HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

 

Ast-Bes

 

Aster

Asteriscus

Astilbe

Astomaea

Astracantha

Astragalus

Astrantia

Astrocodon

Astroloba

Astydamia

Asyneuma

Asystasia

Atalantia

Athamanta

Athanasia

Athyriopsis

Athyrium

Atractylis

Atractylodes

Atragene

Atraphaxis

Atrichum

Atriplex

Atropa

Atropis

Aubrieta

Aucklandia

Aucuba

Aucuparia

Aulacomnium

Aulacospermum

Aureolaria

Auricula

Austroeupatorium

Avena

Avenastrum

Avenula

Averrhoa

Axonopus

Axyris

Azadirachta

Azalea

Azaleastrum

Azanza

Azolla

Azorella

Azorina

 

Babiana

Baccaurea

Baccharis

Bacopa

Bactris

Baeckea

Bahia

Balanites

Ballota

Balsamina

Balsamita

Balsamorhiza

Baltimora

Bambusa

Bamia

Banisteriopsis

Banksia

Baptisia

Barbarea

Barbula

Barkhausia

Barleria

Barnadesia

Barringtonia

Bartsia

Basella

Basilicum

Bassia

Bathmium

Batrachium

Bauera

Bauhinia

Becium

Beckmannia

Bedfordia

Behen

Belamcanda

Bellardia

Bellevalia

Bellidiastrum

Bellis

Bellium

Beloperone

Bencomia

Benincasa

Berberidopsis

Berberis

Berchemia

Bergenia

Berkheya

Bersama

Berteroa

Berula

Beschorneria

 

 

Aster                                                             Compositae

(In recent years ther have been some major changes in the generic concepts within Asteridae as a result of molecular and phylogenetic revisionary work by North American and European botanists. American asters are now mostly placed in the genus Symphyotrichum, and many Asiatic species are now placed in Galatella.)

       Aster adustus = Aster ageratoides                                               

       A. ageratoides (incl. vars                Macrosiphoniella yomenae;

            amplexifolius, ovatus,                  Uroleucon fuchuense, monticola, vera

            semiamplexicaulis)                            

       A. alpinus                                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Illinoia subviride

       A. amellus                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi,[salicinae];

                                                Uroleucon pachysiphon

       A. bakerianus                              Aphis gossypii

       A. bellidiastrum                           Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. biflorus = Galatella sedifolia ssp. biflora

       A. bracei = Symphyotrichum tenuifolium

       A. canescens (Nees) Fisjun = Kalimeris altaica

       A. canescens Pursh = Dietaria canescens

       A. chinensis = Callistephus chinensis                                          

       A. chromopappus = Galatella chromopappa

       A. conspicuus  = Eurybia conspicua

       A. cordifolius  = Symphyotrichum cordifolium                              

       A. dahuricus = Galatella dahurica

       A. diplostephioides                      [Uroleucon raychaudhurii (Bhagat 1981b; nomen nudum)]

       A. divaricatus  = Eurybia divaricata

       A. dracunculoides  = Galatella sedifolia ssp. dracunculoides

       A. drummondii = Symphyotrichum drummondii

       A. dumosus = Symphyotrichum dumosum                                     

       A. emellus (= amellus?)               Myzus persicae

       A. ericoides  = Symphyotrichum ericoides

       A. exilis                                        Acyrthosiphon bidenticola; Aphis gossypii

       A. fastigiatus                                Macrosiphoniella yomenae

       A. foliaceus = Symphyotrichum foliaceum

       A. fruticosus = Felicia fruticosa

       A. geyeri = Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri

       A. glehnii                                     [Uroleucon mulgedii]

       A. grimmii = Pseudolinosyris grimmii

       A. hayatae                                   Macrosiphoniella yomenae

       A. himalaicus                              Uroleucon asterophagum

       A. hispidus                                   Macrosiphoniella davazhamci

      A. incisus                                     Aleurodaphis asteris; Macrosiphoniella yomenae;

                                                            Myzus asteriae

       A.incisus var. australis = Kalimeris incisa

       A. indicus  = Kalimeris indica

       A. integrifolius  = Eurybia integrifolia

       A. koraiensis                                Macrosiphoniella yomenae; Uroleucon asteriae                  

       A. laevis = Symphyotrichum laeve

       A. lateriflorus  = Symphyotrichum lateriflorum                             

       A. lautureana  = Kalimeris lautureana                                        

       A. leucanthemifolius = Dieteria canescens var. leucanthemifolia

       A. linosyris                                   Macrosiphoniella linariae; [Uroleucon sonchi]

       A. maackii                                   Uroleucon amamianum, cichorii, [gobonis], lactucicola,

                                                                monticola, picridis

       A. macrophyllus = Eurybia macrophylla

       A. modestus = Canadanthus modestus

       A. mongolicus = Kalimeris mongolica

       A. multiflorus = Symphyotrichum ericoides

       A. mutabilis                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. novae-angliae = Symphyotrichum novae-angliae                      

       A. novi-belgii = Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

       A. oleifolius  = Galatella villosa

       A. paniculatus = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum                            

       A. patens = Symphyotrichum patens

       A. pilosus = Symphyotrichum pilosum

       A. pinnatifidus (= iinumae?)       Uroleucon amamianum

       A. prenanthoides = Symphyotrichum prenanthoides

       A. punctatus = Galatella sedifolia

       A. puniceus = Symphyotrichum puniceum

       A. pygmaeus = Symphyotrichum pygmaeum

       A. sagittifolius = Symphyotrichum cordifolium

       A. savatieri                                   Aleurodaphis asteris

             (incl. var. pygmaeus)                                                                                     

       A. scaber = Doellingeria scabra      

       A. sedifolius = Galatella sedifolia   

       A. simplex = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum                                   

       A. simplex var. ramosissimus = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum

       A. sinensis                                   Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. spathulifolius                          Myzus asteriae, Myzus sp. (Korea, BMNH collection)

       A. squamatus = Symphyotrichum squamatum

       A. subutatus (?)                           Protaphis middletonii

       A. tanacetifolius = Machaeranthera tanacetifolia

       A. tataricus (incl. var.                     Aphis spiraecola; [Capitophorus cirsiiphagus];

                        hortensis)                      Macrosiphoniella quinifontana, yomenae;

                                                            [Metopolophium dirhodum]; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon asteromyzon

       A. tradescantii  = Symphyotrichum tradescantii

       A. trinervius                                 Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       A. tripolium = Tripolium pannonicum ssp. tripolium                      

       A. umbellatus  = Doellingeria umbellata

       A. undulatus = Symphyotrichum undulatum

       A. yomena                                   Aleurodaphis asteris, blumeae;

                                                            Aulacorthum asteris, solani;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella sanborni, yomenae, [yomogicola];

                                                            Myzus asteriae, persicae

       Aster spp.                                    Aphis astericola, aurantii; Aulacorthum asteris;

                                                            [Brachycaudus sp. on Galatella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2002d)];

                                                            [Hyalomyzus mitchellensis]; [Illinoia grindeliae];

                                              Macrosiphoniella [aktaschica], [sanborni], [yangi];

                                                            Macrosiphum pallidum; Myzus siegesbeckicola;

                                                            Pemphigus [asteris Lichtenstein; nomen nudum)], [betae];

                                                            Pleotrichophorus asterifoliae; Sitobion africanum;

                                                            Uroleucon atripes, bradburyi, floricola, kamtshaticum,

                                                                ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum, manitobense, nodulum,

                                                                tenuitarsum

Key to aphids on Aster, Eurybia, Dieteria, Doellingeria, Galatella, Kalimeris and Symphyotrichum:-

1     Eyes composed of only 3 facets. ANT less than 0.3 Χ BL, with PT/BASE less than 1   ..…2

-      Eyes with many facets. ANT more than 0.3 Χ BL, with PT/BASE more than 1              ..…6

2     Body elongate oval, small (BL less than 1.3 mm), sclerotic dorsally, with a crenulate margin due to a continuous fringe of wax glands. SIPH as pores with raised rims. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                                               …..3

-      Body broadly oval to almost globular, BL more than 1.5 mm, cuticle membranous, wax glands not in a continuous marginal row. SIPH absent. Cauda rounded, anal plate entire

                                                                                                                                                  …..4

3     R IV+V elongate, 0.137-0.194 mm long, more than 3 Χ its basal width. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs                                                                                       .....Aleurodaphis blumeae

-      R IV+V 0.074-0.104 mm long, less than 3 Χ its basal width. First tarsal segments with 2 hairs                                                                                                      .....Aleurodaphis asteris

4     R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long. shorter than last antennal segment (BASE + PT), and without any accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and first tarsal segments short and thick. Wax glands present on ABD TERG 3-7                                                               .....Pemphigus sp.

-      R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, as long as or longer than last antennal segment (BASE + PT), and bearing 4-12 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of hind tibiae and first tarsal segments long and fine. Wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen, or absent                           ..…5

5     ANT II similar in length to ANT III, which bears numerous hairs. Primary rhinaria with sclerotized rims, without fimbriae. Wax glands absent. Anus in dorsal position, abdomen without a posterior projection                                                              .….Smynthurodes betae

-      ANT II much shorter than ANT III, which bears few hairs, mainly on distal part. Primary rhinaria each with a fringe of fimbriae. Wax glands present on head, thorax and abdomen. Anus borne on posterior projection of the abdomen                   ..... Prociphilus erigeronensis

6     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation, forming at least 10 closed cells, and with a number of incomplete cells at its proximal boundary, which is therefore not clearly demarcated                                                                                                                        .….7

-      SIPH without such a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation; sometimes with transverse striae that have some tendency to form a reticulation, but this has less than 10 closed cells, or in one case (Acuticauda) with reticulation in a short membranous section that is clearly demarcated by an annular constriction                                                                            ..…56

7     Conspicuous dark, crescent-shaped antesiphuncular sclerites present, but no large postsiphuncular sclerites (e.g. Fig.15a)                                                                               .....8

-      Antesiphuncular sclerites faint or absent; postsiphuncular sclerites present or absent

       ..…16

8     ANT III with 20-64 rhinaria distributed over more than half its length                           …..9

-      ANT III with 4-20 rhinaria on basal half                                                                        .….11

9     SIPH 0.13-0.14 Χ BL, 0.46-0.55 Χ ANT III and 0.7-0.9 Χ cauda. ANT VI BASE 1.6-1.9 Χ R IV+V                                                                                     …..Macrosiphoniella elegans*

-      SIPH 0.15-0.21 Χ BL, 0.6-0.9 Χ ANT III and 0.8-1.2 Χ cauda. ANT VI BASE 1.1-1.55 Χ R IV+V                                                                                                                               …..10

10   ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs rarely duplicated (Fig.15b)                                                 

                                                                                                           .….Macrosiphoniella linariae

-      ABD TERG 1-4 with spinal hairs (and their basal scleroites) almost always duplicated (Fig.15c)                                                                                   .….Macrosiphoniella yomenae

11   R IV+V about 1.4-1.5 Χ HT II                                              ..…Macrosiphoniella bozhkoae*

-      R IV+V 0.5-1.0 Χ HT II                                                                                                  ..…12

12   Tibiae mainly pale, dark apically and at extreme bases                                                   …..13

-      Tibiae entirely dark                                                                                                          …..14

13   Cauda paler than SIPH                                                                 ..…Macrosiphoniella asteris

-      Cauda dark like SIPH                                       …..Macrosiphoniella erigeronis ssp. villosae*

14   SIPH 1.25-1.40 Χ cauda                                                                ….. Macrosiphoniella soosi

-      SIPH 0.8-1.1 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..15

15   ANT III with 9-11 rhinaria. Cauda with 8 hairs. Small MTu often present on some or all of ABD TERG 2-5                                                                       .....Macrosiphoniella galatellae

-      ANT III with 12-15 rhinaria. Cauda with c.12 hairs. ABD TERG 2-5 without MTu

…..Macrosiphoniella quinifontana*

16   ANT tubercles very poorly developed so that front of head is almost straight in dorsal view. SIPH 0.15-0.2 Χ BL, with reticulation extending over 0.4-0.55 of length. ANT PT/BASE 2.6-4.0. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed III 22-31, IV 8-11, V 0-1)

                                                                                                    …..Macrosiphoniella davazhamci

-      ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces divergent in dorsal view. SIPH 0.15-0.55 Χ BL, with reticulation over distal 0.03-0.5 of length.  ANT PT/BASE 2.6-7.4. (Al. where known with sec. rhin. only on ANT III)                                                                          .....17

17   SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.15-0.5 of length, and comprising many small cells of maximum diameter less than 0.25 of width of SIPH at that point. Flange often weakly developed                                                                            …..18

-      SIPH with zone of polygonal reticulation extending over 0.03-0.2 of length, and comprising large cells, of maximum diameter more than 0.25 of width of SIPH at that point. Flange well developed                                                                                                                        …..51

18   Cauda much paler than distal part of  SIPH                                                                   …..19

-      Cauda almost as dark as distal part of  SIPH                                                                  ..…46

19   Coxae dark, clearly darker than trochanters and basal halves of femora                        …..20

-      Coxae pale like trochanters and basal halves of femora                                                  …..22

20   Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly not placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.73-0.88 Χ HT II                                                                                                       …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 1.1-1.6 Χ HT II                                                                                                                                …..21

21   R IV+V 1.25-1.67 Χ ANT VI BASE and 1.17-1.33 Χ HT II. Cauda with 18-28 hairs

                                                                                                                      …..Uroleucon cichorii

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.2 Χ ANT VI BASE and 1.5-1.6 Χ HT II. Cauda with 30-37 hairs

                                                                                                           …..Uroleucon doellingeriae*

22   SIPH dusky with darker apices, and 0.18-0.22 Χ BL                     ..…Uroleucon bradburyi*

-      SIPH either entirely dark or mainly dark with a pale basal section; 0.16-0.55 Χ BL      .….23

23   SIPH mainly dark but with a pale basal section                                                              .….24

-      SIPH  uniformly pigmented                                                                                             .....35

24   ABD TERG 8 with a pair of spinal tubercles (STu), and ABD TERG 6 and 7 sometimes also with 1-2 STu.  SIPH about 0.16-0.18 Χ BL, about equal in length to cauda

                                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon nodulum*

-      ABD TERG 6-8 without STu. SIPH 0.21-0.55 Χ BL and 0.9-2.5 Χ cauda                     ….25

25   SIPH 0.21-0.24 Χ BL, with pale section at base of SIPH less than 0.13 of total length ..…26

-      SIPH 0.22-0.55 Χ BL, with pale basal section often more than 0.16 of total length      …..27

26   R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II                                                              …..Uroleucon crepusisiphon

-      R IV+V 0.65-0.80 Χ HT II                                                            …..Uroleucon manitobense

27   R IV+V 1.4-1.85 Χ HT II, and bearing more than 14 accessory hairs                            …..28

-      R IV+V 0.6-1.34 Χ HT II, and bearing 6-12 accessory hairs                                          …..29

28   ANT III with 8-25 rhinaria. SIPH 1.5-2 Χ cauda                        .….Uroleucon zymozionense 

-      ANT III with 28-46 rhinaria. SIPH 1.1-1.4 Χ cauda                         …..Uroleucon anomalae

29   SIPH (1.8-) 2.1-2.8 Χ cauda                                                                                            ..…30

-      SIPH 0.9-2.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                      ..…31

30   Cauda with one or more hairs near apex that are short and blunt or capitate. Tibiae mainly pale or dusky with dark apices. (R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II)          ..…Uroleucon erigeronense

-      Cauda with all hairs pointed. Tibiae dark                                           …..Uroleucon katonkae

31   R IV+V 1.15-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                                                …..32

-      R IV+V 0.6-1.0 Χ HT II                                                                                                  …..33

32   ANT dark beyond base of III. SIPH pale on basal 0.2-0.3. HT II without ventral hairs on proximal 0.5-0.7 of length, or these hairs very small or vestigeal

       .….Uroleucon gravicorne

-      ANT entirely or at least distally pale. SIPH c.0.33 Χ BL and pale only on basal c.0.08.

       (HT II with normal chaetotaxy?)                                                              …..Uroleucon vera*

33   R IV+V 0.6-0.75 Χ HT II which is 0.19-0.22 mm long                    .....Uroleucon tenuitarsus

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II which is 0.14-0.17 mm long                                                    .….34

34   SIPH 1.4-2.0 Χ cauda which bears 7-12 hairs                             …..Uroleucon breviscriptum

-      SIPH 0.9-1.4 Χ cauda which bears 10-19 hairs                          …..Uroleucon macgillivrayae

35   SIPH 1.7-2.2 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs long, pointed and rather numerous; ABD TERG 8 with 6-8 hairs                                                                       .….Uroleucon monticola

-      SIPH 1.1-1.8 Χ cauda. Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or blunt; ABD TERG 8 with 2-7 hairs

                                                                                                                                                .….36

36   R IV+V 1.6-1.9 Χ HT II, and bearing 17-24 accessory hairs. (ANT III with 10-30 rhinaria)

                                                                                                               ..…Uroleucon astronomus

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.75 Χ HT II, and bearing 6-16 accessory hairs                                          …..37

37   R IV+V 1.4-1.75 Χ HT II, and bearing 6-10 accessory hairs. ANT III with 25-63 rhinaria

                                                                                                                                                …..38

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II, and bearing 6-16 accessory hairs. ANT III with 4-47 rhinaria

                                                                                                                                                …..39

38   ANT III black and longer than SIPH                                                     .....Uroleucon picridis

-      ANT III pale and shorter than (less than 0.9 Χ) SIPH                         .....Uroleucon asteriae*

39   SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.35-0.4 of length. Tibiae entirely dark. ANT III with 13-47 rhinaria (usually more than 20)                                             .….Uroleucon atripes

-      SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.23-0.33 of length.  Tibiae variably pigmented, but if entirely dark then ANT III has less than 20 rhinaria                                             .….40

40   Hind tibia with a ventral row of short peg-like hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs long and

        fine-pointed (longest more than 90 μm)                                           ..…Uroleucon fuchuense

-      Hind tibia without a row of short peg-like hairs. Dorsal abdominal hairs pointed or blunt, maximally c.70 μm long                                                                                                  .….41

41   R IV+V 0.9-1.1 Χ HT II                                                                                                  ..…42

-      R IV+V 1.15-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                                                 .....44

42   SIPH c.1.8 Χ cauda. ANT III with 36-42 rhinaria                        …..Uroleucon asteromyzon

-      SIPH 1.4-1.6 Χ cauda. ANT III with 16-39(-46)rhinaria                                                …..43

43   Cauda with 15-29 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-4 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.6 Χ BD III                                                                                      …..Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      Cauda with c.37 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-1.2 Χ BD III                                                                                              …..Uroleucon kamtshaticum*

44   Tibiae entirely dark. ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria                  .….Uroleucon paucosensoriatum

-      Tibiae with paler section on basal half. ANT III with 7-35 rhinaria                               …..45

45   SIPH usually longer than (0.95-1.25 Χ) ANT III, and 0.29-0.35 Χ BL. Cauda with 21-36 hairs. ANT III with 7-17 rhinaria                                                              ..…Uroleucon olivei

-      SIPH usually shorter than (0.7-1.05 Χ) ANT III, and 0.21-0.29 Χ BL. Cauda with 12-27 hairs. ANT III with 8-35 rhinaria                                    .….Uroleucon ambrosiae lizerianum

46   Coxae pale, and femora only dark over distal 0.25 or less                    .....Uroleucon floricola

-      Coxae dusky or dark, and femora dark over at least distal 0.3                                       .….47

47   Tibiae wholly dark. SIPH very thick, with apical diameter more than 0.5 of basal diameter  

                                                                                                              ..…Uroleucon pachysiphon

-      Tibiae with pale basal or middle section. SIPH tapering apically to less than 0.5 of basal diameter                                                                                                                           …..48

48   SIPH 1.1-1.3 Χ cauda, with reticulation extending over distal 0.33-0.4. ANT III with 17-32 rhinaria                                                                                           .….Uroleucon amamianum

-      SIPH 1.35-2.7 Χ cauda, with reticulation on distal 0.15-0.33. ANT III with 11-19 or 48-c.70 rhinaria                                                                                                                             ..…49

49   ANT III with 11-19 rhinaria confined to basal half of segment. (Al. with 32-54 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                         ….. Uroleucon lactucicola

-      ANT III with 47-c.70 rhinaria extending over 0.69-0.75 of its length. (Al. with more than 73 rhinaria on ANT III)                                                                                                        …..50

50   SIPH 1.88-1.98 Χ cauda. ANT III with c.60-70 rhinaria             …..Uroleucon sileneobium*

-      SIPH 1.35-1.65 Χ cauda. ANT III with 47-65 rhinaria              …..Uroleucon asterophagum

51   SIPH entirely dark, or only pale at base                                                                          …..52

-      SIPH pale or dusky, somewhat darker on reticulated subapical part                              …..53

52   Dorsal abdomen somewhat sclerotic, often with dark markings. Longest hairs on ANT III less than 0.5 Χ BD III. tibiae mainly pale                                             .….Sitobion africanum

-      Dorsal abdomen membranous, pale. Longest hairs on ANT III more than 0.5 Χ BD III. Tibiae mainly dark                                                                          ..…Macrosiphum pallidum

53   R IV+V 1.4-2.1 Χ HT II, with 14-45 accessory hairs                                                     …..54

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.2 Χ HT II, with 7-10 accessory hairs                                                       …..55

54   R IV+V not more than 2 Χ its basal width, with 34-45 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT BASE VI 2.7-3.3 Χ HT II                               ..…Macrosiphum olmsteadi

-      R IV+V more than 2 Χ its basal width, with 14-28 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. ANT BASE VI 1.4-1.7 Χ HT II                                                      ..…Illinoia subviride

55   Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 Χ BD III. SIPH clearly somewhat swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH                                                                           …..Illinoia goldamaryae

-      Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest 0.5 Χ BD III or longer. SIPH cylindrical or very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated subapical zone, which is 0.13-0.2 of its total length 

                                                                                                           ..…Macrosiphum euphorbiae

56   ANT tubercles moderately to well developed, with inner faces convergent, parallel or divergent, projecting considerably beyond middle part of front of head in dorsal view ..…57

-      Front of head sinuous, straight or convex in dorsal view, with ANT tubercles absent or, if at all developed, then broadly divergent and not or hardly projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view                                                                                                                      …..70

57   Head and inner face of ANT I spiculose/scabrous, and ANT tubercles rather low with inner faces broadly divergent. ANT III with 4-11 rhinaria on basal part. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.5-3.2 Χ cauda. Tergum extensively scleotised                                                     .....58

-      If head and ANT I are both spiculose or scabrous then inner faces of ANT tubercles are steep-sided or apically convergent, ANT III has either 0-2 rhinaria near base or 4-12 distributed over most of its length, and other characters not in above combination        .....59

58   ANT PT/BASE 6.3-6.9. R IV+V 1.4-1.5 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.5-2.8 Χ cauda

.....Chitinosiphum kalimeris*

-      ANT PT/BASE 7.0-8.6. R IV+V 1.5-1.8 Χ HT II. SIPH 2.7-3.2 Χ cauda

                                                                                                      .....Chitinosiphum doellingeriae*

59   Cuticle of head almost smooth or with spicules only ventrally. Inner face of ANT I almost smooth                                                                                                                              .....60

-      Cuticle of head densely spiculose, nodulose or scabrous, dorsally as well as ventrally. Inner face of ANT I nodulose or scabrous                                                                               …..62

60   ANT III with 17-29 rhinaria distributed along most of its length       .....Aulacorthum asteris

-      ANT III with 0-5 rhinaria on basal half                                                                           .....61

61   Dorsal hairs with expanded apices. SIPH pale. Cauda conical, with 5 hairs. R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                                              ..…Pleotrichophorus asterifoliae

-      Dorsal hairs with blunt apices. SIPH dark except at base, with some ill-defined subapical reticulation. Cauda long and finger-like, with 6-7 hairs. R IV+V longer than HT II

                                                                                                          ..…Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

62   Dorsal abdomen with a large, roughly horseshoe-shaped dark patch, and broad dark bars on dorsal thorax                                                                                  .…. Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsal abdomen without a large dark patch (in aptera)                                                  ..…63

63   Subgenital plate strongly produced posteriorly, broadly conical (Fig.15d). SIPH tapering from a broad base, narrow on distal half (Fig.15e)                          .….Myzus siegesbeckicola

-      Subgenital plate normal. SIPH not tapering from a broad base, cylindrical or slightly to moderately swollen on distal half                                                                                    …..64

64   Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings                .….Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without intersegmental markings                                                         ..…65

65   SIPH tapering/cylindrical                                                                                                …..66

-      SIPH swollen on distal half                                                                                             …..68

66   ANT III with 4-12 secondary rhinaria distributed in a line over most of its length. ANT PT/BASE 5.4-7.2                                                                   …..Aulacorthum asteriphagum*

-      ANT III with 0-3 small rhinaria near base. ANT PT/BASE c.2.7-5.5                            …..67

67   R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II with 5-7 (usually 6) accessory hairs. ANT III with (0-)1-2(-3) small rhinaria near base. ANT longer than body with ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5

                                                                                                                      .....Aulacorthum solani

-      R IV+V c. 2.5 Χ HT II and bearing c.20 accessory hairs. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT shorter than body with ANT PT/BASE c.2.7-3.0    …..Myzus sp. (Korea, BMNH collection)

68   Head and ANT I dusky to dark. R IV+V 1.7-2.1 Χ HT II. (Al. with broad dark bands along the wing veins)                                                                            ..…Neotoxoptera yasumatsui

-      Head and ANT I pale. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II. (Al. with unbordered wing veins)     …..69

69   SIPH 4-9 times longer than their minimum width, clearly shorter than head width across eyes (Fig.15f). ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0                                                                …..Myzus asteriae

-      SIPH 9-15 times longer than their minimum width, as long as or longer than head width across eyes. ANT/PT BASE 2.8-5.1                                                           …..Myzus persicae

70   Tarsi completely absent from all legs                                                      ..…Atarsos grindeliae

-      Tarsi present                                                                                                                     …..71

71   SIPH smooth, conical, less than twice as long as their basal width, with an annular incision proximal to the flange (e.g. Fig.15g). ANT tubercles completely undeveloped, so that front of head is convex in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)

       ..…72

-      SIPH imbricated and more than twice their basal width, with no subapical annular incision. ANT tubercles weakly developed, so that front of head has sinuous outline in dorsal view. MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                 ..…73

72   Cauda helmet-shaped, with all hairs long and fine-pointed          .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda broad at base, narrower on distal part, with an apical hair that is usually hooked or blunt (Fig.15h)                                                                                   .....Acuticauda asterensis

73   Stridulatory apparatus present, consisting of a row of very short peg-like hairs on hind tibiae and a pattern of cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5-6

.….Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                ..…74

74   Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black patch                               .….Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsal abdomen without an extensive solid black patch; with or without segmentally divided or scattered black markings                                                                                             .….75

75   ANT III (in normal apt.) with 1-14 rhinaria. SIPH 0.7-1.2 Χ R IV+V. Dorsal abdomen with variable, often rather extensive, dark patches                                    .....Protaphis middletonii

-      ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform apt). SIPH more than 1.5 Χ R IV+V. Dorsal abdomen without or with a few scattered markings anterior to SIPH                            ..…76

76   SIPH 0.24-0.40 Χ BL, about twice as long as the much paler cauda.  Head, ANT I, II and basal part of III very pale, contrasting with dark rest of ANT               .….Aphis coreopsidis

-      SIPH only up to 0.2 Χ BL. Cauda pale or dark. Head and antennal segments differently pigmented                                                                                                                        .….77

77   Cauda dark with 4-6 hairs. Hind tibiae entirely dark                              …..Aphis astericola*

-      Cauda either pale/dusky with 4-9 hairs, or dusky/dark with 7-27 hairs. Hind tibiae with at least middle section pale/dusky                                                                                       ..…78

78   ABD TERG 2-5 mostly bearing MTu. SIPH and cauda both dusky. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.9. Cauda with 5-9 hairs. (Al. with 1-6 rhinaria on ANT IV, and 0-2 on V)       ..…Aphis tripolii

-      ABD TERG 2-5 usually without MTu, sometimes with small ones on some segments. SIPH dark, cauda dark, dusky or pale. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. Cauda with 4-27 hairs. (Al. with 0-2 rhinaria on ANT IV, 0 on V)

.….for  separation of the remaining polyphagous Aphis spp. (asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola), use relevant couplets in polyphagous aphids key

      

Asteriscus                                                     Compositae

       Asteriscus aquaticus                    Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus inulae

       A. graveolens                               Brachyunguis harmalae; Myzus persicae

       A. maritimus = Pallenis maritima

       A. spinosus                                  Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis gossypii;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brachyunguis harmalae;

                                                            Protaphis terricola

       Asteriscus sp.                               [Macrosiphum rosae]

Key for apterae on Asteriscus:-

1     Rather elongate spindle-shaped aphid with very long thin curved SIPH                        …...2 

-      Oval-bodied aphid. SIPH not very long, thin and curved                                                ..…3

2     Dorsal hairs thick and capitate. BL 1.2-1.8 mm. ANT PT/BASE 5.5-9.5

                                                                                                                   …..Capitophorus inulae

-      Dorsal hairs inconspicuous. BL 2.5-3.5 mm. ANT PT/BASE 3-4

       …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

3     ANT PT/BASE 0.4-1.4. SIPH 0.4-1.3 Χ cauda                                                                …..4

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-5.3. SIPH 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda               .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

4     Head and coxae pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 0.4-0.75. SIPH pale, 0.4-0.7 Χ cauda, which is tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width                               …..Brachyunguis harmalae

-      Head and coxae dark. ANT PT/BASE 0.7-1.4. SIPH dark, 0.4-1.3 Χ cauda, which is bluntly triangular, not longer than its basal width                                             …..Protaphis terricola

      

Astilbe                                                          Saxifragaceae

       Astilbe chinensis = A. rubra       

       A. davidii = A. rubra

       A. longicarpa                               Taiwanomyzus montanus

       A. microphylla                             Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; Taiwanomyzus montanus

       A. philippinensis                          Taiwanomyzus montanus

       A. rivularis                                   Taiwanomyzus [darjeelingensis], montanus

       A. rubra                                       Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            [Aphis astilbes Matsumura 1917 (nomen nudum)];

                                                            [Macrosiphum sorbi]

       A. thunbergii (incl. var.                  [Eriosoma astilbensis (Shinji 1939)];                                   

                              congesta)                 Taiwanomyzus montanus

       Astilbe spp. (and cultivars)          Aphis fabae, [Aphis sp. – Leonard 1973, 3];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to aphids on Astilbe:-

1     Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation. SIPH slightly to strongly swollen on distal half. Cauda with 5 hairs                                                                                                             …..2

-      Without this combination of characters                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

2     ANT III with 3-26 rhinaria. SIPH black, dorsum with an extensive solid dark shield. SIPH widest at c.0.8-0.85 of length, where diameter is c.1.5 Χ that of narrowest part of stem. SIPH c.0.33 Χ BL                                                                       …..Taiwanomyzus montanus

-      ANT III with 1-3 rhinaria. SIPH dusky, dorsum with segmentally-divided dark sclerites. SIPH widest at c. 0.6-0.7 of length, where diameter is c.2 Χ that of narrowest part of stem. SIPH c. 0.25 Χ BL                                                              …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

 

Astomaea                                                     Apiaceae

      Astomaea seselifolia                    Aphis fabae

 

Astracantha                                                 Leguminosae

      Astracantha adscendens             Brachyunguis skafi; Therioaphis pteromaculata

       A. caucasica                                Therioaphis astragali

       A. gossypina                                Aphis craccivora; Bicaudella astragalensis, rostrata;

                                                            Brachyunguis skafi;

       A. granatensis                             Therioaphis trifolii

       A. sicula                                       Aphis craccivora; Therioaphis trifolii

       A. parrowiana                             Brachyunguis skafi

Use key to apterae under Astragalus.

 

Astragalus                                                    Leguminosae

      Astragalus adscendens = Astracantha adscendens

         A. adsurgens                               Aphis astragalicola, craccivora

       A. albifrons (?)                            Aphis fabae

       A. alopecias                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. alpinus                                    Acyrthosiphon kondoi, loti, pisum;

                                                            Aphis astragali, [loti], masoni, polaris

       A. arenarius                                Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, tacita;

                                                            Therioaphis trifolii ssp. ventromaculata

       A. armatus                                   Aphis craccivora

       A. asterias                                    Aphis craccivora

       A. bisulcatus                                Aphis craccivora

       A. boeticus                                   Acyrthosiphon caraganae; Aphis craccivora

       A. brachypus                               Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora

       A. campylorrhynchus                 Aphis craccivora

       A. canadensis                              Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. canescens                                Acyrthosiphon kondoi

       A. caucasicus = Astracantha caucasica

       A. chinensis                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. cicer                                        Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis ciceri; Therioaphis trifolii

       A. danicus                                   Aphis astragalicola, craccivora

       A. davuricus = Astragalus stevenianus

       A. ellipsoideus                             Aphis craccivora

       A. falcatus                                   Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. follicularis                               Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. forsskalii                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. frigidus                                    Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis astragali

       A. fruticosus                                Aphis astragali, craccae

       A. glaucophyllus                         Aphis fabae

       A. globiceps                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. glycyphyllos                            Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, fabae

       A. gossypinus = Astracantha gossypina

         A. granatensis = Astracantha granatensis

         A. granatensis ssp. siculus = Astracantha sicula

       A. hamosus                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. hypoglottis                               [Acyrthosiphon parvum]

       A. hyrcanus                                 Aphis craccivora, [cytisorum]

       A. leucopsis = Astralagus trichopodus var. lonchus

       A. melilotoides                             Aphis astragalicola, craccae, craccivora

       A. membranaceus                       Acyrthosiphon kondoi; Aulacorthum solani

       A. monspessulanus                     Therioaphis trifolii

       A. onobrychis                              Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                            Therioaphis trifolii, trifolii ssp. ventromaculata

       A. parrowianus = Astracantha parrowiana

       A. paucijugus                              Aphis craccivora

       A. pectinatus                                Aphis astragalina, gallowayi

       A. pelecinus                                 Aphis craccivora

       A. penduliflorus                          Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. pomonensis                             Acyrthosiphon kondoi

       A. propinquus                             Acyrthosiphon loti

       A. pseudosquarrosus = Astragalus squarrosus

         A. purpureus = Astragalus hypoglottis

       A. schelichowii                            Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale, pisum;

                                                            Aphis astragali, craccae

       A. sempervirens                           Aphis craccivora; Therioaphis trifolii

       A. sesamoides                              Aphis craccivora

       A. sieversianus                            Aphis solanella

       A. sinicus                                     Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Therioaphis trifolii

       A. spinosus                                  Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Brachyunguis harmalae

       A. spruneri                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. squarrosus                              Therioaphis kermanica

       A. stevenianus                             Aphis astragalicola, craccivora

       A. sulcatus                                   Aphis craccivora; Acyrthosiphon pisum

       A. transiliensis = Astragalus ellipsoideus

       A. trichopodus var. lonchus        Aphis craccivora

       A. turczaninowii                          Aphis craccivora

       A. uliginosus                               Aphis astragali, craccae, craccivora

       A. varius                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora

       A. vesicarius                                Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani

       A. virgatus = Astragalus varius

       A. xiphidium                               Bicaudella astragalensis

       A. xipholobus                              Aphis craccivora

       Astragalus spp.                           Acyrthosiphon astragali, [ilka], umarovi;

                                                            Bicaudella denaensis, farsiana, laurestanica;

                                                            Brachyunguis [astragali Narzikulov and Umarov 1972

                                                                (nomen nudum)];

                                                            Microparsus tephrosiae;

                                                            Therioaphis arnaultae, azerbaidjanica, khayami

Key to aphids on Astragalus and Astracantha:-

(Couplets 1-13 are applicable to both apterae and alatae)

1     Fore coxae greatly enlarged. SIPH in form of truncate cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. Dorsal hairs usually with expanded apices, and/or often arising from tuberculate bases (Figs 16a-c)                                                                                                              .….2

-      Fore coxae normal. Form of SIPH various. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices, and never arising from tuberculate bases

                                                                                                                                                ..…14

2     Knob of cauda surmounted by a conical or finger-like process (e.g. Fig.16d-e)               …..3

-      Knob of cauda without a conical or finger-like process (Fig.16f-g)                                 .….7

3     SIPH black. Head and thorax with a black longitudinal spinal band, having a narrow unpigmented median suture. ABD TERG 1 with black pleural and marginal sclerites, and ABD TERG 2 with black marginal sclerites. ANT III of apt. with 2-4 secondary rhinaria

       .                                                                                                           Bicaudella denaensis

-      SIPH pale. Dorsum without such conspicuous black markings. ANT III of apt. without any rhinaria                                                                                                                               ..…4

4     Rostrum 0.31-0.40 Χ BL, with R IV+V 1.65-1.97 Χ HT II, and bearing 7-9 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                      .....Bicaudella rostrata

-      Rostrum 0.17-0.31 Χ BL, with R IV+V 0.74-1.42 Χ HT II and bearing 4-6 accessory hairs

                                                                                                                                                  .….5

5     Front of head with median projection weakly developed and hairs not arising from clearly tuberculate bases (Fig.16a). R IV+V 1.23-1.42 Χ HT II              .….Bicaudella astragalensis

-      Front of head with a well developed median projection bearing hairs arising from tuberculate bases (Fig.16b,c). R IV+V 0.51-0.93 Χ HT II                                                                   …..6

6     Caudal knob bearing a conical or finger-like process which is 60-80 μm long (Fig.16d). Median frontal projection quadrate, bearing hairs arising from low tuberculate bases (Fig.16b). Dorsal cuticle generally pale, with abdominal hairs arising from pale tuberculate bases. SIPH 1.8-2.4 times longer than their basal widths

..…Bicaudella farsiana

-      Caudal knob with a small conical process 22-38 μm long (Fig.16e). Median frontal projection bearing hairs arising from large conical to cylindrical bases, longer than their basal widths (Fig.16c). Dorsal cuticle of head and thorax lightly pigmented, with a narrow unpigmented spinal suture, and dark rings of pigment around the bases of the dorsal abdominal hairs. SIPH 1.2-1.5 times longer than their basal widths

                                                                                                               .....Bicaudella laurestanica

7     ABD TERG 1-5 each with 4-5 hairs, which are only 5-11 μm long

                                                                                                                  .....Therioaphis arnaultae

-      ABD TERG 1-5 each with 4-15 hairs which are 19-85 μm long                                       .....8

8     ABD TERG 1-5 (of al.) each with only 4 hairs (one spinal pair and one marginal pair)

.....9

-      ABD TERG 1-5 (apt. and al.) each with at least 6 hairs                                                 …..10

9     (Al.) Forewing with pterostigma more than twice as long as broad and mainly pale with thick black border. R IV+V 0.75-1.0 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 1-5 with hairs 40-60 μm long

                                                                                                                  …..Therioaphis astragali

-      (Al.) Forewing with pterostigma 1.8-2.0 Χ longer than broad and mainly black with small pale centre. R IV+V 0.57-0.68 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 1-5 with hairs 19-40 μm long

                                                                                                          .....Therioaphis pteromaculata

10   ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs, or rarely, 3. ABD TERG 1-5 each usually with 6 hairs. Tibiae without any spiculose ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 0.46-0.69  ..…Therioaphis kermanica

-      ABD TERG 8 with 4-9 hairs. ABD TERG 1-5 mostly with more than 6 hairs. Tibiae ornamented with spicules at least distally. ANT/PT BASE 0.77-1.4                              .….11

11   ANT PT 0.90-1.31 Χ R IV+V, which bears 8-10 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.03-1.14 Χ HT II

                                                                                                        .….Therioaphis azerbaidjanica

-      ANT PT more than 1.8 Χ R IV+V, which bears 3-6 accessory hairs. R IV+V 0.67-0.92 Χ HT II                                                                                                                                      ..…12

12   Cauda less than 150 μm long, only 1.40-1.77 Χ R IV+V and 1.20-1.46 Χ HT II, with a subspherical apical knob that is about as long as wide and bears 7-9 hairs (Fig.16f). Dorsal hairs rather fine and not distinctly expanded apically. ANT III of apt. with 0-5 rhinaria

                                                                                                                  ..…Therioaphis khayami

-      Cauda 190-230 μm long, 2.26-2.45 Χ R IV+V and 1.56-1.78 Χ HT II, with a knob that is longer than wide and bears 11-16 hairs (Fig.16g). Dorsal hairs rather thick with distinctly expanded apices. ANT III of apt. with 4-10 rhinaria                                                      .….13

13   Ventral abdomen with large black submarginal sclerites, each encompassing the bases of 5-6 ventral hairs                                                           …..Therioaphis trifolii ssp. ventromaculata

-      Ventral abdomen usually without any submarginal sclerites, sometimes with small or fragmented dusky-dark sclerites, each encompassing bases of 1-4 hairs

                                                                                                                      .….Therioaphis trifolii

14   Front of head with well-developed ANT tubercles, their inner faces divergent, parallel or apically convergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH pale or dark and cauda pale or dusky. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                        ..…15

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH usually and cauda often black. Dorsal abdomen often with dark markings                                                                                                          ..…23

15   SIPH 1.0-1.1 Χ cauda, and distinctly clavate                                 .....Microparsus tephrosiae

-      SIPH 1.2-3.3 Χ cauda; tapering, or cylindrical on distal part, or slightly clavate            .….16

16   ANT BASE VI 1.8-3.0 Χ R IV+V. SIPH attenuate distally                                          …..17

-      ANT BASE VI 1.1-1.7 Χ R IV+V. SIPH not attenuate distally                                    …..19

17    SIPH 0.42-0.50 Χ BL and 2.2-3.5 Χ cauda            …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii (incl. umarovi)

-       SIPH 0.22-0.38 Χ BL, and 1.2-1.9 Χ cauda                                                                    …..18

18    ANT and SIPH mainly dark. ANT III with 4-10 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 2.8-3.0 Χ R IV+V                                                                         .....Acyrthosiphon extremiorientale*

-       ANT and SIPH mainly pale. ANT III with 1-5 secondary rhinaria. ANT VI BASE 1.5-2.5 Χ R IV+V                                                                                              ..... Acyrthosiphon pisum

19   Head spinulose. ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel or apically convergent. R IV+V 0.9-1.4 Χ HT II                                                                              …..20

-      Head smooth. ANT tubercles with inner faces divergent. R IV+V 0.75-0.92 Χ HT II  …..21

20   ANT tubercles with inner faces approximately parallel. SIPH tapering/cylindrical, without any distal swelling. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base

       …..Aulacorthum solani

-      ANT tubercles with inner faces apically convergent. SIPH slightly clavate. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                         …..Myzus persicae

21   Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 38-48 μm long, about equal to BD III. SIPH 2.0-2.6 Χ cauda                                                                                            .…. Acyrthosiphon astragali

-      Longest hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 15-36 μm long, 0.5-0.6 Χ BD III. SIPH 1.2-2.1 Χ cauda

                                                                                                                                               .…. 22

22   SIPH 1.6-2.1 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-6.0                                 .....Acyrthosiphon kondoi

-      SIPH 1.2-1.6 Χ cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-4.2                                      .....Acyrthosiphon loti

23   ANT PT/BASE less than 1.  SIPH pale and 0.57-0.91 Χ cauda           .….Brachyunguis skafi

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1.  SIPH dark, 0.5-2.5 Χ cauda                                            …..24

24   Well-developed, dome-like MTu present on all of ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5, as well as 1 and 7 (Fig.16h)                                                                                                                         …..25

-      MTu absent from, or only sporadically present, and usually small, on ABD TERG 2-5                                                                                                                                                   …..26

25   ANT PT/BASE 1.6-2.2.  SIPH 1.6-2.1 Χ cauda. Hairs on ANT III short and blunt, shorter than BD III                                                                                           …..Aphis astragalicola

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1. SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda. Hairs on ANT III finely pointed, longer than BD III                                                                                                               …..Aphis ciceri

26   SIPH much darker than cauda. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda with 4-8 hairs                                                                                                                     Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH and cauda similarly dark. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings at least posteriorally. Cauda with 4-25 hairs                                                                                                     …..27

27   Hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.75 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen usually with a solid black shield extending over all of ABD TERG 1-6. Cauda with 4-9 hairs                  ..…Aphis craccivora

-      Hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.2 Χ BD III. Dorsal abdomen with scattered or segmentally-divided black markings, or with a variably developed or fragmented black shield that does not usually extend laterally to unite with marginal sclerites on ABD TERG 1-3. Cauda with

       7-25 hairs                                                                                                                         …..28

28   SIPH almost always shorter than (0.5-1.1 Χ) cauda, which bears 8-16 hairs                  …..29

-      SIPH usually longer than (0.8-1.9 Χ) cauda, which bears 7-25 hairs                              .….32

29   Dorsal abdomen with solid black shield extending over middle parts of ABD TERG 1-3 or 1-4 and completely across ABD TERG 4-6 or 5-6. ANT PT/BASE (1.7-)1.9-2.4

       …..Aphis craccae

 -     Dorsal abdominal sclerotisation variable but all tergites with at least some intersegmental division. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.9 (-2.0)                                                                           …..30

30   SIPH 0.50-0.65 (-0.67) Χ cauda                                                                     …..Aphis masoni

-      SIPH (0.65-) 0.70-1.1 Χ cauda                                                                                        …..31

31   Dorsal abdomen with spino-pleural bars on ABD TERG 4-6 or 5-6, but ABD TERG 1-2 (-3) only ever with scattered small sclerites (Fig.16i). Cauda tongue-shaped, 0.23-0.33 mm

…..Aphis astragali

-      Dorsal abdomen variably but more evenly sclerotised. Cauda elongate triangular, 0.16-0.21 mm                                                                                                                  …..Aphis polaris

32   ABD TERG 8 with a dark transverse band of even width that extends latero-ventrally, encircling the segment almost to the subgenital plate (Fig.16j)                                       ..…33

-      ABD TERG 8 with a short dark transverse bar that is not extended latero-ventrally    …..34

33   ANT III with 0-13 rhinaria in apt. R IV+V a little longer than HT II. Cauda with 8-15 hairs

                                                                                                                          .….Aphis gallowayi

-      ANT III without rhinaria in apt. R IV+V a little shorter than HT II. Cauda with 17-22 hairs

                                                                                                                        ..…Aphis astragalina

34   Cauda with 7-13 hairs (usually 7-9). Hairs on ABD TERG 3 very short, 7-17 μm long

                                                                                                                                 .….Aphis tacita

-      Cauda with 11-25 hairs. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 usually more than 18 μm long

                                                                                                            …..Aphis fabae (or solanella)

 

Astrantia                                                      Apiaceae

       Astrantia major                           Aphis fabae

       A. pontica                                    Myzus ornatus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Astrocodon                                                   Campanulaceae

      Astrocodon kruhseanus = Campanula expansa

 

Astroloba                                                      Asphodelaceae              

       Astroloba congesta                      Aloephagus myersi

 

Astydamia                                                    Apiaceae

       Astydamia latifolia                      Hyadaphis coriandri

 

Asyneuma                                                    Campanulaceae

       Asyneuma canescens                  Uroleucon phyteumae

 

Asystasia                                                      Acanthaceae

       Asystasia coromandeliana = A, gangetica

       A. gangetica                                Aphis gossypii

       A. mysorensis                              Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       A. schimperi = A. mysorensis

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Atalantia                                                      Rutaceae

       Atalantia buxifolia                      Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Athamanta                                                   Apiaceae

      Athamanta cretensis                   Cavariella aegopodii

       A. turbith ssp. haynaldii              Cavariella aegopodii

 

Athanasia                                                     Compositae

       Athanasia linifolia                       Coloradoa tanacetina; Metopeurum fuscoviride

       A. trifurcata                                 Aphis fabae, gossypii; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Tanacetum.

 

Athyriopsis                                                             Dryopteridaceae

       Athyriopsis petersenii = Deparia petersenii                            

 

Athyrium                                                                Dryopteridaceae

       Athyrium alpestre                        Macrosiphum [adianti], dryopteridis, lapponicum, walkeri

       A. distentifolium = A. alpestre       

       A. filix-femina                             Amphorophora ampullata; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum [adianti], dryopteridis, lambi, [ptericolens],

                                                                walkeri;

                                                            Taiwanomyzus alpicola

       A. macrocarpum = A. monanthes  

       A. monanthes                              Macromyzus woodwardiae; Shinjia orientalis

       A. pycnosorum = Deparia pycnosora                                         

       A. rubripes                                   Amphorophora ampullata

       A. yokoscense                              Amphorophora ampullata; Taiwanomyzus filicis

       Athyrium spp.                             Amphorophora ampullata ssp. bengalensis;

                                                            Macromyzus maculatus; Micromyzella judenkoi

For a key to fern-feeding aphids see under Polypodium.

 

Atractylis                                                     Compositae

       Atractylis flava                             Protaphis carthami(?)

 

Atractylodes                                                 Compositae

       Atractylodes japonica                  Aphis gossypii; Uroleucon gobonis

       A. ovata                                       Uroleucon gobonis

Use key to polyphagous aphids; U. gobonis will come out as U. compositae.

 

Atragene  see Clematis                                            Ranunculaceae

 

Atraphaxis                                                   Polygonaceae

       Atraphaxis buxifolia = A. caucasica

         A. caucasica                                Acaudella puchovi

       A. compacta                                Brachyunguis atraphaxidis

       A. frutescens                                Aphis fabae, nasturtii; Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi

                                                            Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. karataviensis                           Brachyunguis atraphaxidis

       A. laetevirens                               Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus

       A. muschketowii                          Brachyunguis atraphaxidis

       A. pyrifolia                                   Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi; Brachyunguis atraphaxidis

       A. replicata = A. spinosa

       A. spinosa                                    Acaudella puchovi; Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi

                                                            Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus

       A. virgata                                     Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi;

                                                            Brachyunguis atraphaxidis, monstratus

Key to aphids on Atraphaxis:-

1     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5                                                                                            .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1.2                                                                                             ..…3

2     Cauda hardly evident, very broadly rounded, much less than 0.5 Χ longer than its basal width. Dorsum with black sclerotisation. Small marginal tubercles present on ABD TERG 2-4, and spinal tubercles on ABD TERG 7 and 8

                                                                                                     .....Brachycaudus shaposhnikovi*

-      Cauda helmet-, tongue- or finger-shaped, much more than 0.5 Χ longer than its basal width, and other characters not in that combination

                                                                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

3     Cauda absent. SIPH smooth and of characteristic shape; swollen in middle and strongly constricted subapically, with a large flange. ANT 5-segmented         .….Acaudella puchovi*

-      Cauda conical. SIPH shorter than cauda, barrel-shaped, with imbrication. ANT

       6-segmented                                                                                                                      …..4

4     SIPH 0.055-0.065 Χ BL and 0.7-0.9 Χ cauda                        …..Brachyunguis atraphaxidis*

-      SIPH 0.04-0.05 Χ BL and 0.45-0.5 Χ cauda                             …..Brachyunguis monstratus*

 

Atrichum see Catharinea                                        Polytrichaceae

 

Atriplex                                                        Amaranthaceae

       Atriplex acuminata = A. hortensis

       A. angustifolia = A. repanda         

       A. arenaria = A. cristata

       A. aucheri                                    Brachyunguis harmalae

       A. babingtonii = A. glabriuscula

       A. belangeri = A. repens

       A. breweri = A. lentiformis ssp. breweri

       A. calotheca                                 Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. cana                                        Metopeuraphis atriplicis; Pemphigus fuscicornis;

                                                            Xerobion juchnevitchae

       A. canescens (incl. tetraptera)         Brachyunguis bonnevillensis, tetrapteralis; Myzus ornatus

       A. cristata                                    Aphis fabae

       A. desertorum = A. aucheri

       A. dimorphostegia                       Brachyunguis harmalae

       A. flabellum                                 Aphis craccivora, [Aphis sp. (Davletshina 1964)];

                                                            Brachyunguis harmalae

       A. glabriuscula                            Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. halimus                                   Aphis craccivora, fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       A. hastata = A. prostrata ssp. calotheca

       A. heterosperma = A. micrantha    

       A. hortensis                                 Aphis craccivora, fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       A. incisa = A. laciniata                  

       A. laciniata                                  Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. lampa                                      Brachyunguis bahamondesi

       A. latifolia                                    Aulacorthum solani; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. lentiformis                               Brachyunguis tetrapteralis; Myzus ornatus

                     (incl. ssp. breweri)

       A. leucoclada                               Aphis craccivora

       A. littoralis                                   Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. marina = A. littoralis

       A. micrantha                               Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. nitens = A. sagittata

       A. nummularia                           Aphis fabae

       A. oppositifolia = A. prostrata

       A. patula                                      Myzus ornatus; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. portulacoides                          Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. prostrata                                  Aphis fabae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                 (incl. ssp. calotheca)                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. repanda                                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            [Hyalopterus pruni]; Myzus persicae

       A. repens                                     Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. rosea                                       Aphis fabae

       A. sagittata                                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, [Aphis sp.

                                                                 (Davletshina 1964)];

                                                            Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. semibaccata                            Brachyunguis tetrapteralis; Hayhurstia atriplicis

       A. tatarica                                    Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis craccivora, fabae;

                                                            Brachyunguis harmalae; Hayhurstia atriplicis;

                                                            Pemphigus fuscicornis; Smynthurodes betae

       A. verrucifera                              Pemphigus fuscicornis

       A. vesicaria                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Key to aphids on Atriplex:-

1     SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 Χ cauda and 0.33-0.5 Χ BL       …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii 

-      SIPH (if present) not more than 2.5 Χ cauda or 0.33 Χ BL                                               …..2

2     ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.4                                                                                                     ..…3

-      ANT PT/BASE either less than 0.3 or more than 1.4                                                        .….7

3     SIPH dark                                                                                                                          …..4

-      SIPH pale                                                                                                                          …..5

4     ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.4. SIPH cylindrical                              …..Brachyunguis bahamondesi

-      ANT PT/BASE 0.5-1.0. SIPH volcano-shaped                           .….Xerobion juchnevitchae*

5     Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 16-20 μm long, 0.8-1.0 Χ BD; hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 28-36 μm long, 1.4-1.8 Χ BD III                                                              .….Brachunguis harmalae

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 10-16 μm long, 0.5-0.7 Χ BD III; hairs on ABD TERG 8

       are 15-30 μm long, 0.7-1.2 Χ BD III                                                                                 ..…6

6     R IV+V 1.3-1.8 Χ ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.73. SIPH 0.05-0.095 mm long

                                                                                                         ….. Brachyunguis tetrapteralis

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ ANT PT. ANT PT/BASE 0.70-1.0. SIPH 0.07-0.16 mm long

                                                                                                       …..Brachyunguis bonnevillensis

7     SIPH cylindrical or slightly swollen, only 0.5-0.7 Χ cauda, which bears 5-7 hairs                  

                                                                                                                   .….Hayhurstia atriplicis

-      SIPH (if present) more than 0.7 Χ cauda                                                                           ..…8

8     SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.3-0.4 of length, and much shorter than the distance between their bases                                           .….Metopeuraphis atriplicis

-      SIPH (if present) without polygonal reticulation, or if such reticulation is present then it extends over less than distal 0.3 of length, and SIPH are as long as or longer than the distance between their bases                                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Atropa                                                          Solanaceae

       Atropa acuminata                       Myzus persicae

       A. belladonna                              Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            [Brevicoryne brassicae]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Atropis      see  Puccinellia                                       Poaceae

 

Aubrieta                                                       Brassicaceae

       Aubretia deltoidea                       Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Aucklandia                                                  Compositae

       Aucklandia lappa see Saussurea lappa

 

Aucuba                                                         Garryaceae

       Aucuba japonica                          Aulacorthum [linderae], solani;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;

                                                            [Nipponaphis coreana]; Pseudomegoura magnoliae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Aucuparia see Sorbus                                                        Rosaceae

 

Aulacomnium                                                                     Aulacomniaceae

      Aulacomnium palustre               [Pachpappa rosettei, sacculi]

(or try key to moss-feeding aphids under Polytrichum]

 

Aulacospermum                                                                Apiaceae

      Aulacospermum sp.                  Aphis fabae

 

Aureolaria see Agalinis                                                     Orobanchaceae

 

Auricula see Primula auricula                                Primulaceae

 

Austrocedrus                                                Cupressaceae

      Austrocedrus chilensis                  Cinara cupressi, [cupressivora], fresai, tujafilina

Use key to apterae on Cupressus.

 

Austroeupatorium                                       Compositae

      Austroeupatorium

                                inulifolium          Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; [Tuberolachnus salignus]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

      

Avena                                                           Poaceae

       Avena barbata                             Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Schizaphis dubia, graminum, rufula;

                                                            Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

       A. brevis                                       Metopolophium dirhodum

       A. byzantina                                Aploneura lentisci; Forda marginata;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale; Sitobion avenae

       A. chinensis                                 Metopolophium dirhodum

       A. desertorum = Helictotrichon desertorum

       A. fatua                                        [Acyrthosiphon gossypii]; Anoecia corni, radiciphaga;

                                                            Aphis fabae; Diuraphis noxia; Forda orientalis;

                                                            Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Israelaphis lambersi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Metopolophium albidum, dirhodum; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum, longicaudata, rufula; Sipha maydis;

                                                            Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                            Tetraneura caerulescens

       A. ludoviciana = A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana

       A. nuda                                        Metopolophium dirhodum; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                            Sitobion miscanthi

       A. orientalis = A. sativa

         A. persica = A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana

       A. sativa                                       Anoecia corni, fulviabdominalis, vagans;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Carolinaia rhois; Diuraphis noxia;

                                                            Forda formicaria, marginata; Geoica setulosa, utricularia;

                                                            Israelaphis lambersi; Laingia psammae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae ssp. cerealium;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Pemphigus sp. (?groenlandicus; Zwφlfer 1958);

                                                            [Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon];  

                                                            Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi, rufiabdominale;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans, flava, maydis;

                                                            Sitobion avenae, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                            [Smynthurodes betae]; Tetraneura caerulescens, ulmi;

                                                            [Utamphorophora humboldti]

       A. sterilis                                      Anoecia corni, furcata;  Baizongia pistaciae;

                                                            [Dysaphis apiifolia]; Forda formicaria, marginata, rotunda;

                                                            Geoice utricularia; Israelaphis carmini, ilharcoi, lambersi;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum maidis;

                                                            Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

       A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana           Anoecia corni; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha arenarii; Sitobion avenae

       A. strigosa                                    Metopolophium dirhodum; Sitobion avenae

       A. wiestii = A. barbata

         Avena sp.                                     Chaetosiphella stipae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Avenastrum  see  Helictotrichon                             Poaceae

 

Avenula  see Helictotrichon                                     Poaceae

 

Averrhoa                                                      Oxalidaceae

      Averrhoa bilimbi                         Aphis gossypii

       A. carambola                               Aphis aurantii, gossypii

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Axonopus                                                     Poaceae

      Axonopus compressus                Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion miscanthi;

                    (incl. var. affinis)                 Tetraneura fusiformis

       A. scoparius                                 Rhopalosiphum maidis

       Axonopus sp.                              Sipha flava

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.

 

Axyris                                                           Amaranthaceae

       Axyris amaranthoides                 Aphis axyriphaga, axyriradicis

       A. lanata = Krascheninnikovia lanata                                          

Key to apterae on Axyris:-

-      Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) as well as 1 and 7. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is 0.3-0.5 Χ height of adjacent tubercle. Cauda with 7-9 hairs

                                                                                                                       …..Aphis axyriradicis

-      MTu absent from ABD TERG 2-6. Marginal hair on ABD TERG 1 is about 0.9 Χ height of adjacent tubercle. Cauda with only 3-5 hairs                                          …..Aphis axyriphaga

 

Azadirachta                                                 Meliaceae

      Azadirachta indica                      Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Azalea see Rhododendron                                        Ericaceae

 

Azaleastrum                                                 Ericaceae

      Azaleastrum albiflorum              [Ericaphis scoliopi];

                                                            [Illinoia sp. (Oregon, Washington, USA; aphidtrek.org)];

                                                            Macrosiphum opportunisticum

 

Azanza                                                          Malvaceae

       Azanza garckeana                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii

 

Azolla                                                           Salviniaceae

       Azolla caroliniana = A. filiculoides

       A. filiculoides                               Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

 

Azorella                                                        Apiaceae

      Azorella selago                            Myzus ascalonicus

 

Azorina                                                        Campanulaceae

       Azorina vidalii                       Aphis sp. (Azores, BMNH collection)

 

 

 


 

 

 

B

 

Babiana                                                       Iridaceae

       Babiana angustifolia                Myzus cymbalariae

 

Baccaurea                                                    Euphorbiaceae

      Baccaurea sp.                          Greenidea anonae

      

Baccharis   (including Baccharidastrum)                       Compositae

      Baccharis caprariifolia               Brachycaudus helichrysi     

       B. coridifolia                               Aphis coridifoliae; Uroleucon tucumani                              

       B. dracunculifolia                       Aphis gossypii, spiraecola

       B. halimifolia                              Aphis coreopsidis, fabae, oenotherae;

                                                            Brachycaudus [cardui], helichrysi;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense

       B. juncea                                     Uroleucon mendocinum

       B. linearis                                    Aphis sp. (Chile, BMNH collection);

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon brevisiphon, erigeronense, macolai

       B. melastomifolia  = B. punctulata

       B. megalanica                             Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus

       B. oxiodonta                                Aphis gossypii

       B. patagonica                              Uroleucon brevisiphon

       B. pilularis                                   Aphis baccharicola, coreopsidis, gossypii;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense

       B. platensis                                  Aphis gossypii

       B. polifolia                                   Uroleucon macolai

       B. punctulata                              Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum, bereticum,

                                                               [littorale], tucumani

       B. racemosa                                Uroleucon pseudomuermosum

       B. salicifolia                                Aphis coreopsidis, [craccivora];

                                                            Uroleucon chilense, essigi, macolai, tucumani

       B. salicina                                   Aphis gossypii;

                                                            Uroleucon [rudbeckiae (= ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum?)]

       B. schultzii                                   Aphis gossypii

       B. spartioides = Psila spartioides   

       B. trineura                                   Aphis spiraecola

       B. triplinervis = B. trineura

       B. viminea = B. salicina

       Baccharis spp.                            Aphis aurantii, solitaria, Aphis sp. (Chile, BMNH colln)];

                                                            Uroleucon [baccharidis (Clarke 1903, nomen nudum)],

                                                                 chilense, essigi, paucosensoriatum, pseudomuermosum

Key to aphids on Baccharis:-

1     ANT about 0.25 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Cauda and anal plate protruding backward, dark                                                          .....Prociphilus erigeronensis

-      ANT more than 0.4 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE more than 1. SIPH present. Cauda and anal plate normal, pale or dark                                                                                                  .….2

2     SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                                                             .....3

-      SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                        …..13

3     Cauda with some apical hairs usually short and blunt. SIPH pale at base, dark distally. Dorsal cephalic hairs 18-35 μm long                                                        .….Uroleucon erigeronense

-      Cauda with apical hairs finely pointed like the more proximal hairs. SIPH variously pigmented. Dorsal cephalic hairs 32-75 μm long                                                              .….4

4     SIPH usually more than 1.6 Χ cauda, which is 0.24-0.34 mm long and bears 7-12 hairs        

                                                                                                                                                  .….5

-      SIPH usually less than 1.6 Χ cauda, which is 0.33-0.85 mm long and bears 9-31 hairs    ….6

5     First tarsal segments with 3 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.2.  ANT III with 3-6 rhinaria, on basal half. R IV+V shorter than HT II. SIPH pale at base and lacking imbrication on basal half                                                                                                            ..…Uroleucon essigi

-      First tarsal segments with 4-5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.1-5.3.  ANT III with 5-14 rhinaria extending onto distal half. R IV+V longer than HT II. SIPH dark and imbricated to base   

                                                                                                                   …..Uroleucon tucumani

6     SIPH 0.36-0.54 mm long, 0.9-1.1 Χ cauda, which is 0.36-0.51 mm long. R IV+V shorter than HT II                                                                                       ..…Uroleucon brevisiphon

-      SIPH 0.47-1.00 mm long, 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda which is 0.33-0.85 mm long. R IV+V longer or shorter than HT II                                                                                                             ..…7

7     Cauda pale, contrasting with dark brown-black SIPH and distal part of hind femur. SIPH 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda, which is 0.46-0.85 mm long                                                                   …..8

-      Cauda somewhat pigmented, not contrastingly pale in comparison with SIPH or, if SIPH are very dark, not pale in comparison with distal part of hind femur. SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda, which is 0.33-0.64 mm long                                                                                              …..9

8     R IV+V longer than ANT VI BASE. Cauda with 19-28 hairs

                                                                                        .….Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum

-      R IV+V shorter than ANT VI BASE. Cauda with 12-15 hairs   ..…Uroleucon mendocinum

9     R IV+V 0.163-0.193 mm long, 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II                                                             …..10

-      R IV+V 0.123-0.173 mm long, 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II                                                             ..…12

10   Dorsal abdominal sclerites all pale and inconspicuous. ANT PT/BASE more than 6. ANT III with 7-19 rhinaria (al. with 14-22)                                                        …..Uroleucon chilense

-      Dorsal abdomen with dark post-siphuncular sclerites and variably pigmented sclerites at bases of dorsal hairs. ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.1                                                                  .....11

11   ANT III with 18-29 rhinaria (al. with 24-39). ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.4. Scleroites at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs are as dark as the postsiphuncular sclerites

.....Uroleucon pseudomuermosum

-      ANT III with 4-16 rhinaria (al. with 33-50). ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.1. Scleroites at bases of dorsal hairs are paler than the postsiphuncular sclerites         .....Uroleucon paucosensoriatum

12   ANT I dark compared with II and basal part of III, and dorsal abdomen with dark postsiphuncular sclerites and sclerites around bases of dorsal hairs. ANT III with 7-15 rhinaria restricted to basal half of segment (alata with 11-24)              .....Uroleucon macolai

-      ANT I, II and basal part of III similarly pale to dusky, and dorsal abdominal sclerites pale. ANT III with 15-32 rhinaria distributed over most of segment (alata with 21-35)

                                                                                                                   .....Uroleucon bereticum

13   ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces convergent and scabrous. SIPH pale and slightly to moderately clavate                                                                     ..…Myzus persicae

-      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, divergent and smooth. SIPH pale or dark, tapering                                                                                                                            .….14

14   Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width. SIPH short, truncate, smooth and pale. Spiracular pores large and rounded. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent                           

                                                                                                             ..…Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than its basal width. SIPH pale or dark, tapering, with imbrication. Spiracular pores reniform. MTu present on prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 7

                                                                                                                                                ..…15

15   SIPH pale. R IV+V with 3-10 accessory hairs                                                               …..16

-      SIPH dark. R IV+V with 2 accessory hairs                                                                    …..17

16   ANT III usually with 1-15 rhinaria on distal part, and IV with 0-4            …..Aphis solitaria

-      ANT III and IV without rhinaria                                                            …..Aphis oenotherae

17   Cauda paler than SIPH                                                                                                    .....18

-      Cauda as dark as SIPH                                                                                                    ….19

18   SIPH 0.14-0.20 Χ BL.  Cauda pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.5        ..…Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH 0.25-0.40 Χ BL. Cauda very pale. ANT PT/BASE 3.25-4.0         .....Aphis coreopsidis

19   ABD TERG 1-8 with broad transverse dark bands fused to form a black shield. ANT PT.BASE 1.2-1.5. ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 rarely with MTu

                                                                                                    …..Aphis sp. on B. linearis, Chile

-      ABD TERG 1-6 without fused dark bands. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-5.1, or if 1.1-1.5 then ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 often have MTu                                                                                   …..20

20   ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.5.  ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 frequently with MTu …..Aphis coridifoliae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5. ABD TERG 2-4 and 6 without, or only sporadically with, MTu     

                                                                                                                                                …..21

21   Stridulatory apparatus present (a row of short peg-like hairs on hind tibia and cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6). ANT PT/BASE 3.7-5.1

…..Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      Stridulatory apparatus absent. ANT PT/BASE 1.8-3.7                                                  .….22

22   Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda usually with a midway constriction and thickening of distal half                                                                            ..…Aphis spiraecola

-      Dorsal abdomen with dark transverse bars on ABD TERG 7-8, and often with dark postsiphuncular sclerites. Cauda without a midway constriction or tapering on distal half

                                                                                                                                                …..23

23   ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. SIPH often bearing 1-3 hairs; 1.6-2.5 Χ cauda, which bears 7-12 hairs                                                                                                      ..…Aphis baccharicola

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-3.7. SIPH always without hairs; 0.7-1.9 Χ cauda which bears 11-24 hairs                                                                                                                                          .….24

24   SIPH 0.10-0.16 Χ BL                                                                                        .....Aphis fabae

-      SIPH 0.065-0.07 Χ BL                        .....Aphis sp. (Chile, BMNH collection, leg. H Zuniga)

 

Bacopa                                                         Plantaginaceae

      Bacopa monnieri                        Myzus persicae

 

Bactris                                                          Arecaceae

      Bactris spp.                                 Cerataphis brasiliensis

 

Baeckea see Sannantha                                          Myrtaceae

       Baeckea virgata = Sannantha virgata

 

Bahia                                                           Compositae

       Bahia absinthifolia                     Uroleucon ambrosiae, erigeronense

       B. ambrosoides                           Aphis spiraecola

Use key to apterae on Erigeron.

 

Balanites                                                      Zygophyllaceae

       Balanites aegyptiaca               Aphis gossypii

 

 

Ballota                                                         Lamiaceae

      Ballota foetida = B. nigra

       B. nigra                                       Aphis ballotae, [nasturtii]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus ballotae;

                                                            Cryptomyzus alboapicalis, ballotae, [galeopsidis];

                                                            Myzus ornatus; Ovatomyzus sp. (chamaedrys?);

                                                            [Ovatus cataegarius]

Key to aphids on Ballota:-

1     Most dorsal hairs long, thick and capitate                                                                          .....2

-      Dorsal hairs not long, thick and capitate                                                                            .....3

2     ANT PT 1.4-1.8 Χ SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 5.9-8.8. Cauda 0.6-0.8 Χ R IV+V, which bears 9-14 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.4-1.7 Χ HT II. SIPH 3.7-4.3 Χ cauda. ANT III and IV normally articulated                                                                                          …..Cryptomyzus ballotae

-      ANT PT 4.4-6.5 Χ SIPH. ANT PT/BASE 7.8-10.5. Cauda 1.2-1.5 Χ R IV+V, which bears 3-4 accessory hairs. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda. ANT III and IV often fused

       …..Cryptomyzus alboapicalis

3     Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsal abdomen dark, or with dark cross-bands. Spiracles large and rounded                       …..Brachycaudus ballotae

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Dorsum mainly or entirely pale. Spiracles reniform                                                                                                       .....4

4     SIPH dark. ANT tubercles weakly developed, front of head sinuous in outline in dorsal view. Marginal tubercles (MTu) always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7    .….Aphis ballotae

-      SIPH pale. ANT tubercles well developed, projecting well beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. MTu never present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                 ..…5

5     Head smooth. Cauda constricted at base. SIPH usually slightly swollen distally, with a small flange                                                                                                          .….Ovatomyzus sp.

-      Head spiculose. Cauda not constricted at base. SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, with a moderate to large flange                                                                                         …..6

6     Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation. ANT III without any rhinaria. SIPH with a slight “S”-curve                                                            ....Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. SIPH straight                                                                                         .....Aulacorthum solani

 

 

Balsamina   see Impatiens                                      Balsaminaceae

      Balsamina hortensis = Impatiens balsamina

 

Balsamita                                                     Compositae

      Balsamita major = Tanacetum balsamita                                    

       B. suaveolens = Tanacetum balsamita

 

Balsamorhiza                                               Compositae

      Balsamorhiza sagittata               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      Balsamorhiza sp.                        Aphis asclepiadis; Illinoia goldamaryae;

                                                            Uroleucon erigeronense, [madia]

1     SIPH with a distinctly paler basal part contrasting with dark distal part, and with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.25-0.35 of total length. Distal caudal hairs usually shorter and blunt or capitate                                                                                          …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-      SIPH more uniformly pale, dusky or dark, with or without polygonal reticulation. Distal caudal hairs all pointed                                                                                                       .....2

2     SIPH pale and clearly somewhat swollen proximal to a short reticulated subapical zone, which is only 0.03-0.05 of total length of SIPH (Fig.49a). Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous, the longest about 0.33 Χ BD III                                 …..Illinoia goldamaryae

-      SIPH pale, dusky or dark, if pale with subapical reticulation then they are tapering, cylindrical or only very slightly swollen proximal to reticulated zone, which is 0.13-0.20 of the total length, and the hairs on ANT III are conspicuous, the longest 0.5 Χ BD III or longer                                                                                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Baltimora                                                     Compositae

      Baltimora recta                           Aphis coreopsidis, gossypii

-      SIPH 0.14-0.20 Χ BL.  Cauda pale or dusky. ANT PT/BASE 2.0-3.5        ..…Aphis gossypii

-      SIPH 0.25-0.40 Χ BL. Cauda very pale. ANT PT/BASE 3.25-4.0         .....Aphis coreopsidis

 

Bambusa                  Bamboos                           Poaceae

About 40 species of aphid colonise members of the genus Bambusa.  Many of these also occur on other bamboo genera, and the large number recorded from Bambusa may simply be because it is the best known genus.  The key is an updated and expanded version of that provided by Blackman & Eastop (1984).  It includes species recorded from unidentified bamboos, possibly not of this genus.  The Hormaphidinae associated with bamboos are in need of further study to determine their life cycles and clarify taxonomic relationships, and reliable identification of Astegopteryx and  Ceratovacuna to species is not usually possible in the present state of knowledge. Aoki et al. (2007) provide a key to bamboo-feeding Pseudoregma.

      Bambusa arundinacea = B. bambos

         B. bambos                                   Astegopteryx bambusae, minuta; Ceratovacuna silvestrii;

                                                            Takecallis arundinariae

       B. blumeana                               Astegopteryx bambucifoliae; Ceratovacuna japonica;

                                                            Chucallis bambusicola; Melanaphis bambusae;

                                                            Phyllaphoides bambusicola;

                                                            Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis, montana   

       B. cornigera                                Astegopteryx bambusae

       B. dolichoclada                           Astegopteryx bambucifoliae;

                                                            Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis

       B. dolichomerithalla = B. multiplex

         B. floribunda = B. multiplex

       B. glaucescens = B. multiplex

         B. multiplex                                 Astegopteryx bambusae, bambucifoliae, formosana,

                                                                liukueinensis, minuta;

                                                            Melanaphis bambusae, meghalayensis;

                                                            Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis, montana;

                                                            Takecallis arundinariae

       B. nana = B. multiplex

         B. oldhamii                                 Astegopteryx bambucifoliae, formosana;

                                                            Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis

       B. pachinensis                             Pseudoregma koshunensis

       B. stenostachya = B. blumeana

       B. textilis                                      Astegopteryx minuta

      B. utilis                                        Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis

       B. vulgaris                                   Astegopteryx bambusae; Forda hirsuta;

                                                            Melanaphis bambusae;

                                                            Pseudoregma bambucicola, koshunensis;

                                                            Smynthurodes betae

       Unidentified Bambusa spp.       Aleurodaphis antennata; [Aphis craccivora, gossypii];

                                                            Astegopteryx basalis, glandulosa, [himalayensis],

                                                                [lutescens], [malaccensis], [neelagiriensis], pallida,

                                                                [similis], singaporensis, [striata], [styracophila],

                                                                unimaculata;

                                                            Cerataphis bambusifoliae;

                                                            Ceratoglyphina bambusae, bengalensis, brachyskeroae;

                                                            Ceratovacuna [brevicornis], floccifera, hoffmanni, indica,

                                                                keduensis, [longifila];

                                                            Chaitoregma [aderuensis], tattakana;

                                                            Glyphinaphis bambusae; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                            Melanaphis [arundinariae], [donacis], [grossisiphonellus],

                                                                [pahanensis];

                                                            [Myzus obtusirostris, persicae];

                                                Neocranaphis bambusicola; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                            Pseudoregma [albostriata], [alexanderi], [cantonensis],

                                                                carolinensis, [gombakana], [panicola], pendleburyi,

                                                                [uscare];

                                                            Rhopalosipum rufiabdominale; [Schizaphis graminum];

                                                            Sitobion bambusicola, fragariae, miscanthi;

                                                            Subtakecallis brevisetosa, pilosa;

                                                            Takecallis affinis, arundicolens, assumentus, sasae, taiwana

Key to apterae on Bambusa and other bamboos (but note separate keys are provided for Arundinaria and Sasa:-

1    Aptera with multifacetted eyes and antennae more than 0.4Χ BL or, if only alatae are present, these have usually 6-segmented antennae bearing circular, oval or elongate oval secondary rhinaria                                                                                                                                 .....2

-     Apterae with 3-facetted eyes and antennae less than 0.4Χ BL.  Alatae usually with 5-segmented antennae bearing ring-like rhinaria which extend more than half-way around the circumference of the antenna (not in Fordini)                                                                   .....14

2    Anal plate bilobed, cauda knobbed.  ANT PT/BASE less than 1.2.  (All viviparae alate)

                                                                                                                                                   .....3

-     Anal plate entire, cauda tongue-shaped (sometimes with a mid-way constriction).  ANT PT/BASE at least 1.5                                                                                                           .....8

3    Abdomen with long, finger-like, hair-bearing spinal and marginal tubercles, especially large marginally on ABD TERG 4 (fig. 30E)                                            .....Chucallis bambusicola

-     Abdomen at most with only small tubercles, none longer than width at base                    .....4

4    ANT PT/BASE 0.6 or less                                                                                                   .....5

-     ANT PT/BASE at least 0.75                                                                                                .....7

5    Clypeus without an anterioventral projection.  ANT I more than 1.5Χ longer than wide

                                                                                                          .....Neocranaphis bambusicola

-     Clypeus with a nose-like anterioventral projection.  ANT I about as long as wide             .....6

6    Dorsal abdominal hairs 30-35 ΅m long, at most equal to basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/ BASE 0.5-0.6.  Dorsal abdominal sclerites small                           .....Subtakecallis brevisetosa

-     Dorsal abdominal hairs 60-95 ΅m, much longer than the basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE 0.24-0.30. Dorsal sclerites large, at least on ABD TERG 3-4

                                                                                                                      .....Subtakecallis pilosa

7    Eyes without ocular tubercles.  SIPH cones very flat, mammariform

                                                                                                         .....Phyllaphoides bambusicola

-     Eyes with ocular tubercles.  SIPH cones truncate                                          .....Takecallis spp.

(for separation see couplets 6-11 of key to aphids on Arundinaria)

 

8    Antennae of aptera 5-segmented with longest hairs 3 or more Χ basal diameter of ANT III.  ANT PT often markedly curved                                  .....Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-     Antennae of aptera 6-segmented with much shorter hairs.  ANT PT not markedly curved

                                                                                                                                                   .....9

9    SIPH short and truncate, similar in length to the equally dark cauda                               .....10 

 -    SIPH at least 1.4 Χ the paler cauda                                                                                   .....11

10 Hairs on ANT III short and inconspicuous, maximally about 0.5 Χ basal diameter of segment. Alata with dark wing veins                                                                .....Melanaphis bambusae

-     Hairs on ANT III at least 2-3 times longer than basal diameter of segment.  Alata with wing veins not deeply pigmented                                                       ..... Melanaphis meghalayensis

11 SIPH without a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation.  Cauda long and pale, with only 4 hairs                                                                                                    .....Hysteroneura setariae

-     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation.  Cauda pale or dusky with about 8 hairs                                                                                                                                    .....12

12  SIPH of aptera 1.4-1.9 Χ cauda                                                               …..Sitobion miscanthi

-     SIPH of aptera 2.0-2.7 Χ cauda                                                                                        …..13

13  Cauda of aptera 0.16-0.17 Χ BL, and c. 4.1 Χ HT II, and tapering to an almost pointed apex

…..Sitobion bambusicola

-     Cauda of aptera 0.12-0.14 Χ BL, and 1.8-2.7Χ HT II; rounded at apex and usually showing a slight midway constriction                                                                       …..Sitobion fragariae

14  SIPH pores absent                                                                                                             .....15

-     SIPH pores present                                                                                                            .....17

15  Dorsal abdomen with honeycomb-like wax pore plates especially on posterior tergites. HT I with 2 hairs                                                                                                    …..Pemphigus sp.

-     No wax pore plates. HT I with 4 or more hairs                                                                …..16 

16 ANT III less than 2ΧANT II.  Dorsum densely hairy.  BL (of aptera) 1.5-2.5 mm

      .....Smynthurodes betae

-     ANT III more than 2Χ ANT II.  Dorsum sparsely hairy.  BL 2.7-3.7 mm

      .....Forda hirsuta

17 Body of aptera including head with a continuous row of small wax glands forming a complete, crenulate margin                                                                                                .....18

-     Body of aptera without a complete crenulate margin of wax glands                                .....19

18 Body of aptera narrowly oval; BL about 2Χ greatest width.  Entire dorsal cuticle ornamented with numerous small, nodulose wax glands.  R IV+V longer than HT II

      .....Aleurodaphis antennata

-    Body of aptera broadly oval to almost circular; BL maximally about 1.5Χ its greatest width (fig. 30A).  Dorsum without nodules. R IV+V shorter than HT II

      .....Cerataphis bambusifoliae

19 Head of aptera without frontal horns.  Dorsal and marginal body hairs thick and

      spine-like, and usually long                                                             .....Glyphinaphis bambusae

-     Head of aptera with a pair of forwardly-directed frontal horns.  Body hairs short, or if long then fine                                                                                                                             .....20

20 Cauda rounded and anal plate entire.  Frontal horns of adult aptera usually longer than ANT I and II combined                                                                                                                .....21

-     Cauda knob-like, anal plate bilobed.  Frontal horns of adult aptera not longer than ANT I + II combined                                                                                                                           .....23

21 Frontal horns of aptera only c.1.33 Χ ANT II. Dorsal abdomen with 4 longitudinal rows of wax glands (spinal as well as marginal)                               …..Ceratoglyphina brachyskeroae

-     Frontal horns at least 2 Χ ANT II. Dorsal abdomen with only marginal rows of wax glands

…..22

22 Frontal horns of aptera with 8-10 hairs, the longest 22-33 ΅m. SIPH with 4-6 surrounding hairs

.....Ceratoglyphina bambusae (or styracicola)

-     Frontal horns of aptera with 14-18 hairs, the longest 60-65 ΅m.  SIPH with 6-11 surrounding hairs                                                                                           .....Ceratoglyphina bengalensis

23 SIPH pores placed on shallow cones encircled by long fine hairs.  Aptera with wax pore plates if present usually arranged in longitudinal marginal rows                                       .....24

-     SIPH pores on small pigmented cones without a ring of fine hairs.  Wax pore plates of aptera if  present not arranged in longitudinal marginal rows                                                      .....31

24 Frontal horns of aptera with rounded apices                                                                     .....25

-     Frontal horns of aptera with pointed apices                                                                      .....28

25 Marginal wax pore plates of aptera in clusters                           .....Astegopteryx liukueinensis*

-     Marginal wax pore plates of aptera either in rows or completely absent                           .....26

26 ABD TERG 6 of aptera usually with 3 or more hairs, and ABD TERG 2 and 3 each with 9-15 hairs (in addition to the hairs near the wax glands).  Marginal wax pore plates often touching each other over half their width, so that the adpressed margins are straight (fig. 30B)                                                                                  .....Astegopteryx bambucifoliae/formosana

-     ABD TERG 6 of aptera usually with 2 hairs, and ABD TERG 2 and 3 each with 4-11 hairs (in addition to those near the wax glands).  Marginal wax pore plates if developed mostly touching over much less than half their width, and therefore more rounded                    .....27

27 Marginal wax pore plates of aptera small (10-15 ΅m diameter), rounded, not touching each other (fig. 30B), and sometimes completely absent from some or all segments

                                                                                                                     .....Astegopteryx minuta

-     Marginal wax pore plates of aptera larger, diameter mostly 20-40 ΅m, usually touching over some distance in middle (fig. 30B), present on most segments       .....Astegopteryx bambusae

28 Frontal horns of adult aptera narrowed distally and acutley pointed apically, more than 1.5Χ ANT I, and usually about as long as ANT I + II together                    .....Astegopteryx pallida

-     Frontal horns of adult aptera short, conical, broad-based, about equal in length to or shorter than ANT I                                                                                                                        .....29

29  Frontal horns of aptera much shorter than ANT I, only 0.04-0.08 Χ head width across eyes. Marginal wax pore plates form clusters when well developed       .....Astegopteryx glandulosa

-     Frontal horns of aptera similar in length to ANT I, 0.09-0.24 Χ head width across eyes. Marginal wax pore plates form longitudinal rows when well developed                 .....30

30 SIPH of aptera usually with 2-3 surrounding hairs (rarely up to 7), and 2-3 hairs on ABD TERG 5 between SIPH.  Total antennal length 0.65-0.85Χ width of head across eyes.  R IV+V 0.73-0.92Χ HT II                                                                        .....Astegopteryx basalis

-     SIPH of aptera with 4-11 surrounding hairs, and 3-7 hairs on ABD TERG 5 between SIPH.  Total antennal length 0.7-1.1 Χ head width across eyes.  R IV+V 0.55-0.70 Χ HT II

.....Astegopteryx singaporensis

31 Dorsal cuticle of aptera uniformly sclerotised                                                                   .....32

-     Aptera with at least the abdominal tergites partly membranous                                        .....33

32 Frontal horns of aptera thumb-shaped; cylindrical with broadly rounded apices, even in immature individuals.  Wax pores all dispersed, not forming wax pore plates, even on ABD TERG 8                                                                                             .....Chaitoregma tattakana

-     Frontal horns of aptera conical, their apices rounded in adults, narrower and more pointed in immatures.  Wax pore plates present, at least as a central group on ABD TERG 8 (fig. 30F)

     .....Pseudoregma pendleburyi

33 Sclerotic areas of cuticle, especially head and prothorax, evenly covered with small irregularly shaped warts or denticles (e.g. fig. 30C)                                                                           .....34

-     Sclerotic areas of cuticle smooth or slightly wrinkled                                                       .....35

34 Aptera often without spinal wax glands.  ABD TERG 1-5 may have 1-4 wax pore plates in paired spinal groups; there may be 1-2 centrally on ABD TERG 7 and 1-4 centrally on ABD TERG 8. Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 25-48, IV 11-20, V 4-13, and SIPH with a posterior extension of the perisiphuncular sclerite

                                                                                     .....Pseudoregma bambucicola/ carolinensis

-     Aptera usually with well-developed wax glands on paired spinal sclerites, only rarely without.  ABD TERG 1-5 usually have 1-13 large wax pore plates in each spinal group, and 3-4 on ABD TERG 8, but usually none on ABD TERG 7.  Alatae have secondary rhinaria distributed III 22-30, IV 6-12, V 7-11, and SIPH with a very small perisiphuncular sclerite without any posterior extension                                    .....Pseudoregma montana/koshunensis

35 Aptera with wax pore plates well developed only on margins of body, except for a large medial group on the ABD TERG 8                                                                                   .....36

-     Aptera with wax pore plates well-developed spinally as well as marginally                     .....37

36 Aptera with SIPH cones lightly sclerotised and bearing some long, fine hairs.  Wax pore plates on ABD TERG 8 arranged in a row                                        .....Ceratovacuna indica* 

-     Aptera with SIPH cones low, well sclerotised and without hairs. Wax pore plates on ABD TERG 8 not in a row (e.g. fig. 30G)                   .....Ceratovacuna japonica/longifila/floccifera

37 Aptera with wax pore plates very large and numerous, almost occupying the whole of the dorsal cuticle (fig. 30D)                                                                    .....Ceratovacuna silvestrii

-    Aptera with fewer wax pore plates; most abdominal tergites with one spinal group and one marginal group on each side                         .....Ceratovacuna hoffmanni/keduensis/doipuiensis

 

Bamia  see Hibiscus                                                 Malvaceae

 

Banisteriopsis                                                       Malpighiaceae