HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

 

Art-Asp

 

Artabotrys

Artemisia

Arthraxon

Arthrophytum

Arthropteris

Artocarpus

Arum

Aruncus

Arundinaria

Arundinella

Arundo

Asarum

Asclepias

Ascocentrum

Ascyrum

Asparagus

Asperella

Asperugo

Asperula

Asphodeline

Asphodelus

Aspidistra

Aspidium

Aspilia

Asplenium

 

 

Artabotrys                                                    Annonaceae

       Artabotrys odoratissimus       Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

       Artabotrys sp.                           Greenidea anonae

Couplet for these two species:-

-      SIPH with numerous long hairs. Stridulatory mechanism absent             .....Greenidea anonae

-      SIPH without hairs. Stridulatory mechanism present                  .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

 

Artemisia                                                     Compositae

       Artemisia abrotanum               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                         Coloradoa abrotani, [brevisiphon], [procerae];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, absinthii, artemisiae, atra,

                                                             frigidicola, nigropilosa, oblonga, paucisetosa, procerae,

                                                             pulvera;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                         Microsiphum diversisetosum,  [millefolii], procerae,

                                                             procerae ssp. subalpicum;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

       A. absinthium                           Aphis fabae, [plantaginis]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                         Coloradoa abrotani, absinthii, angelicae, artemisiae,

                                                            heinzei, rufomaculata;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae, brevipilosum;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, absinthii, artemisiae, nigropilosa,

                                                            oblonga, pseudoartemisiae, pulvera, tanacetaria;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                         Microsiphum [giganteum], jazykovi, jazykovi ssp. wahlgreni;

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus; Pleotrichophorus glandulosus;

                                                         Protaphis elatior, elongata, miranda;                                       

                                                         Protrama flavescens, longitarsus;

                                                         Titanosiphon neoartemisiae, dracunculi; Trama troglodytes;

                                                         Xerobion cinae, pannonica

       A. adamsii                                Macrosiphoniella atra ssp. latysiphon, pulvera

       A. afra                                      Macrosiphoniella abrotani

       A. alba (incl. camphorata,             Capitophorus formosartemisiae

               dentata,  saxatilis)                   Coloradoa heinzei, palmerae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella atra, kaufmanni, szalaymarszoi;

                                                         Metopeurum fuscoviride; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                          Pleotrichophorus glandulosus 

A.     alba ssp. saxatilis = A. alba

A. albida (?)                              Macrosiphoniella seriphidii   

       A. alpina                                   Coloradoa taurica; Myzus ascalonicus

       A. annua                                  Aphis fabae, gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Coloradoa campestrella, nodulosa, rufomaculata, viridis;

                                                         [Kaltenbachiella pallida];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, abrotani ssp. chosoni,

                                                             [alatavica], antennata, kuwayamai, nigropilosa,

                                                             oblonga, pallidipes, pseudoartemisiae, pulvera, tapuskae,

                                                             yomenae, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Protaphis elatior, elongata;    Protrama flavescens;

                                                         Rectinasus buxtoni; [Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae];

                                                         Tshernovaia adenophorae; Xerobion cinae

       A. apiacea                                 Aphis kurosawai; Coloradoa viridis;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella ?annulata, antennata group, atra group,

                                                           yomogifoliae, Macrosiphoniella sp.;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus group

       A. arborescens                          Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa angelicae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae,

                                                            artemisiae ssp. meridionalis;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

       A. arbuscula                             Artemisaphis artemisicola; [Epameibaphis sp. (Oregon)];

                                                         [Obtusicauda sp.(p.) (western USA; aphidtrek.org)];

                                                         Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius, decampus,obscuratus;

                                                         [Pseudoepameibaphis sp. (Oregon, Nevada; A. Jensen)]

       A. arctica                                  Macrosiphoniella arctica, borealis,

                                                            Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) jaroslavi;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. arenaria = A. campestris ssp. inodora                                      

       A. argyi                                     Aphis kurosawai; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Brevisiphonaphis hirsutissima;

                                                         Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                         Coloradoa campestrella, rufomaculata;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella grandicauda, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai,

                                                             oblonga, pseudoartemisiae, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus, [pseudoglandulosus];

                                                         Protrama flavescens;

                                                         Sappaphis [angelicograstis], [dipirivora], piri, [sinipiricola];

                                                         Tenuilongiaphis stata;

                                                         Tuberocephalus lazikouensis, liaoningensis

       A. aromatica  =  A. dracunculus

       A. aschurbajewii                      Macrosiphoniella szalaymarszoi

       A. asiatica = A. indica

       A. astrachanica                        Cryptosiphum astrachanicae

       A. aucheri =  Seriphidium aucheri

       A. austriaca                              [Coloradoa sp. (Holman & Pintera 1981)];

                     (incl. var. orientalis)         Macropodaphis rechingeri;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, atra, austriacae, pulvera,

                                                              szalaymarszoi;

                                                         Microsiphum woronieckae; Obtusicauda moldavica;

                                                         Xerobion cinae

       A. balchanorum                       Xerobion cinae

       A. baldshuanica                       Macrosiphoniella nigropilosa, oblonga;

                                                         Protaphis elongata; Xerobion cinae

       A. borealis                                Obtusicauda frigidae

       A. brevifolia = Seiphidium brevifolium

       A. caerulescens (incl.                 Macrosiphoniella pulvera

                          ssp. cretacea)

       A. caerulescens ssp. gallica      Coloradoa submissa; Macrosiphoniella abrotani, artemisiae

       A. californica                            Aphis hiltoni; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Epameibaphis atricornis; Obtusicauda coweni, frigidae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus decampus, obscuratus, quadritrichus

       A. campestris                            [Aphis plantaginis]; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

             (incl. ssp. glutinosa)                  Coloradoa artemisiae, campestrella, campestris;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae, brevipilosum;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella absinthii, arenariae, artemisiae,

                                                             austriacae, dimidiata, [dubia Ferrari (nomem dubium)],

                                                             nidensis, oblonga, subaequalis, tapuskae, teriolana,

                                                             usquertensis;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Misturaphis shiloensis;

                                                         Myzus ornatus; Obtusicauda moldavica;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus persimilis;

                                                         Protaphis anuraphoides, elongata, miranda;

                                                         Protrama flavescens, longitarsus, [radicis], [ ranunculi];

                                                         Titanosiphon artemisiae, minkiewiczi;

                                                         Trama troglodytes; [Uroleucon picridis];

                                                         Xerobion caspicae, cinae, judenkoi

       A. campestris ssp. canadensis  Microsiphoniella canadensis

       A. campestris ssp. inodora       Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa taurica;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae; Elatobium chomoense;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella arenariae, dimidiata, kaufmanni, pulvera,

                                                            scopariae;

                                                         Protaphis elatior;

                                                         Titanosiphon artemisiae, minkiewiczi, neoartemisiae,

                                                            [zaisanicum];

                                                         Xerobion lambersi

       A. camphorata = A. alba

       A. cana                                     Aphis canae; Artemisaphis artemisicola;

                                                         [Epameibaphis sp. (Oregon; A. Jensen, aphidtrek.org)];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella absinthii; Microsiphoniella canadensis;

                                                         Obtusicauda coweni;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus artemisicola, [decampus], obscuratus,

                                                            pullus, rusticatus, zoomontanus;

                                                         Pseudoepameibaphis tridentatae

       A. canadensis = A. campestris ssp. canadensis                              

       A. canariensis = A. thuscula       

       A. capillaris                              Coloradoa campestrella, [campestris], rufomaculata,

                                                             submissa;

                                                         [Cryptosiphum artemisiae ssp. linanense];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella annulata, atra ssp. latysiphon,

                                                             capillaricola, chaetosiphon, formosartemisiae,

                                                             nigropilosa, pseudoartemisiae, sanborni, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Micraphis artemisiae; Myzus cerasi ssp. umefoliae;

                                                         [Obtusicauda nilkaensis]; [Sappaphis sinipiricola];

                                                         Titanosiphon neoartemisiae; Tuberocephalus sasakii;

                                                         Uroleucon omeishanense; Xerobion cinae

       A. carvifolia                              Aphis kurosawai, spiraecola;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella kikungshana, spinipes, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Tuberocephalus sasakii

       A. caspica                                 Xerobion caspicae

       A. caucasica = A. alpina

       A. caudata = A. campestris

       A. chamaemelifolia                  Macrosiphoniella abrotani, chamaemelifoliae, mutellinae,

                                                             oblonga

       A. cina = Seriphidium cinum        

       A. commutata = A. pubescens

       A. compacta                             Xerobion cinae                      

       A. cretacea = A. caerulescens ssp. cretacea

       A. dentata = A. alba

       A. desertorum                           Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae;  Xerobion amurensis

       A. douglasiana                         Pleotrichophorus gnaphalodes, pseudoglandulosa

       A. dracunculus (incl. var.           Aphis fabae, kurosawai;                                                          

                                   glauca)           Cryptosiphum artemisiae, dracunculum;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella alativica, artemisiae, dracunculi, glabra,

                                                            ludovicianae, nigropilosa, nitida, nitida ssp. soongarica,

                                                            oblonga, procerae, sibirica, xinjiangica;

                                                         Microsiphoniella artemisiae;

                                                         Microsiphum giganteum, [jazykovi]; Nasonovia ribisnigri;

                                                         Neomyzus circumflexus; Obtusicauda dolychosiphon;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus diutius, gnaphalodes, narzikulovi, parilis,

                                                            [wasatchii], [sp. near ambrosiae];

                                                         Protaphis anuraphoides, [middletonii], [Protaphis sp. (Iran:

                                                              Hodjat 1998)]; 

                                                         Protrama flavescens; Titanosiphon dracunculi, neoartemisiae;

                                                         Trama troglodytes; Xerobion lambersi

       A. dubia                                    Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai, yomogifoliae

       A. fasciculata = A. incana

       A. feddei                                   Macrosiphoniella grandicauda, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai,

                                                              pseudoartemisiae, taesongsanensis, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Tuberocephalus sasakii

       A. ferganensis                          [Coloradoa tadzhica];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella alatavica, tadshikana; Xerobion cinae

       A. filifolia                                  Aphis canae, filifoliae, hermistonii, minutissima;

                                                         Epameibaphis sp.;

                                                         ?Macrosiphoniella antennata (California, USA? – see text);

                                                         Myzus ornatus; Obtusicauda filifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus filifoliae, obscuratus, zoomontanus

       A. frigida                                  Coloradoa heinzei; Cryptosiphum innokentyi;

                                                         Epameibaphis frigidae; Macropodaphis paradoxa;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella altaica, frigidae, frigidicola, frigidivora,

                                                            longirostrata;

                                                         Obtusicauda frigidae, mongolica;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus intermedius, pseudoglandulosus;

                                                         Protaphis anuraphoides, [terricola], middletonii;

                                                         Pseudoepameibaphis glauca; Titanosiphon dracunculi;

                                                         Xerobion cinae

       A. gallica = A. caerulescens ssp. gallica

       A. genipi                                   Macrosiphoniella mutellinae

       A. gigantea = A. montana

       A. gilvescens                             Macrosiphoniella chaetosiphon

       A. glanduligera                        Xerobion cinae

       A. gmelinii                                Aphis globosa, kurosawai; Coloradoa rufomaculata;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. choseni, absinthii, antennata,

                                                             atra ssp. latysiphon, [galatellae], gmelinicola,

                                                             grandicauda, himalayana,hokkaidensis, jaroslavi,

                                                             nigropilosa, oblonga, pallidipes, sanborni,

                                                             taesongsanensis, yomenae, yomogifoliae,

                                                             [Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) sp.

                                                              (Kazakhstan: Kadyrbekov 2014d)];

                                                         Protrama sp. (Japan, BMNH collection); Uroleucon dubium

       A. gnaphaloides  = A. ludovicianae

      A. halophila                              Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;    Macrosiphoniella seriphidii;

                                                        Protaphis elatior, miranda; Xerobion cinae

       A. hanseniana = A. szowitziana  

       A. herba-alba  (incl. subsp.          Coloradoa campestris, submissa;

                           valentinum)                   Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae, dimidiata,                                                                           [grandicauda], pulvera;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; [Uroleucon erigeronense];

                                                         Xerobion blascoi, cinae

       A. heptapotamica = Seriphidium heptapotamicum

       A. heterophylla = A. douglasiana

       A. incana                                  Titanosiphon artemisiae

       A. indica                                   Aphis kurosawai;

                                                         [Capitophorus sp. (Vietnam: Yoshitomi et al. 2014)]

                                                         Coloradoa artemisiae, rufomaculata;

                                                         Cryptosiphum [artemisiae ssp. linanense];

                                                         Dysaphis microsiphon;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella kikungshana, kuwayamai,

                                                             [miyazakii (Bhagat 1981b; nomen nudum)], yomogicola,

                                                             yomogifoliae;

                                                         Neotoxoptera yasumatsui ssp. artemisiae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus;

                                                         Tuberocephalus artemisiae, higansakurae ssp. hainnevilleae,

                                                             liaoningensis, sakurae, sasakii, uwamizusakarae

       A. integrifolia                           Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai

       A. iwayomogi = A. gmelinii        

       A. jacutica                                Coloradoa heinzei

       A. japonica                               Cryptosiphum artemisiae, [artemisiae ssp. linanense];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella antennata, atra ssp. latysiphon,

                                                             capillaricola, formosartemisiae, gaoloushana,

                                                             grandicauda, kuwayamai, myohyangsani, oblonga,

                                                             oronensis, pallidipes, sanborni, similioblonga,

                                                             taesongsanensis, yomogicola, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

       A. judaica                                 Macrosiphoniella oblonga

       A. juncea = Seriphidium junceum 

       A. karatavica = Seriphidium karatavicum                                    

       A. keiskeana                             Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae, kikangshana,

                                                            kuwayamai

       A. lanulosa  = A. alpina

       A. latifolia                                 Macrosiphoniella alatavica

       A. lavandulaefolia                    Aphis kurosawai;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella hokkaidensis, kuwayamai;

                                                         Tenuilongiaphis stata ssp. shanxiensis

       A. lerchiana (?)                        Protaphis miranda                

       A. leucodes                               Protaphis elongata; Xerobion cinae

       A. lobelii = A. alba

       A. longifolia                              Aphis artemisicola, canae; Epameibaphis atricornis;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius, longinectarius, pullus

       A. ludoviciana                          Aphis oregonensis

                                                         Artemisaphis artemisicola; Coloradoa rufomaculata;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, ludovicianae;

                                                         Microsiphoniella artemisiae, canadensis;

                                                         Obtusicauda frigidae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus, gnaphalodes,

                                                             pseudoglandulosus

       A. macrocephala                      Macrosiphoniella artemisiae ssp. sainshandi, oblonga

       A. manshurica                         Aphis neoartemisiphila; Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae

       A. maritima  = Seriphidium maritimum

       A. maritima var. monogyna  = Seriphidium santonicum

       A. maritima var. vallesiaca  = Seriphidium vallesiacum

       A. marschalliana                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa campestrella;

         (incl. ssp. tschernieviana)              Macrosiphoniella arenariae, austriacae, kuwayamai,

                                                              moldavica, teriolana;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus persimilis; Protaphis elatior, elongata;

                                                         Titanosiphon minkiewiczi; [Uroleucon gobonis];

                                                         Xerobion lambersi

       A. maximovicziana                  Aphis gossypii; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella gmelinicola

       A. messerschmidtiana              Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. choseni, antennata ssp.

            (incl. vars discolor, viridis)             takahashii, atra ssp. latysiphon, gmelinicola, jaroslavi,

                                                            yomogifoliae, zeya

       A. mexicana                             Pleotrichophorus gnaphalodes, pseudoglandulosus

       A. mongolica                            Aphis kurosawai; Coloradoa campestrella;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella grandicauda, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai,

                                                             myohyangsani, pseudoartemisiae, pulvera ssp. khinganica,

                                                             sanborni, taesongsanensis, yomogifoliae

       A. monogyna  = Seriphidium santonicum

       A. monosperma                        Colorodoa santolinae, Macrosiphoniella absinthii

       A. montana                              Aphis kurosawai; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                         Coloradoa artemisiae, campestrella;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. choseni, grandicauda,

                                                             hidaensis, hikosanensis, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai,

                                                             oblonga, pseudoartemisiae, similioblonga,

                                                             taesongsanensis, yomogicola, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Sappaphis piri; Tuberocephalus artemisiae, sakurae

       A. mutellina = A. umbelliformis   

       A. myriantha                            Capitophorus formosartemisiae

       A. nepalensis                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Capitophorus formosartemisiae

       A. nitrosa                                  Brachyunguis tausaghyz; Macrosiphoniella kirgisica;

                                                         Protaphis elatior, elongata; Xerobion cinae

       A. nova                                     Macrosiphoniella oblonga

       A. nutans                                  Pleotrichophorus gnaphalodes (?)

       A. opulenta                               Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                         Uroleucon ambiguum, [fuchuense]

       A. pauciflora                            Obtusicauda dolichosiphon ssp. praecellens

       A. pectinata Pall. = Neopallasia pectinata

       A. pedemontana                       Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, frigidicola

       A. persica                                  Macrosiphoniella absinthii, himalayana, nigropilosa;

                                                         Obtusicauda dolichosiphon, moldavica ssp. crassitubia

       A. pontica                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Coloradoa huculaki, ponticae; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, kaufmanni,

                                                              [Macrosiphoniella  sp. nr cinerascens: Leonard 1973];

                                                         Protaphis elongata; Protrama flavescens

       A. porrecta                                Coloradoa heinzei; Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii; Xerobion cinae

       A. princeps                               [Anuraphis farfarae]; Aulacorthum artemisiphaga, solani;

              (incl. var. orientalis)                 Aphis kurosawai, [serissae], spiraecola,

                                                             [yomogii Shinji 1922];

                                                         Capitophorus formosartemisiae;

                                                         Coloradoa artemisiae, campestrella, rufomaculata;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae;     

                                                         Macrosiphoniella antennata, chaetosiphon,

                                                             formosartemisiae, grandicauda, hikosanensis, kuwayamai,

                                                             oblonga, pseudoartemisiae, sanborni, taesongsanensis,

                                                             yomogicola, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Macrotrichaphis yatsugatakensis;

                                                         [Myzus yomogi Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                         Pleotrichophorus [chrysanthemi], glandulosus;

                                                         Sappaphis piri; [Shinjia orientalis];

                                                         Tuberocephalus artemisiae, [momonis], sakurae, sasakii;

                                                         [Uroleucon lactucicola]

       A. procera = A. abrotanum

       A. pubescens                            Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. chosoni, [lena]

       A. reptans                                 Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae

       A. rhodantha                            Macrosiphoniella alativica    

       A. rigida                                    Epameibaphis sp.; Obtusicauda coweni, Obtusicauda sp.;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius, infrequenus, obscuratus,

                                                            quadritrichus

       A. roxburghiana                      Aphis kurosawai; Capitophorus formosartemisiae

       A. rubripes                                Aphis kurosawai; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae, grandicauda, hidaensis,

                                                            hikosanensis, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai, oblonga,

                                                            pseudoartemisiae, yomenae, yomogifoliae

       A. rupestris                               Macrosiphoniella borealis, frigidivora, subequalis;

                                                         Obtusicauda mongolica

       A. rutifolia                                Macrosiphoniella sojaki

       A. sacrorum                             Uroleucon dubium

       A. saitoana                               Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai

       A. salina = Seriphidium maritimum

       A. santolina  = Seriphidium santolinum

       A. santolinifolia                        Macrosiphoniella nigropilosa, oblonga, santolinifoliae,

                                                             Macrosiphoniella (Phalangomyzus) sp .(Kazakhstan;

                                                              Kadyrbekov 2009a, 2014d,e)

                                                              [Pleotrichophorus ugamicus]; Protaphis miranda

       A. santonica                             Aphis hortobagyi; Coloradoa submissa;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella pulvera; Obtusicauda moldavica

       A. saxatilis see A. alba

       A. schmidtiana                         Macrosiphoniella absinthii, yomogicola, yomogifoliae

       A. schrenkiana = Seriphidium schrenkianum                               

       A. scopariiformis                      Coloradoa heinzei; Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii;

                                                         Xerobion lambersi

       A. scoparia                               Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                         Coloradoa campestrella, campestris, [procerae], scopariae;

                                                         Cryptosiphum brevipilosum;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella absinthii, [achlys], alatavica, arenariae,

                                                             artemisiae, formosartemisiae, grandicauda, [hofuchui],

                                                             [huochengensis], kuwayamai, lambersi, pallidipes,

                                                             pseudoartemisiae, scopariae, [tsizhongi],

                                                             [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2005b)];

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus [cerasi], persicae;

                                                         Pemphigus bursarius;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus, persimilis; Protaphis elongata;

                                                         Protrama flavescens; [Sappaphis albinae, sinipiricola];

                                                         Titanosiphon artemisiae, neoartemisiae;

                                                         Xerobion lambersi

       A. selengensis                           Aphis kurosawai;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae, [artemisiae ssp. linanense];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella grandicauda, hidaensis, hokkaidensis,

                                                             kuwayamai, oblonga, similioblonga,  yomogifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

       A. sericea                                  Macrosiphoniella abrotani, sibirica; Microsiphum jazykovi

       A. serotina                                Coloradoa heinzei;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella pulvera, seriphidii, szalaymarzsoi;

                                                         [Microsiphum sp. (Juchnevitch 1968)];

                                                         Protaphis elatior; Xerobion cinae

       A. sibirica  = Filifolium sibiricum

         A. sieberi = Seriphidium sieberi

       A. sieversiana                           Aphis fabae, kurosawai; [Coloradoa brevipilosa];

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae, sieversianae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani ssp. sainshandi, absinthii,

                                                             artemisiae, atra ssp. latysiphon, hokkaidensis, kuwayamai,

                                                            oblonga, pulvera, sibirica, sieversianae, szalaymarzsoi;

                                                         Microsiphum jazykovi; [Microsiphum sp. (Juchnevitch 1968)];

                                                         Protaphis anuraphoides, [terricola];

                                                         Xerobion cinae

       A. songarica                             Macrosiphoniella seriphidii

       A. spinescens = Picrothamnus desertorum

       A. splendens                             Macrosiphoniella absinthii                                                    

       A. stelleriana                            Capitophorus formosartemisiae; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella [albiartemisiae], artemisiae, hidaensis,

                                                             kuwayamai, longirostrata, oblonga, pseudoartemisiae,

                                                             sachalinensis, sanborni, yomogicola, yomogifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus gnaphalodes

       A. stolonifera                            Aphis artemisiphaga, kurosawai;

                                                         Aulacorthum artemisiphaga;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella antennata, elenae, formosartemisiae,

                                                              grandicauda, hikosanensis, hokkaidensis,

                                                              kikungshana, kuwayamai, myohyangsani,

                                                              pseudoartemisiae, sanborni, sikhotealinensis,

                                                              yomogifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus;

                                                         Tuberocephalus artemisiae, sasakii

       A. stenophylla = A. marschalliana ssp. tschernieviana

       A. sublessingiana = Seriphidium sublessingianum

       A. subulata                               Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai, yomogifoliae

       A. suksdorfii                             Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae

       A. sylvatica                               Aphis kurosawai;

                                                         [Coloradoa kasmirica Rishi & Lone (nomen nudum)];

                                                         Delphiniobium ussuriense;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella hikosanensis, kikungshana,

                                                              kuwayamai, myohyangsani

       A. szowitziana                           [Cryptosiphum milsteppensis Rusanova 1942 (nomen

                                                             nudum)];  

                                                         Macrosiphoniella pulvera; Titanosiphon dracunculi;

                                                         Xerobion cinae

       A. tanacetifolia                         Macrosiphoniella antennata, atra ssp. latysiphon, borealis

       A. taurica                                  Coloradoa heinzei, taurica;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella tuberculatumartemisicola;

                                                         [Protrama ranunculi]; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                         Xerobion caspicae

       A. tenuisecta                             Macrosiphoniella turanica;

                                                         Titanosiphum neoartemisiae, neoartemisiae ssp. hissaricum

       A. terrae-albae                          Coloradoa heinzei; Cryptosiphum astrachanicae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella alatavica, kirgisica, procerae,

                                                             seriphidii, terraealbae;

                                                         Xerobion alakuli, cinae

       A. thuscula                               Macrosiphoniella absinthii, artemisiae; Myzus persicae

       A. tilesii                                     Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) jaroslavi;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus knowltoni, tuberculatus

       A. tomentella                            Coloradoa taurica; Cryptosiphum brevipilosum;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella scopariae,

                                                             [Macrosiphoniella sp. (Kadyrbekov 2003c)];

                                                         Pleotrichophorus persimilis; Protaphis miranda;

                                                         Titanosiphon minkiewski, neoartemisiae; Xerobion lambersi

       A. tournefortiana                     Macrosiphoniella abrotani, nigropilosa, oblonga

       A. transiliensis                          Coloradoa heinzei;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, szalaymarszoi;

                                                         Obtusicauda moldavica

       A. tridentata                              Aphis canae, chrysothamnicola, filifoliae, hermistonii,

                                                             infrequens, oregonensis, reticulata, utahensis;

                                                         Artemisaphis artemisicola; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Epameibaphis atricornis, frigidae, utahensis;

                                                         Flabellomicrosiphum knowltoni, tridentatae;

                                                         [Forda marginata]; [Hyperomyzus occidentalis (vagr.?)];

                                                         [Illinoia grindeliae]; Macrosiphoniella artemisiae;

                                                         Microsiphoniella acophorum, artemisiae, oregonensis;

                                                         Nevadaphis sampsoni;

                                                         Obtusicauda anomella, artemisiphila, coweni, filifoliae,

                                                              frigidae, zerothermum;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius, decampus, glandulosus,

                                                             gnaphalodes, heterohirsutus, pallidus, rusticatus,

                                                             spatulavillus, zoomontanus; infrequenus, longipes,

                                                             [oestlundi], [palmerae], pseudoglandulosus, pullus,

                                                             [pycnorhysus], quadritrichus, quadritrichus ssp. pallidus,

                                                             rusticatus, spatulavillus, zoomontanus;

                                                         Pseudoepameibaphis essigi, tridentata, xenotrichis;

                                                         [Uroleucon erigeronense]

       A. tridentata var. trifida  = A. tripartita

       A. tripartita                               Pleotrichophorus filifoliae, zoomontanus

       A. tschernieviana = A. campestris ssp. inodora

       A. turanica                               Macrosiphoniella seriphidii; Pleotrichophorus afghanensis; 

                    (incl. turcomanica)           [Protaphis afghanica]; Xerobion alakuli, cinae

       A. umbelliformis                      [Coloradoa palmerae – in error: Szelegiewicz (1996, 188)];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella mutellinae

       A. umbrosa                               Aphis artemisiphaga, kurosawai; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai, yomogifoliae

       A. valida                                   Coloradoa heinzei; Macrosiphoniella kirgisica, seriphidii

       A. vallesiaca                             Macrosiphoniella vallesiacae

       A. variabilis                              Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, atra, subaequalis;

                                                         Xerobion blascoi, caspicae

       A. verlotiorum                          Brachycaudus helichrysi; Colorodoa artemisiae;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella artemisiae, oblonga;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus glandulosus group

       A. vestita                                   [Aphis sp. - Chowdhuri et al. (1969b, 335)];

                                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi, [Brachycaudus sp. - Chowdhuri et

                                                              al. (1969a, 90)];

                                                         Capitophorus formosartemisiae; Cryptosiphum artemisiae;

                                                         Dysaphis microsiphon; Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae;

                                                         Protrama longitarsus ssp. sclerodensis

       A. vulgaris                                Aphis artemisiphaga, aurantii, fabae, gossypii, kurosawai,

                                                            nevskyi, [plantaginis], spiraecola;                      

                                                         Aulacorthum [perillae], solani;

                                                         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                         Capitophorus formosartemisiae;           

                                                         [Chaetosiphon gracilicorne];

                                                         Coloradoa artemisiae, campestrella, heinzei, rufomaculata,

                                                            viridis;

                                                         Cryptosiphum artemisiae, [brevipilosum];

                                                         [Dysaphis hirsutissima];

                                                         [Geoica lucifuga]; [Lachnus inflatus Shinji (1922)];

                                                         Macrosiphoniella abrotani, absinthii, artemisiae, atra,

                                                            chaetosiphon, dimidiata, grandicauda, [helichrysi],

                                                            hidaensis, hikosanensis, hokkaidensis, insignata,

                                                            kalimpongensis,  kikungshana, kuwayamai, lijiangensis,

                                                            ludovicianae, nigropilosa, oblonga, paraoblonga,

                                                            pseudoartemisiae, pulvera, sanborni, sibirica, spinipes,

                                                            tanacetaria, umarovi, yomogicola, yomogifoliae;

                                                         [Metopeurum sp.]; [Sitobion gravelii];

                                                         Microsiphoniella artemisiae;

                                                         Microsiphum giganteum, woronieckae;

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus, cerasi ssp. umefoliae, [dycei], ornatus,

                                                             persicae;

                                                         Obtusicauda dolichosiphon, filifoliae;

                                                         Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius, glandulosus,

                                                            pseudoglandulosus, quadritrichus ssp. vulgaris,

                                                            zoomontanus;

                                                         Prociphilus erigeronensis;

                                                         Protaphis elatior, elongata, [hirsuta], middletonii,

                                                            [Protaphis sp. (Holman and Pintera 1981)];

                                                         Protrama flavescens, longitarsus;

                                                         Sappaphis piri; [Sitobion gravelii]; Smynthurodes betae;

                                                         Szelegiewicziella chamaerhodi;

                                                         Titanosiphon artemisiae, dracunculi, minkiewiczi;

                                                         Trama longitarsus, troglodytes;

                                                         Tuberocephalus sasakii

       A. vulgaris var. heterophylla  = A. douglasiana

       A. vulgaris var. indica = A. indica                                            

       A. vulgaris var. vulgatissima    = A. montana

       Artemisia sp.                            Aphis artemisiphila, craccivora, lharsartemisiae;

          (or Seriphidium sp.)               Aulacorthum dasi; [Chaetosiphon alpestre];

                                                         Coloradoa mesasiatica, paradoxa; [Cryptomyzus taoi];

                                                         Cryptosiphum [atriplicivorum], mordvilkoi;

                                                         [Geoica utricularia]; [Hyalomyzus raoi]; [Iziphya maculata];

                                                         [Kaltenbachiella pallida]; [Lipaphis erysimi];

                                                         Longisiphoniella subterranea;

                                                         Macrosiphoniella atrata, brevisiphona, cegmidi, [erythraea],

                                                            huaidensis, lidiae, lopatini, [quinifontana], sikkimartemisiae;

                                                         [Macrosiphum chukotense];                                                    

                                                         Microsiphoniella oregonensis; [Myzakkaia verbasci];

                                                         [Myzus kalimpongensis, ninae, siegesbeckicola]

                                                         [Nasonovia ribisnigri]; [Indomasonaphis anaphalidis];

                                                         [Paracletus cimiciformis]; [Phorodon cannabis];

                                                         Protaphis artemisivora; [Saltusaphis scirpus];

                                                         [Sipha elegans];

                                                         [Sitobion sp. nr fragariae (as Uroleucon qinghaiense)];

                                                         Tshernovaia spirocaudicula;

                                                         [Uroleucon pseudotanaceti, sonchi]

The above list, taken together with the list of aphids on the similar genus Seriphidium, contains more than 260 species.  This is by far the largest aphid fauna of any plant genus. We have split the key into three parts to make it easier to use.

Master key to aphids on Artemisia and Seriphidium:-

1     ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, and front of head convex in dorsal view; sometimes ANT tubercles are developed so that they project forward as far as the middle of the head, but then ANT III is without any secondary rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens)

                                                                                                                                       ..…KEY A

-      ANT tubercles developed or with developed processes, so that they project forward further than middle part of head, which is often concave in dorsal view. If the ANT tubercles are low (Microsiphoniella, Artemisaphis and some Obtusicauda and Microsiphum), then ANT III bears at least one rhinarium                                                                                          …..2

2     SIPH tubular, clearly longer than their basal widths, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation, consisting of at least a few closed cells                                              ..…KEY B

-      SIPH either very small or well-developed, but if well-developed then they lack polygonal reticulation                                                                                                              .….KEY C

 

KEY A

[ Note: the following species could not be included in the key because specimens were not available and they could not be discriminated on the basis of the published descriptions. The number in brackets after the species indicates the couplet they should run to in the key:- Aphis lhasartemisiae (82),  Aphis reticulata (79), Coloradoa brevisiphon (20), C. brevipilosa (27), C. procerae (26), Sappaphis albinae (45), S. angelicograstis (45), S. dipirivora (45), S. sinipiricola (45)]

 

1     ANT PT very short, with ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4                                                    …..2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.4 (often more than 1)                                                           ..…8

2     Antennae very densely hairy; e.g. base of last antennal segment with more than 20 hairs                                                                                                                                                  …..3

-      Antennae much less hairy; e.g. base of last antennal segment with less than 10 hairs      …..7

3     Hind tarsi elongate, more than 0.5 of length of hind tibiae.  Antennae 6-segmented      …..4

-      Hind tarsi of normal length, much less than 0.5 of length of hind tibiae. Antennae 5-segmented                                                                                                                          …..6

4     SIPH absent.  ANT PT/BASE less than 0.25. Antennae without secondary rhinaria and eyes with only 3 facets (except in rare alatiform apterae)                              .….Trama troglodytes

-      SIPH present as pores on slightly elevated, pigmented cones. ANT PT/BASE more than 0.25.  Apterae typically alatiform, with secondary rhinaria on antennae and multifaceted eyes

                                                                                                                                                  ..…5

5     Hind tibia 2.2-2.6 Χ ANT III. HT II 0.59-0.70 Χ hind tibia. R IV with 6-8 (usually 7) accessory hairs on dorsal side                                                             …..Protrama flavescens

-      Hind tibia 2.7-3.2 Χ ANT III. HT II 0.53-0.63 Χ hind tibia. R IV with 6-10 (usually 9) accessory hairs on dorsal side                                                            ..…Protrama longitarsus

6     ANT V BASE and R IV+V both very long, respectively about 1.7 and 2.5 Χ width of head between antennal bases. ANT II similar in length to ANT I, much shorter than III

                                                                                                                      .….Rectinasus buxtoni

-      ANT V BASE and R IV+V of normal length , both about 0.5 Χ width of head between antennal bases. ANT II about twice as long as ANT I, similar in length to III

                                                                                                                    ..…Smynthurodes betae

7     R IV+V 0.08-0.12 mm long, and without accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments short and thick. Cauda and anal plate not projecting posteriorly

                                                                                                                  …..Pemphigus bursarius

-      R IV+V 0.13-0.175 mm long, with 4-8 accessory hairs. Hairs at apices of tibiae and on first tarsal segments long and fine. Cauda and anal plate forming a dark posterior projection of the abdomen                                                                                …..Prociphilus erigeronensis

8     Fore femora greatly enlarged, about twice as thick as mid femora, and fore tibiae with strengthened bases (Fig.12a). Dorsum adorned with numerous tubercular processes, most of which bear hairs and wax glands. Cauda knobbed                                                            .....9

-      Fore femora not enlarged. Dorsum with or without tubercular processes. Cauda variable

                                                                                                                                                …..10

9     Dorsal tubercles mammariform or quadrate, in a single row across each tergite, each bearing 1-3 hairs; the tubercles vary in size but all bear hairs of similar length (Fig.12b)

                                                                                                          ..…Macropodaphis rechingeri

-      Dorsal tubercles mammariform, conical and digitiform, in a double transverse row on each tergite, each bearing a single hair; both tubercles and hairs vary greatly in size, the hairs on the digitiform tubercles being minute (Fig.12c)                        …..Macropodaphis paradoxa

10   Compound eyes well developed, with ocular tubercles (triommatidia) reduced or displaced ventrally, so that they do not form distinct projections in dorsal view. Dorsal hairs usually with expanded, and often fan-shaped, apices (e.g. Figs 12d, h-l)                                   .....11

-      Compound eyes sometimes reduced, if well-developed then with ocular tubercles forming distinct projections. Dorsal hairs variable but never fan-shaped, and usually thinner at apex than at base                                                                                                                       .....38

11   SIPH reduced to raised pores (e.g. Fig. 12d)                                                                  ..…12

-      SIPH tubular, longer than basal width                                                                            ..…13

12   Femora dark. ANT PT/BASE more than 2                       ..…Flabellomicrosiphum knowltoni

-      Femora pale. ANT PT/BASE less than 2                        …..Flabellomicrosiphum tridentatae

13   SIPH with flange swollen, so that the apex is knob-like (Figs 12e,f)                             …..14

-      SIPH with normal, thin-walled flange                                                                            …..16

14   Dorsum pigmented. SIPH and legs black                                     .....Epameibaphis atricornis

-      Dorsum pale. SIPH and legs pale (except tarsi)                                                               .....15

15   ANT III with 1-4 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.4-1.8 Χ HT II. Flange of SIPH not thickly swollen (Fig.12e)                                                                            …..Epameibaphis frigidae

-      ANT III without rhinaria. R IV+V 1.0-1.4 Χ HT II. Flange of SIPH thickly swollen (Fig.12f)

.….Epameibaphis utahensis

16   SIPH thinner on basal half than middle of  hind tibia, swollen distally on inner side, with flange set obliquely (e.g. Fig.12g)                                                                                   ..…17

-      SIPH on basal half as thick as or thicker than middle of hind tibia; if swollen distally then the swelling is more symmetrical and flange less oblique (Figs 12m-p)                          ..…20

17   ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.0                                                                                                   .….18

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.3                                                                                                   ..…19

18   ANT PT 1.5-2.0 Χ SIPH                                                        …..Pseudoepameibaphis glauca

-      ANT PT 1.0-1.3 Χ SIPH                                                  …..Pseudoepameibaphis tridentatae

19   ANT PT  0.9-1.4 Χ SIPH                                                         …..Pseudoepameibaphis essigi

-      ANT PT 0.3-0.7 Χ SIPH                                                  .….Pseudoepameibaphis xenotrichis

20   SIPH short, less than 0.1 Χ BL and less than 1.2 Χ cauda                                              …..21

-      SIPH longer, more than 0.1 Χ BL and more than 1.3 Χ cauda                                        ..…27

21   ABD TERG 8 bearing 13-19 hairs. ANT 5-segmented, and dorsal hairs all very short and fan-shaped, broadening abruptly from base (fundatrices), or ANT 6-segmented and dorsal hairs longer, broadening gradually from bases (later generations)     .….Coloradoa paradoxa

-      ABD TERG 8 bearing 6-8 hairs. ANT 6-segmented. Dorsal hairs broadening gradually from base or expanded only near their apices                                                                          .….22

22   R IV+V is 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II, and 0.75-1.0 Χ cauda                                 .….Coloradoa heinzei

-      R IV+V is 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II, and 0.5-0.7 Χ cauda                                                            …..23

23   Dorsal abdominal hairs small, thin  and rod-like (Fig.12h), only slightly expanded at apices; longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 shorter than BDIII. SIPH pale           .....Coloradoa abrotani

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs thicker and with fan-shaped apices; longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 longer than BDIII. SIPH uniformly dark                                                                        ..…24

24   Dorsal abdominal hairs narrowest at base, cylindrical or gradually thickening proximal to the fan-shaped apex (Fig.12i)                                                                …..Coloradoa campestris

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs tapering or cylindrical from base, thinnest on distal half, then widening abruptly into fan-shaped apex (e.g. Fig.12j)                                                   …..25

25   Coxae pale, and at least basal parts of femora and SIPH pale, although sometimes darker distally                                                                                               .….Coloradoa santolinae

-      Coxae, femora and SIPH all dark                                                                                   …..26

26   Antennae dark except for ANT II and base part of ANT III. Dorsal hairs pale, 50-60 μm long, with longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 at least 3 Χ BDIII               ..…Coloradoa taurica

-      Antennae with ANT III and  IV pale except at apices, and V pale basally.  Dorsal hairs pigmented, 40-50 μm long, with longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 less than 3 Χ BDIII

                                                                                                                   …..Coloradoa submissa

27   Antennae 5-segmented                                                                                                    ..…28

-      Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                                    ..…29

28   Dorsal cuticle smooth. Dorsal hairs broadly fan-shaped (Fig. 12k). ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.4. SIPH 0.75-0.95 Χ ANT III                                                                  .….Coloradoa ponticae

-      Dorsal cuticle with reticulate sculpturing. Dorsal hairs broadly capitate (i.e., with rounded apices; Fig.12l)). ANT  PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH 1.05-1.25 Χ ANT III ..…Coloradoa viridis

29   R IV+V 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II. SIPH distinctly clavate (Fig.12m)                                          ..…30

-      R IV+V 1.1-1.5 Χ HT II. SIPH variable                                                                         ..…32

30   ANT PT more than 1.5 Χ ANT III                        …..Coloradoa absinthii (also mesasiatica)

-      ANT PT less than 1.3 Χ ANT III                                                                                    …..31

31   ABD TERG 8 with the cuticle at the base of  the cauda thickened and raised as a shallow, irregularly shaped process, bearing 1-2 small spinal tubercles. ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.8

                                                                                                                   .….Coloradoa palmerae

-      ABD TERG 8 with small single or paired spinal tubercles but these are not placed on a raised, thickened area of cuticle. ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.4                 …..Coloradoa huculaki

32   Dorsal abdominal hairs broadly fan-shaped and very numerous, not in rows. SIPH distinctly clavate                                                                                                      …..Coloradoa indica

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs sparse, rod-shaped, fan-shaped or spatulate, roughly in a single row across each  segment. SIPH with or without distal swelling                                           ..…33

33   SIPH swollen on distal half to at least 1.2 of minimum width on basal half (Fig.12n)

                                                                                                                  ..…Coloradoa angelicae

-      SIPH cylindrical or if slightly swollen near apex, maximum width does not exceed 1.15 of minimum width (e.g. Figs. 12o,p)                                                                                  …..34

34   R IV+V 0.75-1.11 Χ ANT PT                                                           .….Colorodoa scopariae

-      R IV+V 0.53-0.74 Χ ANT PT                                                                                          .....35

35   ANT 0.4-0.5 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 1.4-1.7. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 6-10, IV 4-8, V 0-2)

..…Coloradoa campestrella

-      ANT 0.5-0.7 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 1.3-2.0                                                                     .....36

36   Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 are c.2 Χ diameter of ANT III. ABD TERG 8 with 10-12 hairs

                                                                                                                       .....Coloradoa deserta

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 3-5 are  not more than 1.5 Χ diameter of ANT III. ABD TERG 8 with 4-5 hairs                                                                                                                            .....37

37   SIPH almost smooth on basal part, in comparison with more coarsely imbricated distal part. (Al. with sec. rhin. III 9-19, IV 3-10, V 0-4)                                .....Coloradoa rufomaculata

-      SIPH with coarse imbrication near base similar to that near apex. (Al. with sec. rhin. III

       14-22, IV 11-14, V 2-9)                                                                    …..Coloradoa artemisiae

38   Dorsum with numerous barrel-like or stump-like processes. Dorsal hairs extremely thick and long (80-160 μm), broad-based and tapering, arising from tubercular bases

                                                                                                                 ..…Tenuilongiaphis  stata

-      Dorsum without barrel-like or stump-like processes. Dorsal hairs short, or fine if long                                                                                                                                                     .….39

39   ABD TERG 1 and 7 both without marginal tubercles (MTu)                                          .....40

-      MTu always present at least on ABD TERG 1 (or 1-5), and usually on 7                      ..…52

 

40   SIPH evident, tubular or conical, as long as their basal widths or longer                       ..…41

-      SIPH small, pore-like or on shallow cones, not longer than their basal width ; sometimes almost invisible                                                                                                                .….44

41   Cauda longer than its basal width                                                                                   ..…42

-      Cauda as short as or shorter than its basal width                                                            .….43

42   SIPH shorter than cauda, which has a midway constriction and a rounded apex. ANT

       5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE more than 3.5                           .….Misturaphis shiloensis

-      SIPH longer than cauda, which is conical, without a constriction. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.2                                                              .….Micraphis artemisiae

43   ANT 0.7-0.9 Χ BL, with PT/BASE  4.6-6.1. SIPH long and dark, 0.23-0.29 Χ BL and 6.0-7.8 Χ cauda. Spiracles reniform                                    …..Longisiphoniella subterranea*

-      ANT 0.4-0.7 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 2.4-3.2.  SIPH truncate, pale, 0.07-0.1 Χ BL and 1.1-1.3 Χ cauda. Spiracles large and circular                                            .….Brachycaudus helichrysi

44   Dorsum clothed with numerous fine hairs                                                                       …..45

-      Dorsum sparsely hairy                                                                                                     …..46

45   SIPH short, conical, with a flange, and with surrounding hairs (Fig. 12q). Cauda bluntly triangular or helmet-shaped                                                                           .....Sappaphis piri

-      SIPH as very small shallow flangeless cylinders, only slightly conical, and without surrounding hairs. Cauda with broad basal part and narrowly extended apical part

                                                                                                    ..…Brevisiphonaphis hirsutissima

 

46   ANT PT/BASE more than 1.1                                                                                          .....47

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1.1                                                                                           .….48

47   Body broadly spindle-shaped. SIPH as short cylinders, length about half of  width. First tarsal segments with 2-2-2 hairs                                                ..…Cryptosiphum mordvilkoi*

-      Body broadly oval. SIPH as pores. First tarsal segments with 3-3-2 hairs

                                                                                                       ..…Cryptosiphum sieversianae*

48   R IV+V 0.95-1.1 Χ HT II. Posterior margin of subgenital plate with 6-9 hairs

                                                                                                      .....Cryptosiphum dracunculum*

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.7 Χ HT II. Posterior margin of subgenital plate with 7-19 hairs               .....49

49   Cauda semicircular, almost as long as wide. Tubercular bases of dorsal hairs mostly longer than their basal widths. Prothoracic MTu evident               .….Cryptosiphum astrachanicae*

-      Cauda semilunar, much broader than long. Tubercular bases of dorsal hairs not  longer than their basal widths. Prothoracic MTu not evident                                                            .….50

50   Stigmal plates of the spiracles on the first two abdominal segments united. First tarsal segments with 3-3-3 hairs                                                          …..Cryptosiphum innokentyi*

-      Stigmal plates of the spiracles on the first two abdominal segments separated. First tarsal segments with 3(2)-3(2)-2 hairs                                                                                       ..…51

51   ANT III 1.0-1.6 (-2.2) Χ PT. Subgenital plate usually with 2 (sometimes up to 4) hairs on anterior half and 6-11 on posterior margin. (Alatae with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 9-13, IV 0)                                                                         .….Cryptosiphum brevipilosum

-      ANT III 1.6-2.8 Χ PT. Subgenital plate with 5-10 hairs on anterior half and 12-19 on posterior margin. (Alatae with secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 21-28, IV 2-5)

                                                                                                            ..…Cryptosiphum artemisiae

52   ANT PT/BASE 3.7-5.4                                                                                                   …..53

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 3.5                                                                                           .….54

53   Antennae 4-segmented. Dorsum with a continuous sclerotic shield covering metanotum and most of ABD TERG 1-6. No stridulatory apparatus          ..…Szelegiewicziella chamaerhodi

-      Antennae 6-segmented. No sclerotic dorsal shield. Stridulatory apparatus present, comprising cuticular ridges on abdominal sternites 5 and 6 and a row of short, peg-like hairs on each hind tibia                                                                                            ..…Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

54   R IV+V more than 2 times HT II and bearing 8 or more long fine accessory hairs.  (ANT PT/BASE about 1.1-1.2. SIPH very short, pale and cylindrical. Cauda semicircular)

                                                                                                                 .….Nevadaphis sampsoni

-      R IV+V less than 2 Χ HT II and bearing 2-6 accessory hairs                                         …..55

55   SIPH as short, dark sclerotic truncate cones with broad bases (volcano-shaped; Fig.12r), shorter than their basal widths; smooth or, if weakly imbricated, then without spicules on the imbrications. Cauda conical, very short and broad, much shorter than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE always less than 1                                                                                            .....56

-      SIPH tapering or cylindrical, with spiculose imbrication; if tapering from a broad base then longer than their basal widths. Cauda rounded, conical, tongue- or helmet-shaped; shorter or longer than its basal width. ANT PT/BASE more or less than 1                                    ..…64

56   Cephalic frontal hairs 7-20 μm long, 0.5-1.2 Χ BD III                                                   ..…57

-      Cephalic frontal hairs 22-65 μm long, 1.5-4.5 Χ BD III                                                 ..…59

57   R IV+V 1.3-1.4 Χ HT II. ANT III-V usually without secondary rhinaria

                                                                                                                  .....Xerobion pannonica*

-      R IV+V 0.95-1.25 Χ HT II.  ANT III-V usually with at least some secondary rhinaria .….58

58   Small MTu present on at least some of ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7

                                                                                                                   .….Xerobion hortobagyi

-      No MTu on ABD TERG 2-5                                                                 ..…Xerobion caspicae

59   Legs and antennae wholly dark                                                                …..Xerobion blascoi

-      At least middle parts of tibiae and antennae pale                                                           …..60

60   ANT without secondary rhinaria                                                       …..Xerobion amurensis*

-      ANT III with (0-)1-7 secondary rhinaria, IV with 0-3 and V with 0-2                          ..…61

61   MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 very large, much broader than high, much larger than the adjacent stigmal plates. Dorsal hairs rather fine with pointed apices     ..…Xerobion judenkoi

-      MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7 papilliform, similar in size to, or smaller than, adjacent stigmal plates. Dorsal hairs rather thick and spine-like with abruptly pointed or blunt apices   ..….62

62   R IV+V 1.0-1.18 Χ HT II.  Femora pale                                                ..…Xerobion lambersi

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II.  Femora dark                                                                          ..…63

63   Cephalic frontal hairs 1.5-2.5 Χ BD III. Cauda with 14-24 hairs               ..…Xerobion cinae

-      Cephalic frontal hairs 2.5-4.0 Χ BD III. Cauda with 8-14(-16) hairs     ..…Xerobion alakuli*

64   R IV+V stiletto-shaped, with RV extended as a needle-like tip, and RIV with a pair of very long finely pointed accessory hairs, as long as or longer than the “apical” hairs, which are displaced so that two pairs occupy a midway position (Fig.12s; Aphis subgenus Zyxaphis)                                                                                                                                          …..65

-      R IV+V variable in shape but RV is not extended as a needle-like tip, and the accessory hairs are often shorter than the longest of the apical pairs (e.g. Fig. 12t)                        .….71

65   R IV+V 0.24-0.29 mm long, about 2 Χ HT II                                          ..…Aphis infrequens

-      R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm long, 1.3-1.6 Χ HT II                                                                 ..…66

66   SIPH very short, only about as long as their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-0.9        .....67

-      SIPH longer than their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-2.0                                        …..68

67   Cauda broadly rounded, not longer than its basal width. RV less than half as long as RIV. [Only alatae are known, but these characters are probably applicable also to apterae.]

                                                                                                                            .....Aphis utahensis

-      Cauda clearly longer than its basal width. RV attenuate, almost as long as RIV

                                                                                                                       ..…Aphis minutissima

68   SIPH about equal in length to cauda and ANT BASE VI                           ..…Aphis filifoliae

-      SIPH clearly longer than both cauda and ANT  BASE VI                                            …..69

69   SIPH rather thick and broad-based, slightly broader at base than middle of hind femur. Abdominal pigmentation when fully developed consists of a central patch on ABD TERG 2-4 joined to widely separate paired patches on ABD TERG 5, that extend laterally towards the siphunculi (Fig.12u). ABD TERG 7 with MTu well developed; only in small specimens are they much smaller than those on ABD TERG 1                                 .....Aphis hermistonii

-      SIPH slightly narrower at base than middle of hind femur.  Abdominal pigmentation variable, but if there are any paired patches on ABD TERG 5 then these do not extend further laterally than the central patch on ABD TERG 2-4, and are not widely separated (e.g. Fig. 12v). ABD TERG 7 with MTu often much smaller than those on ABD TERG 1, and in very small specimens they are little larger than hair bases, or even absent                                       ..…70

70   ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.5. SIPH 0.09-0.19 Χ BL. Abdominal pigmentation when fully developed consisting of a large broad irregular quadrate central patch over most of ABD TERG 2-4 or 2-5, typically with a central notch in the posterior margin on ABD TERG 5 (Fig.12v). Hairs on ANT III 14-31 μm long, not usually exceeding BD III   ..…Aphis canae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0. SIPH 0.19-0.26 Χ BL. Abdominal pigmentation when fully developed consisting of an oval central patch on ABD TERG 2-4, longer than wide and not extending onto ABD TERG 5. Hairs on ANT III 30-50 μm long, longer than BD III

                                                                                                                       .….Aphis oregonensis

71   ANT III with 1 or more secondary rhinaria (in normal apterae)                                     ..…72

-      ANT III without secondary rhinaria (except in clearly alatiform apterae)                      ..…75

74   ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II. Cauda with 5-6 short hairs

                                                                                                                            Aphis globosa*

-      ANT 6-segmented. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II. Cauda with 7-20 short or long hairs       ..…73

73   ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.1. Cauda with 16-20 hairs                                     …..Protaphis elatior

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.3-2.4. Cauda with 7-15 hairs                                                              …..74

74   ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.7. Cauda with 7-12 short hairs, which are maximally 1.5 Χ BDIII

                                                                                                             .….Protaphis artemisivora*

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4 (rarely less than 1.7).  Cauda with 10-15 long hairs, which are more than 2 Χ BDIII                                                                                   .....Protaphis middletonii

75   ANT PT/BASE 1.3 or less                                                                                               .….76

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.36 or more                                                                                          …..81

76   SIPH much longer than cauda                                                                       ..... Aphis hiltoni*

-      SIPH 0.5-1.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                      ..…77

77   Cauda c.0.2 mm long, at least twice its basal width                                    ..…Aphis nevskyi*

-      Cauda 0.08-0.13 mm long, similar in length to basal width or only a little longer          .….80

78   Cauda with 6-8 hairs. SIPH pale                                                ..…Brachyunguis tausaghyz*

-      Cauda with 14-20 hairs. SIPH dark                                                                                …..79

79   Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.2 Χ BD III. MTu usually absent from ABD TERG 6

                                                                                                                      .….Protaphis elongata

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.5 Χ BD III. MTu present or absent on ABD TERG 6 …..80

80   MTu consistently present on ABD TERG 6 as well as 1 and 7            …..Protaphis miranda

-      MTu usually absent from ABD TERG 6                                                  …..Protaphis elatior

81   MTu present on ABD TERG 1-5 but not on 7. SIPH 0.4-0.8 (-1.2) Χ cauda which is helmet-shaped, distinctly shorter than its basal width. (Dorsal body and appendages with numerous long hairs)                                                                                        …..Dysaphis microsiphon

-      MTu always on ABD TERG 1 and 7, sometimes also on 2-4 or 2-5. SIPH 0.8-2.0 Χ cauda which is tongue-shaped, tapering or triangular                                                                …..82

82   MTu normally present on most of ABD TERG 2-4 (or 5) as well as 1 and 7                 ..…83

-      MTu absent from or only rarely present on tergites other than 1 and 7                          …..85

83   SIPH 0.8-1.25 Χ cauda. ANT III with hairs on anterior side short, but usually with one or more long, fine hairs on posterior side which are 2-3 Χ BD III         .....Aphis artemisiphaga*

-      SIPH 1.4-2.0 Χ cauda. Hairs on ANT III all short, the longest 0.2-0.8 Χ BD III           .….84

84   ANT PT/BASE 2.8-3.3. R IV+V 1.25-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda triangular, about as long as its basal width, with about 16 hairs                                                         .….Aphis artemisiphila*

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.5-2.7. R IV+V 1.1-1.2 Χ HT II. Cauda about twice as long as its basal width, with 6-7 long hairs                                                             ..…Aphis neoartemisiphila*

85   R IV+V 1.36-1.91 Χ HT II, tapering almost to a point, and often with concave sides. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0                                                                                      ..…Aphis kurosawai

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.5 Χ HT II, ending bluntly and with straight or convex sides. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5 (rarely less than 2.0)      ..…polyphagous Aphis spp. (fabae, gossypii and spiraecola);

                                                                                 for separation see key to polyphagous aphids.

 

KEY B

[Note: the following Macrosiphoniella species could not be included in the key because specimens could not be discriminated on the basis of available material or published descriptions. The number in brackets after the species indicates the couplet they should run to in the key:- Macrosiphoniella achlys (70), M. arenariae (68), M. alativica (34), M. altaica (68), M. austriacae (70), M. brevisiphona (68), M. dracunculi (73), M. erythraea (24), M. frigidae (70), M. hofuchui (45), M. lena (68), M. lidiae (29), M. lopatini (29), M. procerae (29), M. pulvera ssp. khinganica (42), M. santolinifoliae (68), M. scopariae (52), M. sibirica (90), M. tsizhongi(45).]

1     SIPH (Fig. 13a) bearing many fine hairs, and long (9-10 Χ longer than their midlength diameter and more than 2 Χ the pale triangular cauda which is about 2 Χ its basal width). First tarsal segments with (4-) 5 hairs                               .....Macrotrichaphis yatsugatakensis

-      SIPH with few or no hairs (or if with many hairs then short (Fig.13e); c. 3 Χ midlength diameter and similar in length to dark tongue-shaped cauda, and first tarsal segments with 3 hairs)                                                                                                                                   .....2

2     Cauda short, less than 1.5 Χ its basal width, more-or-less triangular, sometimes with a narrower distal part (e.g. Fig.13b)                                                                                      .....3

-      Cauda finger-like, longer than 1.5 Χ its basal width, tapering or rounded at apex           ..…6

3     SIPH  with reticulation confined to a few transverse striae and closed cells at apex (Fig.13c). Abdominal spiracles with broadly open, rounded apertures   …..Artemisaphis artemisicola

-      SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.25-0.7 of length. Abdominal spiracles with small reniform apertures, partly occluded by the stigmal plates                 ..…4

4     SIPH thin, 1.3-2.0 Χ cauda, 6-11 Χ their least diameter near midlength. ANT III with 4-32 tuberculate secondary rhinaria, and IV with 0-12                        …..Metopeurum fuscoviride

-      SIPH thick and short, 1.0-1.3 Χ cauda, 2.2-4.5 Χ their midlength diameter. ANT III with 5-18 rhinaria, and IV with or without 1-2 rhinaria                                                                    …..5 

5     ANT III with 5-13 rhinaria confined to basal half, none on IV …..Macrosiphoniella elenae*

-      ANT III with 14-18 rhinaria distributed over most of length, and 0-2 on IV

…..Macrosiphoniella insignata*

6     Thoracic spiracles very large, with round apertures, conspicuously larger than abdominal ones, although these also have broad open, oval apertures, Dorsal abdomen without any dark sclerotisation                                                                             …..Delphiniobium ussuriense*

-      Thoracic spiracles similar in size and form to abdominal ones. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark sclerotisation                                                                                                …..7

7     Abdominal spiracles with broadly open, oval apertures. Dorsal abdomen with dark intersegmental muscle plates. SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation extending over 0.05-0.25 of length, and often bearing a few hairs                                                           …..8

-      Abdominal spiracles with small reniform apertures, partly occluded by the stigmal plates.  Dorsal abdomen with unpigmented intersegmental muscle plates. SIPH if with polygonal reticulation then this extends over 0.12-0.75 of length, and usually without hairs         …..15

8     ANT III (of apt.) with 12-26 secondary rhinaria (rarely less than 18), extending over full length of segment, and ANT IV with 0-6 (rarely 0). (Al. with 23-30 on III and 1-12 on IV)

                                                                                                                  ..…Obtusicauda frigidae

-      ANT III with 0-13 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV without any. (Al. with 4-28 on III and

       0-2 on IV)                                                                                                                         …..9

9     SIPH 1.0-1.7 Χ ANT PT                                                                                                  .….10

-      SIPH 0.4-0.95 Χ ANT PT                                                                                                 .....12

10   SIPH thick, 4.0-5.5 Χ longer than their middle diameters. Coxae dusky or dark

                                                                                                        ..…Obtusicauda dolychosiphon

-      SIPH 5.5-10.5 Χ longer than their middle diameters. Coxae pale or dark                      …..11

11   SIPH 1.4-1.7 Χ cauda. Coxae dark                                               ..…Obtusicauda anomella*

-      SIPH 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda. Coxae pale                                                    .….Obtusicauda filifoliae

12   SIPH 0.4-0.6 Χ ANT PT, and 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda                            …..Obtusicauda mongolica*

-      SIPH 0.65-0.95 Χ ANT PT, and 1.1-2.0 Χ cauda                                                            ..…13

13   Coxae pale. ANT III (of apt.) with 0-2 secondary rhinaria. (Al. with 4-9)

                                                                                                          .….Obtusicauda artemisiphila

-      Coxae dusky or dark. ANT III (of apt.) with 0-12 secondary rhinaria. (Al. with 12-24)

                                                                                                                                                .….14

14   ANT PT/BASE 3.3-5.1.  SIPH 1.1-1.5 Χ cauda, and 0.17-0.22 Χ BL

                                                                                                    ..…Obtusicauda moldavica group

-      ANT PT/BASE 4.9-6.5.  SIPH  1.0-2.0 Χ cauda and 0.19-0.37 Χ BL

                                                                                                         …..Obtusicauda coweni group

15   First tarsal segments with 4-5 hairs, 3 subapical and 1-2 lateral                                      ..…16

-      First tarsal segments with 3 subapical hairs only, without lateral hairs                            .....18

16   Cauda dark. Tibiae wholly dark. SIPH about 1.6-1.7 Χ cauda …..Uroleucon omeishanense*

-      Cauda pale. Tibiae with paler middle section. SIPH 1.0-1.6 Χ cauda                             …..17

17   ANT PT/BASE 5.5-6.5. SIPH 1.0-1.35 Χ cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 Χ HT II. Cauda with 12-27 hairs                                                                                                   …..Uroleucon ambrosiae

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.8-4.8. SIPH 1.3-1.6 Χ cauda. R IV+V 0.9-1.2 Χ HT II. Cauda with 10-16 hairs                                                                                                  …..Uroleucon ambiguum

18   SIPH  pale at least basally, 1.7-2.3 Χ cauda, with reticulation over distal 0.12-0.20(-0.25) of length. ANT PT/BASE 4.2-7.0. R IV+V with convex or straight sides and with hairs on basal half similar in length to subapical (primary) hairs                                                            …..19

-      SIPH pale or dark, 0.6-2.0 Χ cauda, with reticulation over distal 0.25-0.75 of length. ANT PT/BASE often less than 4.2. R IV+V variable but often more-or-less stiletto-shaped, with straight or concave sides and a pointed apex. Hairs on basal half of R IV+V often long and fine, longer than the subapical primary hairs                                                                   ..…20

19   ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria. SIPH pale or only dusky towards apex, which is not flared and has a distinct flange                                                                    …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

-      ANT III with 6-26 rhinaria. SIPH pale at base but darker distally, flared at apex, without any distinct flange (Fig. 5i)                                                       …..Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

20   Cauda with a remarkable bipartite structure, comprising a broad base and a long thin twisted distal part                                                                                                                          .....21

-      Cauda finger-like or gradually tapering, not twisted                                                       .....22

21   Thin twisted distal part of cauda bearing c.10 hairs. ANT III with c.7-10 rhinaria. R IV+V with acutely pointed apex and 6 accessory hairs                   .....Tshernovaia spirocaudicula*

-      Thin twisted distal part of cauda without hairs. ANT III with 20-40 rhinaria. R IV+V with blunt apex and 8-12 accessory hairs                                            ....Tshernovaia adenophorae

22   Hind tibia with a ventral row of short thick peg-like hairs, distinct from the normal ones (Fig.13d)                                                                                                                          ..…23

-      Hind tibia without a ventral row of short thick peg-like hairs                                        …..25

23   R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation over at least distal 0.5. Genital plate with 2-5 hairs on anterior part                                                               ..…Macrosiphoniella jaroslavi*

-      R IV+V 1.2-1.6 Χ HT II. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.16-0.4. Genital plate with 9-14 hairs on anterior half                                                                                                        …..24

24   SIPH long and stout, 0.22-0.28 Χ BL, with reticulation over distal 0.25-0.30.

       R IV+V 1.4-1.6 Χ HT II                                                            ..…Macrosiphoniella spinipes

-      SIPH  0.18-0.21 Χ BL with reticulation over distal 0.16-0.25. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II

                                                                                              ..…Macrosiphoniella myohyangsani*

25   ABD TERG 2-4 each with at least 50 long, fine hairs arranged irregularly, not in transverse rows. Head with at least 12 dorsal hairs in addition to the frontal ones (Macrosiphoniella subgenus Sinosiphoniella)                                                                                                ..…26

-      ABD TERG 2-4 each with 8-35 hairs arranged in 1-2 transverse rows. Head with only 8-10 dorsal hairs in addition to frontal ones                                                                             .....29

26   SIPH bearing long fine hairs (Fig. 13e)                             …..Macrosiphoniella chaetosiphon

-      SIPH without hairs                                                                                                          .….27

27   Dorsal abdomen with dark cross-bands (sometimes broken into segmental groups of sclerites). Tibiae uniformly dark                                                           …..Macrosiphoniella yomogicola

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings, or with small scleroites at bases of hairs. Tibiae usually with paler middle section, sometimes uniformly dark                                        .….28

28   SIPH 1.1-1.6 Χ cauda which tapers sharply from base and has long thin distal part (Fig.13f). R IV+V more than 3 Χ its basal width, similar in length to HT II. Dorsal abdominal hairs without scleroites at their bases                                            ..…Macrosiphoniella kuwayamai

-      SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda which tapers gradually from base to apex (Fig. 13c). R IV+V about 2 Χ its basal width, clearly shorter than HT II. Dorsal abdominal hairs often arising from scleroites

..…Macrosiphoniella hikosanensis

 

29   SIPH pale, dusky or dark, if mainly dark then with basal section distinctly paler over at least 0.1 of length                                                                                                                     .....30

-      SIPH entirely or almost entirely dark, sometimes somewhat less dark at extreme base .….52

30   SIPH as long as or longer than head width across (and including) eyes                          .....31

-      SIPH shorter than head width across eyes                                                                      .….41

31   ANT III with 24-56 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.2-1.5 Χ HT II. SIPH thick, tapering from base to flange, not at all flared apically                                                  …..Uroleucon dubius

-      ANT III with 1-16 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 0.65-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH narrowing on distal reticulated section and often somewhat flared apically                                                  …..32

32   Hind tibia pale over most of length                                                                                  .....33

-      Hind tibia dusky to dark                                                                                                  .....40

33   R IV+V stiletto-shaped, more than twice as long as its basal width                               .....34

-      R IV+V short, less than twice as long as its basal width                                                .….38

34   Cauda with 8-10 hairs                                   .....Macrosiphoniella tadshikana* (or alativica?)

-      Cauda with 12-20 hairs                                                                                                    .....35

35   ANT III 1.9-2.2 Χ ANT IV. SIPH 1.38-1.62 Χ cauda           .....Macrosiphoniella xinjiangica

-      ANT III 1.05-1.3 Χ ANT IV. SIPH 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda                                                       .....36

36   ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5. SIPH reticulated for 0.24-0.30 of length                                          

                                                                                                 …..Macrosiphoniella kermanensis*

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.6-3.2. SIPH reticulated for 0.45-0.56 of length                                 …..37

37   SIPH 1.0-1.2 Χ cauda                                                            .....Macrosiphoniella terraealbae

-      SIPH 1.2-1.5 Χ cauda                                                               .....Macrosiphoniella seriphidii

38   Cauda with 7-15(-18) hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 3-6 hairs. Primary rhinaria with naked rims

                                                                                                   ..…Macrosiphoniella grandicauda

-      Cauda with 18-33 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 4-12 (mostly 8-11) hairs. Primary rhinaria with ciliate rims                                                                                                                        .….39

39   R IV+V 0.68-0.80 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 6-12 hairs

.....Macrosiphoniella oblonga group (incl. hidaensis)

-      R IV+V 0.59-0.61 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 4 hairs .....Macrosiphoniella similioblonga*

40   Femora entirely pale contrasting with wholly dark tibiae. Cauda with 6-9 hairs

                                                                                                     …..Macrosiphoniella paucisetosa

-      Femora with apical regions as dark as tibiae. Cauda with 18-26 hairs

                                                                                                   ..…Macrosiphoniella ludovicianae

41   ANT III with 23-73 secondary rhinaria                                   …..Macrosiphoniella borealis*

-      ANT III with 1-16 secondary rhinaria                                                                            …..42

42   R IV+V 0.7-1.0 Χ HT II                                                                                                  ..…43

-      R IV+V (1.0-) 1.05-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                                      …..46

43   SIPH usually a little longer than cauda, which bears 8-13 hairs                                              

                                                                                                       …..Macrosiphoniella frigidicola

-      SIPH usually a little shorter than (0.7-1.01 Χ) cauda, which bears 10-28 hairs (if only 10-11 then SIPH 0.7-0.8 Χ cauda)                                                                                            …..44

44   Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 Χ BD III                               .….Macrosiphoniella pulvera

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 1.1-1.8 Χ BD III                                                                    …..45

45   ABD TERG 3 with 10-14 hairs. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 Χ HT II       …..Macrosiphoniella abrotani

-      ABD TERG 3 with 21-32 hairs. R IV+V 0.85-0.95 Χ HT II

.….Macrosiphoniella sieversianae*

46   Cauda with 18-22 hairs                                                         …..Macrosiphoniella lijiangensis

-      Cauda with 8-15 hairs                                                                                                     ..…47

47   Cauda with 10-17 hairs. ANT III with 2-16 secondary rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.50-0.65           …..Macrosiphoniella szalaymarszoi (part)

-      Cauda with 8-12 hairs. ANT III with 1-6 secondary rhinaria. SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.35-0.56                                                                                        ..…48

48   ANT PT/BASE 2.0-2.4. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 1.2-1.8 Χ BD III

…..Macrosiphoniella sachalinensis*

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.0. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 2.0-3.4 Χ BD III                          .….49

49   ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.0. ANT III 1.3-1.7 Χ cauda                                                          …..50

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.1. ANT III either 1.0-1.25 or 1.6-2.25 Χ cauda                           .….51

50   R IV+V 1.30-1.45 Χ HT II                                               .....Macrosiphoniella longirostrata*

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.1 Χ HT II                                       .....Macrosiphoniella nitida ssp. soongarica

51   SIPH 1.05-1.4 Χ cauda. ANT III 1.6-2.25 Χ cauda and 1.35-1.95 Χ ANT IV. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 2.0-2.5 Χ BD III                                                   …..Macrosiphoniella cegmidi*

-      SIPH 0.8-0.9 Χ cauda. ANT III 1.0-1.25 Χ cauda and 0.95-1.2 Χ ANT IV. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 2.7-3.4 Χ BD III                                      .….Macrosiphoniella taesongsanensis*

52   SIPH 0.90 –1.45 Χ cauda and flask-shaped; constricted at base, strongly swollen on basal half , narrowing on reticulated distal section to less than half the maximum width of the swollen part, and flared at apex (Fig.13h). R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II                             ..…53

-      SIPH of various shapes, including flask- (or bottle-) shaped, but if strongly swollen on basal half then either less than 0.9 Χ cauda, or R IV+V is more than 0.9 Χ HT II (or both)    .....55

53   Legs mostly pale, with only distal third of femora, bases and apices of tibiae, and tarsi dark brown to black. (ANT 1.14-1.25 Χ BL)                               …..Macrosiphoniella pallidipes*

-      Legs mainly black, with extreme bases of femora and sometimes middle parts of tibiae brown                                                                                                                               …..54

54   Body spindle-shaped.  ANT 1.3-1.75 Χ BL, with ANT IV 0.8-1.2 Χ ANT III

…..Macrosiphoniella antennata group

-      Body oval. ANT 1.0-1.1 Χ BL, with ANT IV 0.5-0.6 Χ ANT III

.….Macrosiphoniella gmelinicola

55   Tibiae with at least middle part pale, contrasting with dark apex and not clearly darker than body                                                                                                                                  .....56

-      Tibiae wholly dusky or dark, sometimes with middle section slightly less dark, but always clearly darker than body                                                                                                  .….68

56   Hairs on ANT III 2.3-4.0 Χ BD III                                    .….Macrosiphoniella kikungshana

-      Hairs on ANT III 0.5-2.2 Χ BD III                                                                                 ..…57

57   SIPH with distal polygonal reticulation extending over 0.6 or more of length             .….58

-      SIPH with distal polygonal reticulation over 0.3-0.55 of length                                    .….60

58   ANT III with 8-32 secondary rhinaria (rarely less than 10, and usually extending whole length of segment)                                                                    ..…Macrosiphoniella sanborni

-      ANT III with 2-9 secondary rhinaria, not extending beyond basal 0.6                          ..…59

59   Hairs on dorsal body and antennae with pointed apices, and mostly arising from pigmented scleroites; longest hairs on ANT III 1.4-2.0 Χ BD III, and on ABD TERG 3 more than 2.5 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.8-1.0 Χ HT II                                         ..…Macrosiphoniella himalayana

-      Hairs on dorsal body and antennae with blunt or slightly capitate apices, and not arising from pigmented scleroites; longest hairs on antennae III 0.9-1.35 Χ BD III, and on ABD TERG 3 less than 2.5 Χ BD III. R IV+V 0.95-1.25 Χ HT II

                                                                                           …..Macrosiphoniella pseudoartemisiae

60   R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II                                                                                                  ..…61

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                                                  …..65

61   ANT III (of apt.) with 54-100 secondary rhinaria distributed over most of segment

.....Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) jaroslavi*

-      ANT III (of apt.) with much less than 50 secondary rhinaria                                         ..…62

 

62   ANT PT/BASE 4.3-5.0. Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly arising from brown scleroites

                                                                                                      …..Macrosiphoniella oronensis*

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.25. Scleroites at bases of dorsal abdominal hairs unpigmented or lightly pigmented                                                                                                             …..63

63   Anterior abdominal tergites with distinct tubercles each bearing 1-2 hairs 

                                                                                                          .….Macrosiphoniella arctica*

-      Abdominal tergites without tubercles                                                                             ..…64

64   SIPH 1.04-1.2 Χ cauda, which bears 11-13 hairs           .….Macrosiphoniella subaequalis

-      SIPH 0.8-1.0 Χ cauda, which bears 14-20 hairs            ..…Macrosiphoniella usquertensis

65   R IV+V 1.3-1.5 Χ HT II                                  ..…Macrosiphoniella sp. on A. apiacea, China

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.25 Χ HT II                                                                                                …..66

66   ANT III with 4-5 secondary rhinaria and longest hairs 1.6-2.1 Χ BD III. Cauda with about 10 hairs                                                                            ..…Macrosiphoniella sikkimartemisiae*

-      ANT III with 2-18 secondary rhinaria and longest hairs less than 1.3 Χ BD III            …..67

67   Cauda with 23-29 hairs                                                 ..…Macrosiphoniella kalimpongense*

-      Cauda with 9-17 hairs                                              …..Macrosiphoniella szalaymarzoi (part)

68   Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH, usually involving some dark spinal and marginal sclerites that extend between hair-bases                        .….69

-      Dorsal abdomen without a pattern of dark sclerotisation anterior to SIPH (presiphuncular sclerites excepted), although often there are separate or lightly pigmented scleroites at bases of some of the hairs                                                                                                         ..…73

69   ANT III with 14-64 small secondary rhinaria (inner diameters not more than about 0.25 Χ BD III). R IV+V 0.87-1.1 Χ HT II.  SIPH 0.9-1.2 Χ cauda                                            .....70

-      ANT III with 2-13 secondary rhinaria of various sizes, the largest with inner diameter 0.33-0.5 Χ BD III.  If SIPH less than 1.1 Χ cauda then R IV+V 0.75-0.85 Χ HT II             ..…71

70   ANT PT/BASE 3.0-3.5. SIPH short and thick, 0.13-0.16 Χ BL with reticulation on distal 0.48-0.60. Cauda with 12-18 hairs                                            ..…Macrosiphoniella absinthii

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.9-5.0. SIPH long, 0.16-0.21 Χ BL with reticulation on distal 0.36-0.52. Cauda with 19-28 hairs                                                            ..…Macrosiphoniella yomenae

           

71   SIPH 0.6-1.1 Χ cauda                    ..…Macrosiphoniella atra group (incl. atrata, nigropilosa)

-      SIPH 1.2-2.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                      …..72

72   Dorsal abdominal and femoral hairs with fine-pointed apices, 2.0-2.5 Χ BD III. SIPH almost cylindrical, only slightly narrower at flange than at base (Fig.13i)

..…Macrosiphoniella teriolana

-      Dorsal abdominal and femoral hairs with blunt or slightly capitate apices, and maximally 1.5-1.8 Χ BD III. SIPH tapering, slightly swollen at base and with diameter at flange only about half that at  base (Fig.13j)                               ..…Macrosiphoniella dimidiata (or kirgisica*?)

73   Femora pale over at least half of length                                                                          .….74

-      Femora mainly dusky or dark, pale on basal 0.35 or less                                                .….78

74   SIPH 0.9-1.25 Χ cauda                                                                                                   .….75

-      SIPH 1.4-1.7 Χ cauda                                                                                                      ..…77

75   ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.6                                                           .....Macrosiphoniella huaidensis

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.8                                                                                                    .....76

76   R IV+V 0.7-0.8 Χ HT II. ANT III dark except at base, with 8-20 rhinaria. Femora pale except at apices                                                                     .....Macrosiphoniella nitida group

-      R IV+V 0.93-1.14 Χ HT II. ANT III mostly pale, dark only towards apex, with 2-9 rhinaria. Femora dark on distal 0.4-0.5 of length                              .....Macrosiphoniella capillaricola

77   R IV+V longer than HT II. ANT about 1.1 Χ BL, with ANT PT/BASE about 3.9

                                                                                    .….Macrosiphoniella lambersi (? – see text)

-      R IV+V shorter than HT II. ANT about 1.4-1.5 Χ BL, with ANT/PT BASE about 3.0-3.1

                                                                                                             ..…Macrosiphoniella glabra

78   Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly arising from papilliform tubercles

.….Macrosiphoniella tuberculatumartemisicola*

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs sometimes arising from sclerotic and slightly raised cuticular areas, but not from distinct tubercles                                                                                        …..79

79   Femora each with pale spot at apex (Fig.13k). SIPH with reticulation only on distal 0.25-0.3 of length                                                                                    …..Macrosiphoniella umarovi

-      Femora without pale spot at apex. SIPH with reticulation on distal 0.3-0.7                  .….80

80   Dorsal abdominal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly arising from small dark scleroites. SIPH swollen on basal part                                                                                                        .....81

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 not arising from scleroites (presiphuncular sclerites excepted), or if cuticle around hair bases is sclerotic then it is only faintly pigmented. SIPH not swollen on basal part                                                                    …..83

81   R IV+V 1.2-1.4 Χ HT II. SIPH 1.0-1.5 Χ cauda        …..Macrosiphoniella formosartemisiae

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.0 Χ HT II. SIPH 0.7-0.9 Χ cauda                                                             …..82

82   ANT III with 3-5 rhinaria. Cauda with 13-16 hairs        .....Macrosiphoniella gaoloushana

-      ANT III with 8-14 rhinaria. Cauda with 8-10 hairs      .....Macrosiphoniella santolinifoliae

83   ANT III with 16-25 secondary rhinaria extending over most of segment III                ..…84

-      ANT III with 1-32 secondary rhinaria, but if more than 15 then they are limited to basal half of segment                                                                                                                       …..85

84   SIPH shorter than (0.7-0.8 Χ) cauda                                      .….Macrosiphoniella mutellinae

-      SIPH longer than (1.3-1.5 Χ) cauda                                                 ..…Macrosiphoniella zeya

85   BL 3.2-4.1 mm. ANT PT 4.8-6.8 Χ R IV+V. Cauda with 27-44 hairs                           .….86

-      BL 1.6-3.6 mm. ANT PT 2.4-5.0 Χ R IV+V. Cauda with 10-36 hairs                           .….87

86   R IV+V 0.7-0.9 Χ HT II.  ANT almost entirely jet black in mounted specimens, with only PT sometimes a little paler                                                           .....Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.3 Χ HT II.  ANT mainly dark brown in mounted specimens , with base of ANT III and PT sometimes paler                                           .....Macrosiphoniella sikhotealinensis*

87   ANT I-VI uniformly dusky-dark, concolorous with head in cleared specimens. ANT PT 2.4-2.9 Χ R IV+V. SIPH short and thick, about as thick as the constricted part of  cauda at midlength. Cauda with 14-25 hairs                                .….Macrosiphoniella hokkaidensis

-      ANT mainly dusky-dark, but with paler basal section of ANT III, and sometimes ANT I and II also paler. ANT PT 2.4-5.0 Χ R IV+V. SIPH narrower than cauda at midlength. Cauda with 10-36 hairs                                                                                                               ..…88

88   SIPH 1.0-1.23 Χ cauda. ANT III with 1-8 (usually 2-4) secondary rhinaria

..…Macrosiphoniella vallesiacae

-      SIPH 0.6-1.05 Χ cauda, but if more than 0.95 Χ cauda then there are 4-15 secondary rhinaria (usually 6-8) on ANT III                                                                                                 ..…89

89   R IV+V 0.7-0.85 Χ HT II. (but if more than 0.83 Χ HT II then ANT 1.25-1.65 Χ BL) .….90

-      R IV+V 0.8-1.3 Χ HT II (if less than 0.9 Χ HT II then ANT 0.9-1.2 Χ BL)                   .....92

90   ABD TERG 8 with 8-11 hairs                                                       …..Macrosiphoniella sojaki

-      ABD TERG 8 with 4-7 hairs                                                                                           ..…91

91   R IV+V with very acute apex (Fig. 13n); width at level of most distal primary hairs is much less than BD III                                                                     ..…Macrosiphoniella kaufmanni

-      R IV+V blunter at apex and thicker subapically (Fig.13o); width at level of most distal primary hairs is similar to or only a little less than BD III

..…Macrosiphoniella chamaemelifoliae

92   BL 1.6-2.2 mm. SIPH broadest at base (Fig.13l). Cauda with 12-18 hairs

.….Macrosiphoniella frigidivora

-      BL  2.3-3.6 mm. SIPH usually slightly swollen on inner side near base so that there is an evident basal constriction(e.g. Fig.13m). Cauda with 17-36 hairs                                  .….93

93   ANT PT 2.4-3.5 Χ R IV+V. R IV+V 1.0-1.2 Χ ANT BASE VI and 1.0-1.3 Χ HT II. Subgenital plate with 2-8 (usually 4-6) hairs on anterior half

                                                                                                   .….Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae

-      ANT PT 3.6-5.0 Χ R IV+V.  R IV+V 0.67-1.0 Χ ANT BASE VI and 0.8-1.1 Χ HT II. Subgenital plate with  2-3 hairs on anterior half                    ..…Macrosiphoniella artemisiae

 

KEY C

[N.B. This key cannot be applied to fundatrices, likely to be found in early spring populations. Couplets 6-11 are based on Kadyrbekov (2006)]

1     SIPH very small, not or hardly longer than their basal widths. Cauda triangular or helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                      …..2

-      SIPH tubular, much longer than their basal widths. Cauda tongue- or finger- shaped, usually longer than its basal width in dorsal view                                                                       …..12

2     Hairs on anterior ABD TERG as long as or longer than BD III. Tibiae with pale middle section                                                                                                                                 .....3

-      Hairs on anterior ABD TERG very small, much less than 0.5 Χ BD III. Tibiae uniformly dark

.....6

3     Tergum pale. Femora only dark apically                               .....Microsiphoniella canadensis*

-      Tergum dark, sclerotic. Femora mainly dark, only pale at bases                                       .….4

4     Dorsal abdominal hairs thick, 2-3 Χ longer than BD III, with expanded or fan-shaped apices

..…Microsiphoniella oregonensis

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs fine-pointed or blunt, spine-like, not more than 2 Χ longer than BD III                                                                                                                                      …..5

5     ANT PT/BASE 4.7-6.3 (except fundatrices). R IV+V 0.14-0.17 mm long, more than 2 Χ basal width                                                                                       .….Microsiphoniella artemisiae

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.1-4.5.  R IV+V 0.12-0.14 mm long, not more than 2 Χ basal width

                                                                                                      .….Microsiphoniella acophorum

6     Hairs on front of head inconspicuous, 0.12-0.20 Χ basal diameter of ANT III                       

                                                                                                     …..Microsiphum diversisetosum*

-      Hairs on front of head equal to or longer than basal diameter of ANT III                       …..7

7     R IV+V 0.57-0.67 Χ HT II. Cauda 0.70-0.76 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI 1.1-1.8 Χ cauda, which is helmet-shaped with tapered apex                                                 …..Microsiphum giganteum

-      R IV+V 0.70-0.95 Χ HT II. Cauda 0.9-1.3 Χ HT II. ANT BASE VI 0.57-1.1 Χ cauda, which is triangular                                                                                                                            …..8

8     ANT III with (10-)15-43 secondary rhinaria, and IV with 0-7. (Al. with 30-48 rhinaria on ANT III, and IV with 6-18)                                                                                             …..9

-      ANT III with 6-18 secondary rhinaria, and IV with 0-2. (Al. where known with fewer secondary rhinaria)                                                                                                         …..10

9     ANT PT/BASE 4.7-6.2. R IV+V 0.8-0.95 Χ HT II                                  …..M. jazykovi s.str.

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0. R IV+V c.0.7 Χ HT II                        …..M. jazykovi ssp. wahlgreni

10   Hairs on front of head 1.7-2.0 Χ basal diameter of ANT III. ANT III 1.35-1.45 Χ longer than ANT IV. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.4. Cauda 1.2-1.45 Χ R IV+V, and bearing 20-30 hairs. SIPH 0.6-0.87 Χ  as long as their greatest width                                …..Microsiphum woronieckae

-      Hairs on front of head 1.3-1.6 Χ basal diameter of ANT III. ANT III with 1.0-1.15 Χ longer than ANT IV. ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.5. Cauda 0.9-1.2 Χ R IV+V, and bearing 14-20 hairs. SIPH 1.07-1.4 Χ  as long as their greatest width                                                             …..11

11   ANT PT/BASE 4.9-5.7. ANT III with 8-13 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV with 0

                                                                                                      …..Microsiphum procerae s. str.

-      ANT PT/BASE c.4.0. ANT III with 12-15 secondary rhinaria, and ANT IV with 1-2                                                                                         …..Microsiphum procerae ssp. subalpicum

12   Dorsal hairs either thick with fan- or funnel-shaped apices, or long and mostly with expanded, or slightly to moderately capitate, apices                                                       ..…13

-      Dorsal hairs (or at least those on anterior abdominal segments) all short and blunt, or if rather long then with pointed apices                                                                                          ..…37

13   ANT III (of apt.) without any secondary rhinaria. Accessory hairs on R IV+V not particularly large. SIPH 3.3-5.2 Χ cauda                           …..Capitophorus formosartemisiae

-      ANT III (of apt.) almost always with at least one secondary rhinarium near base. R IV+V usually with a pair of particularly long and rather thick accessory hairs. SIPH 0.28-4.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                                               .….14

14   SIPH 0.28-0.72 Χ cauda                                                                                                  ..…15

-      SIPH 0.74-4.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                    …..19

15   ANT PT/BASE 5.6-7.6                                                    ..…Pleotrichophorus brevinectarius

-      ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.4                                                                                                   ..…16

16   R IV+V tapering from base to apex, without an extended needle-like tip. Antennae clearly longer than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 4.2-5.4                          .….Pleotrichophorus filifoliae*

-      R IV+V with the distal part of RV extended as a needle-like, cylindrical tip (most evident in dorsoventral aspect; Fig.14a). Antennae either longer or shorter than BL, with ANT PT/BASE 3.1-5.3                                                                                                                              …..17

17   Legs entirely dusky to dark. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 fan-shaped distally but with at least the basal half forming a cylindrical stem                               .….Pleotrichophorus obscuratus

-      Legs pale except for apices of tibiae and tarsi. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 short, fan-shaped from base, usually without any cylindrical stem                                                              .....18

18   SIPH, cauda and subgenital plate pale. Dorsal abdomen without sclerotic cross-bands. R IV+V longer than HT II, which is 0.07-0.12 mm long         .....Pleotrichophorus infrequenus

-      SIPH, cauda and subgenital plate dusky or dark. Dorsal abdomen with sclerotic cross-bands, dark at least on posterior tergites. R IV+V shorter than HT II, which is 0.14-0.17 mm long                                                                                           .….Pleotrichophorus tuberculatus*

19   SIPH mainly or entirely dark                                                                                           …..20

-      SIPH pale or dusky, sometimes darker on distal half                                                     ..…23

20   BL 2.4-3.0 mm. SIPH 3.0-3.75 Χ cauda and bearing 2-12 long slightly capitate hairs on basal half (Fig.14b). Dorsal body hairs rather sparse and all long and only slightly capitate

                                                                                                          …..Pleotrichophorus longipes

-      BL 1.3-2.0 mm. SIPH 0.77-3.3 Χ cauda and without hairs. Dorsal body hairs dense, with fan-shaped or distinctly capitate apices                                                                           …..21

21   SIPH 3.0-3.3 Χ cauda, which is unpigmented                   …..Pleotrichophorus artemisicola*

-      SIPH 0.77-2.2 Χ cauda which is dusky or dark                                                              …..22

22   SIPH 0.77-1.57 Χ cauda, which is 0.22-0.33 mm long and has a distinct constriction at about one third from base (Fig. 14c)                                           ..…Pleotrichophorus quadritrichus

-      SIPH 1.17-2.50 Χ cauda, which is 0.14-0.23 mm long and tapering, without any constriction (Fig. 14d)                                                                                      …..Pleotrichophorus pullus

23   Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly with distinct, more-or-less cylindrical rod-like stems, broadening distally into fan-shaped or capitate apices (Fig.14e)                                    …..24

-      Hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly cone- or fan-shaped, broadening from base (Fig.14f)

                                                                                                                                                ..…27

24   SIPH 1.5-2.5 Χ cauda                                                                                                      ..…25

-      SIPH 2.6-4.2 Χ cauda                                                                                                      ..…26

25   ABD TERG 8 with 18 or more hairs                                     ..…Pleotrichophorus knowltoni*

-      ABD TERG 8 with 8-13 hairs                                  ..… Pleotrichophorus glandulosus group

26   SIPH 0.9-1.1 mm long, 3.6-4.2 Χ cauda                              ..…Pleotrichophorus narzikulovi*

-      SIPH 0.6-0.8 mm long, 2.6-3.3 Χ cauda                                  .….Pleotrichophorus persimilis

27   SIPH 0.74-2.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                     .....28

-      SIPH 2.05-4.0 Χ cauda                                                                                                    ..…33

28   Hairs on antennae with pointed apices, the longest ones on ANT III being as long as or longer than BD III. Hairs on front of head varying greatly, from long and pointed to short and cone-shaped (Fig.14g)                                               ..…Pleotrichophorus heterohirsutus

-      Hairs on antennae very short, less than 0.5 Χ BD III, with blunt or expanded apices. Hairs on front of head all cone-shaped or with expanded apices (Fig.14h-k)                               .….29

29   R IV+V with the distal part of RV extended as a needle-like, cylindrical tip (most evident in dorsoventral aspect; as in Fig.14a)                                                                                   .....30

-      R IV+V tapering from base to apex                                                                                ..…32

30   SIPH 0.74-1.0 Χ cauda which bears 5-8 hairs (usually 2-4 dorsal). R IV+V short, broad-based, 0.11-0.12 mm long, 0.83-1.05 Χ HT II                    …..Pleotrichophorus spatulavillus

-      SIPH 0.8-1.6 Χ cauda which bears 5 hairs (1 dorsal). R IV+V 0.12-0.16 mm long, 1.0-1.45

       Χ HT II                                                                                                                            …..31

31   Anterior hairs on dorsal surface of head mostly with broadly expanded apices, like those more posterior (Fig.14h).  Head and appendages very pale

                                                                                                   .….Pleotrichophorus gnaphalodes

-      Anterior hairs on dorsal surface of head longer and with narrower apices than those more posterior (Fig.14i). Head, ANT I-II, SIPH and basal leg segments dusky or faintly sclerotic

..…Pleotrichophorus quadritrichus ssp. pallidus*

32   SIPH 0.18-0.33 mm long, 0.8-1.2 Χ cauda                                   …..Pleotrichophorus parilis

-      SIPH 0.41-0.52 mm long, 1.5-2.0 Χ cauda                                   ..…Pleotrichophorus diutius

33   ANT PT/BASE 3.6-4.2. R IV+V 0.85-0.95 Χ HT II

…..Pleotrichophorus sp. on Seriphidium tridentata, Oregon, BMNH collection

-      ANT PT/BASE 4.7-7.5. R IV+V usually either less than 0.85 or more than 0.95 Χ HT II

                                                                                                                                                …..34

34   R IV+V 0.56-0.82 Χ HT II                                                …..Pleotrichophorus zoomontanus

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.5 Χ HT II                                                                                                  .….35

35   SIPH 0.66-1.02 mm long (aphids with BL 2.0-2.4 mm). Dorsal surface of head with 54-81 cone-shaped hairs (not including those projecting forward on front of head). Compound eyes conspicuously protruding                                               ..…Pleotrichophorus longinectarius*

-      SIPH 0.32-0.64 mm long (aphids with BL 1.2-2.0 mm). Dorsal surface of head with 16-55 cone-shaped hairs. Compound eyes not conspicuously protruding                                 ..…36

36   Dorsal surface of head with 16-29 cone-shaped hairs, mostly with distinct stems (Fig.14j). R IV+V 0.125-0.16 mm long                                       ..…Pleotrichophorus pseudoglandulosus

-      Dorsal surface of head with 29-55 cone-shaped hairs, including many smaller and shorter stemless ones that fan out from base (Fig.14k). R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long

                                                                                                       .….Pleotrichophorus decampus

37   Cuticle of head smooth, with broadly divergent ANT tubercles. SIPH 0.30-0.73 Χ BL ..…38

-      Cuticle of head spiculose, with convergent, parallel or somewhat divergent ANT tubercles. SIPH usually less than 0.30 Χ BL                                                                                   ..…42

38   ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.1-2.7. Cauda with 5-8 hairs

…..Elatobium chomoense

-      ANT III with 2-25 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-5.3. Cauda with 13-26 hairs               …..39

39   Coxae pale. ANT III with 2-10 (-14) rhinaria, usually more-or-less in a row, with the rhinariated part not or only slightly swollen.  SIPH smooth or only very weakly imbricated, 0.45-0.73 Χ BL                                                                        ..…Titanosiphon neoartemisiae

-      Coxae dark. ANT III with 4-25 rhinaria which are not in a row and occupy a swollen part of the segment. SIPH smooth or imbricated, 0.3-0.6 Χ BL                                                 …..40

40   SIPH 0.3-0.45 Χ BL, with conspicuous imbrication. Cauda tapering to a point. ANT III with 7-12 rhinaria                                                                                   .....Titanosiphon dracunculi

-      SIPH 0.45-0.6 Χ BL, smooth-surfaced. Cauda finger-shaped with a rather rounded apex. ANT III with 4-25 rhinaria                                                                                              …..41

41   R IV+V 1.00-1.22 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 6-9 hairs. (Al. with 24-33 rhinaria on ANT III and none on IV)                                                                       ..…Titanosiphon artemisiae

-      R IV+V 0.80-1.04 Χ HT II. ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs. (Al. with 26-50 rhinaria on III and 0-7 on IV)                                                                                   …..Titanosiphon minkiewiczi

42   Dorsal body with distinctive black markings, including transverse bands or paired patches on thorax and a large roughly horseshoe-shaped patch on the abdomen

                                                                                                              ..… Neomyzus circumflexus

-      Dorsal body pale or dark, without such markings                                                           …..43

43   ANT III with at least one secondary rhinarium near base (rarely none on one side). ANT tubercles with inner faces parallel or divergent, spinulose but not scabrous. SIPH rather long, straight and tapering from a broad base, with moderate imbrication                              ..…44

-      ANT III without any secondary rhinaria.  ANT tubercles with inner faces parallel or convergent, or with distinct processes, and/or scabrous. SIPH variable, often curved, cylindrical over most of length or swollen on distal half, moderately to heavily imbricated or scabrous                                                                                                                           .….46

44   Head dark. SIPH dark at least on basal half. Cauda dark                    ..…Aulacorthum dasi*

-      Head pale. SIPH pale except at apices. Cauda pale                                                        …..45 

45   ANT III with (0-)1-2(-4) rhinaria near base. SIPH 2.1-2.5 Χ cauda    …..Aulacorthum solani

-      ANT III with 3-10 rhinaria distributed on basal half. SIPH 2.7-3.7 Χ cauda

                                                                                                       …..Aulacorthum artemisiphaga

46   SIPH dark brown or black                                                                                               …..47

-      SIPH  pale or dusky, or dark only at apices                                                                    …..52

47   ANT PT c.4.25 Χ R IV+V and c.1.35 Χ SIPH, which are clavate, with swollen part c.1.33 Χ minimum diameter of stem                                  .....Neotoxoptera yasumatsui ssp. artemisiae

-      ANT PT 0.7-2.3 Χ R IV+V and 0.25-0.9 Χ SIPH which have little or no swelling of apical part                                                                                                                                    .....48

48   ANT PT 1.7-2.3 Χ R IV+V. SIPH without hairs. ANT III, IV and tibiae pale               .....49

-      ANT PT 0.7-1.4 Χ R IV+V. SIPH with or without hairs. ANT and legs mainly brown .....50

49   Dorsum almost wholly dark. R IV+V 1.1-1.2 Χ HT II           …..Myzus cerasi ssp. umefoliae

-      Dorsum pale. R IV+V 1.5-1.7 Χ HT II                                  .….Tuberocephalus lazikouensis

50   SIPH without hairs. ANT 5-segmented, with PT/BASE 1.0-1.6. SIPH 2.3-3.8 Χ PT. Dorsum dark                                                                              …..Tuberocephalus uwamizusakurae*

-      SIPH with some hairs. ANT 5- or 6-segmented, with PT/BASE 1.4-2.4. SIPH 1.7-2.4 Χ PT. Dorsum pale or dark                                                                                                        …..51

51   (Apt. with 6-segmented antennae) ANT III 0.21-0.25 mm long. SIPH 1.4-1.5 Χ ANT III

                                                                                                             .….Tuberocephalus sakurae

-      (Apt. with 6-segmented antennae) ANT III 0.14-0.16 mm long.  SIPH 1.6-2.0 Χ ANT III

.….Tuberocephalus higansakurae ssp. hainnevilleae

52   SIPH with several (about 5-8) hairs                                     ..…Tuberocephalus liaoningensis

-      SIPH without hairs                                                                                                          …..53

53   ANT tubercles with forwardly pointing finger- or thumb-like projections, and often the inner sides of ANT I similarly extended. Hairs on ANT tubercles conspicuous, erect, slightly capitate, 0.7-1.2 Χ BD III. (Al. with sec. rhin. on both ANT III and IV)                      ..…54

-      ANT tubercles gibbous, their inner faces convergent or parallel, without  projections. Hairs on ANT tubercles short and blunt, less than 0.6 Χ BD III. (Al. with sec. rhin. only on ANT III)                                                                                                                                   .....55

54   ANT 5- or 6-segmented, 0.6-0.75 Χ BL, with PT/BASE 2.0-2.7. Dorsal cuticle wrinkled or smooth, not nodulose. Frontal projections thumb-like, 0.04-0.06 mm long, less than twice their diameter                                                                                 ..…Tuberocephalus sasakii

-      ANT 4, 5 or 6-segmented, 0.3-0.4 Χ BL.  Dorsal abdominal cuticle markedly nodulose.  Frontal projections finger-like, 0.08-0.1 mm long, 3 or more times longer than their diameter

       .….Tuberocephalus artemisiae

55   Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5. SIPH tapering, with a slight S-curve, and coarsely imbricated     …..Myzus ornatus

-      Dorsal abdomen without any clear dark intersegmental markings.  ANT PT/BASE more than 2.5. SIPH slightly to moderately clavate                                                                         …..56

56   SIPH as long as or longer than ANT III.  Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent in dorsal view                                                                                                             …..Myzus persicae

-      SIPH clearly shorter than ANT III. Inner faces of ANT tubercles approximately parallel in dorsal view                                                                                             ..…Myzus ascalonicus

 

 

Arthraxon                                                    Poaceae

       Arthraxon ciliaris = A. hispidus

       A. hispidus                                Ceratovacuna nekoashi; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                         Kaochiaoja arthraxonis;

                                                         Melanaphis arthraxonophaga, sacchari;

                                                         Pseudoregma panicola; Rhopalosiphum padi

       A. lancifolius                            Sitobion microspinulosum

       A. langsdorfianus = A. hispidus

Key to aphids on Arthraxon:-

1     Front of head with a pair of short conical horns between ANT bases. Antennae very short, less than 0.2 Χ BL. SIPH as slightly raised pores with sclerotic rims. Sides of body with groups of wax pore-plates                                                                                                  .....2

-      Front of head without horns. Antennae more than 0.6 Χ BL. SIPH tubular. No evident wax glands                                                                                                                                 .....3

2     Frontal horns short and rounded apically, 20-47 μm long. Sclerotised areas of cuticle warty, with especially warty areas at posterior margin of prothorax. Spinal and marginal wax glands often present on all or most tergites.  SIPH pores slightly raised on dusky or dark-pigmented cones, with a few surrounding hairs                                                .....Pseudoregma panicola

-      Frontal horns with apices somewhat curved distally, 96-140 μm long, slightly constricted at base and 2.5-3.5 Χ their basal widths. Sclerotised areas of cuticle smooth or wrinkled, not warty. No spinal wax glands. SIPH pores not placed on raised cones and without any surrounding hairs                                                                             .....Ceratovacuna nekoashi

3     Dorsum with extensive dark pigmentation. Head weakly or markedly spiculose             ..…4

-      Dorsum without pigmentation, or with only small dark patches. Head without spicules .….5

4     SIPH only a little longer than cauda, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation, and ornamented proximal to this with numerous small nodules. Dorsal abdomen with close-set, irregular rows of minute spicules                                             ..…Sitobion microspinulosum

-      SIPH more than 2 Χ cauda, without subapical polygonal reticulation, and with normal imbrication. Dorsal abdomen without spicules, but with variolate sculpturing of the sclerotic areas                                                                                              ….. Kaochiaoja arthraxonis

5     SIPH clearly shorter than cauda                                                                                        …..6

-      SIPH longer than cauda                                                                                                    .….7

6     Cauda with 16-20 hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia almost as long as its middle diameter

                                                                                                   …..Melanaphis arthraxonophaga*

-      Cauda with 8-17 (mostly 10-14) hairs. Longest hairs on hind tibia usually shorter than its middle diameter                                                                                  …..Melanaphis sacchari

7     Cauda long and pale, contrasting with black calf-shaped SIPH      .….Hysteroneura setariae

-      Cauda short and with similar pigmentation to SIPH, which are slightly swollen distally

…..Rhopalosiphum padi

(or, if none of these fits, try general keys to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria)

 

Arthrophytum                                              Amaranthaceae

       Arthrophytum ammodendron = Haloxylon ammodendrum

 

Arthropteris                                                 Oleandraceae

       Arthropteris orientalis              Micromyzella [davalliae], filicis, pterisoides

See key to fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.

 

Artocarpus                Breadfruit                  Moraceae

      Artocarpus heterophyllus          Greenidea artocarpi

      A. incisa                                     Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

      A. integrifolia                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Greenidea artocarpi, ficicola

      A. lingnanensis                         [Taoia indica]

Key to species on Artocarpus:-

 

1    SIPH with numerous long hairs.  Stridulatory apparatus absent                                        .....2

-     SIPH without hairs.  Stridulatory apparatus present                                                           .....3

 

2    ANT III (of aptera) 2.2-2.4 Χ longer than ANT IV. SIPH of aptera 0.48-0.55 Χ BL, and of alata c.0.8 Χ BL                                                                                  …..Greenidea artocarpi* 

-     ANT III (of aptera) 1.6-2.1 Χ longer than ANT IV. SIPH of aptera 0.29-0.42 Χ BL, and of alata 0.55-0.76 Χ BL                                                                               …..Greenidea ficicola

3    Longest hairs on ANT III 12-27 ΅m long, 0.5-1.0Χ basal diameter of segment.  Longest hairs on hind tibia up to 60 ΅m long, less than 0.6Χ HT II.  Cauda with 10-26 hairs (rarely more than 20).  BL often less than 2 mm                                             .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-     Longest hairs on ANT III 29-64 ΅m long, 1.5-2.0Χ basal diameter of segment.  Longest hairs on hind tibia 80-110 ΅m, 0.7-1.0ΧHT II.  Cauda with 19-54 hairs (rarely less than 25).  BL usually more than 2 mm                                                            .....Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

 

Arum                                                            Aracaeae

       Arum besserianum                  Patchiella reaumuri

       A. canariensis = A. italicum ssp. canariense

       A. dioscoridis                            Myzus cymbalariae

       A. italicum                                Dysaphis tulipae; Patchiella reaumuri;

                                                         Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

       A. italicum ssp. canariense      Myzus persicae

       A. korolkowii                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       A. maculatum                          Melanaphis sacchari; Patchiella reaumuri;

                                                         Pentalonia nigronervosa

       A. orientale                               [Aploneura ampelina]; Patchiella reaumuri