae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. brandegeei (?) = C. caseana ssp. brandegeei

       C. caseana (incl. ssp. brandegeei)       Pseudocercidus tutigulus

       C. formosa = Dicentra formosa

       C. formosana = C. tashiroi

         C. heterocarpa (incl. var.                 Longicaudinus corydalisicola


       C. incisa                                         Aulacorthum solani

       C. lutea = Pseudofumaria lutea

       C. ophiocarpa                               Neomyzus circumflexus

       C. pallida                                       Aulacorthum corydalicola; Longicaudinus corydalisicola

       C. scouleri                                     Macrosiphum dicentrae; Pseudocercidus tutigulus

       C. speciosa                                    Aulacorthum corydalicola

       C. tashiroi                                      Longicaudinus corydalisicola                                             

       Corydalis sp.                                  [Macrosiphum euphorbiae]

Key to apterae on Corydalis:-

1     SIPH shorter than cauda                                                       …..Longicaudinus corydalisicola

-      SIPH as long as or longer than cauda                                                                                …..2

2     R IV+V 0.45-0.55 × HT II. First tarsal segments with 5 (-6) hairs

…..Pseudocercidis tutigulus

-      R IV+V 0.6-1.7 × HT II. First tarsal segments with 2-3 hairs                                           …..3

3     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation (at least 3 rows)                            …..4

-      SIPH without any distinct rows of polygonal reticulation                                                …..5

4     R IV+V 0.6-0.8 × HT II. ABD TERG 2-4 frequently bearing marginal tubercles (MTu) as large as or larger than spiracular apertures                                              …..Macrosiphum dicentrae

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II. If ABD TERG 2-4 have any MTu then they are usually very small, not much larger than hair bases                       …..Macrosiphum corydalis (or M. euphorbiae)

5     Head spiculose both dorsally and ventrally with inner faces of ANT tubercles well-developed and steep-sided, almost parallel. ANT III with (0-)1-3 small rhinaria near base. SIPH cylindrical for most of length, pale except at apices, with a well-developed apical flange      


-      Without that combination of characters; if head is spiculose then SIPH are clavate or ANT III is without any rhinaria, or both                                   …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

6     ANT III-VI almost wholly dusky/dark. R IV+V 0.93-1.07 × ANT VI BASE

                                                                                                          ….. Aulacorthum corydalicola

-      ANT III-VI only dark at apices of segments. R IV+V 1.06-1.27 × ANT VI BASE

                                                                                                                    ….. Aulacorthum solani


Corylopsis                                                                              Hamamelidaceae

      Corylopsis gotoana                         Hydronaphis impatiens

      C. pauciflora                                   Hydronaphis impatiens; Pseudomegoura magnoliae;

      C. spicata                                        Hydronaphis impatiens

      Corylopsis sp.                                 Scleromyzus corylopsis

Key to apterae on Corylopsis:-

(All 3 species have spinulose heads and slightly swollen siphunculi.)

1    Cauda short and rounded, hardly longer than its basal width. Tergum dark sclerotic, with a reticulate pattern of minute spinules                                               ….. Hydronaphis impatiens

-     Cauda finger-like, much longer than its basal width. Tergum pale                                     …..2

2    Antennal tubercles weakly developed. Antennae and tibiae mainly pale, darker distally

…..Scleromyzus corylopsis

-     Antennal tubercles well developed. Antennae and tibiae entirely dark

                                                                                                         …..Pseudomegoura magnoliae



Corylus                   Cobnuts and Hazelnuts          Corylaceae


      Corylus americana                       Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) coryli, pseudocoryli


      C. avellana                                               Common Filbert or Hazelnut

              (incl. var. pontica)                       Corylobium avellanae; [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

                                                            Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) corylicola;

                                                            Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola;

                                                            Myzocallis coryli; Neochromaphis coryli

      C. chinensis                                  Myzocallis coryli

      C. colchica                                    Corylobium avellanae; Myzocallis coryli

      C. colurna (incl. var. chinensis)        Corylobium avellanae; Myzocallis coryli; Pterocallis affinis

      C. cornuta                                    Corylobium avellanae; Illinoia corylina, macgillivrayae;

                 (incl. var. californica)                  Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) coryli,

                                                                pseudocoryli, vandenboschi                                                

      C. heterophylla                             Corylobium avellanae;

            (incl. var. thunbergii)                   Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) corylicola;

                                                            Mesocallis pteleae;

                                                            Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola, occulta,


                                                            [Myzus persicae]; Neochromaphis coryli;

                                                            Pterocallis heterophylla;

                                                            Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nikkoensis

      C. maxima                                    Corylobium avellanae; Myzocallis coryli

      C. sieboldiana                               Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) corylicola;

           (incl. var brevirostris)                    Mesocallis pteleae; Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola;

                                                            Myzocallis coryli; Neochromaphis coryli;

                                                            Pterocallis montana;

                                                            Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nikkoensis

      C. sieboldiana                               Betacallis alnicolens;

                          var. mandshurica      Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) skurichinae;

                                                            Mesocallis pteleae, sawashibae;

                                                            Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola, occulta;                                                                           Neochromaphis coryli

Key to the aphids on Corylus:-

This is a revised version of the key given by Blackman & Eastop (2000).


1      Head with a transverse black band ventrally between the eyes          .....Betacallis alnicolens

-       Head without a transverse ventral black band                                                                  .....2

2      Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH as small, truncate cones. (Adult viviparae

        usually or always alate)                                                                                                      .....3

-       Cauda finger-shaped, anal plate entire. SIPH long and tubular, with subapical polygonal reticulation. (Adult viviparae usually mainly apterous)                                                    .....13

3      ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0                                                                   .....Myzocallis coryli

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.1-1.2                                                                                                      .....4

4      Forewings with extensive pattern of dark markings. PT extremely short, ANT PT/BASE only about 0.1                                                                                   .....Neochromaphis coryli

-       Forewings sometimes with pigment along veins and/or on pterostigma, but without any extensive pigmented areas. ANT PT/BASE at least 0.2                                                    .....5

5      Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 long, up to 6 × basal diameter of ANT III, pointed and spine-like, on low tuberculate bases                                               .....Pterocallis heterophylla

-       Spinal hairs on ABD TERG 1-4 all short, not or hardly exceeding basal diameter of ANT III, or if longer then capitate                                                                                              .....6

6      ANT PT/BASE 0.2-0.45                                                                      .....Pterocallis montana

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.5 or more                                                                                               .....7

7      Mesonotum and ABD TERG 2 and 3 each with a pair of large spinal hair-bearing processes. ANT III with 15-19 secondary rhinaria                         .....Tinocallis (Sappocallis) nikkoensis

-       Mesonotum and ABD TERG 2 and 3 without or with only very low spinal processes. ANT III with 2-14 secondary rhinaria                                                                                       .....8

8      Abdominal marginal tubercles each bearing a single small hair. ANT III (of alata) with

        7-14 rhinaria                                                                                                                       .....9

-       Abdominal marginal tubercles mostly with 2-3 hairs. ANT III with 2-11 rhinaria          .....10

9      Front of head and ANT III dark. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 × HT II. All viviparae alate

                                                                                                                     .....Mesocallis pteleae

-       Front of head and ANT III pale. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 × HT II. Viviparae apterous or alate     

                                                                                                                 .....Mesocallis sawashibae

10    ABD TERG 8 with 5-7 hairs. ABD TERG 1-7 with 6-10 spinopleural hairs, the spinal hairs often grouped on paired low processes                                                    .....Pterocallis affinis

-       ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. ABD TERG 1-7 each either with only a single pair of spinal hairs (those on 3, 5 and 7 being displaced laterally), or with 3-6 spinopleural hairs (with or without separate raised bases)                                                                                         …..11

11    ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.7. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 × HT II. ABD TERG 1-7 each with 3-6 spino-pleural hairs (with or without separate raised bases), some of which may be of neotenic form (i.e. long with expanded apices)                                           .....Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) yunnanensis

-       ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 × HT II. ABD TERG 1-7 each with only a single pair of spinal hairs (those on 3, 5 and 7 being displaced laterally)                                   .....12

12    ANT 0.75-0.92 × BL and R IV+V 0.80-1.00 × HT II

.....Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) corylicola

-       ANT 0.60-0.77 × BL and R IV+V 1.00-1.14 × HT II

.....Mesocallis (Paratinocallis) occulta*

13    Dorsal hairs of aptera long, thick and slightly capitate, arising from large tubercles

                                                                                                                  .....Corylobium avellanae

-       Dorsal hairs of aptera shorter, not capitate, not borne on tubercles                                 .....14

14    Dorsal cuticle strongly sclerotised and very wrinkled (although quite pale)

                                                                             .....Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) vandenboschi

-       Dorsal cuticle not sclerotic, smooth                                                                                 .....15