(in alphabetical order)


























































































































Beta                                                              Amaranthaceae

       Beta bengalensis                      Myzus persicae

       B. maritima                              Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Myzus antirrhinii, persicae

       B. vulgaris                                Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, sambuci,

          (incl. vars  cicia, macrorhiza,             solanella;  

                   rapa, saccharifera)               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Brachyunguis harmalae; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                         Hayhurstia atriplicis; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae, stellariae;

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                         Pemphigus betae, [bursarius],  fuscicornis,

                                                            [populitransversus],  populivenae;

                                                         Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                         Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon, staphyleae ssp. tulipaellus;

                                                         Smynthurodes betae; [Uroleucon sonchi]

Key to aphids on Beta:-

1     SIPH present and only 0.6-0.8 ื cauda                                                                             …..2

-      SIPH present or absent, but if present then more than 0.8 ื cauda                                  ..…3

2     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.7. SIPH short and broad, less than 1.5 ื basal width. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with marginal tubercles (MTu)                  …..Brachyunguis harmalae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.5. SIPH 3-4 times longer than their basal width, and slightly swollen over distal 0.7.  ABD TERG 1 and 7 never with MTu                       .….Hayhurstia atriplicis

3     SIPH dark, slightly swollen and only 0.25-0.5 ื ANT III and 0.8-1.0 ื cauda, which is broadly triangular and about as long as its basal width                    .….Brevicoryne brassicae

-      SIPH present or absent, but if present then pale or dark, 0.5-1.6 ื ANT III and 0.8-3.5 ื cauda, which is either longer than its basal width or helmet-shaped                                 ..…4

4       SIPH pale with subapical polygonal reticulation (at least 4-5 rows of closed cells). ANT tubercles with inner faces smooth and divergent. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria, and with longest hairs 0.6-1.2 ื BD III                                                                                           …..5

-      SIPH (if present) pale or dark, without subapical polygonal reticulation unless black and very markedly swollen. ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed or, if well-developed, then with inner faces spiculose and steep-sided (parallel or apically convergent). ANT III with 0-4 rhinaria (if with 1-4 then longest hairs less than 0.5 ื BD III)                                         …..6

5     Femora usually with a dark spot or patch near apices. Dorsal hairs on head and ABD TERG 3 mostly longer than ANT BD III                                                  .....Macrosiphum stellariae

-      Femora pale or honey brown near apex. Dorsal hairs on head and ABD TERG 3 not longer than ANT BD III                                                                        .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

6      SIPH black, tapering/cylindrical and 2.1-3.5 ื cauda which bears 10-20 hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 consistently with well-developed flat marginal tubercles (MTu)          …..Aphis sambuci

-         Without that combination of characters                           ….go to key to polyphagous aphids


Betonica see Stachys                                                           Lamiaceae


Betula                               Birches                                         Betulaceae


Seventy-two species of aphids in 18 genera feed on Betula.  Although the degree of host plant specificity may be somewhat greater than in Alnus-feeding aphids, only a small number of aphid species seem to restrict their feeding to a single species of Betula.  Therefore, as in the case of Alnus, a single key is provided to all birch-feeding aphids.

Host Plant List:-
(bg indicates records from exotic hosts in botanic gardens)


         Betula aetnensis = B. etnensis 

         B. alba see B. pendula, B. pubescens

         B. albosinensis                                        Chinese Red-Barked Birch
                                                  Betulaphis pelei; Calaphis flava bg; Euceraphis betulae bg;

                                                           Hamamelistes similibetulae, spinosus; Symydobius oblongus


         B. alleghaniensis                                    Yellow Birch
                                                  Betulaphis quadrituberculata;
                                                  Calaphis betulaecolens, flava, viridipallida;
                                                  Euceraphis betulae bg, betulijaponicae bg,

                                                             caerulescens bg;

                                                                Hamamelistes spinosus


         B. alnoides                                Betacallis querciphaga, sikkimensis;

                                                         Betulaphis hissarica, longicornis;

                                                         Clethrobius comes, dryobius;

                                                         Euceraphis betulae bg; Hamamelistes sp. (miyabei?);

                                                         [Mesocallis obtusirostris];

                                                         Mollitrichosiphum montanum, nandii
                                                  Neobetulaphis chaetosiphon, immaculata, pusilla;

                                                           Taoia indica


         B. alpestris                                Hamamelistes betulinus; Hormaphis betulae


         B. americana                            ?Hamamelistes spinosus


         B. andrewsii                             Calaphis flava bg; Euceraphis betulae bg


         B. caerulea                               Betulaphis quadrituberculata; Calaphis flava bg;

                                                         Callipterinella minutissima bg; Euceraphis betulae bg;

                                                         Glyphina betulae; Symydobius oblongus

         B. carpatica = B. pubescens var. glabrata    

         B. celtiberica see B. pubescens 

         B. chinensis                              Callipterinella callipterabg; Symydobius kabae                     

         B. cordifolia                              Euceraphis papyrifericola

         B. corylifolia                                      Euceraphis punctipennisbg

         B. costata                                  Calaphis similis; Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis betulijaponicae; Glyphina betulae;

                                                         Symydobius kabae

         B. dahurica                              Betulaphis japonica, quadrituberculata;

                                                         Calaphis betulicola, flava bg, similis;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera, tuberculata;
                                                  Euceraphis betulae group bg, betulijaponicae,

                                                  Glyphina betulae; Hamamelistes betulinus;
                                                  Hormaphis betulae; Neobetulaphis alba;
                                                  Stomaphis betulidahuricae; Symydobius kabae, oblongus

         B. davurica = B. dahurica

         B. divaricata                             Betulaphis quadrituberculata bg; Calaphis flava bg;
                                                  Clethrobius comes; Euceraphis caerulescens;

                                                         Glyphina betulae bg; Hamamelistes betulinus;
                                                  Monaphis antennata bg

         B. ermanii                                Betacallis odaiensis;

                                                         Betulaphis japonica, quadrituberculata;
                                                  Calaphis betulicola, flava bg, similis;

                                                         Callipterinella minutissima , tuberculata;

                                                         Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis caerulescens, ontakensis, punctipennisbg;

                                                         Hamamelistes betulinus; Hormaphis betulae;

                                                         Neobetulaphis alba;

                                                         [Stomaphis sp. 1 of Yamamoto et al. 2020]
                                                  Symydobius [alniarius ssp. nipponicus], kabae, oblongus

         B. etnensis                                Callipterinella calliptera; Euceraphis betulae

         B. fontinalis = B. occidentalis     

         B. forestii                                  Calaphis flava bg; Callipterinella minutisssima bg;
                                                  Clethrobius comes bg; Euceraphis punctipennis bg;
                                                  Hormaphis betulae bg


         B. fruticosa                               Betulaphis japonica, quadrituberculata bg; Calaphis arctica;
                                                  Euceraphis [punctipennis]; Symydobius oblongus


         B. glandulosa                                         American Dwarf Birch
                                                  Betulaphis pelei; Calaphis betulaefoliae, viridipallida;
                                                  Euceraphis borealis

         B. gmelini                                 Symydobius [alniarius], kabae

         B. grossa                                   Calaphis flavabg; Callipterinella callipterabg;

                                                         Euceraphis betulae bg, punctipennisbg;
                                                  Hamamelistes betulinus, kagamii; Symydobius oblongus

         B. hissarica                               Betulaphis hissarica

         B. humilis                                            Euceraphis punctipennis; Calaphis flava;

                                                         Symydobius oblongus

         B. jacquemontii see B. utilis      

         B. kamtschatica                               Callipterinella calliptera, tuberculata; Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis betulijaponicae, punctipennisbg ;

                                                         Glyphina pseudoschrankiana;

                                                         Hamamelistes betulinus

         B. kirghisorum                         Euceraphis betulae, betulicola

         B. latifolia                                 Calaphis flava bg; Stomaphis takahashii

         B. lenta                                                    Black Birch, Cherry Birch
                                                  Euceraphis mucida; Hamamelistes spinosus


         B. litwinowii                             Betulaphis brevipilosa, quadrituberculata;

                                                         Callipterinella minutissima;

                                                         Euceraphis betulae, punctipennis; Symydobius oblongus

         B. luminifera                            Betacallis luminifera, querciphaga; Euceraphis sp.

         B. lutea  = B. alleghaniensis        

         B. mandshurica = B. platyphylla

         B. maximowicziana                       Betacallis odaiensis;

                                                         Betulaphis japonica, quadrituberculata;

                                                         Calaphis flava bg; Callipterinella minutissima;

                                                         Clethrobius comes; Euceraphis [punctipennis];
                                                  Hamamelistes betulinus, miyabei;
                                                  Monaphis antennata; Symydobius kabae

         B. microphylla                          Calaphis flava; Callipterinella calliptera, tuberculata;

                                                         Euceraphis betulae, punctipennis;

                                                         Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana;

                                                         Hormaphis betulae; Monaphis antennata;

                                                         Symydobius oblongus

         B. middendorfii = B. divaricata  

         B. nana (incl. sspp. exilis,                            European Dwarf Birch
           rotundifolia)                     Aphis galiae; Betulaphis pelei, quadrituberculata;

                                                         Calaphis arctica, betulicola, flava; Clethrobius comes;
                                                  Euceraphis borealis, punctipennis;

                                                         Symydobius nanae, oblongus


         B. nigra                                                    River Birch
                                                  Calaphis betulella, flava, neobetulella;

                                                         Callipterinella tuberculata; Euceraphis betulae;
                                                  Hamamelistes spinosus; Hormaphis cornu;
                                                  Pemphigus ephemeratus; [Symydobius kabae]


         B. occidentalis  (= B. fontinalis) Western Black Birch
                                                  Betulaphis quadrituberculata;
                                                  Calaphis betulaecolens, betulaefoliae, coloradensis, flava;

                                                         Euceraphis quednaui; Symydobius intermedius, oblongus

         B. ovalifolia                              Callipterinella minutissimabg; Glyphina betulae;

                                                         Euceraphis punctipennisbg


         B. papyrifera                                           Paper-bark Birch
                                                  Betulaphis quadrituberculata;

                                                         Calaphis betulaecolens, betulaefoliae, flava, viridipallida;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera, minutissima, tuberculata;

                                                         Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis papyrifericola, punctipennis bg;

                                                         Glyphina betulae, setosa; Hamamelistes spinosus;

                                                         Hormaphis cornu (?);
                                                  Monaphis antennata; Symydobius americana, oblongus


         B. pendula (= B. verrucosa)                        Silver Birch
     (incl. dalecarlica)                      [Aphis fabae, spiraecola];

                                                         Betulaphis brevipilosa, quadrituberculata;
                                                  Calaphis betulaecolens, betulicola, flava;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera, minutissima, tuberculata;
                                                  Clethrobius comes; Euceraphis betulae, [punctipennis];

                                                         Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana;

                                                         Hamamelistes betulinus, spinosus;

                                                         Hormaphis betulae; [Macrosiphum euphorbiae];

                                                         Monaphis antennata; Stomaphis quercus;

                                                         Symydobius oblongus


         B. platyphylla                           Betacallis odaiensis; Betulaphis japonica, quadrituberculata;
           (incl. var. japonica)               Calaphis betulicola, flava, similis;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera, minutissimabg, tuberculata;

                                                         Clethrobius comes;
                                                  Euceraphis betulae, betulijaponicae, [caerulescens];
                                                  Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana;

                                                         Hamamelistes betulinus; Hormaphis betulae;

                                                         Monaphis antennata; Neobetulaphis alba, [hebeiensis];

                                                         Nippolachnus piri;

                                                         Stomaphis takahashii, [Stomaphis sp. 3 of Yamamoto et al.


                                                         Symydobius [brevicapillus], [fumus], kabae, oblongus  


         B. populifolia                                           Gray Birch
                                                  Betulaphis brevipilosabg, quadrituberculatabg;

                                                         Calaphis betulaecolens, flavabg, leonardi;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera;
                                                  Euceraphis betulaebg, lineata, papyrifericola;
                                                  Hamamelistes spinosus; Symydobius oblongusbg


         B. procurva                              Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana


         B. pubescens (incl. vars                              Downy Birch
    carpatica, celtiberica,                Betulaphis [brevipilosa], quadrituberculata;

           glabrata, pumila)                      Calaphis betulicola, flava;
                                                  Callipterinella calliptera, minutissima, tuberculata;

                                                         Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis [betulae], punctipennis, [Euceraphis sp.

                                                              (Stekolshchikov 2017)];

                                                         Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana;
                                                  Hamamelistes betulinusHormaphis betulae;

                                                         Monaphis antennata;
                                                  Stomaphis quercusSymydobius oblongus


         B. pumila                                                       American Low Birch
                                                  Calaphis betulaefoliae, manitobensis;  Hamamelistes spinosus

         B. raddeana                              Euceraphis punctipennis; Glyphina betulae;

                                                         Symydobius oblongus

         B. rezniczenkoana                    Callipterinella tuberculata; Symydobius oblongus

         B. sandbergii                            Betulaphis quadrituberculata bg; Calaphis flava bg;
                                                  Callipterinella minutissima bg; Euceraphis betulae bg

         B. schmidtii                              Clethrobius comesbg;

                                                         [Monaphis sp. nr. antennata (Korea: Y. Lee et al. 2017)]

         B. tatewakiana                         Clethrobius comes

         B. tauschii                                Callipterinella tuberculata

         B. tianschanica                        Betulaphis brevipilosa;

                                                         Calaphis flava; tuberculata, ugamica;

                                                         Callipterinella calliptera, tuberculata; Clethrobius comes;

                                                         Euceraphis betulae, [punctipennis];

                                                         Glyphina betulae, pseudoschrankiana;

                                                         Symydobius oblongus

         B. tortuosa = B. pubescens var. pumila

         B. turkestanica                         Betulaphis hissarica; Calaphis flava, ugamica;

                                                         Clethrobius comes; Euceraphis betulaebg  

         B. ulmifolia = B. grossa

         B. utilis                                                         Indian Paper Birch
 (incl. var. jacquemontii)                 Betacallis querciphaga;

                                                         Betulaphis brevipilosa, hissarica, longicornis,

                                                              quadrituberculata bg;
                                                  Calaphis flava bg; Callipterinella tuberculata;

                                                         Clethrobius dryobius; Euceraphis betulae bg;

                                                         Eutrichosiphum manaliensis; Monaphis antennata bg;
                                                  Neobetulaphis chaetosiphon, pusilla; Symydobius oblongus bg

         Betula sp.                                 [Chaitophorus abdominalis Shinji 1924];

                                                         [Clethrobius vermai];

                                                         Eutrichosiphum [alnicola], betulae, [raychaudhurii];
                                                  [Neonippolachnus betulae (=Nippolachnus piri?)];

                                                         Stomaphis radicicola; [Symydobius paucisensorius];

                                                         Taoia chuansiensis


Key to birch-feeding aphids:-


(Couplets 4-6 have ben revised following Aoki et al. (2001), and couplets 34-36 (now 40-47) following Blackman & De Boise (2002))


1     Antennae of aptera very short, less than 0.2ื BL, 3- or 4-segmented.  Antennae of alata (where known) 4- or 5-segmented with annular (ring-like) rhinaria                                   .....2

-      Antennae of aptera and alata 5- or 6-segmented.  Secondary rhinaria circular, oval or transversely elongate but never completely encircling antenna                                          .....8

2     Adult aptera aleyrodiform, free-living on upper surface of leaf, with wax glands all around body producing a white wax fringe.  Hind wing of alata with only one oblique vein (sometimes branched)                                                                                                         .....3

-      Adult apterae in gall or pseudogall on under or upper side of leaf, not aleyrodiform (except in similibetulae; and aleyrodiform or coccidiform adults or immatures of other species may occur as overwintering stages on twigs).  Hind wing of alata (where known) with 2 oblique veins                                                                                                                                    .....4

3     Aleyrodiform adult only 0.64-0.94 mm long, dark brown to black in life with a fringe of separate, rod-like wax filaments.  Alata with 3 antennal segments          .....Hormaphis cornu

 -     Aleyrodiform adult 1.0-1.2 mm long, yellowish or greenish-brown in life with fringing wax filaments fused into plates.  Alata with 5 antennal segments                .....Hormaphis betulae

4     Adult aptera aleyrodiform, brown in life with a fringe of wax threads, feeding singly on underside of leaf and producing small conical pouch galls on upperside. (Alata unknown)                                                                                                   …..Hamamelistes similibetulae

-     Gall-producing adult aptera not aleyrodiform                                                                     .....5

5     Galls comprising cockscomb-like bags with irregular spine-like projections, protruding on upperside of leaf                                                                               .....Hamamelistes miyabei

-      Galls comprising reddish to crimson corrugations or blisters of leaf lamina between veins, with aphids feeding on underside                                                                                     …..6

6     Alata with SIPH absent or inconspicuous                                     ….. Hamamelistes spinosus

-      Alata having SIPH with dark rims                                                                                    …..7

7     In 1st instar larvae the longer hair on HT I is 24-42 μm long, longer than the width of HT II                                                                                                             …..Hamamelistes kagamii

-      In 1st instar larvae the longer hair on HT I is 12-20 μm long, shorter than the width of HT II

                                                                                                             ….. Hamamelistes betulinus

8     ANT PT/BASE less than or about equal to 1.0                                                                 .....9

-      ANT PT/BASE clearly more than 1.0, and usually more than 1.5 (the single exception is one species with very small apterae, Callipterinella minutissima, which has PT/BASE in the range 1.1-1.8)                                                                                                                              .....48

9     Rostrum longer than body                                                                                                .....10

-      Rostrum shorter than body                                                                                               .....13

10   ABD TERG 1-7 with large paired dark spinal sclerotic areas, often broken into small sclerites

       .....Stomaphis quercus

-      ABD TERG 1-5 or 1-6 without dark sclerotic areas. (ABD TERG 6 and 7 with or without paired sclerites)                                                                                                                 .....11

11   SIPH absent in aptera                                                               .....Stomaphis betulidahuricae*

-      SIPH present in all morphs                                                                                               .....12

12   HT II more than 2 ื longer than second segments of fore and mid-tarsi

                                                                                                                   .....Stomaphis takahashii

-      HT II at most 1.45 ื longer than second segments of fore and mid-tarsi                                

                                                                                                                    .....Stomaphis radicicola

13   ANT PT peg-like, less than 2ื its basal width                                                                .....14

-      ANT PT finger-like, more than 2ื its basal width                                                          .....18

14   Eyes of aptera multifaceted                                                                     .....Nippolachnus piri

-      Eyes of aptera reduced to 3 facets                                                                                   .....15

15   Dorsum pale.  Body hairs inconspicuous.  SIPH absent               .....Pemphigus ephemeratus

-      Dorsum pigmented, hairs conspicuous.  SIPH present as pores on small cones              .....16

16   Dorsal and marginal body hairs of aptera long and fine                            .....Glyphina setosa

-      Dorsal and marginal body hairs of aptera thick and spine-like                                        .....17

17   Dorsum adorned with short wrinkles, sometimes extending into a reticulation

                                                                                                       .....Glyphina pseudoschrankiana

-      Dorsum with wart-like cuticular ornamentation                                       .....Glyphina betulae

18   Anal plate with a medial cleft, dividing into two lobes                                                  .....19

-      Anal plate entire, rounded or with a slight medial indentation, but not clearly bilobed  .....31

19   Cauda of aptera with a very clear constriction, separating off a distinct terminal knob  .....20

-      Cauda of aptera semicircular or triangular, without a clear constriction                         .....25

20   Antennae longer than body.  SIPH with a single long hair                                              .....21

-      Antennae much shorter than body.  SIPH with or without hairs                                     .....22

21   Knob of cauda elongate, about 2ื as long as wide.  ANT VI (including PT) less than 0.5ื ANT III                                                                                                  .....Taoia chuansiensis

-      Knob of cauda only a little longer than wide.  ANT VI almost as long as ANT III

                                                                                                                                 .....Taoia indica


22   ABD TERG 1-3 of aptera with minute spinopleural hairs, 8-10 ตm long                       .....23

-      ABD TERG 1-3 of aptera with thick spinopleural hairs, expanded apically, 20-60 ตm long, with elevated or tuberculate bases                                                                                    .....24

23   Tergum of aptera pigmented, sclerotic, scabrous or variolose.  R IV+V 0.8-0.9 ื longer than HT II. SIPH with one or two hairs appended at base             .....Neobetulaphis chaetosiphon

-      Tergum of aptera mostly smooth, unpigmented.  R IV+V about as long as HT II. SIPH without any hairs appended at base                                           .....Neobetulaphis immaculata

24   Aptera with ANT VI BASE more than 0.5ื ANT III.  Longest spinopleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 are 40-60 ตm long                                                               .....Neobetulaphis alba

-      Aptera with ANT VI BASE less than 0.5ื ANT III.  Longest spinopleural hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 are 20-30 ตm long                                                            .....Neobetulaphis pusilla

25   Aptera with all dorsal body hairs long and capitate (fig. 31A)                                       .....26

-      Aptera with spinal and pleural hairs, or at least those on  ABD TERG 1-4, inconspicuous, much shorter than posterior marginal hairs and those on ABD TERG 8 (figs 31B-D)    .....28

26   SIPH of aptera densely spinulose                                                         .....Betulaphis hissarica

-      SIPH of aptera smooth or weakly imbricated                                                                  .....27

27   R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                    .....Betulaphis quadrituberculata

 -     R IV+V longer than HT II                                                                .....Betulaphis longicornis

28   Aptera with spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 7 as short and inconspicuous as those on more anterior tergites.  Marginal hairs on thorax and ABD TERG 1-4 also very short. Dorsal abdominal hairs only long and capitate on ABD TERG 8, and marginal hairs only long and capitate on ABD TERG 5-8.  Dorsal cuticle very wrinkled (fig. 31B)

                                                                                                                 …..Betulaphis brevipilosa

-      Aptera with at least some of spinal and pleural hairs on ABD TERG 5-7 long and capitate, in addition to marginal hairs and those on ABD TERG 8.  Dorsal cuticle smooth or somewhat wrinkled                                                                                                                            .....29

29   R IV+V less than 0.06 mm long, about as long as its basal width, less than 0.65 ื ANT VI BASE                                                                                                    .....Betulaphis japonica

-      R IV+V more than 0.07 mm long, more than 0.7 ื ANT VI BASE                               .....30

30   Aptera with marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 shorter than or about as long as basal diameter of ANT III (fig. 31C)                                                                  .....Betulaphis pelei

-      Aptera with marginal hairs on ABD TERG 1-3 mostly much longer than basal diameter of ANT III (fig. 31D)                                  .....Betulaphis quadrituberculata (short-haired form)

31   Cauda broadly rounded, without a trace of a constriction.  Viviparae both apterous (but
alatiform) and alate, with 2-3 white bands on antennae                                                   .....32

-      Cauda with a constriction separating the terminal part as a knob.  Viviparae all full-winged, with antennae not contrastedly banded                                                                            .....36

32   ANT PT/BASE (0.77-) 0.85-1.20                                                                                    .....33

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.85                                                                                        …..34

33   Alata with wing veins heavily black-bordered                             .....Symydobius americanus

-      Wing veins of alata without black borders                                           .....Symydobius nanae

34   ANT III with 12-22 circular or oval secondary rhinaria spaced out along length of segment (fig. 32B). Wing veins of alata black-bordered                              .....Symydobius intermedius

-      ANT III with 1-35 transverse oval to elongate oval secondary rhinaria closely set on basal 0.5-0.75 of segment (e.g. fig. 32C).  Wing veins of alata not black-bordered                 .....35

35   Abdominal marginal sclerites each bearing 1-7 circular, transparent tubercles (fig. 29C).  Body, legs and antennae clothed in numerous long, fine hairs, those on ANT III and tibia being mainly longer than the diameters of their respective segments (fig. 32C)

                                                                                                                        .....Symydobius kabae

-      Abdominal marginal sclerites without tubercles.  Hairs shorter and not so fine, those on ANT III (fig. 32D) and tibia mostly not exceeding diameters of their respective segments                                                                                                             .....Symydobius oblongus


36   Hairs on ANT III long and fine, 2 or more ื longer than basal width of segment          .....37

-      Length of hairs on ANT III at most equal to basal diameter of the segment                   .....39

37   SIPH bearing several hairs near base                                                 .....Clethrobius dryobius

-      SIPH without hairs                                                                                                           .....38

38   Tibiae wholly black                                                                                 .....Clethrobius comes

-      Tibiae at least partly pale                                                                        .....Clethrobius vermai

39   ANT VI BASE with 2-12 hairs, very rarely with only 1. Thorax without ventral dark pigmentation (except sometimes in autumn populations)                                                 .....40

-      ANT VI BASE always with only 1 hair, located near primary rhinarium. Thorax with meso- and metasternites usually dark or dusky                                                                           .....42

40   ANT V less than 2ื longer than ANT VI BASE, which bears 3-12 hairs and is 3.3-4.8ื longer than R IV+V. Tibiae usually with a longitudinal stripe of dark pigment on dorsal side, but pale ventrrally for most of length                                                     .....Euceraphis lineata

-      ANT V more than 2ื longer than ANT VI BASE, which bears 2-5 hairs and is 1.7-3.7ื longer than R IV+V. Tibiae without a longitudinal stripe; either wholly dark or dark at base and/or apex with pale middle region                                                                                .....41

41   Tibiae wholly and rather uniformly dark (except sometimes at extreme base). ANT III with secondary rhinaria extending for 0.4-0.5 of length                                .....Euceraphis mucida

-      Tibiae usually pale or with pale middle section, if mainly dark then the palest part is in the middle and the distal part is scabrous and completely black . ANT III with secondary rhinaria on basal 0.3-0.4 of length                                                       .....Euceraphis quednaui

42   ANT VI BASE 1.7-2.6ื longer than HT II                                  .....Euceraphis caerulescens

-      ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.7ื longer than HT II                                                                     .....43

43   ANT VI BASE 2.35-3.10ื longer than R IV+V, which is 0.11-0.14 mm long. R IV+V

       0.52-0.62ื longer than HT II                                                                .....Euceraphis borealis

-      ANT VI BASE 1.24-2.72ื longer than R IV+V, which is 0.12-0.19 mm long. R IV+V

       0.55-0.93ื longer than HT II                                                                                           .....44

44   Hind femora dark over distal c.0.7 of length, and hind tibiae almost wholly dark.  ANT V 2.3-2.6ื longer than ANT VI BASE                                                .....Euceraphis ontakensis

-      Hind femore pale or only dark apically or along their dorsal sides, and hind tibiae usually with at least middle section pale, sometimes wholly dark in autumn but then ANT V is

       2.7-3.5ื longer than ANT VI BASE                                                                               .....45

45   HT II 1.24-1.75ื longer than ANT I (measured along outside of segment), and usually

       (0.9-2.3ื) longer than than ANT PT                                                                                 ....46

-      HT II 0.70-1.28ื longer than ANT I (measured along outside of segment), and usually

        (0.7-1.1ื) shorter than than ANT PT                                                                              .....47

46   ANT VI BASE usually (90% of specimens) 0.80-1.32ื longer than HT II, and (75% of specimens) 1.2-2.1ื longer than R IV+V. Early spring populations often with black

       cross-bands on all tergites                                                                      .....Euceraphis betulae

-      ANT VI BASE usually (90% of specimens) 1.33-1.75ื longer than HT II, and (75% of specimens) 2.1-2.5ื longer than R IV+V. Early spring populations never with black

       cross-bands on all tergites, sometimes with 1-2 dark spinal patches

                                                                                                              .....Euceraphis punctipennis

47   R IV+V 0.12-0.15 mm long, usually (85% of specimens) 0.57-0.67ื longer than HT II

                                                                                                          .....Euceraphis betulijaponicae

-      R IV+V 0.14-0.17 mm long, usually (85% of specimens) 0.67-0.79ื longer than HT II

                                                                                                            .....Euceraphis papyrifericola

48   ANT PT/BASE 7.0-9.0, with a very small primary sensorium between PT and base of ANT VI. Secondary rhinaria, numerous, circular and scattered on ANT III, not in a row (fig. 32A)                                                                                                                ....Monaphis antennata

-      ANT PT/BASE not more than 3.0, with primary sensorium of normal size.  Secondary rhinaria on ANT III of alata more-or-less in a row                                                           .....49

49   SIPH tubular                                                                                                                     .....50

-      SIPH in form of small truncate cones, without hairs                                                       .....54

50   SIPH without hairs. Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width         …..Aphis galiae

-      SIPH with numerous long hairs. Cauda much shorter than its basal width                    …..51

51    Hind tibiae with a series of transverse ridges (fig. 27A)                                                .....52

-       Hind tibiae without transverse ridges                                                                             .....53


52    SIPH of aptera dark, curved outward, 0.4-0.5 ื BL. (In alata 0.6-0.75 ืBL)

                                                                                                             .....Mollitrichosiphum nandii

-       SIPH of aptera pale, almost straight, 0.5-0.85 ื BL. (In alata 0.8-0.9 ื BL)                      

                                                                                                      .....Mollitrichosiphum montanum

53   SIPH very long, 0.45-0.51ื BL.  ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.2             .....Eutrichosiphum betulae

-      SIPH short and thick, c.0.2 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.3    .....Eutrichosiphum manaliensis

54   Alata with ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5.  Apterous vivipara very small, BL less than 1.5 mm, with antennae 5-segmented, less than 0.5ื BL                         .....Callipterinella minutissima

-      Alata with ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5.  Apterous vivipara, if present, with BL greater than 1.5 mm and 6-segmented antennae at least 0.6 ื BL                                              .....55

55   Head and thorax deeply pigmented, and a pattern of dorsal abdominal markings on more than two tergites                                                                                                               .....56

-      Head and thorax pale or only lightly pigmented, or pale with distinctive dark markings, and dorsal abdomen with any dark markings restricted to two tergites                                  .....57

56   Abdomen with separate dark dorsal transverse bars on all tergites 

                                                                                                              .....Callipterinella calliptera

-      Abdomen with a large dark quadrate patch on ABD TERG 4-6

                                                                                                           .....Callipterinella tuberculata

57   Head with a black transverse band across the venter between the eyes                          .....58

-      Head without a ventral transverse band                                                                           .....61

58   Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 2-5 or 4-5, and whole of SIPH, pigmented.  R IV+V less than 1.2ื HT II                                                                                                                 .....59

-      Marginal tubercles on ABD TERG 2-4 pale, those on 5 either pale or pigmented.  R IV+V at least 1.25ื HT II                                                                                                              .....60

59   Head and prothorax with a dark dorsal longitudinal median stripe.  Forewing veins evenly pigmented                                                                                         .....Betacallis querciphaga

-      Head and prothorax without a dorsal longitudinal median stripe.  Media of forewing pale, but Cu1b and distal part of Cu1a thickly bordered with fuscous            .....Betacallis odaiensis

60   ANT III with 17-25 secondary rhinaria, on basal 0.5-0.7 of segment 

                                                                                                                   .....Betacallis sikkimensis

-      ANT III with 28-45 secondary rhinaria, extending more than 0.75 of length of segment

                                                                                                                    .....Betacallis luminifera

61   Alata with a distinctive pattern of dark markings dorsally; longitudinal stripes on head and thorax, and transverse bars or patches on abdomen                                                        .....62

-      Alata without a distinctive pattern of dark dorsal markings                                            .....63

62   Dorsal abdomen with separate double black bars on ABD TERG 4 and 5

                                                                                                                        .....Calaphis betulella

-      Dorsal abdomen with a large black quadrate patch on ABD TERG 4 and 5

                                                                                                                   .....Calaphis neobetulella

63   Knob of cauda elongate, longer than wide              ..... Calaphis (Cepegillettea) betulaefoliae

-      Knob of cauda globular, no longer than its maximum width                                           .....64

64   Apterous morph                                                                                                                .....65

-      Alate morph                                                                                                                      .....71

65   Most proximal secondary rhinarium on ANT III located near base of segment, no further from base of segment than the length of ANT II                                                             .....66

-      Rhinaria on ANT III placed towards middle of segment, most proximal one about as far from base as the combined lengths of ANT I + II                                                           .....68

66   R IV+V 0.09-0.105 mm, less than 0.8ื HT II, and bearing only 2-4 accessory hairs besides the 3 subapical pairs                                                                           .....Calaphis viridipallida

 -     R IV+V at least 0.11 mm long, more than 0.8ื HT II, with 4-8 accessory hairs             .....67

67   SIPH with dark distal zone. ANT III with 4-8 secondary rhinaria       .....Calaphis ugamica*

-      SIPH without dark distal zone. ANT III with 2-5 secondary rhinaria          .....Calaphis flava

68   Antennae and legs wholly pale.  Dorsal and marginal body hairs short and inconspicuous, except on frons and posterior abdomen                                            .....Calaphis manitobensis

 -     Antennae with dark apices to antennal segments, tibiae and tarsi.  Dorsal and marginal body hairs conspicuous                                                                                                              .....69

69   Dorsal abdominal hairs arising from lightly pigmented tubercles.  ANT III only as long as, or a little longer than, head width across eyes                                                .....Calaphis arctica

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs often arising from tubercles, but these are unpigmented.  ANT III at least 1.5ื head width across eyes                                                                                     .....70

70   SIPH usually dark brown distally. R IV+V more than 0.125 mm long, as long as or longer than HT II, with 14-23 accessory hairs.  ANT III with 5-14 rhinaria    .....Calaphis betulicola

-      SIPH usually pale, occasionally a little darker at flange.  R IV+V less than 0.12 mm long, shorter than HT II, with 4-7 accessory hairs.  ANT III with 3-7 rhinaria                                

                                                                                                                  .....Calaphis coloradensis

71   SIPH with apical halves dark brown to black                                        .....Calaphis betulicola

-      SIPH pale, rarely a little dusky at flange                                                                          .....72

72   ANT III with 4-8 secondary rhinaria                                                .....Calaphis coloradensis

-      ANT III with 8-21 secondary rhinaria                                                                             .....73

73   Tibiae dark, forewing veins heavily bordered with fuscous                                            .....74

-      Tibiae pale except at base and apex, forewing veins dark but not heavily bordered      .....76

74   R IV+V usually more than 0.14 mm long, as long as or a little longer than HT II

                                                                                                                .....Calaphis betulaecolens

 -     R IV+V usually less than 0.14 mm long, shorter than HT II                                           .....75

75   Hairs on ANT III very short, all less than 0.5ื basal diameter of segment

                                                                                                                            .....Calaphis similis

-      Hairs on ANT III mainly more than 0.5ื basal diameter of segment      .....Calaphis leonardi

76   R IV+V 0.09-0.105 mm, less than 0.8ื HT II, and bearing only 2-4 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                   .....Calaphis viridipallida

-      R IV+V at least 0.11 mm long, more than 0.8ื HT II, and bearing 4-8 accessory hairs

                                                                       .....Calaphis flava (or Calaphis ugamica* – see text)

Bidens                                                          Asteraceae

     Bidens aristosa                             Aphis coreopsidis

     B. aurea                                        Aphis spiraecola; Myzus ornatus

      B. bipinnata                                  Aphis aurantii, coreopsidis, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae;

                                                            Pemphigus sp. (as lactucae); Prociphilus erigeronensis

      B. biternata                                   Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus ornatus

      B. cernua                                      Aphis fabae, mimuli, [tripolii]; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            [Macrosiphum rosae]; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus borealis, Pemphigus sp.;

                                                            [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]; Uroleucon chrysanthemi

      B. chrysantha                               Uroleucon ambrosiae

      B. chrysanthemoides = B. laevis

      B. comosa = B. tripartita

      B. connata                                    Aphis coreopsidis; Uroleucon chrysanthemi

      B. coronata (?)                              Uroleucon chrysanthemi

      B. frondosa                                   Aphis coreopsidis, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            [Rhodobium porosum]; [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae];

                                                            Uroleucon chrysanthemi

      B. grantii                                       Myzus ornatus

      B. laevis                                        Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Uroleucon chrysanthemi, [rudbeckiae]

        B. leucantha (?)                            Aphis spiraecola

      B. megapotamica = Thelesperma magapotamicum

      B. odorata                                     Geopemphigus torsus

        B. pinnata = B. pilosa

      B. pilosa                                        Acyrthosiphon bidenticola, ilka;

                                                            Aphis aurantii, citricidus, coreopsidis, craccivora, fabae,

                                                               gossypii, [illinoisensis], solanella, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;

                                                            Hyperomyzus carduellinus; [Hysteroneura setariae];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

                                                            [Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale];

                                                            [Tricaudatus polygoni]; Ucrimyzus villalobosi;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae, compositae

      B. reptans                                     Aphis coreopsidis, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

      B. subalternans                            Aphis coreopsidis, spiraecola

      B. tripartita                                   Aphis coreopsidis, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, [taukogi],

                                                                triglochinis, [Aphis sp. Davletshina1964: 124];

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Epipemphigus niisimae];

                                                            Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria;

                                                            Pemphigus borealis, [bursarius], [fuscicornis];

                                                            [Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae]; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                            Uroleucon chrysanthemi, tripartitum

      B. urbanii = B. chrysantha

      B. vulgata                                     Aphis coreopsidis, fabae; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus sp. [as betae]; Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                            Uroleucon chrysanthemi

      B. wallichii = B. bipinnata

      Bidens spp.                                   [Aphis frangulae group], solitaria; Capitophorus litanensis;

                                                            [Hyperomyzus pullatus]; Pemphigus tartareus;

                                                            Uroleucon erigeronense, tucumani, [zerogutierrezis]

Key to aphids on Bidens:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent (on roots)                                                       ..…2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0. SIPH present (on aerial parts)                                         ..…10

2    Only alatae (sexuparae) or alatiform nymphs present                                                         ..…3

-     Apterae present                                                                                                                   ..…7

3    (Al.) ABD TERG (1-) 3-8 each bearing transverse dark bands. Oblique veins of hind wing parallel and widely spaced                                                                                                ……4

-     (Al.) ABD TERG pale. Oblique veins of hind wing divergent, with bases adjacent       ……5

4    (Al.) Body and appendages bearing numerous long fine hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 25-50 hairs. ANT II 0.4-0.5 ื ANT III and bearing 20-30 hairs. ANT BASE VI 4.5-12 ื PT. Rhinaria on ANT III with plain rims                                                                        ..…Smynthurodes betae

-     (Al.) Body and appendages with hairs rather sparse and short. ABD TERG 8 with only 2-3 hairs. ANT II about 0.25 ื ANT III and bearing 5-8 hairs. ANT BASE VI 2.8-4.5 ื PT. Rhinaria on ANT III with strongly fimbriate rims                             …..Geopemphigus torsus

5    (Al.) Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 12-27, IV 6-14, V 5-15, BASE VI 3-10. ANT VI BASE with 12-18 hairs. ANT BASE VI 2.5-4.0 ื PT. R IV+V with 4-6 accessory hairs. Cauda with 15-20 hairs                                                               …...Prociphilus erigeronensis

-     (Al.) Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 5-10, IV 1-4, V and BASE VI 0. ANT VI BASE with only 2 hairs. ANT BASE VI 4.0-6.0 ื PT. R IV+V without accessory hairs. Cauda with 2-5 hairs                                                                                                                              …..6

6    (Al.) ANT III longer than ANT IV+V together. Secondary rhinaria on III 8-10, and on IV 2-3

…..Pemphigus borealis

-     (Al.) ANT III a little shorter than ANT IV+V together. Secondary rhinaria on III 5-7, on IV 2-3

..…Pemphigus tartareus

7    Dorsal body and antennae clothed in numerous fine hairs. Primary rhinaria with thick sclerotised rims. Wax pore plates absent                                             ..….Smynthurodes betae

-     Dorsal body and antennae with sparse hairs. Primary rhinaria with ciliate rims. Wax pore plates present at least on posterior abdomen                                                                      …..8

8    Head without wax pore plates. R IV+V usually without accessory hairs     ..…Pemphigus sp.

-     Head with wax pore plates. R IV+V with 2 or more accessory hairs                              ……9

9    Abdomen with a dark posterior extension of cauda and anal plate, which is strongly convex. R IV+V 0.95-1.2 ื HT II and bearing 4-10 accessory hairs        .….Prociphilus erigeronensis

-     Cauda and anal plate not on a dark posterior extension of the abdomen. (Cauda very small, and anal plate divided into dorsal and posterioventral parts by a marked concavity.)  R IV+V 0.74-0.86 ื HT II, with 2 accessory hairs                                          …..Geopemphigus torsus

10    ANT tubercles weakly developed, not extending forward beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with or without marginal tubercles (MTu)               ..…11

-       ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, extending clearly beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                               ..….17

11    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, with a basal constriction. SIPH pale, smooth, with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                              …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width, without a basal constriction. SIPH pale or dark, without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures small and reniform. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                      …..12

12    SIPH 0.24-0.40 ื BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda.  Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of antenna          ..….Aphis coreopsidis

-       SIPH only up to 0.2 ื BL. Cauda pale or dark. Head and antennal segments differently pigmented                                                                                                                       …..13

13    SIPH entirely dark                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

-       SIPH pale, sometimes with dark tips                                                                              …..14

14    ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.0. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.4-0.7 ื BD III         …..Aphis nasturtii

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.2 ื BD III                            …..15

15   R IV+V 1.4-1.6 ื HT II, with 3-6 accessory hairs. ANT III usually with 1-15 rhinaria on distal part, often of bursiform type (sunk in pits), and IV with 0-4             …..Aphis solitaria

-       R IV+V 1.0-1.3 ื HT II, with 2 (-3) accessory hairs. ANT III and IV usually without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens)                                                                          …..16

16    SIPH 1.5-2.0 ื longer than their basal width, shorter than ANT PT, and also shorter than cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in alata III 9-20, IV 4-6, V 0)                            …..Aphis mimuli

-       SIPH 2.0-3.5 ื longer than their basal width, longer than ANT PT and often longer than cauda. (Secondary rhinaria in alata III 25-60, IV 9-25, V 7-17)            …..Aphis triglochinis

17    SIPH wholly dark, with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                     .….18

-      SIPH pale or dark, or pale basally and dark distally, but if wholly dark then without any subapical reticulation                                                                                                       ..…25

18    Cauda dark like SIPH                                                                                                     ..…19

-       Cauda much paler than SIPH                                                                                         .….22

19    Tibia with paler middle section. Femora pale on basal 0.3-0.5. R IV+V not stilletto-shaped, with short accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                         ..…20

-       Tibiae wholly black. Femora almost wholly dark, with only about basal 0.1 pale. R IV+V stilletto-shaped, with very long accessory hairs on basal half of R IV. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                                                                      …..21

20    BL c. 5.0 mm. ANT III with 30-32 rhinaria on basal half             …..Uroleucon tripartitum*

-       BL 1.9-4.1 mm. ANT III with 41-78 rhinaria on 0.8-0.9 of length

        …..Uroleucon compositae

21    ANT PT 4.8-6.8 ื R IV+V. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 ื HT II         ..…Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-       ANT PT 2.4-3.5 ื R IV+V.  R IV+V  1.0-1.3 ื HT II    …..Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae

22    SIPH usually at least 1.6 ื cauda, which bears 7-12 hairs                  .....Uroleucon tucumani

-       SIPH less than 1.5 ื cauda, which bears 16-28 hairs                                                      .....23

23    HT II rather long and thin, 6 or more ื longer than its maximum thickness and 0.9-1.1 ื R IV+V                                                                                       …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-       HT II less than 5 ื its maximum thickness and 0.7-1.1 ื R IV+V                               ….. 24

24    R IV+V 0.15-0.16 mm, 0.9-1.0 ื HT II                                      …..Uroleucon chrysanthemi

-       R IV+V 0.16-0.22 mm, 1.1-1.33 ื HT II                                      ……Uroleucon ambrosiae

25   Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles smooth and divergent                       ..…26

-      Head spiculose or nodulose with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided, convergent or parallel                                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

26   SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                     .....27

-       SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                              …..28

27    SIPH with a distinctly paler basal part contrasting with dark distal part, and with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.35 of total length. Some of distal caudal hairs usually shorter and blunt or capitate                                                                     …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-       SIPH pale or dusky, without contrastingly pale basal part, and with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.20 of length. Distal caudal hairs all pointed         …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

28    Dorsal hairs long and capitate, the spinal and marginal ones c. 3 ื ANT BD III

                                                                                                                .....Capitophorus litanensis

-       Dorsal hairs short, less than 1.5 ื ANT BD III                                                               .....29

29    SIPH swollen on distal 0.7 of length                                                                             .…..30

-       SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                …..31

30    Prothoracic spiracular apertures much larger than those on abdomen, which are reniform. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 11-29, IV 0-16, V 0 (-9). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.6. Alata with a dorsal abdominal (imperfect) patch                    .…..Hyperomyzus carduellinus

-       Prothoracic spiracular apertures not much larger than those on abdomen. Secondary rhinaria only on ANT III (1-20). ANT PT/BASE 5.3-8.2. Alata without any dorsal abdominal dark patch                                                                                                 …..Ucrimyzus villalobosi 

31   ANT PT/BASE 5.9-7.5. ANT dark except at base, and SIPH dark except for basal 0.2-0.3 of length                                                                                         ..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.0-3.75. ANT and SIPH mainly pale/dusky             .…..Acyrthosiphon ilka


Bifora                                                          Apiaceae

     Bifora radians                              Aphis fabae


Bifrenaria                                                    Orchidaceae

     Bifrenaria aureofulva                  Cerataphis orchidearum

     B. secunda = B. aureofulva


Bignonia                                                      Bignoniaceae

     B. capensis = Tecoma capensis

      B. radicans = Campsis radicans

      B. stans = Tecoma stans

      B. unguis-cati = Dolichandra unguis-cati

        B. venusta = Pyrostegia venusta

      Bignonia sp.                                 Aphis gossypii, [punicae]; [Macrosiphum rosae];

                                                                   Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Bilderdykia  see Fallopia                                                Polygonaceae


Billardiera                                                   Pittosporaceae

     Billardiera fusiformis                         Myzus persicae

      B. heterophylla                                       Aphis spiraecola

     B. lineata = Marianthus lineatus

      B. scandens                                              Aphis spiraecola; Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Billbergia                                                    Bromeliaceae

     Billbergia nutans                          Myzus persicae

      B. ืwindii                                     Myzus persicae


Bischofia                                                     Euphorbiaceae

      Bischofia javanica                        Aphis aurantii, odinae, [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1972a: 98)];

      B. trifoliata = B. javanica                

Use key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 25.


Biscutella                                                    Brassicaceae

     Biscutella auriculata                    Brevicoryne brassicae

      B. austriaca see B. laevigata

      B. cichoriifolia                              Brevicoryne brassicae

     B. laevigata (incl. ssp. austriaca)       Aphis fabae; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                                   Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Biscutella:-

-     SIPH barrel-shaped, 0.8-1.0 ื cauda which is broadly triangular, about as long as its basal width, and bears 7-8 hairs                                                                 …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-     Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Biserrula                                                     Fabaceae

     Biserrula pelecinus = Astragalus pelecinus


Bistorta                                                        Polygonaceae

     Bistorta bistortoides                             Aphthargelia symphoricarpi (? – see text);

                                                            [Illinoia sp. (Washington, USA;]

     B. vivipara = Persicaria vivipara


Bituminaria                                                 Fabaceae

     Bituminaria bituminosa                    Aphis craccivora, cytisorum

Use key to apterae on Caragana.


Bixa                                                                                            Bixaceae

      Bixa orellana                            Aphis gossypii; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                         Sinomegoura citricola

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)


Blackstonia                                                                          Gentianaceae

     Blackstonia  perfoliata                 Aphis gentianae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to apterae on Blackstonia:-

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed. ABD TERG 1-5 and 7 with large domed marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                          …..Aphis gentianae

-     Without that combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Blainvillea                                                                            Asteraceae

      Blainvillea gayana                       Aphis gossypii

       B. rhomboidea                             Uroleucon ambrosiae group

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Blechnum                                                                              Blechnaceae

      Blechnum brownei                      Aphis gossypii

                    (incl. pyramidatum)

       B. buchtienii                                Gibbomyzus pteridophytorum

       B. occidentale                              Idiopterus nephrelepidis

       B. orientale                                  Macromyzus woodwardiae; Micromyzus filicis

       B. patersonii                                Idiopterus nephrelepidis

       B. spicant                                     Macrosiphum dryopteridis; Taiwanomyzus alpicola

Use key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Blechum                                                      Acanthaceae

      Blechum pyramidatum               Aphis gossypii


Blepharis                                                     Acanthaceae

      Blepharis boerhaviaefolia           Aphis gossypii


Blephilia                                                      Lamiaceae

      Blephilia hirsuta                          Aphis coreopsidis


Bletia                                                           Orchidaceae

      Bletia spp.                                    Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids, or key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.


Bletilla                                                         Orchidaceae

      Bletilla striata                               Aphis gossypii; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Use key to polyphagous aphids, or try key to orchid-feeding aphids under Cymbidium.


Blitum                                                          Amaranthaceae

      Blitum capitatum                         Aphis fabae; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      B. virgatum                                  Aphis fabae

Use key to apterae on Chenopodium.


Blotiella                                                       Dennstaedtiaceae

       Blotiella natalensis                      Idiopterus nephrelepidis


Blumea                                                        Asteraceae

      Blumea aurita = B. viscosa

       B. axillaris                                   Aphis gossypii

       B. balsamifera                             Aphis gossypii; Protaphis formosana;

                                                            Uroleucon [gobonis], orientale

       B. chinensis                                 Aleurodaphis blumeae

       B. lacera                                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae

       B. laciniata                                  Aphis gossypii

       B. megacephala                           Aleurodaphis blumeae

       B. solidaginoides = B. axillaris

       B. viscosa                                     Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon ambrosiae

       B. wightiana                                Aphis gossypii

       Blumea spp.                                Uroleucon budhium, compositae

Key to apterae on Blumea:-

1     Body flattened and dorsum sclerotic, with fused head and pronotum, fused ABD TERG 1-7, and a crenulate rim due to a continuous marginal row of wax glands. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                     …..Aleurodaphis blumeae

-      Body not flattened, segments not fused, no crenulate margin of wax glands. Cauda not knobbed, anal plate entire                                                                                                  …..2

2     ANT PT/BASE about 1. SIPH a little shorter than cauda, which is broadly triangular with a rounded apex                                                                                           …..Aphis formosana

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5 (or less than 0.5).  SIPH longer than cauda, which is helmet-shaped or tongue-shaped                                                                                                   …..3

3     SIPH wholly dark with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                   .….4

-      SIPH pale or dark, but if wholly dark then without any subapical polygonal reticulation

                                                                              ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

4     R IV+V 1.1-1.4 ื HT II                                                                                                    …..5

-      R IV+V long and thin, 1.7-2.0 ื HT II                                                                             …..6

5     Cauda pale, contrasting with dark SIPH, which are 1.0-1.5 ื cauda. Coxae pale. ANT III with 8-35 rhinaria                                                                               .....Uroleucon ambrosiae

-      Cauda almost as dark as SIPH, which are 1.7-2.3 ื cauda. Coxae dark. ANT III with 51-77 rhinaria                                                                                              .....Uroleucon compositae

6     SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.12-0.17 of length         .…..Uroleucon budhium

-      SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.21-0.30 of length         …...Uroleucon orientale


Blumeopsis                                                  Asteraceae

      Blumeopsis falcata                      Brachycaudus helichrysi


Bocconia                                                     Papaveraceae

       Bocconia frutescens                    Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       Bocconia sp.                                [Sitobion avenae]

Key to apterae on Bocconia:-

-      ANT tubercles well developed with smooth divergent inner faces. ANT dark except at base, with ANT PT/BASE 5.9-7.5. SIPH dark except for pale basal 0.2-0.3 of length, with any subapical polygonal reticulation restricted to much less than 0.1 of length   

                                                                                                           ..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-      Without that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Boechera                                                     Brassicaceae

      Boechera stricta                           Aphis gossypii

       B. laevigata                                  Pemphigus populitransversus

Use key under Arabis.                       


Boehmeria                                                   Urticaceae

      Boehmeria candidissinia             Myzus ornatus

       B. cylindrica                                Aphis gossypii; [Uroleucon ambrosiae]

       B. frutescens = Oreocnide frutescens

       B. japonica                                  Myzus moriokae, boehmeriae

       B. longispica                                Myzus persicae

       B. nipononivea                            Myzus boehmeriae, moriokae

       B. nivea (incl. candicens,                 Aphis craccivora, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                             tenacissima)              Myzus boehmeriae, moriokae, ornatus, persicae

       B . pannosa                                 Aulacorthum solani

       B. platanifolia                              Myzus boehmeriae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       B. platyphylla                               Myzus persicae

       B. polystachya                             [Schoutedenia ralumensis]

       B. sidaefolia                                 [Matsumuraja sp.]; Neomyzus circumflexus

       B. spicata                                     Myzus boehmeriae

       Boehmeria sp.                             [Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus]; [Capitophorus indicus];

                                                            Myzus fataunae, indicus


Key to aphids on Boehmeria:-

1     ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces parallel or convergent and strongly nodulose or spiculose                                                                                                                         ..…2

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed (or if well developed then smooth and divergent)

                                                                                                ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

2     Dorsal hairs and those on ANT III longer than BD III                      .…. “Myzus” moriokae*

-      Dorsal hairs and hairs on ANT III mostly very short and inconspicuous, less than 0.5 ื BD III (except those on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8)                                                       …..3

3     ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5. SIPH strongly imbricated or scabrous, and curved or with asymmetrical swelling of inner side                                                                                   ..…4

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.5. SIPH variously imbricated, straight, tapering or slightly clavate        


4     ANT 5-segmented. Dorsal cuticle sclerotic, wrinkled and/or nodulose. ABD TERG 7 extended posteriorly, cowl-like                                                                    .....Myzus fataunae

-     ANT 6-segmented. Dorsum membranous or sclerotic. ABD TERG 7 not extended posteriorly


5     Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation.  ANT V shorter than ANT IV                                                                                                         .….Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental ornamentation.  ANT V longer than IV (?)

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus indicus*

6     Dorsum with distinctive black markings; a large roughly horseshoe-shaped abdominal patch, and paired patches on thoracic tergites                                          ….. Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsum without dark markings                                                                                          .....7

7     SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half. R IV+V 1.3-1.5 ื HT II. (Immatures with spinules on hind tibiae)                                                                          …..Myzus boehmeriae

-      SIPH slightly clavate. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II. (Immatures without spinules on hind tibiae)                                                                                                                       ..…Myzus persicae


Boerhavia                                                    Nyctaginaceae

       Boerhavia coccinea                     Aphis gossypii

       B. diffusa                                     Aphis craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

       B. erecta                                       Aphis [coreopsidis], craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola

       B hispida (?)                                Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

       B. repens                                      Aphis gossypii

       B. viscosa = B. coccinea

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Boisduvalia                                                           Onagraceae

       Boisduvalia densiflora                 Aphis (Bursaphis) sp., Idaho USA (see

            (= Epilobium densiflorum)


Bolboschoenus  see Scirpus                                  Cyperaceae


Boltonia see Kalimeris                                            Asteraceae

      Boltonia indica = Kalimeris indica 

       B. lautureana = Kalimeris lautureana


Bomarea                                                      Alstroemeriaceae

      Bomarea caldasiana = B. multiflora

       B. multiflora                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi



Bombax                                                                                    Bombacaceae

       Bombax buonopozense            Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

       B. ceiba                                     Aphis citricidus, gossypii, spiraecola; Myzus persicae

       B. malabaricum = B. ceiba        


(Use key to polyphagous aphids )



Bonjeania    see  Lotus                                           Fabaceae


Bontia                                                          Scrophulariaceae

      Bontia daphnoides                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Borago                                                         Boraginaceae

      Borago officinalis                        Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, symphyti, [triglochinis],


                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            [Uroleucon compositae]

       B. orientalis  =  Trachystemon orientalis

       Borago spp.                                 Brachycaudus cardui ssp. turanica

Key to apterae on Borago:-

1.    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width, with a basal constriction. Spiracular apertures rounded. SIPH with a subapical annular incision                                               …..2

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. Spiracular apertures reniform. SIPH without a subapical annular incision …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, (noting that specimens running to Aphis gossypii may be A. symphyti - see text for this species)

2.    SIPH pale or slightly dusky, less than 1.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotization                                                            .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-        SIPH dusky or dark, more than 1.8 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.3-2.0 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark sclerotization                .....Brachycaudus cardui (incl. ssp. turanica)


Boronia                                                       Rutaceae

      Boronia denticulata                     Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       B. megastigma                             Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Borreria   see  Spermacoce                                     Rubiaceae


Bossekia   see  Rubus                                              Rosaceae

      Bossekia deliciosa  see  Rubus deliciosa

         B. nutkana see Rubus parviflorus

         B. odorata see Rubus odoratus


 Bothriochloa                                                       Poaceae

      Bothrichloa bladhii                     Hysteroneura setariae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Sitobion avenae

      B. caucasica = B. bladhii              

       B. glabra = B. bladhii

       B. insculpta                                  Forda orientalis; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                            Sitobion africanum, miscanthi

       B. ischaemum                             Schizaphis graminum;Sipha flava, maydis;

                                                            Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi

       B. pertusa                                    Forda orientalis, riccobonii; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum maidis; Sitobion lambersi, miscanthi;

                                                            Tetraneura fusiformis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Bothriocline                                                Asteraceae

      Bothriocline laxa                        Aphis gossypii

       B. longipes                                  Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus elaeagni;

                                                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;

                                                           Uroleucon compositae

       B. inyangana                                        Myzus persicae

       B. ugandensis                             Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                           Uroleucon compositae

Key to apterae on Bothriocline:-

-      Hairs on front of head and dorsal body mostly long and capitate, with tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE more than 6. SIPH pale with dark apices              …..Capitophorus elaeagni

-      Dorsal hairs not capitate, without tuberculate bases. ANT PT/BASE less than 6. SIPH dark or pale, with or without dark apices                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Bothriospermum                                         Boraginaceae

      Bothriospermum chinense          Myzus persicae

       B. tenellum = B. zeylanicum

       B. zeylanicum                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Bougainvillea                                              Nyctaginaceae

       Bougainvillea brasiliensis = B. spectabilis

       B. buttiana                                   Myzus persicae

       B. glabra (incl. var. sanderiana)       Aphis aurantii, craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       B. spectabilis                                Aphis aurantii, [bougainvilleae B๖rner in Bodenheimer &

                                                                Swirski 1957 (nomen nudum)], citricidus, craccivora, 

                                                                fabae, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Greenidea ficicola];

                                                            Myzus antirrhinii, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus

       B. spinosa                                    Aphis craccivora

       Bougainvillea spp.                      Lizerius cermeli; [Schoutedenia ralumensis];

                                                            Sinomegoura citricola

Key to aphids on Bougainvillea:-

-      Fore femora much thicker than mid and hind femora. Anal plate bilobed. Cauda with a constriction and an elongate knob.  SIPH as short dark truncate cones.  Apt. with long, pointed marginal processes. Forewing of al. with pterostigma extended to tip and heavily infuscated cubital veins                                                                              ..…Lizerius cermeli

-      Fore femora similar in thickness to mid and hind femora. Anal plate entire. Other characters not as above                                                       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Bouteloua                                                    Poaceae

      Bouteloua americana                  Sipha flava

       B. gracilis                                     Sitobion graminis

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Bouvardia                                                    Rubiaceae

      Bouvardia spp.                            Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Bowkeria                                                     Stilbaceae

      Bowkeria gerrardiana = B. verticillata

       B. verticillata                                Myzus ornatus, persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Boykinia                                                      Saxifragaceae

      Boykinia elata = B. occidentalis

         B. occidentalis                             Nasonovia stroyani   


Brachanthemum                                          Asteraceae

      Brachanthemum fruticulosum  Myzus ornatus


Brachiaria                                                              Poaceae

      Brachiaria brizantha                  Sitobion africanum, graminis, leelamaniae

       B. comata                                    Aphis gossypii; Hysteroneura setariae

       B. deflexa                                    Hysteroneura setariae

       B. fasciculata                               Sipha flava; Tetraneura fusiformis

       B. humidicola                             Sitobion africanum

       B. kotschyana = B. comata

       B. lachnantha                             Sitobion graminis

       B. lata                                          Aphis gossypii

       B. mutica                                     Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum, hypersiphonata; Sitobion miscanthi;

                                                                               Tetraneura fusiformis

       B. paspaloides = Urochloa glumaris

       B. ramosa                                    Sitobion graminis; Tetraneura fusiformis, radicicola group

       B. remota                                    Tetraneura fusiformis

       B. reptans                                    Hysteroneura setariae; Pseudoregma panicola;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum; Tetraneura fusiformis

       B. subquadripara                        Hysteroneura setariae; Rhopalosiphum padi

       Brachiaria sp.(?)                         Pentalonia gavarri (as Micromyzus brachiariae)

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Brachychiton                                                                       Sterculiaceae

       Brachychiton spp.                      Myzus persicae; Sitobion sp.


Brachycome   see  Brachyscome                                    Asteraceae


Brachyglottis                                                                       Asteraceae

      Brachyglottis huntii                    Brachycaudus helichrysi


Brachylaena                                                Asteraceae

      Brachylaena dentata (?)             Aphis gossypii

       B. discolor                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       B. ramiflora                                Uroleucon compositae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Brachypodium (including Brevipodium)                           Poaceae

      Brachypodium phoenicoides      Myzus persicae; Sipha elegans, flava                                    

      B. pinnatum                                Anoecia corni, major, zirnitsi; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Paracletus cimiciformis; Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha maydis;

                                                            Tetraneura africana, longisetosa, ulmi

       B. retusum                                  Atheroides serrulatus; Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum;  Sipha elegans

      B. sylvaticum                               Anoecia corni, major, zirnitsi; Diuraphis noxia;

                                                             Forda rotunda; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae, miscanthi; Tetraneura longisetosa

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Brachyscome  (including Brachycome)                              Asteraceae

      B. iberidifola                               Uroleucon compositae

       B. multifida                                 Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Brachystegia                                                                        Fabaceae

       Brachystegia spp.                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii


(Use key to polyphagous aphids )


Brachytheciastrum                                                         Brachytheciaceae

      Brachytheciastrum velutinum    Muscaphis musci

Use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Brachythecium                                                                  Brachytheciaceae

      Brachythecium albicans             Pseudacaudella rubida

       B. frigidum                                  Myzodium mimulicola

      B. rivulare                                   Myzodium mimulicola

      B. rutabulum                              Muscaphis musci

       B. salebrosum                             Muscaphis escherichi

       B. starkii                                      [Pachypappa sacculi]

       B. velutinum                               Muscaphis musci

       Brachythecium sp.                      [Clydesmithia canadensis]; [Prociphilus xylostei]

Use key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum.


Brasilettia   see  Peltophorum                                         Fabaceae


Brasenia                                                                                  Cabombaceae

      Brasenia schreberi                      Rhopalosiphum maidis


Brassaia  see  Schefflera                                                     Araliaceae


Brassia                                                         Orchidaceae

      Brassia cochleata                        Myzus ornatus

      B. lawrenceana = B. cochleata   


Brassica                                                       Brassicaceae

       Brassica alba  = Sinapis alba

       B. arvensis = Sinapis arvensis           

         B. barrelieri                                 Brevicoryne brassicae        

       B. campestris  = B. rapa               

       B. caulorapa = B. oleracea           

       B. cernua = B. juncea                   

       B. chinensis = B. rapa                  

       B. elongata                                  Aphis nasturtii, triglochinis

       B. fimbriata = B. oleracea

       B. fruticulosa                              Brevicoryne brassicae

       B. hirta = Sinapis alba                  

       B. integrifolia = B. juncea                                                                                                              

       B. juncea                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

             (incl. var. crispifolia)                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                            [Liosomaphis himalayensis];        Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; [Sitobion avenae, miscanthi];

                                                            [Utamphorophora commelinensis]

       B. kaber  = Sinapis arvensis

       B. napobrassica = B. napus          

       B. napus  (incl. vars                       Aphis fabae; Brevicoryne  brassicae;

                 esculenta, rapifera)             Lipaphis pseudobrassicae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus populitransversus; Smynthurodes betae

       B. nigra                                       Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus populitransversus; Protaphis middletonii

       B. oleracea                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

           (incl. vars  acephala,                      Aulacorthum [prasinum], solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

            alboglabra, botrytis,                     Brevicoryne brassicae; [Dysaphis montemartinii ghanii];

            capitata, caulorapa,                    [Hyalopterus pruni]; Lipaphis pseudobrassicae;

            gongyloides, ramosa)                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus antirrhinii, ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus populitransversus; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                            [Sitobion miscanthi]; Smynthurodes betae

       B. pekinensis = B. rapa                

       B. petsai  =  B. rapa

       B. rapa                                        Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                            [Dysaphis tulipae]; [Liosomaphis himalayensis];

                                                            Lipaphis erysimi, [lepidii], pseudobrassicae;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus antirrhinii, persicae;

                                                            Pemphigus populitransversus; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                            Pseudobrevicoryne buhri;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                            [Tuberocephalus longqishanensis (= Myzus padellus?)]

       B. rugosa = B. juncea

       B. rupestris                                  Brevicoryne brassicae

       B. sabularia = B. barrelieri

       B. sinapistrum = Sinapis arvensis

       B. tournefortii                             Brevicoryne brassicae

       Brassica spp.                               Brevicoryne nigrisiphunculata; Lipaphis unguibrevis;

                                                            [Myzus certus]

Key to apterae on Brassica and Sinapis:-

(See Blackman & Eastop (2000) for simpler keys to aphids on cultivated Brassica spp.)

1     SIPH present and only 0.6-0.8 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.8                                                                                                                                            ..…Brachyunguis harmalae

-      SIPH present or absent, but if present then ANT PT/BASE is always more than 1         ..…2

2     SIPH as very short, flangeless, pigmented cones, less than 0.5 ื cauda. Apt. with secondary rhinaria on distal part of ANT III, and also usually on IV and V

                                                                                                            .….Pseudobrevicoryne buhri

-      SIPH either absent or tubular and at least 0.6 ื cauda. ANT of aptera with or without secondary rhinaria, but these are always restricted to ANT III                                         ..…3

3     SIPH slightly swollen, but not clavate (without narrow section on basal half). ANT tubercles absent, or if developed then not projecting forward beyond middle part of head, so that front of head is convex, straight or sinuate in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                                                                                 …..4

-      Without this combination of characters; i.e. if SIPH are present then they are tapering, cylindrical or clavate (with narrow section on basal half), and either ANT tubercles are very well-developed or ABD TERG 1 and 7 have MTu                                                          ..…8

4     ANT III 2.5-3.7 ื SIPH, which are 0.65-1.0 ื cauda                                                       .….5

-      ANT III 1.2-1.7 ื SIPH, which are 1.2-1.6 ื cauda                                                         .….6

5     SIPH 0.8-1.0 ื cauda, which is as dark as SIPH and broadly triangular. R IV+V 0.6-0.7 ื HT II.  ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.8. (Al. with secondary rhinaria on ANT III 40-78, IV 0-5, V 0)

                                                                                                                 ..…Brevicoryne brassicae

-      SIPH 0.65-0.8 ื cauda, which is tongue-shaped and pale, contrasting with jet black SIPH.  R IV+V 0.85-0.95 ื HT II.  ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.2. (Al. with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III  36-38, IV 0, V 0)                                                  ..…Brevicoryne nigrisiphunculata

6     ANT PT/BASE about 1.2. SIPH more than 2 ื ANT PT. (Al. with secondary rhinaria on ANT III 5-8, IV 0-2, V 0)                                                                  .….Lipaphis unguibrevis

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. SIPH about as long as ANT PT. (Al. with secondary rhinaria on ANT III 9-32, IV 2-13, V 0-3)                                                                                          ..…7

7     ANT III + PT together 1.95-2.5 ื SIPH (90% of specimens less than 2.4 ื)

                                                                                                                          …..Lipaphis erysimi

-      ANT III + PT together 2.1-3.2 ื SIPH (90% of specimens more than 2.4 ื)

                                                                                                           …..Lipaphis pseudobrassicae

8      Thoracic spiracles enlarged, much larger than abdominal spiracles. ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4, usually more than 8.0. Hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.1 ื BD III. Dorsum usually with paired dark intersegmental markings                                                                       …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-     Without that combination of characters                                                                              ..…9

9     SIPH pale, very long and attenuated distally, thinner than hind tibiae at their respective midlengths, 0.33-0.45 ื BL and 2.5-3.5 ื cauda                           …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-     SIPH (if present) pale or dark, thicker and relatively shorter                                           …..10

10  ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.8. SIPH 0.7-1.3 ื cauda                                        …..Aphis triglochinis

-     Without that combination of characters; if ANT PT/BASE is less than 1.9 then SIPH are either absent or more than 1.3 ื cauda                                                                             …..11

11  SIPH mainly pale and moderately clavate. Dorsal abdomen evenly darkly pigmented. Cauda dark                                                                                                        …..Myzus raphanense*

-     Without that combination of characters; If SIPH are pale and clavate then dorsum and cauda are pale                                                                               .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Breea                                                            Asteraceae

      Breea segeta                                Aphis gossypii; Capitophorus elaeagni,[evelaeagni];

                                                            [Hyperomyzus sinilactucae]; Uroleucon cephalonopli

Use key to apterae on Cirsium.

Bremeria                                                      Rubiaceae

      Bremeria landia                       Aphis spiraecola

                   (var holosericea)                

Brevipodium see Brachypodium                                   Poaceae


Breynia   (including Melanthesa)                                            Phyllanthaceae

      Breynia cernua                           Aphis eugeniae; Schoutedenia ralumensis

       B. disticha                                   Schoutedenia ralumensis

      B. formosana = B. vitis-idaea

       B. fruticosa                                  Schoutedenia ralumensis

       B. microphylla                            Sitobion breyniae

       B. nivosa = B. disticha

       B. oblongifolia                            Schoutedenia ralumensis

       B. officinalis = B. vitis-idae