(in alphabetical order)
































































































Anigozanthos                                               Haemodoraceae

      Anigozanthos flavidus                   Myzus persicae; Rhopalosiphum padi

       A. humilis                                      Rhopalosiphum padi

       Anigozanthos sp.                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Anisantha   see  Bromus                                         Poaceae


Aniseia                                                         Convolvulaceae

       Aniseia martinicensis                    Aphis gossypii


Anisopappus                                                Asteraceae

      Anisopappus africanus = A. chinensis ssp. africanus

       A.chinensis ssp. africanus             Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Micromyzella anisopappi;

                                                             Myzus ornatus; Sitobion hirsutirostris;

                                                              Uroleucon compositae

Key to aphids on Anisopappus:-

1     SIPH black and much longer than the distance between their bases; cauda long, thin and pale. (Additional diagnostic characters: ANT III-VI wholly dark, R IV+V with 9-12 accessory hairs, subapical polygonal reticulation of SIPH consisting of just 3-5 rows of cells, extending less than 0.1 of SIPH)                                                                         .....Sitobion hirsutirostris

-      SIPH pale or dark, but if wholly dark and longer than the distance between their bases then cauda is also black                                                                                                               .....2

2     SIPH pale with black tips, cauda dusky to black. (Additional diagnostic characters: head, ANT I-III and femora densely ornamented with nodulose imbrication, ANT PT/BASE 5.0-5.9, and almost all hairs on both dorsal and ventral surfaces of body and appendages very short and blunt)                                                                                             .....Micromyzella anisopappi

-      SIPH pale or dark, but if pale with black tips then cauda is also pale

                                                                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Anisotome                                                    Apiaceae

      Anisotome sp.                                Dysaphis foeniculus


Annona                          Custard Apples               Annonaceae

      Annona cherimola                        Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. chrysophylla = A. senegalensis

       A. glabra                                        Aphis spiraecola

       A. muricata                                    Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola; Greenidea anonae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Sinomegoura citricola

       A. reticulata                                   Aphis aurantii, gossypii, [sassceri Wilson 1911];

                                                  Greenidea anonae

       A. senegalensis                              Aphis gossypii

       A. squamosa                                  Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Taiwanaphis kalipadi

Key to apterae on Annona (or use illustrated key in Blackman & Eastop (2000):-

1     SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                              …..Greenidea anonae

-      SIPH without or with only a few small hairs                                                                     …..2

2     SIPH in form of broad-based cones. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. Posterior abdomen with backwardly-directed processes                                                  …..Taiwanaphis kalipadi

-      SIPH tubular. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. No posterior abdominal processes                                                                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Anoda                                                           Malvaceae

      Anoda acerifolia                            Aphis gossypii

       A. cristata                                       Aphis spiraecola

       Anoda sp.                                      Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Myzus persicae

Key to apterae on Anoda:-

-        SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 ื cauda and 0.33-0.5 ื BL        …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      SIPH less than 2.5 ื cauda and less than 0.33 ื BL       …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Anogeissus                                                   Combretaceae

      Anogeissus schimperi                    Aphis gossypii


Ansellia                                                        Orchidaceae

      Ansellia africana                           Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion anselliae

       A. gigantea = A. africana

       A. nilotica = A. africana             

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.


Antennaria                                                   Asteraceae

      Antennaria dioica                          [Acyrthosiphon ilka, Acyrthosiphon sp. aff. knechteli];

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; [Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria];

       A. neodioica                                   Uroleucon [rudbeckiae], russellae

       A. plantaginifolia                           Uroleucon pseudambrosiae; Pleotrichophorus antennarius

       A. umbrinella                                Brachycaudus helichrysi

      Antennaria sp.                               Uroleucon erigeronense   

Key to aphids on Antennaria:-

1      Cauda helmet-shaped, no longer than its basal width in dorsal view. ANT tubercles undeveloped, spiracular apertures large and rounded                   .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Cauda longer than its basal width in dorsal view. ANT tubercles well developed, spiracles reniform                                                                                                                              .....2

2      Dorsal hairs with broadly expanded apices, funnel-shaped. R IV+V stilletto-shaped, with concave sides, SIPH pale, without distal polygonal reticulation                                                                                                                                            .....Pleotrichophorus antennarius

-       Dorsal hairs with blunt or pointed apices. R IV+V with straight or slightly convex sides. SIPH mostly or entirely dark, with polygonal reticulation over distal 23-37%                           .....3

3      R IV +V  more than 1.5 ื HT II                                                          .....Uroleucon russellae

-       R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II                                                                                                    .....4

4      SIPH entirely dark, 1.4-1.6 ื cauda which bears 15-29 hairs .....Uroleucon pseudambrosiae

-      SIPH pale at base, 1.8-2.4 ื cauda, which bears 6-10 hairs          .....Uroleucon erigeronense


Anthemis  (including Maruta)                                      Asteraceae

       Anthemis altissima                        Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. arvensis                                     Aphis craccivora,  fabae, gossypii, solanella,


                                                              Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella millefolii, silvestrii, tapuskae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                              Pleotrichophorus glandulosus; [Protaphis terricola];

                                                              Trama troglodytes

       A. austriaca                                   Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                              Myzus persicae; Protaphis anthemidis

       A. blancheana = A. cretica ssp. cassia

       A. candidissima                             Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. chrysantha                                Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

       A. cotula                                        Aphis fabae, nasturtii, spiraecola, vandergooti;

                                                              Brachycaudus helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella abrotani, millefolii,

                                                                  tanacetaria ssp. bonariensis, tapuskae;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Pemphigus bursarius; [Protaphis middletonii, terricola]

       A. cretica (ssp. cassia)                   Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

       A. italica                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. kotschyana                                Aulacorthum solani; Myzus persicae

       A. maritima                                   Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

       A. melampodina                            Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

       A. mixta  = Cladanthus mixtus

       A. nobilis  = Chamaemelum nobile

       A. parthenoides                             Brachycaudus helichrysi

       A. ruthenica                                   Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                             Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

       A. sancti-johannis = A. tinctoria  ssp. sancti-johannis

       A. subtinctoria = Cota inctoria

       A. tenuifolia                                   Aphis fabae                      

       A. tinctoria (incl.                            Aphis fabae, gossypii, oligommata;

             ssp. sancti-johannis)                     Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                              Macrosiphoniella millefolii, tanacetaria, tapuskae,


                                                              Myzus ornatus; Protaphis anthemidis; Trama troglodytes;

                                                              Uroleucon jaceae, siculum

       A. tomentosa                                  Aphis craccivora; Myzus persicae

         Anthemis sp.                                             Protaphis anthemiae; Smynthurodes betae

Key to aphids on Anthemis (and Chamaemelum):-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5                                                                                              .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7                                                                                            .....4

2      HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 of length of hind tibia                    .....Trama troglodytes

-       HT II of normal length                                                                                                       .....3

3     Body and appendages sparsely hairy. Wax pore plates present on ABD TERG 3-7. ANT II much shorter than ANT III or IV. R IV+V 0.45-0.7 ื HT II           .....Pemphigus bursarius

-       Body and appendages with numerous fine hairs. Wax pore plates absent. ANT II longer than IV, as long as or longer than III, R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II                  .....Smynthurodes betae

4      Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent or present, but if present they are usually only on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) and only rarely on ABD TERG 1 or 7                                                       .....5

-       MTu always present at least on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                      .....17

5      Cauda helmet-shaped, constricted at base and not longer than its basal width. SIPH with a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures large and rounded                                   .....6

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, not constricted at base, longer than its basal width. SIPH without a subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform                                  .....8

6      Dorsum without dark markings. Mesosternum without mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm, 1.1-1.5 ื HT II. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda

…..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-       Dorsum with an extensive black shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm, 1.4-2.0 ื HT II. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 ื cauda


7      Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25ตm long

                                                                                                                 .....Brachycaudus lateralis

-       Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25ตm long                                                                                                     .....Brachycaudus cardui

8      Dorsal hairs numerous and long, arising from tuberculate bases, and with bulbous or

        fan-shaped apices                                                                  .....Pleotrichophorus glandulosus

-       Dorsal hairs short or long, but if long then with pointed apices                                        .....9

9      SIPH pale at least over most of length, sometimes dusky or dark apically, and if with subapical polygonal reticulation then this is confined to distal 0.2 or less of length

                                                                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

-       SIPH dusky or dark over at least half of length, with polygonal reticulation always present and often extending over more than distal 0.2                                                                       .....10

10    SIPH shorter than or as short as (0.6-1.0 ื) cauda                                                          .....11

-       SIPH longer than (1.1-2.9 ื) cauda                                                                                 .....14

11   R IV+V 1.0-1.2 ื HT II                                                                                                  …..12

-      R IV+V 0.7-0.9 ื HT II                                                                                                  …..13

12    All dorsal abdominal hairs arising from conspicuous large dark scleroites. ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.3. SIPH with reticulation over distal 0.50-0.63 of length. Cauda with 24-30 hairs

                                                                                                           .....Macrosiphoniella millefolii

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs mostly arising from small scleroites, only large on ABD TERG 6-8. ANT PT /BASE 4.6-5.7. SIPH with reticulation over 0.63-0.81 of length. Cauda with 12-20 hairs                                                                                          …..Macrosiphoniella sanborni

13    Antennae, tibiae and SIPH almost completely black. ANT III with 12-28 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.5                                                                  …..Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

-       Basal half of ANT III pale, tibiae pale in middle, and SIPH dusky. ANT III with 3-12 rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 3.1-4.0                                               .….Macrosiphoniella abrotani

14    SIPH wholly dark, 1.1-1.3 ื cauda and 0.16-0.24 ื BL. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark spinal sclerites, each bearing 2-3 hairs                                       ......Macrosiphoniella silvestrii

-      SIPH pale or dark, 1.3-2.3 ื cauda and 0.24-0.36 ื BL. Dorsal abdomen without paired spinal sclerites; if with small dark scleroites then these are mostly not fused between hair-bases


15    Cauda pale. SIPH often pale basally. Antennae and tibiae also pale except at apices. First tarsal segments with 3 hairs (a sense peg and a pair of lateral hairs); rarely with one additional lateral hair                                                                                  .....Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

-       Cauda, SIPH and antennae black, and tibiae mainly dark. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs (sense peg plus 2 lateral pairs); rarely with only 4 hairs                                                   .....16

16    SIPH 0.29-0.36 ื BL.  Cauda with 13-19 hairs. ANT III with 11-25 secondary rhinaria

                                                                                                                       .....Uroleucon siculum 

-      SIPH 0.24-0.30 ื BL. Cauda with 19-28 hairs. ANT III with 16-54 secondary rhinaria

                                                                                                                         .....Uroleucon jaceae

17    ANT 5-segmented. SIPH very short, pale or dusky and flangeless, 0.5-1.0 ื cauda              

.....Aphis oligommata

-       ANT 6-segmented, except in small summer “dwarfs”. SIPH dark, with an evident flange,

        0.5-2.1 ื cauda                                                                                                                 .....18

18    ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.5. SIPH shorter than R IV+V                                                      ..... 19

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-6.0. SIPH longer than R IV+V                                                        .....20

19   ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.0                                                                        .....Protaphis anthemiae

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.5                                                                       .....Protaphis anthemidis

20    ANT PT/BASE 3.9-6.0.  SIPH 1.9-2.6 ื cauda, which is black, rather pointed, and bears c.10 adpressed hairs that are difficult to count. ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 regularly with large MTu

                                                                                                                       …..Aphis vandergooti

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.0.  Cauda rounded apically or a little shorter than SIPH, with outstanding hairs. ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with MTu

                                                             …..go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24 


Anthericum                                                  Asparagaceae

      Anthericum liliago                   Aphis antherici, fabae; Aulacorthum speyeri; Myzus persicae

       A. ramosum                             Aphis antherici, fabae; Aulacorthum speyeri;

                                                         Myzus ascalonicus; Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

       Anthericum sp.                        Myzus ornatus


Key couplet for aphids on Anthericum:-

1      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle part of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with marginal tubercles (MTu)                       …..2

-       Antennal tubercles well developed, with inner faces steep-sided, approximately parallel or apically convergent. No MTu on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                     …..3

2      All dorsal hairs very short and blunt, even those on front of head and ABD TERG 8 being less than 0.5 ื ANT BD III                                                                                .....Aphis antherici

-       Dorsal hairs longer; those on head and ABD TERG 8 are 1-5 ื longer than  ANT BD I

.….Aphis fabae

3     Dorsum with extensive dark sclerotisation, including a large dark sclerite extending across ABD TERG 2-4, often broken in the midline but joined laterally  to the marginal sclerites

                                                                                                                    .....Aulacorthum speyeri

-       Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings; if present and maximally developed these consist of segmentally discrete patches or transverse bars not united with marginal sclerites

.….go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5


Antherotoma                                                Melostomataceae

      Antherotoma senegambiensis     Aphis gossypii


Anthistria see Themeda                                          Poaceae


Anthocephalus                                                     Rubiaceae

      Anthocephalus morindifolius = Neolamarckia cadamba


Anthoxanthum                                             Poaceae

      Anthoxanthum aristatum             Israelaphis alistana; Sitobion avenae

       A. hookeri                                      Metopolophium dirhodum

      A. odoratum                                  Aploneura lentisci; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                              Schizaphis graminum; Sipha maydis;

                                                              Sitobion avenae, fragariae,[indicum], miscanthi;

                                                              [Trama troglodytes]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Anthriscus                                                    Apiaceae

       Anthriscus aemula = A. nemorosa 

        A. caucalis                                  Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii, pastinacae;

                                                            Dysaphis crataegi, hirsutissima; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei; Semiaphis anthrisci

       A. cerefolium                               Aphis fabae; Cavariella aegopodii; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei, [stellariae];

                                                            Myzus [certus], persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       A. keniensis = A. sylvestris             

       A. nemorosa                                Aphis fabae, brohmeri; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                            Dysaphis anthrisci, anthrisci ssp. majkopica, [ussuriensis];

                                                            Macrosiphum eurphorbiae; Myzus ornatus

       A. nitida                                       Cavariella aegopodii; Hyadaphis foeniculi; Macrosiphum gei

       A. sylvestris                                  Aphis brohmeri, fabae, [sambuci]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii, angelicae, archangelicae, japonica,

                                                                [kamtshatica], konoi, pastinacae, [rutila], theobaldi;

                                                            Dysaphis anthrisci, crataegi, hirsutissima,

                                                                tschildarensis ssp. tuberculata;

                                                            Eriosoma auratum; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei, [stellariae];

                                                            Pemphigus protospirae, Pemphigus sp.; Semiaphis anthrisci

       A. vulgaris see A. caucalis             

Key to aphids on Anthriscus:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Wax glands present on abdomen                                       .....2

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6 (usually much more than 1). No evident wax glands        .....3

2     SIPH present as pores ringed by hairs                                                    .....Eriosoma auratum

-       SIPH absent                                                                                                .....Pemphigus spp.

3       ABD TERG 8 with a wart-like or finger-like medial process, bearing 2 hairs

                                              .....Cavariella spp. (use couplets 2-14 of key to apterae on Angelica)

-       ABD TERG 8 without a medial hair-bearing process                                                       …..4

4    SIPH very small and thin, about 0.5 ื cauda                                         .....Semiaphis anthrisci 

-       SIPH at least 0.8 ื cauda                                                                                                   .....5

5      ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of frons in dorsal view. SIPH and cauda dark                                                                                    .....6

-       ANT tubercles well developed. SIPH and cauda mainly or entirely pale                        .....13

6      SIPH swollen on distal half and 0.9-1.4 ื the tongue-shaped cauda, which bears 6-10 (usually 7) hairs                                                                                                  .....Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      SIPH tapering from base to flange, 0.8- 2.4 ื cauda                                                         .....7

7      Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and with 5-9 hairs                                                                                                                                                   .....8

-       Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and with 11-31 hairs


8      Dorsal hairs long and fine; longest hairs on ANT III 2.5-3.7 ื BD III. SIPH 1.1-1.75 ื cauda

                                                                                                                   .....Dysaphis hirsutissima

-       Dorsal hairs blunt or more abruptly pointed; longest hairs on ANT III 0.7-2.2 ื BD III. SIPH 1.7-3.0 ื cauda                                                                                                                   .....9

9      Spinal tubercles (STu) present on head and ABD TERG 1-2 as well as 7-8, and sometimes also on pronotum and ABD TERG 3 and 4. Longest hairs on ANT III 16-42 μm, 0.7-1.6 (-2.0) ื BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 4-6 hairs      …..Dysaphis tschildarensis ssp. tuberculata*

-      STu   present on head and ABD TERG 7-8, never on 2-3, rarely on pronotum and ABD TERG 6. Longest hairs on ANT III 31-62 μm, 1.5-2.2 ื BD III. ABD TERG 8 with 4-10 hairs                                                                                                                                 …..10

10    Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 3 are 7-18 μm. Pronotum without pleural hairs at posterior margin. Genital plate with 14-22 hairs                                    …..Dysaphis crataegi

-       Longest hairs on ANT III and ABD TERG 3 are 31-62 μm. Pronotum with a pair of pleural hairs at posterior margin. Genital plate with 23-40 hairs                                                 …..11

11    SIPH 0.20-0.28 mm, 3.2-4.8 ื their width at midlength and 1.7-2.4 ื cauda. Degree of sclerotisation of dorsal abdomen variable, but usually not extensive on ABD TERG 1-4, with transverse bars only on more posterior tergites                                       .....Dysaphis anthrisci

-       SIPH 0.21-0.37 mm, 4.5-6.2 ื their width at midlength and 2.6-3.0 ื cauda. Dorsal scleroti- sation of abdomen variable, but usually with sclerites coalesced into incomplete transverse bars, or a perforated shield, on ABD TERG (3-)4-5            …..Dysaphis anthrisci majkopica

12    Cauda with 11-24 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2-5(-7) hairs. ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 0-3 small MTu                                                                                                   …..Aphis fabae

-       Cauda with 20-31 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 5-12 hairs. ABD TERG 2-6 bearing a total of 5-9 often rather large MTu                                                                                …..Aphis brohmeri

13   Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8

                                                                                                                             …..Myzus ornatus

-     Dorsum without any dark ornamentation. ANT PT/BASE 3.0-7.6                                 …..14

14    SIPH weakly clavate. Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent. No rhinaria on ANT II

..…Myzus persicae

-       SIPH cylindrical or tapering. Inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or divergent. ANT III with 1-14 rhinaria on basal half                                                                                               .….15

15   Cuticle of head densely spiculose. ANT tubercles steep-sided, parallel or apically convergent. ANT III with (0-)1-2(-4) rhinaria near base. SIPH 0.20-0.25 ื BL, without any subapical reticulation                                                                                                                       …..16

-     Cuticle of head without or with only sparse, minute spicules. Inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent. ANT III with 1-14 rhinaria near base. SIPH 0.25-0.37 ื BL, with a subapical zone of reticulation                                                                                                                   .....17

16   Dorsum with a large U-shaped black patch, and broad dark cross-bars on thorax. SIPH 0.7-1.1 ื head width across (and including) eyes. (Immatures with spiculose hind tibiae)

                                                                                                               …..Neomyzus circumflexus

-       Dorsum pale or without any well-defined dark markings. SIPH 1.0-1.35 ื head width across eyes. (Immatures with smooth hind tibiae)                                           .....Aulacorthum solani

17    Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 38-63 ตm, 0.6-1.4 ื basal diameter of ANT III. Anterior half of subgenital plate usually (77%) with only 2 hairs (18% with 3, 5% with 4-6 hairs)                                                                                                                     .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 66-106 ตm, 1.4-2.0 ื basal diameter of ANT III. Anterior half of subgenital plate with 2-11 hairs, usually (77%) with 4-8 hairs     .....Macrosiphum gei


Anthurium                                                   Araceae

      Anthurium andraeanum            Aphis fabae; [Idiopterus nephrelepidis]; Myzus persicae

      A. froebellii                                Aphis fabae

       A. scherzerianum                        Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae; Sitobion luteum

       Anthurium sp.                             Neomyzus circumflexus

-       Dorsal abdomen with an oval dark patch. SIPH black with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                                                                  …..Sitobion luteum

-      Dorsal abdomen without a dark patch. SIPH if black then without any polygonal reticulation

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Anthyllis                                                      Fabaceae

      Anthyllis biebersteiniana = A. vulneraria ssp. pulchella

      A. cytisoides                                   Acyrthosiphon loti; Aphis brunnea, craccivora;

                                                              Therioaphis litoralis

       A. hamosa                                     Aphis craccivora

      A. hermanniae                              Acyrthosiphon caraganae, parvum

       A. lotoides                                      Aphis craccivora

       A. macrocephala = A. vulneraria ssp. polyphylla

       A. sampaiana = A. vulneraria ssp. pyrenaica

       A. tetraphylla = Tripodion tetraphyllum                                       

       A. vulneraria (incl. sspp.                  Acyrthosiphon loti;

            dilenii, polyphylla, pulchella             Aphis craccivora, klimeschi, loti, [medicaginis];

               pyrenaica)                                               [Protaphis anthemidis], Therioaphis litoralis

       Anthyllis sp.                                  Acyrthosiphon pisum

Key to apterae on Anthyllis:-

1      Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed. SIPH truncate. ANT III with 5-11 transversely elongate oval rhinaria. Abdomen with paired spinal and marginal conical hair-bearing processes

.....Therioaphis litoralis

-       Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, anal plate entire. SIPH not truncate. ANT III with any rhinaria subcircular. Abdomen without conical hair-bearing processes                              .....2

2     Broadly oval aphids with dorsal abdominal sclerotisation. ANT tubercles poorly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)                                                         .....3

-      Spindle-shaped, pale aphids. ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                                                                                    .....6

3     R IV+V bearing 2-6 (usually 4-5) accessory hairs. ABD TERG 1-4 and 7, and sometimes also 5 and 6, with MTu                                                                                       …..Aphis brunnea

-      R IV+V always with 2 accessory hairs. MTu only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7, present or absent on ABD TERG 2-4, rarely on 5 and 6                                              …..4 

4      R IV+V 1.17-1.44 ื HT II.  Dorsal abdomen with broad dark segmental bands partly fused across segments, but not forming a solid shield. ABD TERG 2-4 often with MTu                                                                                                                                      .....Aphis klimeschi

-       R IV+V 0.82-1.18 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen with a solid black shield extending over tergites 1-6. ABD TERG 2-4 rarely with MTu                                                                               .....5

5      Cauda finger-like, parallel-sided for much of length, nearly 2 ื longer than its basal width, 0.13-0.18 ื BL, and bearing 6-11 hairs. SIPH 0.78-1.53 ื cauda. (Al. with 0-2 rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                                .....Aphis loti

-       Cauda with distal part tapering, about 1.5 ื longer than its basal width, 0.09-0.13 ื BL, and bearing 4-9 hairs. SIPH 1.17-2.18 ื cauda. (Al. never with rhinaria on ANT IV)                                                                                                                                      .....Aphis craccivora

6      SIPH with distal part attenuate, narrower than hind tibia at midlength. Cauda with 7-23 hairs. ANT I with 9-23 hairs                                                                        .....Acyrthosiphon pisum

-       SIPH tapering from base to flange, at middle as wide as or wider than hind tibia at midlength. Cauda with 6-10 hairs. ANT I with 5-11 hairs                                                                  .....7

7      R IV+V 0.95-1.1 ื HT II                                                               …..Acyrthosiphon parvum

-       R IV+V 0.75-0.86 ื HT II                                                                                               …..8

8      ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.3. ANT III 3.9-5.5 ื R IV+V                             .....Acyrthosiphon loti

-       ANT PT/BASE 4.3-6.0. ANT III 5.6-7.4 ื R IV+V                 .....Acyrthosiphon caraganae


Anticlea                                                       Melianthaceae

       Anticlea elegans                            Macrosiphum valerianae


Antidesma                                                    Euphorbiaceae

      Antidesma bunius                         Sinomegoura citricola

       Antidesma sp.                                Greenidea anonae

Key to apterae on Antidesma:-

-      SIPH with numerous long hairs                                                              …..Greenidea anonae

-      SIPH without hairs                                                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Antigonon                                                    Polygonaceae

      Antigonon leptopus                       Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                              Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Antirhea  see Stenostomum                                     Rubiaceae

      Antirhea lucida = Stenostomum lucidum


Antirrhinum                    Snapdragons                Plantaginaceae

      Antirrhinum barrelieri             Myzus persicae

      A. hispanicum                            Aphis gossypii

      A. majus                                      Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Dysaphis gallica, [plantaginea];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus antirrhinii, ornatus, persicae; Nasonovia ribisnigri

       A. orontium                                 Myzus antirrhinii

       Antirrhinum spp.                        [Myzus lythri]; [Nasononia hottesi]; Neomyzus circumflexus

Key to aphids on Antirrhinum:-

1     Cauda helmet-shaped or triangular, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, 0.5-0.9 ื R IV+V                                                                                                                                 …..2

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, clearly longer than its basal width and longer than R IV+V         .....3

2.    SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda. Spiracular apertures rounded                                                                                                                                                …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      SIPH imbricated, dark towards apices, 2.4-3.3 ื cauda. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                                                                             …..Dysaphis gallica

3     ANT PT/BASE 7.0-11.4. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones. Dorsum with a pattern of brown intersegmental markings                                          …..Nasonovia ribisnigri

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 7. Thoracic spiracles similar in size to abdominal ones. Dorsum with or without dark pigmentation                                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

                                                 (but specimens running to Myzus persicae could be M. antirrhinii)


Antirrhoea see Stenostomum                                  Rubiaceae

      Antirrhoea lucida = Stenostomum lucidum


Antizoma see Cissampelos                                       Menispermaceae

       Antizoma capensis = Cissampelos capensis


Antrophyum                                                 Vittariaceae

      Antrophyum parvulum               Micromyzella filicis; Micromyzus niger

Use key to apterae on ferns under Polypodium.


Apargidium see Microseris                                     Asteraceae


Apera                                                           Poaceae

      Apera interrupta                          Forda marginata

      A. spica-venti                               Forda formicaria, marginata; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Schizaphis phlei, rufula, longicaudata; 

                                                            Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.


Aphananthe                                                                          Ulmaceae

     Aphananthe aspera                 Shivaphis celti; Stomaphis aphananthae, yanonis


Key to aphids on Aphananthe:-


1    BL less than 3 mm. Rostrum much shorter than body. Cauda finger-like, of irregular shape (fig. 38C). Anal plate bilobed                                                                        …..Shivaphis celti

-     BL more than 4 mm. Rostrum longer than body. Cauda broadly rounded, anal plate entire



2    Empodial hairs of HT II c.1.3 ื basal diameter of ANT III.  ANT PT c.1.1-1.2 ื its basal diameter                                                                                        …..Stomaphis aphananthae*

-     Empodial hairs of HT II equal in length to or a little shorter than basal diameter of ANT III.  ANT PT 1.4-1.6 ื its basal diameter                                                       …..Stomaphis yanonis


Aphanes                                                       Rosaceae

      Aphanes arvensis                          Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Alchemilla. 


Aphanostephus                                            Asteraceae

      Aphanostephus ramosissimus       Uroleucon queretarense 



Aphelandra                                                  Acanthaceae

       Aphelandra pectinata                    Aphis gossypii

       A. squarrosa                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       Aphelandra sp.                              Aphis fabae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Aphloia                                                        Flacourtiaceae

      Aphloia theiformis                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Aphyllon   see Orobanche                                       Orobanchaceae


Apium                                                          Apiaceae

       Apium australe ssp. angustisectum = A. prostratum

       A. graveolens                               Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii, sambuci, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Brachysiphoniella apiaca;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii, archangelicae, konoi, pastinacae,

                                                                salicicola, theobaldi;

                                                            Dysaphis apiifolia, crataegi, foeniculus, [tulipae];

                                                            Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae, [stellariae],[tenuicauda];

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale; Semiaphis dauci, heraclei;

                                                            [Sitobion avenae]

       A. leptophyllum = Cyclospermum leptophyllum

       A. montanum (?)                         Hyadaphis foeniculi

       A. nodiflorum                              [Aphis nasturtii]; Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                            Dysaphis crataegi; Hyadaphis foeniculi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Pemphigus protospirae

       A. prostratum                              Cavariella aegopodii

       A. tenuifolium (?)                        Semiaphis heraclei

Key to apterae on Apium:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent                                     .….Pemphigus protospirae

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.6. SIPH present                                                                    …..2

2    ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly projecting process above cauda                                      .....3

-     No supracaudal process                                                                                                       .....8

3    ANT PT/BASE 0.64-1.3                                                                                                      ….4

-     ANT PT/BASE 1.4-4.0                                                                                                       …..5

4    R IV+V 1.05-1.2 ื HT II. SIPH thick, with maximum width of swollen part more than 0.2 of length (Fig.10a)                                                                                    …..Cavariella salicicola

-     R IV+V 0.7-0.95 ื HT II. SIPH with maximum width of swollen part less than 0.2 of length (Fig.10b)                                                                                              .….Cavariella aegopodii

5    SIPH tapering, with no trace of swelling                                             …..Cavariella theobaldi

-     SIPH swollen on distal half                                                                                                …..6

6    ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.0                                                                      …..Cavariella pastinacae

-     ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.0                                                                                                        .....7

7     SIPH 0.98-1.1 ื head width across (and including) eyes, and 6.7-8.7 ื maximum width of swollen part (Fig. 10c). Length of supracaudal process at least 1.6 ื maximum width of swollen part of SIPH (Fig. 10f). (Al. with a complete black band on ABD TERG 6)

                                                                                                             .....Cavariella archangelicae

-      SIPH 0.8-1.01 (-1.07) ื head width across eyes, and 5.0-7.3 ื maximum width of swollen part (Fig. 10d). Length of supracaudal process less than 1.5 ื maximum width of swollen part of SIPH.(Fig.10g) (Al. with a pair of roundish dark marks on ABD TERG 6)

                                                                                                                           .....Cavariella konoi

8    Cauda short and broad, not clearly longer than its basal width in dorsal view                   .....9

-     Cauda clearly longer than its basal width                                                                          .....15

9    ANT 5-segmented, with very long hairs; the longest on ANT III are more than 3 ื BD III. Dorsum ornamented with a pattern of  bead-like spicules

                                                                                                  …..Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale

-     ANT 6-segmented, rarely 5-segmented, with shorter hairs. Dorsal cuticle without a pattern of bead-like spicules                                                                                                              …..10

10  Cauda broadly tongue-shaped in dorsal view, not constricted at base, with more than 10 hairs


-     Cauda helmet-shaped or pentagonal, constricted at base and bearing 4-6 hairs               .....12

11  SIPH more than 3.5 ื their basal width. Large flat marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7                                                                          .....Aphis sambuci

-     SIPH less than 3.5 ื their basal width.  MTu usually only on ABD TERG 1 and 7

                                                                                                                   .....Protaphis middletonii

12  SIPH pale, smooth, conical, with an annular incision proximal to the flange. Spinal tubercles (STu) absent. Spiracular apertures rounded                                   …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-     SIPH dark, imbricated, with no annular subapical incision. STu present on head and ABD TERG  8 or 7-8. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                 …..13

13   SIPH short and broad-based, 1.6-2.3 ื longer than their basal widths, and 2.5-5.0 ื longer than the long and fine hairs on front of head                                      .....Dysaphis foeniculus

-      SIPH 2.5-3.5 times longer than their basal width, and 12-25 ื longer than the short, blunt and inconspicuous hairs on front of head                                                                                .....14

14    Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.24-0.56 (rarely more than 0.5) ื length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 11-38 μm, rarely longer than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 often with a pair of marginal tubercles (MTu)                         …..Dysaphis apiifolia

-       Posterior hair on hind trochanter 0.42-1.00 (rarely less than 0.5) ื length of trochantro-femoral suture. Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 25-80 μm, rarely shorter than 30 μm. ABD TERG 7 rarely with MTu                                                                       …..Dysaphis crataegi

15  SIPH less than 0.55 ื cauda                                                                                              .....16

-     SIPH at least 0.6 ื cauda                                                                                                  .....18

16    SIPH as short black truncate cones. Cauda long, black and finger-like, with a midway constriction, and bearing 14-15 hairs                                         .....Brachysiphoniella apiaca*

-     SIPH very small and flangeless, with aperture slanted towards midline. Cauda tongue-shaped, with 5-7 hairs                                                                                                                    …..17

17    Hairs very short; posterior hair on hind trochanter rarely exceeding 20μm, less than 0.5 ื diameter of trochantro-femoral suture                                                       .....Semiaphis dauci

-     Posterior hair on hind femur up to 60 μm long, more than 0.5 ื diameter of the trochantro-femoral suture                                                                                          .....Semiaphis heraclei

18  SIPH black, tapering from base to flange                                                                          .....19

-     SIPH pale or dusky and tapering or clavate, or black and clavate                                    .....22

19  ANT III 0.25-0.63 mm long, 1.0-2.0 ื PT and 2.0-5.0 ื R IV+V. ABD TERG 8 with 2-11 hairs, HT I with 3 hairs. (ANT III of al.with 15-40 rhinaria)                     .....Aphis asclepiadis

-     ANT III 0.12-0.36 mm long, usually 0.65-1.0 ื PT, but up to 1.3 ื in small specimens (i.e., those with PT less than 0.27 mm long), and 1.3-3.0 ื R IV+V (1.3-2.6 ื R IV+V

      except in large specimens). ABD TERG 8 with 2-7 hairs, HT I with only 2 hairs. (ANT III of al.with 3-23, but rarely more than 15, rhinaria)                                                                 .....20

20  ANT III 0.9-1.2 ื cauda, which is black, slightly constricted about its midlength, and

      bears 6-15 (usually 9-11) hairs.  Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings

                                                                                                                           .....Aphis spiraecola

-     ANT III 1.2-1.9 ื cauda, which is pale or dark and usually has less than 9 or more than 11 hairs.  Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                     .....21

21  Dorsal abdomen with dark markings.  Cauda black and bearing 11-24 hairs. Femora with many long hairs                                                                                                             .....Aphis fabae

-     Dorsal abdomen without dark markings.  Cauda pale or dusky, bearing 4-7 hairs. Femoral

      hairs mostly short                                                                                            .....Aphis gossypii

22   SIPH 0.6-1.4 ื cauda, cylindrical over most of length and slightly swollen distally, with a constriction proximal to the flange                                                                                  …..23

-      SIPH tapering, cylindrical or clavate; if swollen distally then more than 1.5 ื cauda

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

23   SIPH  are 0.88-1.4 ื cauda, 1.7-3.1 ื R IV+V and 3.1-5.1 ื longer than their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                          …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-      SIPH are 0.6-0.82 ื cauda, 0.9-1.6 ื R IV+V and 1.6-2.7 ื their minimum diameter on basal half                                                                                                      …..Hyadaphis coriandri


Apluda                                                         Poaceae

      Apluda mutica                             Aphis gossypii; Ceratovacuna nekoashi, perglandulosa;

                                                            Forda marginata; Hysteroneura setariae;

                                                            Myzus obtusirostris; Sitobion miscanthi, [rosaeiformis];

                                                            Tetraneura utpali

Key to aphids on Apluda:-

1     Eyes 3-facetted. SIPH as pores or small cones with sclerotic rims                                    .....2

-      Eyes multifacetted. SIPH tubular                                                                                       .....4

2     No frontal horns. Head and prothorax not fused. SIPH as small cones. Body hairs numerous                                                                                                                    .....Tetraneura utpali

-      Head with a pair of frontal horns projecting forward between the antennae. Head and prothorax fused. SIPH as raised pores with sclerotised rims. Body hairs sparse               .....3

3     Dorsal abdomen with large paired groups of spinal as well as marginal wax glands. Frontal horns shorter than ANT I                                                       .....Ceratovacuna perglandulosa

-      Dorsal abdomen with only marginal wax gland groups. Frontal horns longer than ANT I

                                                                                                                .....Ceratovacuna nekoashi 

4    Dorsum with a dark shield extending over the whole of ABD TERG 1-7.  Femora pale, cauda brownish                                                                                                 .....Myzus obtusirostris

-      Dorsum unpigmented. Femora dark, cauda very pale                       .....Hysteroneura setariae

(If this key does not provide a satisfactory answer, try the general key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.)                                                                                                                                                             

Apocynum                                                   Apocynaceae

     Apocynum androsaemifolium        Abstrusomyzus phloxae;

                                                               Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, nerii, spiraecola;

                                                                 Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Protaphis middletonii;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      A. cannabinum (incl. pubescens)       Aphis asclepiadis, fabae, nerii, spiraecola;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

      A. lanceolatum                                Aphis apocynicola

      A. lancifolium = A. venetum ssp. lancifolium

      A. pictum                                         Aphis apocynicola

      A. scabrum = A. venetum var. scabrum?

      A. sibiricum = A. cannabinum

      A. venetum (incl. sspp.                       Aphis apocynicola, fabae, poacyni, sywangi;

              lancifolium, sarmatiense,              Brachyunguis poacynophila

                  and var. scabrum)

      Apocynum sp.                                 Aphis aurantii; Paulianaphis madagascariensis

Key to aphids on Apocynum:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 1                                                                                                  .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                                                               .....3

2    ABD TERG 7 with four long, pointed, pigmented hair-bearing processes

....Paulianaphis madagascariensis

-     No long, pointed, pigmented abdominal processes.                   .....Brachunguis poacynophila

3    ANT tubercles well developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH mainly pale or dusky                        .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed, not or hardly projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu. SIPH entirely dark                                      .....4

4    Stridulatory apparatus present (sclerotic ridges on ABD sternites 5 and 6 and a row of short, peg-like hairs on each hind tibia)                                                 .....Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-     No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                    .....5

5    ANT III with 1-6 and IV with 0-2 rhinaria. SIPH 0.7-0.9 ื R IV+V.  ANT PT/BASE 1.3-1.7

.....Protaphis middletonii

-     ANT III and IV normally without rhinaria. SIPH 1.0-3.9 ื R IV+V. ANT PT/BASE 1.35-4.7


6    Hind tibia mainly pale, with length of longest hairs on middle part only about 0.7 of width of tibia at midlength                                                                                                                 .....7

-     Hind tibia pale or dark, with length of longest hairs on middle part equal to or greater than its width at midlength or, if a little shorter, then hind tibia is mainly dark                              .....9

7    R IV+V 1.2-1.5 ื HT II. Cauda with 16-22 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with c.6 hairs

.....Aphis sywangi

-     R IV+V 0.8-1.1 ื HT II. Cauda with 6-13 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2 (-4) hairs             .....8

8    Cauda with 8-13 hairs. R IV+V 0.83-0.95 ื HT II                                 .....Aphis apocynicola

-     Cauda with 5-6 hairs. R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II                                              .....Aphis poacyni

9    Hind tibiae mainly dark. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.7.  R IV+V 1.25-1.6 ื HT  II. SIPH 1.7-2.7

      ื cauda                                                                                                                 .....Aphis nerii

-     Hind tibiae pale for more than half of length. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-3.5.  R IV+V 0.85-1.24 ื HT II. SIPH 0.7-1.8 ื cauda                                                                                                   .....10

10  ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs (rarely with 3). ANT III 0.65-1.0 ื SIPH. Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda with a slight constriction                                  .....Aphis spiraecola

-     ABD TERG 8 with 2-11 hairs (usually 4-6). ANT III 0.95-1.9 ื SIPH. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings. Cauda without any constriction                                              .....11

11  ANT III 0.65-1.01 ื PT, 1.1-1.6 ื cauda and 0.95-1.35 ื SIPH. Dorsal abdomen usually with some dark markings anterior to SIPH (in addition to dark intersegmental muscle sclerites)

.....Aphis fabae

-     ANT III 1.05-1.95 ื PT, 1.55-2.2 ื cauda and 1.2-1.9 ื SIPH. Dorsal abdomen usually without any dark markings anterior to SIPH (except for dark intersegmental muscle sclerites)

..... Aphis asclepiadis


Aponogeton                                                 Aponogetonaceae

     Aponogeton distachyos                   Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      A. elongatus                                    Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae

      A. monocharia (?)                           Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae


Aporosa                                                       Euphorbiaceae

     Aporosa dioica = A. octandra

     A. frutescens                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

      A. octandra                                     Greenidea (Trichosiphum) sp. (Hong Kong: Martin & Lau                                                              2011)

Key to apterae on Aporosa:-

-     SIPH widest near middle and bearing many spine-like hairs. No stridulatory apparatus

                                              .....Greenidea (Trichosiphum) sp. (Hong Kong: Martin & Lau 2011)

-     SIPH tapering from base to apex and without hairs. Stridulatory apparatus present

                                                                                                          ..... Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Aptenia                                                        Aizoaceae

     Aptenia cordifolia                           Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Aquilegia                      Columbine                      Ranunculaceae  

      Aquilegia alpina                              Nasonovia aquilegiae,  werderi

      A. atrata                                          Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. caerulea                                      Aulacorthum solani; Nasonovia aquilegiae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      A. canadensis                                  Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Longicaudus trirhodus; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Nasonovia aquilegiae; Neomyzus circumflexus

        A. chrysantha                                  Longicaudus trirhodus; Nasonovia aquilegiae;

      A. dichroa                                       Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. einseleana                                   Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. flabellata (incl. var. nana)               Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. flavescens                                   Neomyzus circumflexus

      A. flavescens var. rubicunda              Nasonovia aquilegiae

      A. formosa (incl. var. truncata)           Illinoia corylina; Megourina lagacei;

                                                              Nasonovia aquilegiae

      A. glandulosa                                  Nasonovia heiei; Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. karelinii                                      Nasonovia heiei

      A. longissima                                  Longicaudus trirhodus; Myzus persicae

        A. nigricans                                     Longicaudus trirhodus

        A. olympica                                     Myzus ornatus                 

        A. pubiflora                                     Longicaudus naumanii

      A. rubicunda = A. flavescens var. rubicunda

      A. viridiflora                                    Longicaudus trirhodus

      A. vitalii                                           Nasonovia heiei

      A. vulgaris (incl. var. alba)                 Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Longicaudus trirhodus;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus, persicae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus

        Aquilegia sp.                                    [Illinoia sp. (A. Jensen,];

                                                               [Nasonovia purpurascens]; [Smynthurodes betae]

Key to aphids on Aquilegia:-

1    SIPH entirely black and moderately clavate; swollen to about 1.4-1.5 ื their minimum width. Abdominal marginal sclerites domed, each bearing 2-4 hairs 35-50 μm long with slightly capitate apices (Fig. 11a)                                                                         .....Megourina lagacei

-     SIPH if entirely black then not swollen to about 1.4-1.5 ื their minimum width. Abdominal marginal sclerites not domed, and not bearing capitate hairs                                              .....2

2    SIPH slightly swollen on distal half, but with a narrower, reticulated subapical section (a few large closed polygonal cells). R IV+V 1.3-1.5 ื HT II and bearing 14-16 accessory hairs. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs                                                                         …..Illinoia corylina 

-     SIPH with or without swelling on distal half, but if with subapical reticulation then R IV+V is relatively much shorter and bears fewer hairs, and first tarsal segments have 3 hairs        …..3

3    ANT III distinctly longer than ANT IV+V together. First tarsal segments with 5-6 hairs (1-2 median sense pegs and 2 pairs of longer, lateral hairs).  ANT PT/BASE 1.0-2.3                .....4

-     ANT III shorter than ANT IV+V together. First tarsal segments with 2-4 hairs (usually 0-1 median sense pegs and 1 pair of laterals). ANT PT/BASE 1.8-6.5                                     .....5

4.   SIPH very short, conical, 0.25 –0.3 ื cauda which is very long and finger-like and bears 14-20 hairs (Fig.11b). ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.3                                            .....Longicaudus trirhodus

-     SIPH cylindrical, 1.24-1.71 ื cauda which is tongue-shaped with a pointed apex and bears 6-13 hairs (Fig.11c). ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.3                                      .....Longicaudus naumanni

5    ANT III with 6-37 rhinaria, and SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation. R IV with 13-23 accessory hairs                                                                                                           .....6

-     ANT III usually with 0-4 rhinaria near base; if with up to 10 rhinaria then SIPH have subapical polygonal reticulation. R IV with 4-10 accessory hairs     .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

6    R IV+V 0.9-1.0 ื HT II. SIPH 2.5-3.4 ื cauda. Dorsal body surface almost wholly sclerotized

                                                                                                                            .....Nasonovia heiei

-     R IV+V 1.2-2.2 ื HT II. SIPH 1.1-2.1 ื cauda. Dorsal body with variable dark sclerotisation, sometimes extensive on dorsal abdomen, but not on head and thorax (except in alatiform apterae)                                                                                                                                .....7

7    SIPH 0.19-0.22 ื BL. Dorsal sclerotic pattern consisting of pairs of pale brown spinal, pleural and marginal spots on each segment. Antennae and femora mainly dark brown

                                                                                                                       .....Nasonovia werderi

-     SIPH 0.11-0.17 ื BL. Dorsal sclerotisation very variable but never as separate paired spots; sometimes with a black shield covering ABD TERG 2-5 (or 2-6). Antennae and femora mainly pale                                                                                                      .....Nasonovia aquilegiae


Arabidopsis                                                 Brassicaceae

       Arabidopsis arenosa                     Lipaphis erysimi; Macrosiphum [chukotense], euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, persicae; [Rhopalosiphum padi]

       A. halleri                                       Aphis solanella; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                                              Lipaphis erysimi

       A. halleri ssp. ovirensis                  [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956a, p.33]

      A. lyrata ssp. petraea                      Lipaphis rossi

      A. thaliana                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis erysimi, rossi;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                              Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key under Arabis.


Arabis                                                                      Brassicaceae

      Arabis alba (?)                                 [Dysaphis pyri]; Lipamyzodes matthiolae;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        A. alpina                                          Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                       Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Pseudobrevicoryne leclanti

      A. alpina ssp. caucasica                 Lipamyzodes matthiolae; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus;

                                                               Tauricaphis arabisi

      A. arcuata (?)                                  [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956a, p.33]

        A. arenosa = Arabidopsis arenosa      

      A. blepharophylla                            Pemphigus populitransversus

      A. caerulea                                      Brevicoryne brassicae

      A. canadensis (?)                             [Aphis arabismollis Rafinesque, 1818 invalid name]

      A. carduchorum                             Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

      A. caucasica = Arabis alpina ssp. caucasica                                 

       A. ciliata                                         [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956a, p.33]

      A. drummondii = Boechera stricta     Aphis gossypii

      A. glabra = Turritis glabra                 

      A. halleri = Arabidopsis halleri

      A. hirsuta                                        [Aphis spiraephaga]; Brevicoryne brassicae;

                                       Lipaphis rossi;

                                       Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956a, p.33]

      A. laevigata = Boechera laevigata

      A. mollis                                          [Aphis arabismollis Rafinesque 1818, invalid name]

      A. ovirensis = Arabidopsis helleri ssp. ovirensis

      A. pendula                                       Aphis fabae; Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis turritella;

                                                               Myzus persicae

      A. planisiliqua                                 Lipaphis erysimi

      A. procurrens                                  Brevicoryne brassicae; Myzus ascalonicus

      A. pumila                                        Brevicoryne brassicae

      A. sagittata                                      Aphis fabae; [aphid gall: Wahlgren 1956a, p.33]

      A. thaliana = Arabidopsis thaliana

        A. turrita                                          Lipaphis erysimi              

      A. verna                                           Myzus ascalonicus, persicae

      Arabis spp.                                      [Macrosiphum valerianae]; Myzus cymbalariae;

                                                               Neomyzus circumflexus; [Protaphis middletonii]

Key to aphids on Arabis (also including Arabidopsis, Boechera and Turritis:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. SIPH absent. Abdomen with wax glands on ABD TERG 3-7 (usually 4 glands on each of ABD TERG 3-6 and 2 on 7)    …..Pemphigus populitransversus

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. SIPH present, tubular. Abdomen without wax glands     .....2

2    Dorsal hairs with fan-shaped apices, and mostly arising from tubercular bases

                                                                                                                     …..Tauricaphis arabisi

-     Dorsal hairs with pointed, blunt or slightly expanded apices, without tubercular bases    .….3

3    R IV+V 1.5-2.2 ื SIPH. SIPH 0.035-0.057 ื BL and 0.6-0.8 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 ื HT II                                                                                                …..Pseudobrevicoryne leclanti

-     R IV+V 0.15-1.2 ื SIPH. SIPH 0.052-0.4 ื BL and 0.7-2.4 ื cauda (if less than 1.0 ื cauda then R IV+V 0.55-0.75 ื HT II)                                                                                       …..4

4    ANT III 2.1-3.7 ื the short and somewhat barrel-shaped SIPH. Cauda broadly triangular, not longer than its basal width. ANT  tubercles undeveloped. Dorsal abdomen with dark markings

                                                                                                                 …..Brevicoryne brassicae

-     ANT III 0.8-2.0 ื SIPH, which are not barrel-shaped. Cauda tongue-shaped or triangular, longer than its basal width. ANT tubercles variably developed, and dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                                                        …..5

5    Ventral surfaces of femora scabrous or heavily imbricated. ANT tubercles variably developed, with inner faces divergent; if well developed then the median frontal tubercle is also well developed                                                                                                                            .....6

-     Ventral surfaces of femora smooth or weakly imbricated or, if scabrous or heavily imbricated, then the ANT tubercles are well developed and converge apically, and the median frontal tubercle is undeveloped                   .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

6    ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle weakly developed. Dorsum with broad dark bands on all tergites. SIPH and cauda very dark                                                                          .….7

-     ANT tubercles and median frontal tubercle moderately to well developed. Dorsum without dark bands or with dark bars only on ABD TERG VII and VIII. SIPH pale or dusky with dark apices, cauda pale or dark                                                                                                    .....8

7    R IV+V 0.10-0.13 mm long                                                                           .….Lipaphis rossi

-     R IV+V 0.135-0.16 mm long                                                                   .….Lipaphis turritella

8    ANT uniformly dusky or dark except for basal part of ANT III.  ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. R IV+V 0.6-0.9 ื HT II. Dorsal cuticle roughened.  Cauda dusky or dark, 0.6-0.9 ื SIPH and 1.2-1.9 ื R IV+V                                                                                        .....Lipaphis erysimi

-     ANT pale except for much darker apex of ANT V and whole of VI. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-3.5.  R IV+V 1.1-1.4 ื HT II. Dorsal cuticle smooth. Cauda pale, 0.4-0.6 ื SIPH and 0.6-1.3 ื R IV+V                                                                                               .....Lipamyzodes matthiolae


Arachis                                                        Fabaceae

     Arachis hypogea                             [Acyrthosiphon ilka];

                                                               Aphis craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Prociphilus erigeronensis

      Arachis sp.                                      Acyrthosiphon pisum

Key to apterae on Arachis:-

-      ANT tubercles well-developed, with inner faces smooth and divergent. SIPH long, thin and pale, without any subapical polygonal reticulation                           …..Acyrthosiphon pisum

-      Without this combination of characters; if ANT tubercles are well developed and have smooth, divergent inner faces then SIPH have subapical polygonal reticulation for 0.1-0.2 of length                                                                                         …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Arachniodes                                                          Dryopteridaceae

      Arachniodes chinensis                    Macromyzus woodwardiae


Aralia                                   Sarsaparillas                     Araliaceae

      Aralia armata                                  Cavariella araliae

      A. canescens = A. elata

      A. chinensis                                     Aphis hederae; Cavariella araliae

      A. continentalis                               Cavariella araliae

      A. cordata                                        Aphis acanthopanaci,  fabae, odinae;

                                                               Cavariella araliae; Myzus ornatus

      A. elata                                            Aphis citricidus, fabae, gossypii, odinae;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Cavariella araliae; Myzus persicae;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

      A. hispida                                        Aphis [araliahispida Rafinesque 1818; invalid name],


                                                               Aulacorthum solani

      A. nudicaulis                                   Aphis araliaeradicis

      A. racemosa                                    Aphis spiraecola; [Cavariella aegopodii]

      A. siebodii = Fatsia japonica

      A. spinosa                                        Cavariella araliae

      A. thomsonii                                    [Capitophorus similis]; Cavariella araliae

      Aralia spp.                                      Aphis aurantii

Key to aphids on Aralia:-

1    ABD TERG 8 with a long backwardly-directed process, broad at base but with a narrow  apex that extends beyond cauda                                                                       .....Cavariella araliae

-     No supracaudal process                                                                                                       .....2

2    ANT tubercles well developed. Either head spiculose or SIPH with subapical polygonal reticulation. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu) 

                                                             ..... go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5)

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle part of head in dorsal view. Head without spicules. SIPH without polygonal reticulation. MTu present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                                                                                    .....3

3    Stridulatory apparatus present (cuticular ridges ventrolaterally on abdominal segments 5-6, and a row of peg-like hairs on hind tibia)                                                                                   .....4

-     No stridulatory apparatus                                                                                                    .....6

4    SIPH much shorter than (0.4-0.6 ื) cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.0                .....Aphis odinae

-     SIPH 0.9-1.5 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-5.0                                                                   .....5

5     Longest hairs on ANT III 12-27 μm long, 0.5-1.0 ื BD III. Longest hairs on hind tibia up to 60 μm long, less than 0.6 ื HT II. Cauda with 10-26 hairs (rarely more than 20). BL often less than 2 mm                                                                                  ..... Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

-      Longest hairs on ANT III 29-64 μm long, 1.5-2.0 ื BD III. Longest hairs on hind tibia up to 80-110 μm long, 0.7-1.0 ื HT II. Cauda with 19-54 hairs (rarely less than 25). BL usually more than 2 mm                                                                       ..... Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

6    Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE more than 4.  ANT III with 0-5 small secondary rhinaria on distal part. (Alata with radial sector often missing from forewing?)

                                                                                                                     .....Aphis araliaeradicis

-     Antennae 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 4. ANT III without secondary rhinaria except in alatiform individuals. (Alata with radial sector present in forewing)                  .....7

7    Cauda pale or dusky, clearly paler than SIPH. Hairs on hind femur all shorter than diameter of femur at its base                                                                                              .....Aphis gossypii

-     Cauda as black as SIPH. At least some of hairs on hind femur longer than diameter of  femur at its base                                                                                                                                 .....8

8    ABD TERG 7 and 8 with dark transverse bars, and sometimes there are scattered dark markings also on more anterior tergites                                                                               .....9

-     No dark dorsal abdominal markings                                                                                  .....10

9    R IV+V 1.3-1.6 ื HT II. Apterae often alatiform, with 0-19 rhinaria on ANT III. Marginal tubercles (MTu) frequently present on ABD TERG 2-4                                .....Aphis hederae

-     R IV+V 0.9-1.1 ื HT II.  Apterae without rhinaria on ANT III. MTu infrequent on ABD TERG 2-4                                                                                                            .....Aphis fabae

10  R IV+V 1.3-1.4 ื HT II. SIPH 1.7-2.0 ื cauda. MTu frequently present on ABD TERG 2-4

      .....Aphis acanthopanaci

-     R IV + V 1.0-1.25 ื HT II. SIPH 0.9-1.7 ื cauda. MTu rare on ABD TERG 2-4                                                                                                                                        .....Aphis spiraecola


Araucaria            Monkey Puzzles etc.              Araucariaceae

      Araucaria angustifolia                        Parana Pine
                                                   No aphids recorded

      A. araucana                              Neophyllaphis araucariae                                                    

      A. bidwilli                                  Neophyllaphis araucariae

      A. cunninghamii                       Neophyllaphis araucariae

      A. excelsa                                  Neophyllaphis araucariae

      A. heterophylla                          Illinoia morrisoni; Neophyllaphis araucariae

      Araucaria sp.                            [Cinara atroalbipes]

Key to aphids on Araucaria:-

-     Eyes of aptera 3-facetted.  SIPH pore-like. Antennae usually 5-segmented                          

                                                                                                            .....Neophyllaphis araucariae


-      Eyes of all morphs multifacetted.  SIPH long and tubular, swollen distally.  Antennae 6-segmented                                                                                                 .....Illinoia morrisoni



Araujia  (incl. Physianthus)                                          Apocynaceae

      Araujia albens = A. sericifera

      A. hortorum                                    Aphis gossypii

      A. sericifera                                     Aphis gossypii, nerii; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Arbutus                                                                    Ericaceae

      Arbutus andrachne                   Aphis arbuti, [fabae], spiraecola;

                                                         Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

      A. andrachnoides                      Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

      A. arizonica                               [Tamalia morani (Miller & Crespi 2003; nomen nudum)]

      A. menziesii                               Aphis madronae; Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

      A. unedo                                                        Strawberry Tree
                                                   Aphis arbuti, [fabae]; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                         Wahlgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

Key to aphids on Arbutus species:-

1    Cauda triangular or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view, and bearing numerous hairs                                                                                             .....Aphis madronae

-     Cauda much longer than its basal width                                                                              .....2

2    SIPH pale with dark apices, and slightly swollen on distal half. ANT tubercles well-developed, with inner faces smooth or only sparsely spiculose

.....Wahgreniella nervata ssp. arbuti

-     Without that combination of characters                                                                             …..3

3    SIPH and cauda dark.  Dorsal abdomen with dark transverse sclerites on ABD TERG 7 and 8, and usually with small sclerites anterior to SIPH                              .....Aphis arbuti (or fabae)

-     Without that combination of characters …..go to key to polyphagous aphids



Archangelica  see  Angelica                                  Apiaceae



Archidendron see Pithecellobium                         Fabaceae



Archontophoenix                                        Arecaceae

     Archontophoenix alexandrae       Cerataphis brasiliensis

     Archontophoenix sp.                  [Cerataphis freycinetiae]


Arctanthemum                                            Asteraceae

     Arctanthemum arcticum                Myzus ascalonicus


Arctium                      Burdocks                        Asteraceae

     Arctium lappa                                 Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, gossypii,

                                                                    [magnopilosa], solanella;

                                                               Aulacorthum cirsicola, solani;                                           

                                                               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                               Capitophorus elaeagni; Chomaphis mira;

                                                               Dysaphis cousiniae, lappae, narzikulovi;

                                                               Macrosiphoniella grandicauda;

                                                               Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Protaphis anuraphoides, middletonii;

                                                               Protrama radicis; Trama [mordvilkoi], troglodytes;

                                                               Uroleucon gobonis, [sonchi]

      A. leiospermum = A. lappa

      A. majus = A. lappa                          

      A. minus                                          Aphis fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, nasturtii, solanella;

                                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                               Dysaphis lappae; Uroleucon cirsicola

      A. officinale = A. lappa                     

      A. tomentosum                                Aphis arctiumi, fabae, fabae ssp. mordvilkoi, nasturtii,

                                                                   shaposhnikovi, solanella, tomenthosi;

                                                               Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, lateralis;

                                                               Dysaphis lappae; [Macrosiphoniella hillerislambersi];

                                                               Protaphis anuraphoides; Protrama radicis;

                                                               Uroleucon gobonis

      Arctium spp.                                   [Capitophorus xanthii];

                                                               [Nasonovia compositellae ssp. nigra];

                                                               Smynthurodes betae

Key to aphids on Arctium:-

1    ANT/PT BASE less than 0.5. Body and appendages densely hairy`                                  .....2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.7. Body and appendages not densely hairy                           .....4

2    Hind tarsi of normal length. Antennae 5-segmented, with ANT II much longer than ANT I, similar in length to ANT III                                                                  ......Smynthurodes betae

-     Hind tarsi very elongate, more than 0.5 ื hind tibiae. Antennae 6-segmented, with ANT II about as long as ANT I, much shorter than ANT III                                                          .....3

3    SIPH completely absent                                                                           .....Trama troglodytes

-     SIPH present as pores on small, pigmented cones                                     .....Protrama radicis

4    ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, not projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view                                                                                                                           .....5

-     ANT tubercles well developed, projecting forward beyond middle of head, with inner faces convergent, divergent or parallel in dorsal view                                                                .....21

5    Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view                                      .....6

-     Cauda finger-shaped or bluntly conical, as long as or longer than its basal width            .....12

6    Prothorax with a pair of very large marginal tubercles (MTu), up to twice the diameter of the compound eye, and ABD TERG 1-5 also with very large MTu. SIPH long and flangeless, more than 7 ื cauda, and bearing some small pointed hairs                               …..Chomaphis mira

-     Prothorax if with MTu then these are smaller than compound eyes. ABD TERG 1-5 with or without MTu. SIPH less than 4 ื cauda, and without hairs                                              …..7

7    ABD TERG 1-5 (-7) with large MTu, and paired STu usually also present, at least on ABD TERG 7 and 8. Spiracular apertures reniform                                                                     .....8

-     MTu and STu infrequently present. Spiracular apertures rounded                                    .....10

8    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.3-0.6 ื BD III. Dorsal cephalic and dorsal abdominal hairs similarly short                                                                                              .....Dysaphis lappae

-     Longest hairs on ANT III at least 0.8 ื BD III, and dorsal body hairs mostly longer than this diameter                                                                                                                               .....9

9    Paired lateral, spinal, and often also pleural, tubercles present on most tergites. Marginal tubercles (MTu) very large and sometimes subdivided. R IV+V longer than ANT III

                                                                                                                    .....Dysaphis narzikulovi

-     Spinal tubercles (STu) usually on head and ABD TERG 7 and 8, rarely on other segments. MTu variable in size, never subdivided. R IV+V much shorter than ANT III                         

                                                                                                                      .....Dysaphis cousiniae

10  SIPH pale, 0.9-1.5 ื cauda. Dorsal abdomen pale. Mesosternum without mammariform processes                                                                                         .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-     SIPH dark, 2.1-3.4 ื cauda. Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark sclerotic shield. Mesosternum with a pair of dark mammariform processes                                               .....11

11  Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are 30-61 ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur 10-25ตm long

                                                                                                                 .....Brachycaudus lateralis

-     Hairs on ABD TERG 8 are at least 70ตm long. Longest hairs on hind femur more than 25ตm long                                                                                                      .....Brachycaudus cardui

12  Cauda bluntly conical, about as long as its basal width and shorter than R IV+V           .....13

-     Cauda conical or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width and longer than R V+V      .....15

13  SIPH cylindrical, narrow-based, about 2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE about 2. Large MTu present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7                                                           .....Aphis arctiumi

-     SIPH short, tapering and broad based, similar in length to cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.8-2.4. MTu absent or only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5                                                   .....14

14  ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.4. Cauda as dark as SIPH                                .....Protaphis middletonii

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.8-1.1. Cauda paler than SIPH                            .....Protaphis anuraphoides

15  SIPH pale with dark apices, or uniformly dusky, but never dark.  Cauda with 4-11 hairs

                                                                                                                              .....Aphis nasturtii

-     SIPH uniformly blackish.  Cauda with 4-27 hairs                                                             .....16

16  Cauda pale or dusky, clearly paler than SIPH, and bearing 4-8 hairs             .....Aphis gossypii

-     Cauda dark like SIPH, and bearing 11-27 hairs                                                                .....17

17  ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.5, but rarely less than 2.0. MTu absent or sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-4, rarely well-developed                                                                                      .....18

-     ANT PT/BASE 1.5-2.0. MTu present and well-developed on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                                  .....20

18   Longest hair on ANT III 15-25 μm, longest hair on hind femur 45-70 μm. SIPH 1.3-1.8 ื cauda and 0.14-0.20 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.9-3.4                                    .....Aphis solanella

-      Longest hair on ANT III 35-50 μm, longest hair on hind femur 60-85 μm. SIPH 0.8-1.6 ื cauda and 0.09-0.17 ื BL. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.4                                                       …..19

19   Length of rostrum (from base of protractor apodeme) 0.69-0.79 mm. R IV+V (0.9-)1.0-1.4 ื HT II                                                                                        …..Aphis fabae ssp. mordvilkoi

-      Length of rostrum 0.44-0.62 mm. R IV+V 0.85-1.05 ื HT II                 .....Aphis fabae s.str.

20  R IV+V 1.5-1.8 ื HT II                                                                      ......Aphis shaposhnikovi

-     R IV+V shorter than (about 0.85 X) HT II                                               ......Aphis tomenthosi

21  Dorsal hairs thick and distinctly capitate, arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH long, pale and slender, 2.6-3.2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-9.2. ANT III without rhinaria

                                                                                                                ......Capitophorus elaeagni

-     Dorsal hairs pointed, blunt or if slightly capitate then thin and not arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH pale or dark, 1.5-2.7 ื cauda. If ANT III without rhinaria then ANT/PT BASE 1.75-4.5                                                                                                                              22

22  Inner faces of ANT tubercles convergent in dorsal view. ANT III without rhinaria        .....23

-     Inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or divergent in dorsal view. ANT III with at least 1 rhinarium near base of ANT III, and sometimes many more                                            .....24

23  SIPH slightly clavate.  ANT PT/BASE 3.0-4.5. Dorsal abdomen without dark intersegmental markings. Immatures with smooth hind tibiae                                              .....Myzus persicae

-     SIPH tapering with a slight “S”-curve.  ANT PT/BASE 1.75-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings. Immatures with spinulose hind tibiae

                                                                                                                             …..Myzus ornatus

24  Inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or almost parallel in dorsal view. ANT hairs very short and blunt, the longest hair on ANT III less than 0.5 ื BD III. SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                                                        .....25

-     Inner faces of ANT tubercles clearly divergent in dorsal view. Longest hair on ANT III more than 0.5 ื BDIII. SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation                               .....26

25  BL 1.5-3.0 mm.  Dorsal cuticle of head spinulose. ANT III with 1-2 rhinaria near base

                                                                                                                      .....Aulacorthum solani

-     BL 3.0-3.8 mm. Dorsal cuticle of head smooth. ANT III with 4-8 rhinaria on basal half

                                                                                                                  .....Aulacorthum cirsicola

26  SIPH mainly or wholly pale with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.20

                                                                                                            .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-     SIPH mainly or wholly dark with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.2-0.5   .....27

27  SIPH thinnest in middle and flared apically, with reticulation extending over about distal 0.5; altogether much thinner than cauda. ANT III with 2-5 rhinaria near base. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 ื HT II, stilletto-shaped (concave-sided) with very long accessory hairs                                          

                                                                                                    .....Macrosiphoniella grandicauda

-     SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half and reticulated over distal 0.2-0.3; about as thick as cauda.  ANT III with 18-48 rhinaria extending over most of segment. R IV+V 1.0-1.8 ื HT II                                                                                                                                           .....28

28  Cauda paler than SIPH and bearing 30-45 hairs                                    .....Uroleucon cirsicola

-     Cauda dark and bearing 11-18 hairs                                                       .....Uroleucon gobonis


Arctostaphylos                                            Ericaceae

     Arctostaphylos alpina                     Wahlgreniella vaccinii    

      A. arguta = Comarostaphylis discolor

      A. canescens                                   Tamalia coweni

      A. columbiana                                Tamalia milleri; Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. densiflora                                    Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. glandulosa                                  Tamalia coweni, inquilinus

     A. glauca                                         Tamalia coweni, inquilinus, Tamalia sp C.” (Miller et al.


      A. insularis                                      Tamalia coweni

      A. manzanita                                   Tamalia coweni; Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. mariposa = A. viscida ssp. mariposa

      A. nevadensis                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Tamalia coweni

      A. patula                                          Tamalia coweni, inquilinus; Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. pringlei (incl. ssp. drupacea)           Tamalia dicksoni, [Tamalia sp. (Miller & Crespi 2003)]

      A. pumila                                        Tamalia coweni; Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. pungens                                      Tamalia coweni, inquilinus                                                

      A. stanfordiana                               Wahlgreniella nervata

      A. tomentosa                                   Tamalia coweni

      A. uva-ursi                                                         Bearberry                                                       

                                                               Aphis fabae, uvaeursi, vaccinii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                               Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                               Ericaphis fimbriata, leclanti, [scammelli];

                                                               Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                               Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae; Tamalia coweni;

                                                               Wahlgreniella nervata, ossiannilssoni, vaccinii

      A. viridissima                                  Tamalia coweni

      A. viscida (incl. ssp. mariposa)             Tamalia coweni, inquilinus

      Arctostaphylos sp.                           [Illinoia sp. (A. Jensen,]; Tamalia keltoni

Key to aphids on Arctostaphylos:-

1      ANT 4- to 6-segmented with PT/BASE much less than 1. Eyes 3-facetted. SIPH absent or as pores on small cones. (In leaf galls)                                                                                    .....2

-      ANT 6-segmented with PT/BASE more than 2. Eyes multifacetted. SIPH tubular         .....6

2      R IV+V 0.16-0.20 mm long, 1.8-2.1 ื HT II, and bearing 18-39 accessory hairs           …..3

-      R IV+V 0.063-0.10 mm long, 0.9-1.5 ื HT II, and bearing 4-13 accessory hairs           …..4

3      First tarsal segments with 4 hairs. Dorsal spicules large, 10-19 μm long. Tergum rather uniformly dusky sclerotic                                                                         …..Tamalia dicksoni

-       First tarsal segments with 2 hairs. Dorsal spicules only 2-5 μm long. Tergum with dark cross-bands                                                                                                          …..Tamalia milleri

4     ANT 5-segmented. Tergum entirely sclerotic, dusky-dark. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 4.1-6.3 ื ANT BD III                                                                                      .....Tamalia inquilinus*

-      ANT usually 4-segmented. Tergum unsclerotised or with dark cross-bands. Hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 2.6-4.0 ื ANT BD III                                                                                   .....5

5     Dorsal abdomen usually with dark cross-bands, sometimes fragmented. Antennae and dorsal body surface ornamented with numerous small spicules                            .....Tamalia coweni

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings, and spiculose ornamentation restricted to posterior part of head and posterior margins of thoracic and abdominal tergites    .....Tamalia keltoni*

6     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than basal width in dorsal view. SIPH tapering strongly, with a marked subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures wide open, rounded

                                                                                                              .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-like, or triangular, longer than its basal width. SIPH tapering weakly or swollen on distal half, without a marked subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures partially occluded, reniform                                                                                               .....7

7      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting forward beyond middle of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH black, tapering or cylindrical on distal half                                                                                                     .....8

-      ANT tubercles well developed. MTu rarely on ABD TERG 1 and 7. SIPH pale and/or swollen on distal half                                                                                                                     .....11

8      Cauda pale or dusky, evidently paler than SIPH, and bearing 4-7(-8) hairs

                                                                                                                              …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda black like SIPH, and bearing 8-25 hairs                                                                …..9

9      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive dark shield covering most of ABD TERG 1-6. ANT III with 0-14 rhinaria, and VI with 0-2 rhinaria.  Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.8 ื BD III

                                                                                                                              .....Aphis uvaeursi

-      Dorsal abdomen with variable dark markings, and sometimes with transverse bars, but never with an almost entire shield. ANT III and IV without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). Longest hairs on ANT III 0.8-2.4 ื BD III                                                 .....10

10    BL 1.6-2.0 mm. ANT III 9-18 ื longest hair (18-27 μm) upon it, which is never longer than ANT BD III. Lateral hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 are 19-37 μm long, about as long as the distance between their bases                                                                         …..Aphis vaccinii

-      BL usually more than 2 mm, if less then ANT III is only 5-9 ื longest hair (30-65 μm) upon it, which is usually longer than BD III. Lateral hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 are 40-85 μm long, longer than the distance between their bases                                                   …..Aphis fabae

11    SIPH tapering or cylindrical on distal half, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Longest hairs on ANT III 0.6-1.0 ื BD III                                .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH without subapical polygonal reticulation, cylindrical or swollen on distal half,. Hairs on ANT III all very short and blunt, less than 0.4 ื BD III                                                 .....12

12    SIPH cylindrical. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.1                                          …..Ericaphis scammelli

-      SIPH slightly to markedly swollen on distal half. ANT PT/BASE 3.3-6.5                    …..13

13    Dorsal abdomen usually with paired dark sclerites sometimes fused into cross bars, sometimes very small. Dorsal cuticle of head densely spiculose. SIPH strongly swollen. Cauda triangular                                                                   .....Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

-      Dorsal abdomen without dark markings. Cuticle of head smooth or with sparse spicules. SIPH slightly to moderately swollen. Cauda finger-like                                                           .....14

14    ANT III usually with 1-4 rhinaria on a  swollen part near base. Femora with dark apices, and SIPH dark in middle and near apices                                     .....Wahlgreniella ossiannilssoni

-      ANT III without rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). Femoral apices pale or only slightly dusky, and SIPH entirely pale/dusky or only dark at apices                                           .....15

15    ANT tubercles with a markedly scabrous region protruding ventrally. HT II only sparsely imbricated                                                                                         .....Wahlgreniella vaccinii

-      ANT tubercles smooth or with only a few spinules ventrally. HT II distinctly and evenly imbricated                                                                                                                         .....16

16  SIPH with moderate swelling of distal half. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-6.8. R IV+V 1.1-1.5 ื HT II                                                                                                         …..Wahlgreniella nervata

-      SIPH only slightly swollen distally. ANT PT/BASE 3.5-4.4. R IV+V 1.5-1.85 ื HT II

                                                                                                                         …..Ericaphis leclanti


Arctotheca  (including Cryptostemma)                         Asteraceae

     Arctotheca calendula                      Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii;

                                                               Capitophorus elaeagni;

                                                               Myzus cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                               Protaphis pseudocardui; Uroleucon compositae, sonchi

      A. calendulaceum = A. calendula

      A. nivea = A. populifolia                    

      A. populifolia                                  Uroleucon compositae

     Arctotheca/ Cryptostemma sp.       Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to aphids on Arctotheca:-

1    ANT PT about equal to BASE, shorter than R IV+V. SIPH very short, shorter than the bluntly triangular cauda which is a little shorter than its basal width in dorsal view

                                                                                                               .....Protaphis pseudocardui

-     ANT PT much longer than BASE and much longer than R IV+V. SIPH much longer than cauda and much longer than basal width                                                                            .....2

2    SIPH thick and dark with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III with numerous rhinaria                                                                                                                                 .....3

-     SIPH pale or dark, if dark then without a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. ANT III without (or with 1-10) rhinaria                                                                                           ..…4

3    Cauda pale. R IV+V 0.7-0.9 ื HT II                                                        .....Uroleucon sonchi

-     Cauda dark. R IV+V 1.1-1.4 ื HT II                                               .....Uroleucon compositae

4    Dorsal hairs thick and distinctly capitate, arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH long, pale and slender, 2.6-3.2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-9.2. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                                                         .....Capitophorus elaeagni

-     Dorsal hairs pointed, blunt or if slightly capitate then thin and not arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH pale or dark, 1.5-2.7 ื cauda. If ANT III without rhinaria then ANT/PT BASE 1.75-4.5                                                                              .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Arctotis                       African Daisies                  Asteraceae

      Arctotis acaulis                                Brachycaudus cardui; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                               [Uroleucon jaceae]

      A. arctotoides                                  Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus persicae

      A. breviscapa = Arctotis leptorhiza      

        A. calendulacea = Arctotheca calendula

      A. fastuosa                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                               Myzus persicae; Uroleucon compositae

      A. floribundum (?)                          Brachycaudus cardui

      A. grandiflora                                 Uroleucon compositae

      A. leptorhiza                                    Uroleucon ambrosiae group

      A. stoechadifolia                             Brachycaudus cardui;  Myzus persicae;

           (incl. var. grandis)                           Uroleucon vernoniae

      A. venusta                                       Brachycaudus cardui