(in alphabetical order)































































































Adansonia                                                              Bombacaceae

      Adansonia digitata                   Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

(Use key to polyphagous aphids)

Adenium                                                                 Apocynaceae

      Adenium multiflorum              Aphis gossypii


Adenocarpus                                                         Fabaceae

     Adenocarpus complicatus            Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis craccivora, cytisorum;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      A. foliolosus                                  Aphis cytisorum

      A. viscosus                                    Aphis cytisorum

Key to aphids on Adenocarpus:-

1    Spindle-shaped aphid, pale or mainly pale, without a dark dorsal abdominal shield         ..…2

-     Oval aphid with an extensive dark dorsal abdominal shield                                              .….3

2    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest about as long as BD III                                                   …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-     SIPH without polygonal reticulation, attenuate distally. Hairs on ANT III very short and inconspicuous                                                                                      .….Acyrthosiphon pisum

3     R IV+V 0.88-1.16 ื HT II (mostly 0.9-1.05 ื). Anterior half of genital plate with 2 (-3) hairs

                                                                                                                            .....Aphis craccivora

 -    R IV+V  0.97-1.3 ื HT II (mostly 1.06-1.2 ื). Anterior half of genital plate with 2-8 hairs (mode 4, mean 5.2)                                                                                     …..Aphis cytisorum


Adenocaulon                                                         Asteraceae

     Adenocaulon adhaerescens = A. himalaicum                            

      A. bicolor                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Nasonovia rostrata;

                                                            Uroleucon adenocaulonae

      A. chilense                                    Uroleucon amigoi

      A. himalaicum                              Aleurodaphis blumeae; Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae

Key to apterae on Adenocaulon:-

1    Body dorsoventrally flattened, elongate oval with dorsum wholly sclerotic, with a crenulate margin due to a continuous ring of wax glands.  Eyes 3-facetted, SIPH poriform, cauda knobbed and anal plate bilobed                                                         .....Aleurodaphis blumeae

-     Dorsum not wholly sclerotic, no marginal wax glands. Eyes compound, SIPH tubular, cauda tongue-shaped, anal plate entire                                                                                          .....2

2    SIPH black, swollen into a spindle shape on distal two-thirds. Cauda triangular

                                                                                                              .....Rhopalosiphoninus tiliae

-     SIPH pale or dark, not swollen. Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped                                      .....3

3    SIPH wholly dark, with distal polygonal reticulation that extends over distal 0.3-0.4      .....4

-     SIPH pale at least basally, with any polygonal reticulation not extending beyond distal 0.2


4    ANT III with 11-18 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.8-2.4 ื HT II

.....Uroleucon adenocaulonae

-     ANT III with 46-51 secondary rhinaria. R IV+V 1.4-1.6 ื HT II          .....Uroleucon amigoi

5    SIPH with polygonal reticulation on distal 0.13-0.2. R IV with 7-10 accessory hairs. Thoracic spiracular pores similar in size to abdominal ones                        .....Macrosiphum  euphorbiae

-     SIPH without distal polygonal reticulation. R IV with 22-30 accessory hairs. Thoracic spiracular pores much larger than abdominal ones                                  .....Nasonovia rostrata


Adenodolichos                                                      Fabaceae

      Adenodolichos punctatus             Aphis craccivora


Adenophora                                                          Campanulaceae

      Adenophora coronopifolia = A. gmelinii

      A. curvidens = A. pereskiifolia

      A. gmelinii                                    Uroleucon tryphyllae

      A. liliifolia                                     [Acyrthosiphon ilka]; Tshernovaia adenophorae

      A. marsupiflora = A. stenanthina    

      A. pereskiifolia                              Uroleucon kikioense, [cephalonopli], [gobonis], triphyllae

      A. stenanthina                              Tshernovaia adenophorae;

                                                            Uroleucon adenophorae, triphyllae

      A. thunbergiana = A. triphylla

      A. triphylla                                    Uroleucon adenophorae, triphyllae

           (incl. var. japonica)

      A. verticillata = A. triphylla

Key to aphids on  Adenophora:-

N.B. All the aphids keyed below have numerous rhinaria on ANT III of apterae, dorsal hairs arising from small dark scleroites, and dark SIPH with distal polygonal reticulation.

1    Cauda with a remarkable bipartite structure, the base being broadly conical, with an abrupt transition to a very thin, somewhat twisted, hairless distal section (Fig. 7a). Anal plate with a cauda-like posterior projection                                                     .....Tshernovaia adenophorae

-     Cauda finger-like, cylindrical or tapering gradually from base to apex                               .....2

2    Cauda pale. R IV+V c.0.7 ื HT II, and with only 2 accessory hairs .....Uroleucon kikioense*

-     Cauda dark. R IV+V 1.0-1.3 ื HT II, with 7 or more accessory hairs                               .....3

3    SIPH 1.0-1.2 ื cauda, which has most of distal half almost parallel-sided or slightly swollen, and a rather abruptly pointed or rounded apex (Fig.7b). ANT PT/BASE 2.8-5.1. BL 2.5-3.2 mm                                                                                                        .....Uroleucon triphyllae

-     SIPH 1.5-2.0 ื cauda, which has distal half tapering and a narrow, acuminate apex (Fig.7c). ANT PT/BASE 5.0-5.5. BL 3.7-4.3 mm                                        .....Uroleucon adenophorae


Adenostemma                                              Asteraceae

     Adenostemma perrottetii              Aphis gossypii

      A. viscosum                                  Aphis fabae, solanella

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Adenostyles (= Cacalia Kunze nec. L.)                         Asteraceae

     Adenostyles albida = A. alliariae                                                                                                    

      A. alliariae (incl. albida,                  Anuraphis farfarae;

                  albifrons, hirsuta)                    Aphis cacaliasteris, fabae, solanella,

                                                                 [Aphis sp. near viburni];

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi; Capitophorus similis;

                                                            [Ovatus inulae]

      A. alliariae ssp. hybrida = A. leucophylla

      A. alpina  (incl. australis, glabra,      Anuraphis farfarae; Aphis cacaliasteris;

                                         viridis)         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi; Capitophorus similis

      A. australis (= A. alpina ssp. australis)

      A. glabra = A. alpina

      A. leucophylla                               Aphis solanella; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi

      A. platyphylloides                         Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi, virgatus

      A. viridis = A. alpina

Key to aphids on Adenostyles:-

1    Dorsal hairs long with capitate apices, and arising from tuberculate bases. SIPH 3.7-5.0 ื cauda                                                                                                    …..Capitophorus similis

-     Dorsal hairs short, or long with pointed apices, without tuberculate bases. SIPH much shorter


2    Cauda black, tongue-shaped, as long as its basal width or longer                                      ..…3

-     Cauda pale or dark, helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width.                                      ..…4

3    ANT (of apt.) usually with rhinaria on III and IV, those on ANT III being mostly on distal half of segment. Tibiae dark                                                                    .....Aphis cacaliasteris

-     ANT (of apt.) without rhinaria on III and IV. Tibiae mainly pale

                                                                                               .....Aphis fabae group (incl. solanella)

4    SIPH dark, with close-set rows of small spinules. ANT (of apt.) with 6-19 rhinaria clustered on swollen basal half of ANT III                                                            .....Anuraphis farfarae

-          SIPH  pale or dusky, without rows of small spinules. ANT (of apt.) without rhinaria on ANT III and IV                                                                                                                           ..…5

5    SIPH pale or slightly dusky, less than 1.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.2-1.3 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen without dark sclerotization                                                             .....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-     SIPH dusky or dark, more than 1.8 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.3-2.0 ื HT II. Dorsal abdomen with variably developed dark sclerotization                                                                                .....6

6    Dorsal abdomen with a solid black shield extending over the whole of ABD TERG 1-6. Genital plate with 25-42 hairs, of which 8-17 are on the anterior half. ANT IV usually longer than (0.9-1.5 ื) R IV+V. Never with spinal tubercles (STu)              .....Brachycaudus cardui

-     Dorsal abdomen usually with less extensive dark sclerotization, if extensive then genital plate only has 12-32 hairs, of which only 2-5 are on anterior half, ANT IV  is usually shorter than (0.4-1.1 ื) R IV+V, and STu frequently present on ABD TERG 7

                                                                                                                 .....Brachycaudus virgatus


Adesmia                                                        Fabaceae

     Adesmia atacamensis               Aphis acuminata

     A. boronioides                        Aphis adesmiae, zapalina;

                                                            Uroleucon australe, naheulhaupense

     A. obovata                             Aphis mendocina

     A. papposa                             Aphis argentina, biobiensis, difabioae, talcensis

     A. pinifolia                             Aphis mendocina

     A. renjifoanae                        Aphis renjifoanae

     A. viscida                                      Aphis biobiensis

      Adesmia sp(p).                             Aphis acuminata, craccivora, [Aphis sp. (see Nieto Nafrํa et                                                            al. 2021b)];

                                                            Uroleucon adesmiae

Key to apterae on Adesmia:-

1    ANT PT/BASE 3.2-4.9, and with 2-15 small secondary rhinaria on ANT III. SIPH with some (often rather indistinct) subapical polygonal reticulation                                                   …..2

-     ANT PT/BASE 0.9-2.5, and without secondary rhinaria (except in alatiform specimens). SIPH without any subapical polygonal reticulation                                                           …..4

2    Antennae pale except for PT and apical parts of ANT III-IV BASE. R IV+V with 10-15 accessory hairs. Cauda with 10-15 hairs. Subgenital plate with 2-5 anterior (discal) hairs

      …..Uroleucon adesmiae

-     Antennae mainly dark except for basal part of ANT III. R IV+V with 6-10 accessory hairs. Cauda with 17-41 hairs. Subgenital plate with 8-20 anterior (discal) hairs                        …..3

3    SIPH not flared at apex. Cauda with 17-29 hairs                    .....Uroleucon nahuelhuapense*

-     SIPH slightly flared (trumpet-shaped) at apex. Cauda with 26-41 hairs                                  

.....Uroleucon australe*

4    R IV+V with 4 or more accessory hairs (occasionally 3)                           .....Aphis argentina*

-     R IV+V with only 2 accessory hairs (exceptionally 3)                                                        .....5

5    ABD TERG 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu). (MTu on prothorax and ABD TERG 1-4 very large)                                                                                                           .....Aphis difabioae*

-     ABD TERG 7 with MTu                                                                                                     .....6

6    R IV+V 0.17-0.21 mm, 1.35-1.63 ื HT II                                                  .....Aphis zapalina*

-     R IV+V 0.10-0.16 mm, 0.87-1.36 ื HT II                                                                          .....7

7    Dorsal abdomen membranous or with only scattered small sclerites anterior to SIPH       .....8

-     Dorsal abdomen usually with extensive sclerotisation, if reduced then at least with a sclerite on ABD TERG 8                                                                                                                 .....9

8    SIPH pale at base and progressively darker towards apices, ornamented distally with rows of small spinules. ANT PT/BASE 0.95-1.2                                                  .....Aphis renjifoanae*

-     SIPH dark over entire length. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-1.6                                .....Aphis talcensis*

9    Dorsum with segmentally divided dark bands, sometimes partially coalesced, often reduced or fragmented. SIPH with coarse imbrication                                             .....Aphis biobiensis

-     Dorsum with an extensive dark or dusky sclerotic patch, not divided into segmental bands, but sometimes fragmented. SIPH with normal or finely spiculose imbrication                .....10

10  Cauda with 11-22 hairs. Dorsal body hairs thick, blunt and conspicuous. SIPH with ornamentation of fine spicules arranged in short rows                                 .....Aphis adesmiae

-     Cauda with 4-13 hairs. Dorsal body hairs fine, blunt or pointed, inconspicuous. SIPH with normal imbrication                                                                                                             .....11

11  Longest hair on ANT III 0.3-0.8 ื BD III. Longest marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 8-15 ตm and longest on ABD TERG 8 are 10-23 ตm. Cauda with 4-9 hairs    .....Aphis craccivora

-     Longest hair on ANT III 0.6-1.4 ื BD III. Longest marginal hairs on ABD TERG 3 are 18-45 ตm, longest on ABD TERG 8 are 20-65 ตm. Cauda with 7-13 hairs                               .....12

12  Cauda pointed at apex, with 7-8 hairs. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs         .....Aphis acuminata*

-     Cauda rounded at apex, with 5-13 hairs, usually 8-11. ABD TERG 8 usually with 3-4 hairs

      .....Aphis mendocina*

(If outcome is inconclusive then try key to apterae on Adesmia in Nieto Nafrํa et al. 2021b.)


Adhatoda                                                                Acanthaceae               

      Adhatoda vasica                           Aphis aurantii, spiraecola, [Aphis sp. near salviae (Swirski       & Amitai 2001) = craccivora?];

                                                            [Coloradoa artemisicola]


Adiantum               Maidenhead Ferns            Adiantaceae

     Adiantum aethiopicum                Idiopterus nephrelepidis

     A. capillus-veneris                        Aulacorthum solani; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus

      A. caudatum                                 Micromyzella judenkoi; Micromyzodium dasi, filicium

     A. cordatum                                  Micromyzus niger; Myzus persicae

      A. cristatum (?)                             Aphis spiraecola

      A. cuneipinulum                          Micromyzodium filicium

      A. deflectens                                 Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      A. edgeworthii                              Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      A. glareosum = A. deflectens

      A. hispidulum                               Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      A. pedatum                                   Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Papulaphis sleesmani;

                                                            Macrosiphum adianti

      A. poiretii                                      Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      A. raddianum                               Aphis nerii; Idiopterus nephrelepidis;

                                                            Macrosiphum walkeri; Micromyzodium filicium

      A. subcordatum                            Micromyzus niger

      A. tenerum                                    Aphis nerii; Idiopterus nephrelepidis

      A. thalictroides  = A. poiretii          

      A. tinctum = A. raddianum              

      A. trapeziforme                             Idiopterus nephrelepidis; Neomyzus circumflexus

      Adiantum spp.                              Macrosiphum rebecae; Micromyzella sleonensis

Use key to apterae of fern-feeding aphids under Polypodium.


Adina                                                                       Rubiaceae

     Adina microcephala                     Aphis gossypii

      Adina sp.                                      Aphis spiraecola

Use key to polyphagous aphids.      


Adonidia                                                                Arecaceae

     Adonidia merrillii                    [Aphis craccivora]

(or use key to aphids on palms under Calamus)                                                                                                                                             

Adonis                                                          Ranunculaceae

      Adonis aestivalis                           Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani

     A. vernalis                                     Aphis montanicola;

                                                            Aphis (Debilisiphon) sp. (Bozhko 1976a, 99)

      Adonis sp.                                     Aphis gossypii

Key to aphids on Adonis:-

1    SIPH shorter than cauda. ANT III (of apt.) with about 6 rhinaria, and IV with 1-2

                                                                                                              ..…Aphis (Debilisiphon) sp.

-     SIPH usually longer than cauda. ANT III (of apt.) with 0-2  rhinaria, and IV with 0

                                                                                               .….go to key to apterae on Anemone


Adoxa                                                           Adoxaceae

     Adoxa moschatellina                    Hyadaphis foeniculi (see Wojciechowski et al. 2016)


Aechmea                                                      Bromeliaceae

     Aechmea fulgens                          Myzus persicae

     A. nudicaulis                                [Sitobion luteum]


Aegilops                                                       Poaceae

     Aegilops bicornis                          Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. biuncialis                                  Melanaphis pyraria; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. caudata                                    Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. columnaris                               Sitobion avenae

      A. comosa                                     Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. crassa                                       Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

     A. cylindrica                                 Anoecia corni; Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum, phlei, rufula;

                                                            Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis

      A. geniculata                                Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Schizaphis graminum; Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. juvenalis                                   Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. kotschyi                                    Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. longissima                                Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae

      A. lorentii                                      Sipha elegans

      A. markgrafii = A. caudata

        A. mutica                                      Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. neglecta                                    Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. ovata                                         Aphis gossypii

      A. peregrina                                  Forda formicaria; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Sipha maydis; Sitobion avenae

      A. searsii                                       Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. speltoides                                  Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. squarrosa = A. triuncialis

        A. tauschii                                     Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. triuncialis                                 Diuraphis noxia; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                            Sipha elegans, maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

      A. umbellulata                              Metopolophium dirhodum; Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

      A. ventricosa                                 Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sipha elegans; Sitobion avenae

     Aegilops sp.                                  Anoecia vagans

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Aegle                                                            Rutaceae

     Aegle marmelos                            Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Aegopodium      Goutweed, Bishop’s Weed      Apiaceae

     Aegopodium alpestre                    Cavariella aegopodii;

                                                            Dysaphis foeniculus, [hirsutissima], [malidauci], sibirica

     A. podagraria                               Anuraphis subterranea

                                                            Aphis [brohmeri], fabae, fabae ssp. cirsiiacanthoidis,

                                                                 grosmannae, podagrariae, sambuci, subnitida;

                                                            Aulacorthum aegopodii, solani;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii, [archangelicae], theobaldi;

                                                            Dysaphis crataegi, newskyi ssp. mamontovae, sibirica;

                                                            Hyadaphis foeniculi; [Macrosiphum gei, stellariae];

                                                            Myzus [ascalonicus], ornatus; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                            Semiaphis anthrisci, dauci, [heraclei],                                                                                               pimpinellae, [sphondylii];

                                                            Smynthurodes betae

     A. tadshikorum                             Cavariella aegopodii; Dysaphis foeniculus

      Aegopodium spp.                         Pemphigus passeki; Dysaphis crataegi ssp. aethusae

Key to aphids on Aegopodium:-

1    ANT PT/BASE much less than 0.5                                                                                     .....2

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5                                                                                             .....3

2   Body and appendages conspicuously hairy. Primary rhinaria with naked, sclerotic rims. ANT II elongate, about 2 ื ANT I and similar in length to ANT III. Anus in posterio-dorsal position, with anal plate enlarged and surrounded on 3 sides by the U-shaped ABD TERG 8

                                                                                                     .....Smynthurodes betae (Plate 2f)

-    Body and appendages with sparse, short hairs. Primary rhinaria with ciliated rims. ANT II not elongate, not much longer than ANT I and much shorter than III. Anus in normal posterio-ventral position                                                                                            .....Pemphigus sp(p).

3   ABD TERG 8 with a medial process projecting backward above the cauda                       .....4

-    No supracaudal process                                                                                                         .....5

4  SIPH clavate. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5                                          .....Cavariella aegopodii

-    SIPH tapering from base to flange. ANT PT/BASE more than 2          .....Cavariella theobaldi

5   SIPH very small and flangeless, only about 0.5 ื cauda, with aperture slanted towards

     mid-line of body                                                                                                                   .....6

-    SIPH more than 0.75 ื cauda                                                                                               .....8

6    ABD TERG 1-4 usually with a total of at least 2-4 (range 0-7, mean 3.2) marginal tubercles (MTu), in addition to those consistently present  on ABD TERG 5. Genital plate with a total of 13-21 (mostly 16-19) hairs. (Al. with ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.0)         .....Semiaphis anthrisci

-     ABD TERG 1-4 usually with a total of only 0-1 MTu (range 0-7, means 0.3-0.9), in addition to those consistently present  on ABD TERG 5. Genital plate with a total of 9-17 (-20) hairs. (Al. with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-4.4, but rarely more than 3.9)                                               .....7

7    Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 8-25 μm (mostly 12-20 μm). Genital plate with 13-20 (mostly 14-17) hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5. (Al. with ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.4 and sec. rhin. distributed III 16-23, IV 1-5, V 0-1)                                                           .....Semiaphis dauci

-     Longest hair on ABD TERG 8 is 15-47 μm (mostly 18-30 μm). Genital plate with 9-20 (but mostly 11-13) hairs. ANT PT/BASE (1.8-) 2.2-3.2. (Al. with ANT PT/BASE 3.1-3.9 (-4.4) and sec. rhin. distributed III 16-59, IV 2-12 V 0-4)                          .....Semiaphis pimpinellae

8    Cauda short and broad, rounded or helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width in dorsal view


-     Cauda tongue-shaped, at least as long as its basal width in dorsal view                           .....12

9    SIPH with 30-40 densely packed rows of small nodules. Cauda with 9-13 hairs

                                                                                                                 .....Anuraphis subterranea

-     SIPH with normal imbrication. Cauda with 5-7 hairs                                                       .....10

10  ANT III and IV (of aptera) with rhinaria                     .....Dysaphis newskyi ssp. mamontovae

-     ANT III and IV without rhinaria                                                                                     …..11

11  Longest hairs on ANT III not exceeding BD III                           .....Dysaphis crataegi group

-     Longest hairs on ANT III 2.6-3.9 ื BD III                                              …..Dysaphis sibirica

12  SIPH clavate, 0.8-1.4 ื cauda and 0.1-0.2 ื BL. R IV+V 0.7-1.05 ื HT II

                                                                                                                    …..Hyadaphis foeniculi

-     SIPH cylindrical or tapering on distal half, usually more that 1.4 ื cauda; if shorter, then much less than 0.1 ื BL, and R IV+V 0.95-1.5 ื HT II                                                 …..13

13  ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces parallel or convergent in dorsal view. SIPH and cauda mainly pale. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)             .....14

-     ANT tubercles weakly developed.  SIPH and cauda black. ABD TERG 1 and 7 always with MTu                                                                                                                                   15

14  Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation. ANT tubercles with inner faces convergent in dorsal view. SIPH with a slight “S”-curve             ....Myzus ornatus

-          Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. ANT tubercles with inner faces parallel in dorsal view. SIPH straight                                    .....Aulacorthum solani (or A. aegopodii – see text)

15  ABD TERG 2-4 with large flat marginal tubercles (MTu), 33-50 μm in diameter. SIPH 2-3 ื cauda                                                                                                             …..Aphis sambuci

-          ABD TERG 2-4 with MTu if present papilliform and with diameter 15-35 μm. SIPH often less than 2 ื cauda                                                                                                             16

16  Dorsal body and appendages with short hairs; those on ANT III 7-15 μm long, much shorter than BD III. ABD TERG 2-4 often with MTu                                                                 ….17

-          Dorsal body and appendages bearing longer hairs; those on ANT III 24-75 μm long, usually as long as or longer than BD III. ABD TERG 2-4 only sporadically with MTu             …..18

17  ANT III (of apt.) 1.6-2.0 ื SIPH, and bearing rhinaria                                .....Aphis subnitida

-          ANT III (of apt.) 1.0-1.4 ื SIPH, and without rhinaria                          ….Aphis grosmannae

18  ABD TERG 2-4 without spinal hairs (i.e., only 2 dorsal hairs per segment, as normal for genus), so that the (pleural) pair on ABD TERG 4 are about twice as far apart as the spinal pair on ABD TERG 5-7.  ABD TERG 8 with 2-5 hairs                         ..…Aphis fabae group

-     ABD TERG 2-4 with both spinal and pleural hairs (i.e., 4 dorsal hairs per segment), so that the (spinal) pair on ABD TERG 4 are 1.5 or less times the distance apart of the spinal pair on ABD TERG 5-7.  ABD TERG 8 with 3-11 hairs, usually 5 or more

                                                                                                                      .….Aphis podagrariae


Aellenia    see Halothamnus                                        Amaranthaceae


Aeluropus                                                               Poaceae

     Aeluropus littoralis                       Forda hirsuta, marginata; Geoica anchusae;

                                                            Paracletus bykovi, cimiciformis;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi, rufiabdominale; Sipha maydis

     Aeluropus pungens = A. littoralis

Use key to apterae on grasses under Digitaria.


Aenida   see Amaranthus                                         Amaranthaceae


Aeollanthus                                                  Lamiaceae

     Aeollanthus myrianthus               Sitobion colei


Aeonium                                                      Crassulaceae

     Aeonium arboreum                      Aphis gossypii, sedi; [Smynthurodes betae]

                 (incl. var. holochrysum)

      A. glutinosum                         Nasonovia dasyphylli

     A. holochrysum = A. arboreum var. holochrysum                    

     A. manriqueorum = A. arboreum

Use key to aphids on Sedum.


Aeranthes                                                    Orchidaceae

     Aeranthes sp.                                Cerataphis orchidearum


Aerides                                                         Orchidaceae

     Aerides fieldingi = A. rosea            

      A. rosea                                         Cerataphis orchidearum


Aerva                                                            Amaranthaceae

     Aerva javanica                              Aphis fabae; [Capitophorus elaeagni]                                   

     A. tomentosa = A. javanica


Aeschynanthus                                            Gesneraceae

     Aeschynanthus radicans              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Myzus duriatae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

Key to apterae on Aeschynanthus:-

-     Abdomen with an oval dark patch extending over ABD TERG 1-4. Head spiculose, dark, with well-developed ANT tubercles. ANT I-II, SIPH and cauda all dark

                                                                                                                            …..Myzus duriatae

-     Without  that combination of characters                          …..go to key to polyphagous aphids 


Aeschynomene                                            Fabaceae

     Aeschynomeme americana          Aphis craccivora

      A. aspera                                       Aphis craccivora

      A. cristata                                      Sitobion africanum

      A. dimidiata                                  Neoantalus aeschynomenidis; [Sitobion sp.]

      A. indica                                       Aphis craccivora, gossypii

Key to aphids on Aeschynomene:-

1    SIPH as very short cones, much shorter than cauda, which has a constriction and a very elongate triangular knob. ANT VI BASE with several spaced-out rhinaria.  R IV+V very short and blunt, about 0.5 ื HT II                                          .....Neoantalus aeschynomenidis

-     SIPH tubular, tapering, as long as or longer than cauda, which has no constriction. R IV+V similar in length to HT II                                                                                                     .....2

2    SIPH as long as or longer than the distance between their bases, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Dorsal abdomen often with a broken pattern of dark pigmentation, never with an unbroken black shield                                                       .....Sitobion africanum

-     SIPH shorter than the distance between their bases, and without any subapical polygonal reticulation. Dorsal abdomen either without dark markings or with an extensive black

      shield                                                                                                                                    .....3

3    Dorsal abdomen with an extensive black shield. Cauda as black as SIPH

                                                                                                                          .....Aphis craccivora

-     Dorsal abdomen without any dark markings. Cauda paler than SIPH           .....Aphis gossypii


Aesculus              Horse Chestnuts                     Hippocastaneae

Few aphids are recorded from Aesculus, and only three are possibly specific to members of this genus.

Host Plant List:-

Aesculus californica                        Neomyzus circumflexus;
                                                         Periphyllus californiensis, testudinaceus;
                                                         Prociphilus americanus

A. carnea                                         Aphis aurantii, gossypii; Periphyllus testudinaceus

A. chinensis                                     [Tinocallis insularis]

A. glabra                                          Drepanaphis monelli; Periphyllus aceris, testudinaceus

A. hippocastanum                                         Horse Chestnut
                                                   Aphis craccivora, fabae, nasturtii, taraxacicola (Nevsky);

                                                         [Drepanosiphum platanoidis]; Periphyllus testudinaceus

A. indica                                          Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii; Periphyllus aesculi

A. neglecta                                       Periphyllus testudinaceus

A. octandra                                      Periphyllus testudinaceus

A. parviflora                                    Periphyllus aceris

A. pavia                                           Periphyllus testudinaceus


A. turbinata                                     Periphyllus californiensis, [koelreuteriae];
                                                   Stomaphis yanonis ssp. aesculi

Key to aphids feeding on Aesculus:-


1    Rostrum much longer than body                                                  .....Stomaphis yanonis aesculi

-     Rostrum much shorter than body                                                                                        .....2


2    ANT PT/BASE much less than 1.0.  SIPH absent                         .....Prociphilus americanus

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.0.  SIPH present                                                                   .....3


3    Adult viviparae all alate, with a large, bilobed, pigmented, dorsal abdominal process             

                                                                                                                     ....Drepanaphis monelli

-     Adult viviparae alate or apterous, if alate then without a dorsal abdominal process          .....4


4    SIPH stump-shaped.  Hairs on antennae much longer than basal diameter of ANT III    .....5

-     SIPH tubular, hairs on antennae shorter than basal diameter of ANT III                           .....8


5    Hind tibiae entirely black                                                              .....Periphyllus californiensis

-     Hind tibiae at least partly pale                                                                                             .....6


6    SIPH shorter than their width at base.  ANT PT/BASE less than 2.5  .....Periphyllus aesculus

-     SIPH longer than their basal width.  ANT PT/BASE more than 2.5                                  .....7


7    Hind tibiae uniformly pale, or dusky only at apices                                 .....Periphyllus aceris

-     Hind tibiae with pale middle region, contrasting with dark base and distal section

                                                                                                             .....Periphyllus testudinaceus


8    Marginal tubercles present on most abdominal segments       .....Aphis taraxacicola (Nevsky)

-     Marginal abdominal tubercles absent, or only consistently present on abdominal segments 1 and 7                                                                                  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids



Aetheorhiza                                                 Asteraceae

      Aetheorhiza bulbosa                     Uroleucon cichorii, sonchi

Key for separating these two species:-

(Both species have black SIPH with distal reticulation)

-        Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 mostly not placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 0.73-0.88 ื HT II                                                                                                        …..Uroleucon sonchi

-      Dorsal hairs on ABD TERG 1-5 all or mostly placed on dark scleroites. R IV+V 1.17-1.33 ื HT II                                                                                                      …..Uroleucon cichorii


Aethionema (including Eunomia)                               Brassicaceae

     Aethionema oppositifolium          Smynthurodes betae

      A. schistosum                               Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Aethusa                                                       Apiaceae

     Aethusa cynapium                       [Acyrthosiphon malvae]; Aphis fabae;

                                                            Cavariella aegopodii;  Dysaphis crataegi ssp.aethusae;

                                                            Hyadaphis foeniculi: Macrosiphum euphorbiae, gei;

                                                            Myzus [ascalonicus], ornatus; Pemphigus gairi

Key to aphids on Aethusa:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5.  ABD TERG 3-7 usually with spinal and pleural wax pore plates                                                                                                          ......Pemphigus gairi

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 1.5.  No wax pore plates                                                         ......2

2    ABD TERG 8 with a medial process projecting backward above the cauda                           

                                                                                                                   .....Cavariella aegopodii

-     No supracaudal process                                                                                                       .....3

3    Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. Dome-shaped marginal tubercles (MTu) present on most ABD TERG    .....Dysaphis crataegi ssp. aethusae

-     Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width. MTu usually very small or absent, or only consistently present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                                     …..4

4    SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation                                                       …..5

-     SIPH without any polygonal reticulation                                                                           …..6

5    Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 and 8 are 43-84 mm and 66-106 mm respectively. Femora usually with a dusky-dark apical or subapical patch                                …..Macrosiphum gei

-     Longest hairs on ABD TERG 3 and 8 are 21-37 mm and 38-63 mm respectively. Apices of femora pale or only slightly dusky                                              .….Macrosiphum euphorbiae

6    ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces scabrous and convergent. SIPH pale. Dorsal abdomen with a pattern of dark intersegmental ornamentation                    …..Myzus ornatus

-     ANT tubercles poorly developed or absent.  SIPH dusky or dark. Dorsal abdomen with or without dark markings                                                                                                       …..7

7    SIPH tapering. MTu always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                           .....Aphis fabae

-     SIPH clavate. MTu never present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                 …..Hyadaphis foeniculi


Aflatunia  see Louiseania                                Rosaceae


Aframomum                                                Zingiberaceae

     Aframomum alboviolaceum        Aphis gossypii

     A. angustifolium                           Aphis gossypii; Pentalonia caladii, [nigronervosa]

      A. luteoalbum                               Rhopalosiphum maidis

      A. stipulatum = A. alboviolaceum

Key to aphids on Aframomum:-

1      ANT longer than body. Femora with basal 0.6 or more of  length pale, contrasting with black distal section. SIPH pale basally and dark distally. (Alata with broad-banded

      wing-veins, and radius fused with media to form a closed cell below the pterostigma

                                                                                                                        .....Pentalonia caladii

-     ANT shorter than body.  Femora mainly dark or mainly pale.  SIPH uniformly dark. (Alata with normal pale wing veins)                                                                                              .....2

2    ANT less than 0.5 ื BL. Legs mainly dark. SIPH less than 0.1 ื BL and usually slightly swollen proximal to flange                                                                .....Rhopalosiphum maidis

-     ANT more than 0.5 ื BL. Legs mainly pale. SIPH more than 0.1 ื BL and tapering from base to flange, with no trace of swelling                                                        .....Aphis gossypii



Afrocarpus                                                  Podocarpaceae

      Afrocarpus falcatus                     Neophyllaphis varicolor, viridis

      A. gracilior                                  Neophyllaphis grobleri

      A. usumbarensis                         Neophyllaphis grobleri

      Afrocarpus sp.                             Neophyllaphis varicolor

Use key to apterae on Podocarpus.


Afrocarum                                                   Apiaceae

      Afrocarum imbricatum               Hyadaphis coriandri, foeniculi

Couplet to separate these two aphids:-

-       SIPH a little shorter than cauda, slightly swollen before flange           ....Hyadaphis coriandri

-     SIPH clavate, about equal in length to cauda or a little longer             .....Hyadaphis foeniculi


Afroligusticum                                            Apiaceae

     Afroligusticum aculeolatum        Myzus ornatus

     A. elliotii                                        Aulacorthum solani

Use key to polyphagous aphids.


Afrosciadium                                               Apiaceae

     Afrosciadium kerstenii                 Myzus ornatus


Agalinis (including Aureolaria)                                    Orobanchaceae

      Agalinis oligophylla                      Aphis gerardiae

      A. laevigata                                   [Aphis illinoisensis]

            (= Aureolaria laevigata)

      A. pedicularia                               Aphis fabae, gerardiae

            (= Aureolaria pedicularia)

      A. tenuifolia                                  Aphis gerardiae

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-     Hind tibiae uniformly dark, or only a little paler in middle. Cauda with 7-11 hairs

                                                                                                                          ..... Aphis gerardiae

-     Hind tibiae mostly pale, dark only at ends. Cauda with 11-24 hairs               …...Aphis fabae


Agalma  see Schlefflera                                           Araliaceae


Aganope  (including Ostryoderris)                                Fabaceae

      Aganope lucida                            Aphis craccivora


Agapanthus                                                 Amaryllidaceae

     Agapanthus. africanus                 [Myzus hemerocallis]; [Sitobion graminis]

     A. umbellatus = A. africanus

     Agapanthus sp.                            Aphis fabae


Agapetes                                                      Ericaceae

     Agapetes serpens                          Indiaphis setosa


Agarista                                                       Ericaceae

      Agarista salicifolia                        Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii


Agastache                                                    Lamiaceae

     Agastache anethiodora = A. foeniculum

      A. foeniculum                               Aphis [fabae], neomonardae

      A. rugosa                                      [Aphis frangulae]; [Micromyzodium nipponicum]

      A. urticifolia                                  Aphis agastachyos; Eucarazzia elegans;

                                                            [Macrosiphum sp., (A. Jensen, Idaho, etc;]

Key to apterae on Agastache:-

1     SIPH strongly swollen, with maximum diameter of swollen part more than 2ื minimum diameter of stem, smooth except for a little subapical polygonal reticulation (Fig.48a). SIPH 5.4-8.2 ื cauda                                                                                     …..Eucarazzia elegans

-      SIPH not swollen, and less than 3 ื cauda                                                                       …..2

 (Both the following species have ANT tubercles undeveloped, ABD TERG 1 and 7 with large marginal tubercles, pale SIPH, and R IV+V with 4-8 accessory hairs.)

2    SIPH  0.11-0.15 ื BL and 1.1-1.6 ื cauda                                          ...... Aphis agastachyos

-     SIPH  0.06-0.08 ื BL and 0.7-1.0 ื cauda                                          .....Aphis neomonardae


Agathis                      Kauri Pine                       Araucariaceae

      Agathis labillardieni              Neophyllaphis rappardi  



Agauria  see  Agarista                                                Ericaceae


Agave                                                                      Asparagaceae

     Agave americana                         Aphis gossypii, [sedi]; Myzus persicae

      A. legrelliana                                Aphis craccivora

     Agave spp.                             Aphis asclepiadis; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Cerataphis brasiliensis

Key to apterae on Agave:-

-     Body dorsoventrally flattened, subcircular, wholly sclerotic, with a distinct crenulate margin due to a continuous circle of wax glands. Underside of head with at least one pair of thick, dagger-shaped hairs situated lateroventrally to bases of a pair frontal horns. SIPH pore-like

…..Cerataphis brasiliensis

-     Body of normal aphid shape, not wholly sclerotic; head without frontal horns. SIPH conical or tubular, tapering                                                           …..go to key to polyphagous aphids


Ageratina                                                    Asteraceae

      Ageratina adenophora          Aphis fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;

                                               Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                               Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       A. altissima                         Aphis coreopsidis; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                              Macrosiphum [eupatorii], euphorbiae;

                                               Uroleucon ambrosiae, eupatorifoliae, [rudbeckiae]

      A. glabrata                                Uroleucon erigeronense

      A. ixiocladon                            Brachycaudus helichrysi

      A. havanensis                           Hyperomyzus pullatus

      A. ligustrina                              Aphis fabae

       A. paucibracteata                 Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spiraecola

       A. pichinchensis                       Aphis spiraecola; Uroleucon ambrosiae

Use key to apterae under Eupatorium.


Ageratum                                                     Asteraceae

      Ageratum conyzoides               Aleurodaphis blumeae;

                                                Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi, [persicae];

                                                            [Capitophorus hippophaes ssp. javanicus];

                                                            Indomasonaphis anaphalidis; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae (lizerianum), compositae,

                                                                sonchi ssp. afghanicum

      A. corymbosum                            Uroleucon ambrosiae

A. houstonianum                         Aphis fabae, gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

        (incl. mexicanum)                        Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                       Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae ssp. lizerianum

      A. maritimum                               Aphis gossypii;Protaphis middletonii

      A. mexicanum  = A. houstonianum 

      A. microcarpum                           Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon ambrosiae

      Ageratum spp.                              [Hyperomyzus carduellinus]; [Vesiculaphis picridis];

                                                            Uroleucon mexicanum

Key to apterae on Ageratum:-

1    Body flattened and dorsum sclerotic, with fused head and pronotum, fused ABD TERG 1-7, and a crenulate rim due to a continuous marginal row of wax glands. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed                                                                                     …..Aleurodaphis blumeae

-     Body not flattened, segments not fused, no crenulate margin of wax glands. Cauda not knobbed, anal plate entire                                                                                                   ….2

2    Large aphid, BL more than 4 mm. SIPH strongly clavate, with maximum width 3-4 ื diameter of tibia at midpoint. Cauda with 25-32 hairs            .....Indomasonaphis anaphalidis

-     BL less than 4 mm.  SIPH not strongly clavate and/or cauda with less than 20 hairs       …..3

3    SIPH entirely dark with subapical polygonal reticulation                                                   .....4

-     SIPH if entirely dark then without polygonal reticulation

.....go to key to polyphagous aphids

4    Cauda dark. SIPH 1.8-2.1 ื cauda. ANT III with 51-77 rhinaria    .....Uroleucon compositae

-     Cauda pale. SIPH 1.0-1.9 ื cauda. ANT III with 7-46 rhinaria                                         .....5

5    Dorsal hairs without basal scleroites. Coxae dark         …..Uroleucon sonchi ssp. afghanicum

-     Small dusky or dark scleroites present at bases of at least some of dorsal hairs. Coxae pale or variably pigmented, paler than SIPH                                                                                   .....6

6    SIPH reticulated over 0.4-0.6 of length. Cauda with 7-14 hairs      .....Uroleucon mexicanum  

-     SIPH reticulated over less than 0.3 of length. Cauda with 16-27 hairs

      .....Uroleucon ambrosiae



Aglaia                                                          Meliaceae

      Aglaia odorata                              Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii, citricidus

      Aglaia spp.                                   Cervaphis schouteniae

Couplet for aphids on Aglaia:-

-     Body with long branched hair-bearing processes. SIPH with a subapical ring of small hairs

                                                                                                                 .....Cervaphis schouteniae

-     Body without long hair-bearing processes. SIPH without hairs

                                                                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Agonis                                                         Myrtaceae

      Agonis flexuosa                            Anomalaphis comperei;

                                                            Aphis aurantii, gossypii, spireaecola

      A. luehmannii = Leptospermum leuhmannii

Couplet for apterae on Agonis:-

-     ANT 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 1. ABD TERG 7 and 8 each with a pair of long hair-bearing processes. SIPH with a subapical ring of 3-5 hairs

                                                                                                                .....Anomalaphis comperei

-     ANT usually 6-segmented, and ANT PT/BASE more than 2.  ABD TERG 7 and 8 without long processes, SIPH without hairs                                  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Agoseris                                                       Asteraceae

     Agoseris glauca                            Aphis sp. (Manitoba, BMNH collection)

     Agoseris spp.                                Abstrusomyzus phloxae; Pleotrichophorus triangulatus;

                                                            Uroleucon erigeronense

Key couplet for aphids on Agoseris:-

1    Dorsal body with numerous short fan-shaped hairs. SIPH less than 0.5 ื cauda

                                                                                                     ..…Pleotrichophorus triangulatus

-     Dorsal body hairs not fan-shaped. SIPH longer than cauda                                              …..2

2     SIPH with polygonal reticulation on 0.25-0.35 of length, mainly dark but with pale basal part

       …..Uroleucon erigeronense

-     SIPH without polygonal reticulation, pale or uniformly pigmented                                  …..3

3    SIPH black, tapering, 1.2-1.4 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 1.4-1.7                                               

                                                                                    …..Aphis sp. (Manitoba, BMNH collection)

-     SIPH pale, slightly swollen subapically, about 2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 3.4-4.3                  

                                                                                                                .....Abstrusomyzus phloxae


Agrimonia                                                   Rosaceae

      Agrimonia eupatoria                    Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. agrimoniae;

                                                            Aphis argrimoniae ssp. ucrainica, proffti;

                                                            Macrosiphum agrimoniellum, euphorbiae, rosae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

      A. gryposepala                              Macrosiphum agrimoniellum, euphorbiae

      A. japonica = A. pilosa

      A. odorata                                     Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. agrimoniae; Aphis proffti

      A. pilosa                                        Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. agrimoniae;

                                                            Aphis argrimoniae, nasturtii; [Epipemphigus niisimae];

                                                            Eriosoma japonicum; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            [Pemphigus dorocola];

                                                            [Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, yezoensis]

      A. procera = A. odorata

      A .striata                                       Macrosiphum pallidum     

      Agrimonia sp(p).                          [Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha];                                       

Key to aphids on Agrimonia:-

1    ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Eyes of  3 facets. SIPH as raised pores with a surrounding ring of hairs, cauda semi-circular. Each segment of thorax and abdomen with a pair of marginal wax pore plates                                                                                    .....Eriosoma japonicum

-     ANT PT/BASE much greater than 1.  Eyes compound. SIPH tubular, cauda tongue-shaped. No wax pore plates                                                                                                             .....2

2    ANT tubercles weakly developed.  SIPH only about 0.5 ื distance between their bases, and less than 1.5 ื cauda. Marginal tubercles (MTu) present on ABD TERG 1 and 7             ....3

-     ANT tubercles well developed, or at least protruding further than medial part of front of head in dorsal view. SIPH at least as long as the distance between their bases, and 1.4 or more ื cauda. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu                                                                         .....4

3    ANT/PT BASE 2.6-3.2                                                                                      .....Aphis proffti

-     ANT/PT BASE 1.8-2.3                                                                           ..... Aphis argrimoniae

4    SIPH mainly pale, sometimes dusky at apices                                                                     .....5

-     SIPH entirely or mainly dark                                                                                               .....8

5    SIPH without any polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III inconspicuous, the longest rarely more than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                                                      .....6

-     SIPH with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Hairs on ANT III evident, the longest more than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                                                       .....7

6    SIPH 1.8-2.2 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-5.8. R IV+V 1.1-1.3 ื HT II

                                                                                            ….. Acyrthosiphon malvae agrimoniae

-     SIPH 1.4-1.8 (-2.0) ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 2.8-4.4.  R IV+V 0.6-0.75 ื HT II

                                                                                                           …..Metopolophium dirhodum

7    R IV+V 1.1-1.3 ื HT II. ANT III with 15-20 rhinaria extending over more than 0.7 of its length                                                                                      .....Macrosiphum agrimoniellum

-     R IV+V 0.8-1.0 ื HT II. ANT III with 1-10 rhinaria confined to basal half

                                                                                                            .....Macrosiphum euphorbiae

8    Hairs on ANT III all less than 0.5 ื BD III. R IV + V only about as long as its basal width, shorter than HT II. Tibiae pale                                                                …..Sitobion fragariae

-     Hairs on ANT III conspicuous, the longest of them more than 0.5 ื BD III. R IV+V more than 1.5 ื its basal width, similar in length to or loger than HT II.  Tibiae mainly dark   .….9

 9   Head pale or dusky. SIPH often paler at extreme bases                  .....Macrosiphum pallidum

-     Head very dark or black, like SIPH, which are wholly dark                .….Macrosiphum rosae


Agriophyllum                                              Amaranthaceae

     Agriophyllum arenarium = A. squarrosum

     A. pungens = A. squarrosum

        A. squarrosum                              Aphis craccivora; Brachyunguis [agriphylli], harmalae

Key to apterae on Agriophyllum:-

-     SIPH 0.6-0.7 ื cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.5-0.8                              .....Brachyunguis harmalae

-     SIPH and ANT PT relatively longer                                  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids 



Agrocharis                                                   Apiaceae

     Agriocharis incognita                   Aphis gossypii, spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Hyadaphis foeniculi; Myzus ornatus;

                                                            Uroleucon compositae

Couplet for aphids on Agrocharis:-

-     SIPH dark, clavate, similar in length to or only a little longer than the equally dark cauda

                                                                                                                   .....Hyadaphis foeniculi

-     Without this combination of characters                          .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Agropyron                                                   Poaceae

     Agropyron angustiglume = Elymus mutabilis

      A. caninum = Elymus caninus

      A. ciliare = Elymus ciliaris                   

      A. cristatum                                  Diuraphis bromicola, frequens, holci, noxia, tritici;

                                                            Forda marginata; Hyalopterus amygdali;                         

                                                            Laingia psammae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                            [Sappaphis dipirivora]; Schizaphis graminum;

                                                            Sipha elegans, maydis; Sitobion avenae;

                                                            Tetraneura capitata ssp. agropyricena

      A. desertorum                               Schizaphis graminum

      A. elongatum = Elymus elongatus

      A. fragile                                       Sipha elegans                    

      A. glaucum = Elymus hispidus        

      A. imbricatum  = Agropyron cristatum                                                                                        

      A. intermedium   = Elymus hispidus

      A. junceiforme = Elymus farctus     

      A. junceum   = Elymus farctus

      A. krylovianum                             Forda marginata

      A. latiglume   = Elymus trachycaulus                                           

      A.littorale   = Elymus pycnanthus                                                

      A. occidentale   =Elymus smithii

      A. pectinatum                               Diuraphis frequens, noxia; Sipha elegans, maydis;

                                                            Sitobion avenae

      A. pungens  = Elymus pungens

      A. repens  = Elymus repens              

      A. semicostatum = Elymus semicostatus                                      

      A. smithii  = Elymus smithii             

      A. spicatum = Elymus spicatus

      A. tenerum   = Elymus trachycaulus

      A. trachycaulum   = Elymus trachycaulus

      A. trichophorum   = Elymus hispidus

      A. tsukushiense   = Elymus tsukushiensis

      Agropyron spp.                            Forda hirsuta; Sipha glyceriae, uvarovi;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae;

                                                            [Slavum lentiscoides (= Aploneura ampelina?)]

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Agrostemma                                                Caryophyllaceae

     Agrostemma coeli-rosea = Silene coeli-rosea

      A. githago                                     Aphis nasturtii;

                                                            Brachycaudus [cardui], lychnidis, [persicae];                          

                                                            [Nasonovia ribisnigri (as Macrosiphum agrostemnium)];

                                                            [Uroleucon picridis]

(try key to apterae on Silene)


Agrostis                                                       Poaceae

      Agrostis alba L. = Poa nemoralis  

        A. alba auctt non L. = Agrostis stolonifera                                  

      A. alpina                                       Pemphigus similis

      A. canina                                      Diuraphis agrostidis; Forda formicaria;

                                                            Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Melanaphis pyraria;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Schizaphis agrostis; Sipha glyceriae;

                                                            Sitobion avenae; Tetraneura ulmi 

      A. capillaris                                   Anoecia corni, zirnitsi; [Aphis sp., Leonard, 1968: 269];

                                                            Aploneura lentisci; Baizongia pistaciae;

                                                            Diuraphis agrostidis; Forda formicaria, marginata;

                                                            Geoica lucifuga, setulosa, utricularia;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;

                                                            Paracletus cimiciformis;

                                                            Pemphigus sp.(?groenlandicus - Zw๖lfer 1958);

                                                            Rhopalosiphum padi; Schizaphis agrostis, graminum;

                                                            Sipha glyceriae, maydis; Sitobion avenae, fragariae;

                                                            Tetraneura ulmi

      A. castellana                                 Hysteroneura setariae; Sitobion fragariae                        

      A. clavata                                      Tetraneura fusiformis

      A. curtisii                                      Atheroides serrulatus; Laingia psammae;

                                                            Metopolophium festucae cerealium; Schizaphis graminum

      A. gigantea                                   Forda marginata; Metopolophium festucae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae, padi; Schizaphis rufula;

                                                            Sipha glyceriae; Sitobion avenae, fragariae

      A. perennans                                Geoica utricularia; Prociphilus erigeronensis

      A. plumosa = Tricholaena teneriffae

      A. rupestris                                   [Acyrthosiphon loti (as Metopolophium gracilipes)];

                                                            Pemphigus similis

      A. scabra                                       Sitobion avenae

      A. semiverticillata = Polypogon viridis

      A. stolonifera                                Anoecia corni, pskovica; Atheroides serrulatus;

                (incl. alba auctt. non L.)              Baizongia pistaciae; Cryptaphis poae;

                                                            Diuraphis agrostidis; Forda formicaria;

                                                            Geoica setulosa, utricularia; Laingia psammae;

                                                            Metopolophium dirhodum, festucae;

                                                            Paracletus cimiciformis; Pemphigus sp.;

                                                            Rhopalomyzus poae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum maidis, oxyacanthae, padi;

                                                            Schizaphis agrostis, dubia, graminum;

                                                            Sipha elegans, glyceriae, maydis;

                                                            Sitobion akebiae, avenae, fragariae; Tetraneura ulmi

      A. tenuis   = A. capillaris

      A. verticillata = Polypogon viridis                                               

      Agrostis spp.                                 Anoecia krizusi; [Prociphilus caryae]; Sitobion beiquei

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Aichryson                                                    Crassulaceae

     Aichryson dichotonum                 Nasonovia dasyphylli


Ailanthus                Tree of Heaven               Simaroubaceae

     Ailanthus altissima                    Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, odinae, spiraecola;
                                                   [Epipemphigus imaicus - error?];
                                                   Kaburagia ailanthi; [Kurisakia ailanthi - error?];
                                                   Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Mollitrichosiphum nigrum  

     A. fordii                                     Aphis odinae

     A. glandulosa = A. altissima

Key to aphids on Ailanthus:-

1    SIPH as small, inconspicuous pores. (aphids in galls)                            .....Kaburagia ailanthi

-     SIPH tubular. (Aphids free-living)                                                                                     .....2


2    SIPH black, more than 0.6 of BL and densely hairy                  .....Mollitrichosiphum nigrum

-     SIPH not as above                                                            .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Ainsliaea                                                     Asteraceae

      Ainsliaea aptera                            Macrosiphoniella grandicauda


Ainsworthia                                                 Apiaceae

     Ainsworthia trachycarpa              Aphis fabae, Cavariella aegopodii

Couplet for separating these two species:-

-      SIPH black, tapering, 0.8-1.5 ื black cauda which bears 11-24 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 2.4-3.4. No backwardly projecting process on ABD TERG 8                                       …..Aphis fabae

-      SIPH pale, clavate, 1.8-2.4 ื pale cauda which bears 5 hairs. ANT PT/BASE 1.0-1.55. ABD TERG 8 with a backwardly-projecting process above the cauda      …..Cavariella aegopodii


Aira                                                              Poaceae

     Aira caespitosa = Deschampsia caespitosa                                  

      A. capillaris = Aira elegantissima

      A. caryophyllea                             Chaetosiphella berlesei; Forda formicaria

      A. elegantissima                           Metopolophium dirhodum; Rhopalosiphum padi;

                                                            Sitobion fragariae

      A. flexuosa = Deschampsia flexuosa                                                                                            

      Aira sp.                                         Sipha glyceriae

Use key to apterae of grass-feeding aphids under Digitaria.


Ajania                                                                     Asteraceae

     Ajania fastigiata                          Coloradoa ajaniae; Macrosiphoniella ajaniae

      A. fruticulosa                               [Forda sp.]


Ajuga                                                           Lamiaceae

      Ajuga ืadulterina                        [Ovatomyzus sp. (Ossiannilsson 1964a)]

      A. brachystemon                          Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus

      A. genevensis                                Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Myzus ajugae, [Myzus sp. (Bozhko 1976a: 113)]

      A. genevensis pyramidalis         Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

      A. macrosperma                           Sitobion aulacorthoides

      A. orientalis                                  Myzus ajugae

      A. parviflora                                 Myzus ornatus

      A. reptans                                     Aphis gossypii; Aulacorthum solani, [solani ssp. prasinum];

                                                            [Brachycaudus cardui]; Myzus ajugae, ornatus, persicae

      Ajuga spp.                                    Neomyzus circumflexus; [Sinomegoura rhododendri]

Key to aphids on Ajuga:-

1     ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle part of frons in dorsal view

                                                                                                                              .....Aphis gossypii

-      ANT tubercles well developed, their inner faces divergent or convergent                        .....2

2     Inner faces of ANT tubercles clearly divergent. SIPH dark except for pale basal c.0.3, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation and a large flange            .....Sitobion aulacorthoides

-      Inner faces of ANT tubercles parallel or convergent.  SIPH pale or dusky,  without subapical polygonal reticulation                                                                                                         .....3

3     Dorsal abdomen with a large dark, approximately horseshoe-shaped  dark patch, and paired dark patches also on thoracic tergites                                              .....Neomyzus circumflexus

-      No extensive dark dorsal patches                                                                                       .....4

4     PT 1.45-2.3 ื ANT III. Cuticle of front of head and ANT tubercles is smooth                     

                                                                                                             .....Ovatomyzus chamaedrys

-      PT 0.6-1.4 (-1.6) ื ANT III, and cuticle of front of head and ANT tubercles is spiculose or rugose                                                                                                                                 …..5

5     SIPH tapering from base to flange, not at all swollen                                                       …..6

-      SIPH somewhat swollen on distal half, with narrower basal section                                …..7 

6     ANT III without rhinaria. SIPH usually with a slight “S” curve.  ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.8. Dorsal abdomen with an intersegmental pattern of dark ornamentation       .....Myzus ornatus

-      ANT III with 1-2 small rhinaria near base. SIPH rather straight.  ANT PT/BASE 4.0-5.3. Dorsal abdomen without dark markings                                                                             .....6

7     R IV+V 1.05-1.30 ื HT II                                                                             .....Myzus ajugae

-      R IV+V 0.9-1.0 ื HT II                                                                               .....Myzus persicae


Akebia                                                         Lardizabalaceae

     Akebia quinata                             Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani, pterinigrum;

                                                            [Ericaphis sp. (B.C., Canada)]; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ornatus; Neomyzus circumflexus; Sitobion akebiae

      A. trifoliata                                    Sitobion akebiae

      Akebia spp.                                   [Amphicercidus lanigera]; [Myzus varians]

Key to aphids on Akebia:-

1     SIPH dark, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale. ANT dark, with hairs on III short and blunt, the longest less than 0.5 ื BD III                                         .....2

-       Without this combination of characters                           ….go to key to polyphagous aphids

2      Abdomen with black marginal sclerites, fused between segments to form broad black marginal stripes. R IV+V longer than HT II. Head with minute spicules on ventral side

                                                                                                            …..Aulacorthum pterinigrum

-      Abdomen without broad black marginal stripes. R IV shorter than HT II. Head without spicules                                                                                                      …..Sitobion akebiae



Alangium (incl. Marlea)                                            Cornaceae

     Alangium platanifolium               [Cavariella angelicae]       



 Albizia                                                                    Fabaceae

     Albizia julibrissin                       Acyrthosiphon pisum; Aphis fabae

     A. lebbeck                                  Anomalosiphum pithecolobii

     A. lophantha                             Aphis gossypii; Brachycaudus helichrysi

     A. odoratissima                         Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii

     A. petersiana                             [Uroleucon compositae]

     A. saman                                   Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus

Key to aphids on Albizia:-

1    End of abdomen with backwardly directed hair-bearing processes. SIPH with a subapical ring of hairs. Antennae 5-segmented with ANT PT/BASE less than 1. R IV+V nearly 2ื longer than HT II                                                                               ..... Anomalosiphum pithecolobii

-     End of abdomen without backwardly directed hair-bearing processes, SIPH without hairs, antennae usually 6-segmented with ANT PT/BASE more than 1, and R IV+V usually much less than 2ื HT II                                                                                                                 ....2

2    ANT tubercles very well developed, with smooth divergent inner faces. SIPH long, pale, tapering from a broad base, without supabical reticulation             ..........Acyrthosiphon pisum

-     Without that combination of characters                       ..........go to key to polyphagous aphids


Alcea                          Hollyhocks                    Malvaceae

     Alcea litvinovii                              Aphis althaeae

     A. nudiflora                                  Aphis althaeae, gossypii, umbrella,  spiraecola

     A. pallida                                      Aphis althaeae

      A. rhyticarpa                                 Aphis althaeae

     A. rosea                                         Acyrthosiphon malvae;

                                                            Aphis althaeae, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, solanella,

                                                                 spiraecola, umbrella;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus, persicae; Uroleucon eoessigi

      A. rugosa                                      Aphis althaeae

Key to aphids on Alcea (also Althaea and Lavatera):-

1     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view. SIPH pale, smooth, short, with an annular incision proximal to the flange. Spiracular apertures large and

       rounded                                                                                         …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. SIPH pale or dark, imbricated, without any distinct subapical annular incision. Spiracular apertures reniform                 …..2

2     ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of frons in dorsal view. Marginal tubercles (MTu) always present at least on ABD TERG 1 and 7                       .....3

-      ANT tubercles well developed. MTu absent or present, but if present they are usually only on ABD TERG 2-4 (-5) and only rarely on ABD TERG 1 or 7                                             .....6

3     SIPH wholly dark                         .....go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 24

-      SIPH pale or dusky, or only dark towards apices                                                              .....4

4     ANT 5-segmented. R IV+V very long, narrow and pointed, 4-5 ื its basal width and 1.6-2.1 ื HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 mostly longer than ANT BD III. Marginal tubercles (MTu) absent from ABD TERG 2-5                                                             .....Aphis althaeae

-      ANT 5- or 6-segmented. R IV+V less than 2.5 ื its basal width and 1.0-1.45 ื HT II. Hairs on ABD TERG 2-4 shorter than ANT BD III. MTu often present on ABD TERG 2-5 as well as 1 and 7                                                                                                                            .....5

5     Large MTu usually present (except in summer dwarfs) on ABD TERG 2-5 in addition to those on 1 and 7, those on 7 being greater in diameter than base of ANT III. SIPH 1.35-2.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 1.1-1.45 ื HT II. ANT VI BASE 1.0-1.35 ื HT II                      .....Aphis umbrella

-      MTu only sporadically present on ABD TERG 2-5, and diameter of tubercle on ABD TERG 7 is less than that of base of ANT III. SIPH 0.8-1.5 ื cauda. R IV+V 0.95-1.2 ื HT II. ANT VI BASE 0.85-1.1 ื HT II                                                                  .....Aphis nasturtii

6     ANT, head, legs (except bases of femora), SIPH and cauda all dark. SIPH with a distal zone of polygonal reticulation. Dorsal abdominal hairs all arising from small dark scleroites

                                                                                                                       .....Uroleucon eoessigi

-      ANT, head, legs, SIPH and cauda mainly pale. Dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from scleroites                                              .....go to key polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4


Alchemilla                                                   Rosaceae

     Alchemilla acutiloba                    Macrosiphum euphorbiae

     A. alpina                                       Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha; Amphorophora gei;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Ericaphis wakibae]

     A. arvensis = Aphanes arvensis

      A. conjuncta                                 Aphis alchemillae

      A. glaberrima                               Aphis alchemillae

      A. glaucescens                              Aulacorthum solani

      A. hoppeana                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      A. jailae                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi

      A. mollis                                        Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi; Myzus ascalonicus

      A.monticola                                  Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha; Macrosiphum rosae

      A. procumbens (?)                        [Hyperomyzus pullatus]

      A. pyrenaica                                 Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha

      A. sarmatica                                 Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha

      A. saxatilis                                    Aphis nasturtii; Myzus ascalonicus, ornatus

      A. subcrenata                               Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha

      A. subcrenatiformis                      Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

      A. valdehirsuta                             Acyrthosiphon sp.; Amphorophora sp. (Georgia; Dzhibladze


      A. vulgaris                                    Acyrthosiphon malvae ssp. potha, [pisum];

                                                            Amphorophora gei; Aphis alchemillae, craccivora;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Metopolophium dirhodum;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

      A. xanthochlora = A. vulgaris

      Alchemilla sp.                               Aphis fabae; [Cavariella aquatica]

Key to aphids on Alchemilla:-

1     ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces smooth and divergent. SIPH long and pale, but without any subapical polygonal reticulation                                                              …..2

-      Without the above combination of characters                                                                    .....4

2     SIPH markedly clavate. R IV+V 1.2-1.4 ื HT II                                …..Amphorophora gei

-      SIPH cylindrical. R IV+V 0.55-1.2 ื HT II                                                                     …..3

3     R IV+V 0.55-0.75 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 2.7-4.5. ANT VI BASE 1.25-1.75 ื R IV+V

…..Metopolophium dirhodum

-      R IV+V 1.0-1.2 ื HT II. ANT PT/BASE 4.8-5.8. ANT VI BASE 0.7-1.0 ื R IV+V

….. Acyrthosiphon malvae (ssp. potha? -  see text)

4     ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of head in dorsal view. SIPH dark, tapering, short; similar in length to the tongue-shaped cauda which is dusky-dark and bears 8-10 hairs. Dorsum pale                                                            .....Aphis alchemillae

-      Without the above combination of characters                                                                    .....5

5     Head, ANT I and II and basal part of ANT III dark. ANT III (of apt.) with 10-35 rhinaria.  SIPH black, with subapical polygonal reticulation                              …..Macrosiphum rosae

-      Without the above combination of characters                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids


Alchornea                                                    Euphorbiaceae

     Alchornea cordifolia                    Aphis craccivora


Alectorolophus  see  Rhinanthus                              Orobanchaceae


Aleurites                                                                 Euphorbiaceae

     Aleurites fordii                           Aulacorthum sp. (Martin & Lau 2011)

     A. moluccana                            Chromaphis hirsutustibus, juglandicola;

                                                         [Uroleucon sonchi]

     A. montana                               Aulacorthum sp. (Martin & Lau 2011)

     A. triloba                                    Myzus persicae


Key to aphids on Aleurites:-

1    Apterous viviparae present. ANT PT/BASE more than 1                                                  .....2

 -    All adult viviparae alate. ANT PT/BASE 0.5 or less. SIPH as truncate cones with  appended hairs. Hind femora with a black spot near apex. Cauda knobbed, anal plate bilobed        .....3

2    ANT tubercles well-developed, steep-sided, with short blunt hairs. ANT III-VI black contrasting with pale ANT I and II. SIPH thick, especially at base, dark distally with a few rows of interconnected striae at apex                                   .....Aulacorthum sp. (Hong Kong)

 -    Without that combination of characters                      …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

3    Hairs on hind tibia very long, up to about 3.5 ื middle diameter of the tibia. Wings with dark spots at ends of veins (use hand lens)                                            .....Chromaphis hirsutustibis

-     Hairs on hind tibia shorter, the longest of them less than 2 ื middle diameter of tibia. Wings without dark spots at ends of veins                                              .....Chromaphis juglandicola


Alfredia                                                       Asteraceae

      Alfredia nivea                               Aphis fabae                        


Alhagi                                                          Fabaceae

     Alhagi camelorum = A. maurorum 

      A. canescens                                 Aphis craccivora

      A. kirghisorum                             Aphis craccivora; Protaphis alhagii; Smynthurodes betae

      A. maurorum                               Acyrthosiphon gossypii, pisum;

                                                            Aphis craccivora, [medicaginis]; Protaphis alhagii;

                                                            Smynthurodes betae; Therioaphis ononidis, trifolii

       A. persarum = A. maurorum

       A. pseudalhagi                             Acyrthosipho