HOST LISTS AND KEYS FOR EACH PLANT GENUS

(in alphabetical order)

 

 

 

 

Aar-Act

 

Aaronsohnia

Abatia

Abelia

Abelmoschus

ABIES

Abroma

Abrus

Abutilon

Acacia

Acaena

Acalypha

Acampe

Acantholimon

Acanthophyllum

Acanthospermum

Acanthus

Acca

ACER

Aceras

Acerates

Aceriphyllum

Achillea

Achimenes

Achlys

Achnatherum

Achras

Achyranthes

Acianthera

Acicarpa

Acinos

Aciphylla

Acmella

Acnida

Acnistus

Acoelorraphe

Aconitum

Aconogonon

Acorus

Acroceras

Acrocladium

Acroclinium

Acronychia

Acroptilon

Acrostichum

Actaea

Actinidia

Actinodaphne

Actinophloeus

Actinophora

Actinostrobus

Actites

 

 

Aaronsohnia                                                Compositae

      Aaronsohnia factorovskyi           Myzus persicae

 

Abatia                                                          Flacourtiaceae

      Abatia brasiliensis                       Aphis gossypii

 

Abelia                                                           Caprifoliaceae

       Abelia biflora                           Prociphilus xylostei               

       A. ื grandiflora                       Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus, persicae

           (incl. var. prostrata)

          A. spathulata                            Neotoxoptera abeliae

       A. triflora                                  Neotoxoptera abeliae

       Abelia sp.                                 Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Key to aphids on Abelia:-

1     ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Wax gland plates present on head, thorax and abdomen. Eyes 3-faceted. SIPH absent. (Apt. fundatrix, all progeny of which are al. having unbramched media in forewing and ANT with narrow, transversely elongate secondary rhinaria)

                                                                                                                    .…..Prociphilus xylostei

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5. No wax gland plates. Eyes multifaceted. SIPH present, tubular. (Al. have forewing with 1- or 2-branched media and ANT with round or oval secondary rhinaria)                                                                                                            ..…2

2     SIPH slightly to moderately clavate, without any subapical polygonal reticulation, and HT II 0.65-0.8 ื R IV+V.  Al. with wing veins broadly bordered with fuscous

                                                                                                                  …..Neotoxoptera abeliae

-      SIPH clavate, cylindrical or tapering, with or without subapical reticulation. HT II 0.8-1.4 ื R IV+V. Al. without fuscous-bordered wing veins        ..…go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Abelmoschus                                               Malvaceae

      Abelmoschus angulosus             Aphis gossypii

      A. esculentus                               Acyrthosiphon gossypii;

                                                            Aphis craccivora, eugeniae, gossypii,[longisetosa],

                                                               nasturtii, odinae, spiraecola, umbrella;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; [Lipaphis pseudobrassicae];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus persicae; Smynthurodes betae

       A. manihot                                  Aphis gossypii; Myzus persicae

       A. moschatus                               Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae

Use key to apterae on Malva.

 

Abies                             True Firs                Pinaceae

 

About 30 Cinara species are described from Abies, but many of the North American species are little known or unrecorded since their original description. Abies is the secondary host for all species of Adelges subgenus Dreyfusia, which are undoubtedly the most economically important group, migrating from cone-like galls on their primary host Picea, or reproducing parthenogenetically on Abies throughout the year.

 

       Abies alba                                                             Silver Fir
                                                  Adelges merkeri, nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae, prelli;

                                                         Cinara confinis, costata, indica, pectinatae, [piceae];
                                                  Elatobium blackmani; Mindarus abietinus;

                                                         [Pachypappa vesicalis]; [Pineus strobi];

                                                         Prociphilus americanus, bumeliae, fraxini, oriens, [xylostei]

        A. amabilis                                            Cascade Fir, Pacific Silver Fir

                                                         Adelges pectinatae, piceae;

                                                         Cinara chinookiana, occidentalis

 

       A. arizonica                              Adelges pectinatae; Cinara confinis; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. balsamea                                                          Balsam Fir
                                                  Adelges nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae;
                                                  Cinara confinis, curvipes, pectinatae, [piceae];

                                                         Mindarus abietinus, pinicolus;
                                                  Prociphilus americanus, bumeliae, fraxini

 

       A. bornmuelleriana                 Adelges nordmannianae; Cinara confinis, pectinatae;
                                                  Elatobium [abietinum], blackmani; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. brevifolia                              Cinara pectinatae

 

       A. cephalonica                                                     Greek Fir
                                                  Adelges nordmannianae, piceae, prelli; Cinara confinis;

                                                         Elatobium abietinum; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. cilicica                                  Adelges nordmannianae, piceae; Cinara confinis, curvipes;

                                                         Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. coerulea                               Elatobium abietinum

 

       A. concolor                                                           White Fir
                                                  Adelges normannianae, pectinatae, piceae;
                                                  Cinara alacra, confinis, curtihirsuta, curvipes, gentneri,                                                                   grande, kiusa, occidentalis, osborni, radicivora, schuhi,

                                                              sonata, zoarcbursara;
                                                  Essigella pergandei; Mindarus [abietinus], kinseyi, victoria

 

       A. delavayi                                Prociphilus fraxini

 

       A. faberi                                   Adelges glandulae; Mindarus japonicus

 

       A. faxoniana                            Adelges piceae; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. firma                                                                Momi Fir
                                                  Adelges nordmannianae,  piceae;

                                                         Cinara longipennis, matsumurana, todocola,

                                                             [Cinara “sp. C” of Eastop et al. 1998];
                                                  Elatobium abietinum, momii; Mindarus abietinus, japonicus;

                                                         Stomaphis abieticola, [pini ssp. takaoensis]

 

       A. forrestii                                Adelges piceae

 

       A. fraseri                                                               Southern Balsam Fir
                                                  Adelges pectinatae, piceae; Cinara confinis, [vandykei];

                                                         Mindarus abietinus, pinicolus; Prociphilus fraxini

 

       A. grandis                                                             Grand Fir
                                                  Adelges nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae;
                                                  Cinara confinis, curtihirsuta, curvipes, gentneri,

                                                                             occidentalis, pacifica, pectinatae, sonata;
                                                  [Clydesmithia canadensis];

                                                         Mindarus abietinus, pinicolus, kinseyi, victoria;

                                                         Prociphilus americanus, xylostei

 

       A. guatemalensis                      Mindarus guatamalensis

 

       A. holophylla                                                        Needle Fir
                                                  Cinara longipennis, matsumurana, smaragdina,

                                                               todocola, [togyuensis];

                                                         [Lachnus quercihabitans]; Mindarus japonicus

 

       A. homolepis                                                        Nikko Fir
                                                  Cinara matsumurana, todocola; Elatobium abietinum;

                                                         Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. koreana                               Adelges pectinatae, piceae; Cinara curvipes

 

       A. kosteri                                  Elatobium abietinum

 

       A. lasiocarpa                                                        Subalpine Fir

                                                         Adelges pectinatae, piceae;

                                                         Cinara chinookiana, confinis, curvipes, minuta,

                                                             occidentalis, osborni, [piceae], schuhi;

                                                         Elatobium abietinum; Mindarus abietinus, kinseyi

 

       A. magnifica (incl. var                Cinara curvipes, setulosa, sonata
                       shastensis) 

 

       A. mariesii                                Cinara confinis, hattorii, pectinatae; Mindarus japonicus

 

       A. mayriana see A. sachalinensis var. mayriana

 

       A. morinda                               Cinara confinis; Mindarus japonicus

 

       A. nebrodensis                         Adelges nebrodensis, piceae; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. nephrolepis                          Adelges pectinatae;
                                                  [Prociphilus bumeliaeformis Mordvilko ex Shaposhnikov

                                                              1955];

                                                         Cinara pectinatae, smaragdina; Mindarus japonicus

 

       A. nobilis = procera                                               

 

       A. nordmanniana                    Adelges merkeri, nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae, prelli;

                                                         Cinara confinis, curvipes, pectinatae;

                                                         Elatobium [abietinum], blackmani;
                                                  Mindarus abietinus; [Pineus strobi]; Prociphilus fraxini

 

       A. numidica                             Cinara pectinatae; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. obovata                                Adelges piceae

 

       A. phanerolepis                        Adelges pectinatae

 

       A. pindrow                               Adelges joshii, knucheli, piceae, pindrowi;
                                                  Cinara abietispindrow, antennalis, confinis, micropunctata,

                                                              polymorpha;

                                                         Mindarus abietinus, japonicus

 

       A. pinsapo                                Cinara confinis, curvipes, pectinatae; Mindarus abietinus

 

       A. procera                                Adelges nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae;

                                                         Cinara confinis, curvipes; Mindarus abietinus;

                                                         Prociphilus americanus

 

       A. religiosa                               Cinara confinis, curvipes, [piceae]; Mindarus remaudierei

 

       A. sachalinensis                                                   Saghalin Fir

                                                          Adelges pectinatae;

                                                          Cinara confinis, hattorii, longipennis, matsumurana,

                                                              [piceae], todocola, [Cinara “sp. A” of Eastop et al. 1998];

                                                          Mindarus abietinus, japonicus

 

       A. sachalinensis                       Adelges pectinatae ssp. ishiharai, todomatsui;
                 var. mayriana          Cinara hattorii, longipennis, matsumurana, todocola;
                                                  Mindarus japonicus; Prociphilus oriens

 

       A. sibirica                                 Adelges nordmannianae, pectinatae, piceae;

                                                         Cinara abietisibiricae, confinis, [costata], pectinatae,

                                                              [piceae], [pinea];

                                                         Mindarus abietinus; Prociphilus fraxini

 

      A. sieboldii                                Mindarus abietinus

 

 A. spectabilis                                   A. spectabilis                                                                  Himalayan Fir
                                                  Adelges knucheli; [Cinara sp.]

 

       A. veitchii                                 Adelges nordmannianae, pectinatae, todomatsui;

                                                         Cinara curvipes, pectinatae, todocola;

                                                         Mindarus abietinus, japonicus;

                                                         Prociphilus bumeliae

 

       Abies spp.                                 Cinara abietihabitans, [pseudotaxifoliae], [tistaensis];

                                                         Pineus abietinus

 

Key to Abies-feeding aphids:-

All the Abies-feeding aphids are keyed together, as there is little evidence that any of them are specific to particular Abies species. Except where otherwise stated, the key should be applied only to adult apterous females. With Cinara species, care must be taken that the individuals examined are not immature, as this can lead to erroneous identifications. Cinara species not seen by us are identified with an *, and identifications of these species in particular should be treated very circumspectly. Colonies of Prociphilus spp. in white wax wool on roots of Abies cannot be satisfactorily keyed to species, and identification of Adelges to species requires the neosistens stage to be available.

 

1     Adult apterae with very short antennae, less than 0.1 of body length,with at most 3 segments. Small insects (BL less than 1.2 mm) producing white wax wool. Always oviparous, adults having a distinct chitinous ovipositor  (Adelgidae)                               .....2

-      Adult apterae with 5- or 6-segmented antennae, at least 0.2 of body length. BL 1.3-7.8 mm. With or without wax wool. Viviparous in spring and summer (Aphididae)                     ..... 3

2     Body of adult aptera broadly pear-shaped to almost spherical. Cephaloprothoracic shield entire, uniformly pigmented. Abdomen with 4 pairs of evident spiracles. Wax pores discontiguous (fig. 10A)                                                                            .....Pineus abietinus

-      Body of adult aptera pear-shaped or oval. Head and prothorax not uniformly pigmented. Abdomen with 5 pairs of evident spiracles. Wax pores contiguous (fig. 10B)

.....Adelges spp.

                              (see key to resting-stage first instar larvae of Adelges spp. at end of main key)

 

3     SIPH tubular. ANT PT/BASE equal to or greater than 1.0                                              ..... 4

-      SIPH broadly conical, pore-like or absent. ANT PT/BASE less than 1.0                         ..... 6

4     ANT PT/BASE 1.1-1.6                                                                       .....Elatobium abietinum

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.6                                                                                                      .....5

5     ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.5.  R IV+V 0.9-1.1ื HT II                             .....Elatobium blackmani

-      ANT PT/BASE 2.3-3.6.  R IV+V 1.2-1.4 ื HT II                                  .....Elatobium momii

6     SIPH present as pores on hairy cones which are usually pigmented (fig. 11)                    .....7

-      SIPH either absent or present as pores without pigmented conical bases                        .....34

7     Rostrum about twice as long as body                                               .....Stomaphis abieticola*

-      Rostrum much shorter than body                                                                                       .....8

8     (Couplets 8-33 refer to apterous viviparae.) Maximum diameter of base of SIPH cone less than 0.3 mm, or less than 3 times the diameter of the SIPH aperture                                .....9

-      Maximum diameter of base of SIPH cone (or the pigmented area incorporating it) more than 0.3 mm, or more than 3 times the diameter of the SIPH aperture                                  ..... 15

9     HT I at least half as long as HT II (fig. 12A). SIPH cones pale              .....Cinara pectinatae

-      HT I less than half as long as HT II; if nearly half as long, then SIPH cones dark         .....10

 

10   HT II at least 4ื longer than the very short, almost triangular HT I (fig. 12B)                  …..11

-      HT II 2.1-3.5ื longer than HT I                                                                                      .....12

11   BL 5.1-6.3 mm (fundatrices up to 7.6 mm)                                         …..Cinara polymorpha

-     BL 2.1-3.2 mm                                                                                       .....Cinara occidentalis

12   Longest hairs on ANT III more than twice as long as width of segment                       …..13

-      Longest hairs on ANT III less than twice width of segment                                          …..14

13   SIPH cones very small and pale.  ANT PT less than 3ื its basal width

       .....Cinara matsumurana

-      SIPH cones dark. ANT PT thin, more than 4ื its basal width              …..Cinara antennalis

14   BL less than 3 mm                                                                                      .....Cinara minuta*

-      BL more than 3 mm                                                                          .....Cinara zoarcbursara*

15   SIPH cones with hairs of two sizes, the longest hairs at least twice as long as, and usually clearly thicker than, the shortest hairs (e.g. fig. 11B)                                                                         .....16

-      SIPH cones with hairs varying in length by less than a factor of 2 (fig. 11A)                      .....29

 

16   SIPH cones pale                                                                                          .....Cinara setulosa

-      SIPH cones dark                                                                                                              .....17

 

17   Pigmented bases of SIPH cones very extensive, with no clear limits, extending anteriorly and posteriorly to join pigmented lateral areas on other abdominal segments (fig. 13A)

       .....Cinara osborni

-      Pigmented bases of SIPH cones less extensive, delimited, restricted to ABD TERG 6, or 5+6, any pigmented lateral areas on other segments being separate                                                      .....18

 

18   Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove (fig. 74A) less than 1.8 mm. ANT V about equal in length to, or shorter than, ANT VI (including PT)                                                       ...19

-      Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove greater than 1.8 mm. ANT V clearly longer than ANT VI including PT (unless PT is more than 4ื its basal width)                                  .....22

 

19   BL greater than 4 mm. Hind tibiae conspicuously bicoloured, with yellow region on basal half                                                                                                               .....Cinara alacra*

-      BL less than 4 mm. Hind tibiae more uniformly pigmented, pale or dark                       .....20

 

20   Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove less than 1.3 mm. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 without pigmented bases                                                                     .....Cinara chinookiana

-      Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove greater than 1.3 mm. Hairs on ABD TERG 1-7 mostly arising from small pigmented sclerites of various sizes                                        .....21

21   Hind tibiae dark                                                                                          .....Cinara todocola

-      Hind tibiae pale except at apices                                                       .....Cinara micropunctata

22   Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove 2.9-3.8 mm                          .....Cinara radicivora

-      Length of sclerotized part of stylet groove less than 2.9 mm                                          .....23

23   Antennae conspicuously bicoloured, each segment with a broad black distal band contrasting with a pale base, ANT IV and V being about half black and half pale. Pigmented bases of SIPH cones of irregular shape, usually with a deep notch on the inner margin (fig. 13B)

       .....Cinara sonata

-      Antennae not conspicuously bicoloured, although segments often gradually darker towards apices. Pigmented bases of SIPH cones more-or-less rounded                                        .....24

24   Dorsal length of HT I greater than its width at base (fig. 14A)                 .....Cinara tenuipes

-      Dorsal length of HT I less than its width at base (fig. 14B)                                            .....25

25   ANT III at least 1.1 ื ANT IV and V together, and more than 3 ื ANT VI (incl. PT) .....26

-      ANT III about equal to or a little shorter than ANT IV and V together, and less than

       3ื ANT VI (incl. PT)                                                                                                       .....27

26   R IV 2.3-2.6 ื HT I (ventral length)                                                …..Cinara abietisibiricae

-      R IV 1.9-2.2 ื HT I (ventral length)                                                    …..Cinara longipennis

27   R IV over 3 ื longer than R V                                                       ......Cinara abietihabitans*

-      R IV less than 3 ื longer than R V                                                                                  .....28

28   BL 3.8-7.8 mm. ANT PT/BASE less than 0.4

                                                                             .....Cinara confinis (or abietispindrow – see text)

-      BL 3.2-4.4 mm. ANT PT/BASE equal to or greater than 0.4. (Alatae with forewing membrane between Cu1a and Cu1b fuscous)                                                 .....Cinara hattorii

29   All tibiae black or very dark brown, although sometimes with a slightly less dark dusky brown section on basal half                                                                                              .....30

-      Fore and mid-tibiae pale yellow to amber, dark at apices if at all, and hind tibiae if mainly dark then at least with a distinctly paler section at base                                                  .....32

30   BL greater than 4.8 mm. Hairs on hind tibiae clearly longer than width of tibia at

       midpoint                                                                                                      .....Cinara grande*

-     BL less than 4.8 mm. Hairs on hind tibiae longer or shorter than width of tibia at midpoint

      .....31

31   BL less than 3.2 mm. ANT III with up to 5 rhinaria. Hairs on hind tibiae mainly longer than width of tibia at its midpoint                                                                       .....Cinara schuhi*

-      BL greater than 3.2 mm. ANT III with or without rhinaria. Hairs on hind tibiae shorter than width of tibia at its midpoint                                                                         .....Cinara kiusa*

32   Coxae dark brown to black                                                                         .....Cinara curvipes

-      Coxae yellow to amber                                                                                                     .....33

33   BL less than 4 mm. Hairs on SIPH cones sparse, totalling about 20, with basal part of cone nearly devoid of hairs                                                                            .....Cinara curtihirsuta

-      BL more than 5 mm. Hairs on SIPH cones very numerous all over pigmented area

                                                                                                                           .....Cinara gentneri

34   Abdomen without wax pore plates. Eyes multifaceted                                                   .....35

-      Abdomen with segmental wax pore plates, at least marginally on ABD TERG 6 and 7. Eyes reduced, usually to only 3 facets (triommatidia)                                                              .....36

35   Body oval. Hairs on ANT III longer than basal diameter of segment      .....Cinara pacifica*

-      Body elongate, about 3 times longer than its greatest width in dorsal view. Hairs on ANT III shorter than basal diameter of segment                                               .....Essigella pergandei*

36   Aptera with head and prothorax separate, and antennae shorter than rostrum. Hairs on antennae and legs long. (On roots; cannot be keyed to species)                .....Prociphilus spp.

-      Aptera with head and prothorax fused dorsally, and antennae longer than rostrum. Hairs on antennae and legs short. (On needles)                                                                              .....37

37   Prothorax of aptera with a pair of marginal wax pore plates, and such plates also often present at least on ABD TERG 2-7, with additional submarginal pairs often at least on ABD TERG 6 and 7                                                                                                                                 .....38

-      Aptera with wax pore plates almost always absent from prothorax and ABD TERG 1 and 2, and only constantly present on ABD TERG 6 and 7                                                      .....42

38   RIV without any accessory hairs (both apterae and alatae)          .....Mindarus guatemalensis

-      R IV almost always with a pair of accessory hairs, rarely with 0-1 in apterae                 .....39

39   ANT III of alata with 6-12 squarish to almost circular or polygonal rhinaria (fig. 15A). HT II of aptera 0.207-0.237 mm long                                                                .....Mindarus victoria

-      ANT III of alata with 8-54 tranversely elongate or oval rhinaria, and IV with 0-5. HT II of aptera 0.119-0.223 mm long                                                                                             .....40

40   ANT III of alata with 46-54 rhinaria. Aptera with a pair of spinal as well as a pair of marginal wax pore plates on prothorax, and with 3 pairs of wax pore plates on each of ABD TERG 1-6

          .....Mindarus remaudierei

-      ANT III of alata with 8-23 rhinaria. Aptera with only marginal wax pore plates on prothorax, and only ABD TERG 5-6 ever have 3 pairs of wax pore plates                                      .....41

41   Aptera with 1-2 pairs of wax pore plates on all of ABD TERG 1-7, and usually with 3 pairs on ABD TERG 6 (except sometimes in fundatrices, which have marginal wax pore plates on all thoracic segments)                                                                                                                 .....Mindarus kinseyi

-      Aptera only ever with 2 pairs of wax pore plates on ABD TERG 7, or 6 and 7, and fundatrices usually with marginal wax pore plates only on prothorax                     .....Mindarus pinicolus 

42   ANT III of alata with 12-27 rhinaria in a single row, mostly extending across complete width of segment (fig. 15B)                                                                             .....Mindarus abietinus

-      ANT III of alata with 23-29 rhinaria not aligned in a single row, many of those on basal half not extending across full width of segment (fig. 15C)                         .....Mindarus japonicus

 

 

 Key to resting-stage (neosistens) 1st instar larvae of Adelges spp. on Abies

 

Separation of the spring and summer apterous adult stages of Adelges spp. (mainly subgenus Dreyfusia) on Abies is very difficult because of their complex polymorphism. The key given here is based on the work of several authors (notably Eichhorn 1958), and relies on the lesser degree of variability of the more sclerotised 1st instar larvae of the sistens morph (the neosistens stage) which, in all species except A.pectinatae and A. pindrowi, is normally found on the bark of the stem and branches rather than on the needles, and is the most frequent stage at which aestivation or hibernation occurs. Except where otherwise stated, all characters used are those of the neosistens. Slide-mounted preparations are essential for this key.

 

1     Spinal and pleural sclerites fused on all segments, and spinopleural sclerites also fused to marginal sclerites of ABD TERG 6-8 (fig. 16A)                    .....Adelges pectinatae/pindrowi

-      Spinal and pleural sclerites of mesothorax, metathorax and ABD TERG 1-5 not fused (sometimes touching) (fig. 16B)                                                                                         .....2

2     Pleural sclerites without wax glands. Spinal sclerites with well-developed wax pore plates along inner margins (fig. 16B)                                                                                            .....3

-      Pleural sclerites with wax glands. Spinal sclerites with wax pore plates variably developed, located centrally                                                                                                                 .....6

3     Wax pore plates on inner margins of meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites containing numerous small, mostly rounded, pits (fig. 16C), arranged in 2-4 areas of rather rounded shape, the most central area (arrowed) containing 7-12 pits. Total number of pits in the central areas only of the spinal wax pore plates of the meso- and metathorax plus ABD TERG 1-3 (i.e. a total of 10 central areas) is 57-104                                                         .....Adelges nordmannianae

-      Wax pore plates on inner margins of meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites divided into 3-4 angular or rounded areas (fig. 16D), the most central area containing 2-8 relatively large pits of irregular shape, rounded or polygonal. Total number of pits in central areas of spinal wax pore plates of meso- and metathorax plus ABD TERG 1-3 (i.e. 10 central areas) is 18-63

.....4

4     Central areas of wax pore plates on meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites usually

       more-or-less rounded, each with 3-8 pits. Total number of pits on the 10 central areas (as defined in couplet 3) is in range 26-63 (usually more than 40)                   ....Adelges merkeri

-      Central areas of wax pore plates on meso- and metathoracic spinal sclerites often more-or-less triangular, each with 3-6 pits. Total number of pits on the 10 central areas is usually less than 40 (range 18-59)                                                                                                                 .....5

5     Neosistens strongly sclerotised. 2nd instar sistens with a series of dark conical humps on the head, thorax and 1st to 3rd (or 4th) abdominal segments, diminishing in size posteriorly (fig. 16E)                                                                                                                .....Adelges prelli

-      Neosistens variably sclerotised, but usually with rather weak sclerotisation (at least in European populations). 2nd instar sistens without pronounced sclerotic humps on head, thorax and anterior abdominal segments                                                      .....Adelges piceae

6     Dorsal wax pore plates of mesothorax, metathorax and abdomen comprising groups of 15-25 small rounded facets                                                                               .....Adelges glandulae

-      Dorsal wax pore plates either much larger and taking up most of the area of the sclerite, or much smaller and composed of small groups of no more than 7 facets                             .....7

7     Spinal, pleural and marginal sclerites strongly sclerotised, those of the mesothorax, metathorax and abdomen each almost fully occupied by a large wax pore plate composed of 2-5 segments separated by grooves, each segment having a reticulate structure (fig. 16F)

       .....Adelges knucheli

-      Spinal, pleural and marginal sclerites weakly sclerotised, with wax pore plates on mesothorax, metathorax and abdomen much smaller, comprising only 2-7 grouped or loosely-connected facets, and without reticulate structure                                                .....8

8     Marginal sclerites of meso- and metathorax each with a single wax pore plate comprising a compact group of 4-7 facets (fig. 16G)                                                          .....Adelges joshii

-      Marginal sclerites of meso- and metathorax each containing 2 distinct wax pore plates, each usually with 4 facets (fig. 16H)                                                             .....Adelges todomatsui
 

 

Abroma (including Ambroma)                                      Malvaceae

       Abroma augusta                         Aphis gossypii

 

Abrus                                                           Leguminosae

       Abrus precatorius                        [Aphis sp. (Leonard 1968, 269)]; Aulacorthum solani

 

 

Abutilon (including Corynabutilon, Pseudabutilon)         Malvaceae

       Abutilon abutiloides                      Aphis craccivora

       A. americanum = A. abutiloides

       A. arboreum                                 Myzus persicae

       A. avicennae = A. theophrasti

       A. darwinii                                    Aphis fabae, gossypii; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. ืhybridum                               Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                              Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus

       A. indicum                                    Aphis gossypii, umbrella; Brachyunguis calotropicus;

                                                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

       A. mauritianum                            Aphis craccivora, gossypii

       A. megapotamicum                      Myzus persicae

       A. pictum                                      Myzus persicae

       A. ramosum                                  Aphis gossypii

       A. striatum = A. pictum

       A. theophrasti                               Acyrthosiphon gossypii; Aphis fabae, gossypii;

                                                              Myzus persicae

       A. umbellatum                              Aphis craccivora, spiraecola

       A. vitifolium                                  Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       Abutilon spp.                                Brachycaudus helichrysi

Key to aphids on Abutilon:-

1     ANT PT/BASE a little less than 1. SIPH only 0.33-0.40 ื cauda

                                                                                                         ......Brachyunguis calotropicus

-      ANT PT/BASE much more than 1. SIPH as long as or longer than cauda                       .....2

2     ANT tubercles poorly developed, SIPH pale or only slightly dusky towards apices, R IV+V clearly longer than (1.2-1.33 X) HT II, and marginal tubercles (MTu) often present on ABD TERG 2-6 as well as 1 and 7                                                                       .....Aphis umbrella

-      Either ANT tubercles well developed or SIPH dark, R IV+V usually less than 1.2 ื HT II, and MTu only sporadically on ABD TERG 2-6                                                                .....3

3       SIPH very long and thin, 2.5-3.5 ื cauda and 0.33-0.5 ื BL       …..Acyrthosiphon gossypii

-      SIPH (if present) less than 2.5 ื cauda and less than 0.33 ื BL

                                                                                                …..go to key to polyphagous aphids

 

Acacia                                                         Leguminosae

       Acacia spp.                                  Aphis craccivora, fabae, gossypii, nasturtii, spiraecola;   

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Myzus cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae

[One or more of the above polyphagous aphid species have been recorded from each of the following Acacia spp.; alata, albida, arabica, ataxcantha, farnesiana, jonesii, karroo, longifolia, murrayana, pennata, plumosa, rotundifolia, saligna, scorpioides, visite.]

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Acaena                                                        Rosaceae

       Acaena anserinifolia                   Acyrthosiphon malvae group

       A. glabra                                      Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. macropoda                              Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. macrostemon = A. magellanica

       A. magellanica                            Acyrthosiphon malvae group; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ascalonicus

       A. microphylla                             Acyrthosiphon malvae group; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. myriophylla                             Acyrthosiphon malvae group

       A. novae-zelandiae                      Acyrthosiphon malvae group; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. ovina                                        Aphis acaenovinae

       A. sanguisorbae                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

       A. splendens                                 Aphis acaenaevora;

                                                             [Cryptomyzus michaelseni (Schouteden 1904)];

                                                             Pentamyzus acaenae

Key to aphids on Acaena:-

1    ANT tubercles weakly developed, not projecting beyond middle of front of head in dorsal view. ANT length much less than BL, with PT shorter than head width across (and including) eyes                                                                                                                                      .....2

-     ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces divergent in dorsal view. ANT length at least 0.9 ื BL, with PT as long as or longer than head width across eyes

                                                                                                 .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

2    SIPH and cauda pale. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without marginal tubercles (MTu)                …..3

-     SIPH and cauda dark. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with well-developed MTu                            …..4

3    ANT 6-segmented. SIPH short, conical. Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width

.....Brachycaudus helichrysi

-     ANT 5-segmented. SIPH clavate. Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width

      .....Pentamyzus acaenae

4    SIPH 0.20-0.25 ื BL and 1.7-2.0 ื cauda. ABD TERG 2-4 more usually without MTu         

      .....Aphis acaenovinae

-     SIPH 0.11-0.16 ื BL and 1.0-1.3 ื cauda. ABD TERG 2-4, and often also 5 and 6, with MTu

                                                                                                                       .....Aphis acaenaevora

 

Acalypha                                                     Euphorbiaceae

       Acalypha spp.                             Aphis aurantii, craccivora, gossypii, spiraecola;

                                                            Myzus ornatus, persicae; Neomyzus circumflexus;                                                                        Prociphilus erigeronensis

[One or more of the above polyphagous aphid species have been recorded from each of the following Acalypha spp.; alopecuroides, aristata, australis, boehmeroides, capillipes, ciliata, godseffiana, havanensis, hispida, ornata, segetalis, villicaulis, virginica, wilkesiana.]

Use the key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Acampe                                                        Orchidaceae

      Acampe sp.                                   Cerataphis ochidearum     

 

Acantholimon                                             Plumbaginaceae

      Acantholimon pamiricum            Chaetosiphella stipae (as pamirica)

 

Acanthopanax see Eleutherococcus                      Araliaceae

                                                                                  

Acanthophyllum                                         Caryophyllaceae

       Acanthophyllum sp.                    Aphidura acanthophylli

 

Acanthospermum                                        Compositae

       Acanthospermum australe         Uroleucon ambrosiae

       A. hispidum                                 Aphis craccivora, gossypii;

                                                            Uroleucon ambrosiae, compositae

       A. humile                                     Uroleucon ambrosiae

       Acanthospermum sp.                  Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

Key to aphids on Acanthospermum:-

1    ANT tubercles poorly developed. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with marginal tubercles (MTu)   ......2

-     ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces divergent. ABD TERG 1 and 7 without MTu

      ......3

2    Dorsal abdomen with a solid black patch. Cauda black                            ......Aphis craccivora

-     Dorsal abdomen unpigmented. Cauda pale or dusky                                    ......Aphis gossypii

3    SIPH pale basally, slender, 20-35 ื longer than diameter at midlength, and with any polygonal reticulation extending for less than 0.1 of length       …..Acyrthosiphon bidenticola

-     SIPH uniformly dark, thicker, 6-12 ื diameter at midlength, with a distal zone of reticulation consisting of numerous polygonal cells on 0.25-0.35 of length                                         …..4

4    Coxae and cauda black                                                                     ......Uroleucon compositae

-     Coxae and cauda pale                                                                        ......Uroleucon ambrosiae

 

Acanthus                                                     Acanthaceae

       Acanthus ilicifolius                     Aphis gossypii; [Greenidea heeri]

       A. lusitanicus = A. mollis              

       A. mollis                                      Aulacorthum solani; [Hyperomyzus lactucae];

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus;

       A. pubescens                               Aphis gossypii; Myzus ornatus

       Acanthus sp.                               Aphis fabae; Uroleucon compositae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Acca                                                             Myrtaceae

     Acca sellowiana                            Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Acer                  Maples and Sycamores       Aceraceae

There are several aphid genera which are virtually specific to Acer, and within these genera there is a high degree of monophagy, although a few species are able to colonise several Acer species.

The first key takes adult aphid specimens colonising any Acer to species, with the exception of the two largest genera, Periphyllus (35 spp.) and Drepanaphis (20 spp.). The species of Acer are then listed in alphabetical order, with a list of the aphids recorded from them followed by keys, where necessary, to the species of Periphyllus and/or Drepanaphis.

Finally, a key is given to Periphyllus spp. described from unidentified species of Acer, together with the seven most polyphagous (oligophagous) species of this genus (acericola, bulgaricus, californiensis, kuwanaii, lyropictus, testudinaceus and villosii).

To identify an Acer-feeding aphid, use the main key first, then if you know the species of Acer refer to the alphabetical list to see whether your answer is appropriate, using the subsidiary keys to Periphyllus and Drepanaphis if necessary. If you have a species of Periphyllus from an unidentified Acer, or one that does not appear in the alphabetical list, use the final key. The final key may also help if your Periphyllus does not seem to be one of those previously recorded from your species of Acer.

Except where otherwise stated, all the keys can be applied to both apterous and alate viviparous females, but are unlikely to work for fundatrices, oviparae and males.

Main Key

 

1     PT short and stump-like, if finger-like then PT/BASE no more than 0.5                            .....2

-      ANT PT/BASE clearly more than 0.5                                                                              .....17

2     SIPH pores placed at apices of broad, pigmented, hairy cones (e..g. fig. 17)                   .....3

-      SIPH absent, or present as small pores not placed on pigmented, hairy cones                  .....9

3     Rostrum short, less than one quarter of body length                            .....Longistigma caryae

-      Rostrum longer than body                                                                                                  .....4

4     ANT V longer than ANT VI (incl. PT). HT II less than 1.6 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus                                                                                                                      .....5

-      ANT V shorter than ANT VI (incl. PT). HT II more than 1.9 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus                                                                                                                      .....8

5    HT II less than 1.4 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus                                           .....6

-      HT II more than 1.4 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus                                        .....7

6     ANT III of aptera 0.76-0.97 mm long, 2.6-3.4 ื longer than ANT VI and bearing 14-34 rhinaria along its entire length                                                            .....Stomaphis acquerinoi

 

-      ANT III of aptera 0.57-0.83 mm long, 1.8-2.5 ื longer than ANT VI and bearing 0-13 rhinaria on its distal half                                                                            .....Stomaphis graffii

7     Total antennal length 1.8-2.0 mm. ANT III 0.56-0.66 mm long with 3-9 rhinaria on its distal half. Labrum bearing more than 20 hairs on its elongated part over almost the entire length 

       .....Stomaphis longirostris

-      Total antennal length 2.0-2.6 mm. ANT III 0.64-0.84 mm long with 6-21 rhinaria on its entire length. Labrum bearing 0-7 hairs on basal half of its elongated part

       .....Stomaphis knechteli

8     HT II 1.9-2.1 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus. ANT V 0.74-0.79 ื ANT VI (incl. PT)                                                                                                             .....Stomaphis aceris

-      HT II 2.5-2.7 ื longer than segment II of middle tarsus. ANT V 0.71-0.72 ื ANT VI (incl. PT)                                                                                                      .....Stomaphis takahashii

9     Apterae or spring migrant alatae                                                                                      .....10

-      Alate sexuparae on twigs or bark in autumn                                                                    .....13

10   Antennae of apterae 5- or 6-segmented, about 0.33ื BL. Spring migrant alatae with rather small, oval secondary rhinaria confined to basal 0.7 of ANT III (fig.18A)

                                                                                                                  .....Neoprociphilus aceris

-      Antennae of apterae 5-segmented, less than 0.25ื BL. Spring migrant alatae with transversely elongate secondary rhinaria extending at least over ANT III to V              .....11

11   ANT III of aptera (= fundatrix) 1.2-1.9ื ANT V(including PT). ANT VI of spring
migrant alata without secondary rhinaria (except those associated with primary rhinarium) (fig. 18B)                                                                                              .....Mimeuria ulmiphila

-      ANT III of aptera (= fundatrix) 1.0-1.1ื ANT V. ANT VI of spring migrant alata with or without secondary rhinaria                                                                                               .....12

 

12   ANT VI of spring migrant alata with 4-6 secondary rhinaria (fig. 18C)

                                                                                                                  .....Prociphilus tessellatus

-      ANT VI of spring migrant alata with 0-1 secondary rhinaria          .....Prociphilus mexicanus

13   BL 1.1-2.0 mm. ANT PT minute, 4-8 ตm long. ANT PT/BASE 0.03-0.06. HT II 0.11-0.16 mm, 1.1-1.3ื R IV+V                                                                          .....Mimeuria ulmiphila

-      BL 2.8-5.3 mm. ANT PT 25-60 ตm long. ANT PT/BASE 0.10-019. HT II 0.2-0.4 mm,

       1.4-2.5ื R IV+V                                                                                                              .....14

14   Secondary rhinaria distributed III 14-21, IV 6-10, V 2-10, VI 0. R IV+V 0.13-0.16 mm,

       0.6-0.7ื HT II. ANT VI BASE with 17-25 hairs. R IV+V without accessory hairs. Cauda with 3-4 hairs. First tarsal segments with 3-4 hairs                           .....Neoprociphilus aceris

-      Secondary rhinaria distributed III 6-14, IV 2-5, V 1-5, VI 0-5. R IV+V 0.15-0.21 mm long. ANT VI BASE with 2-19 hairs. R IV+V with 2-13 accessory hairs. Cauda with 2-25 hairs. First tarsal segments with (4-)5-7 hairs                                                                            .....15

15   Secondary rhinaria narrowly transverse oval, with 1-5 on base of ANT VI (III 6-14, IV 2-5, V 2-5, VI base 1-5). Cauda with 20-25 hairs. R IV with 8-13 hairs. ANT VI base with 2-10 hairs                                                                                                 ….. Prociphilus tessellatus

-      Secondary rhinaria elongate oval to oval, absent from base of ANT VI. Cauda with 2 hairs. R IV with 2-5 hairs. ANT VI base with 7-19 hairs                                                          …..16

16   ANT VI base with 7-9 hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 8-12, IV 3-5, V 3-5                                                                                                           ….. Prociphilus baicalensis

-      ANT VI base with 14-19 hairs. Secondary rhinaria distributed ANT III 6-9, IV 1-3, V 0-3                                                                                                           …..Prociphilus mexicanus

17   SIPH generally stump-shaped, those of aptera with an apical zone of polygonal reticulation, and those of alata generally with more extensive reticulation. Antennal hairs usually long and conspicuous, mostly much longer than diameter of segment from which they arise (except in one North American species on A. glabrum and one east Asian species on A. rufinerve). Alatae never with dark markings on wings                  .....Periphyllus spp. (see separate keys)

-      SIPH of various shapes, without polygonal reticulation, or if with reticulation then they are tubular and the adults are all alatae and usually have dark markings on wings. Antennal hairs of various lengths, often shorter than or not much longer than the width of the segment from which they arise                                                                                                                .....18

18   Hairs on front of head and sides of abdomen modified as flattened leaf-like lamellae (fig. 19A). (Very small insects, BL less than 1 mm)

                                         .....aestivating first instars of Periphyllus spp. (or Trichaitophorus spp.) 

-      Hairs not thus modified                                                                                                   .....19

19   Front of head and at least the sides of the abdomen with long hairs, those on front of head exceeding length of ANT I                                                                                              .....20

-      Dorsal hairs generally short, or if spinal and/or marginal hairs are long then hairs on front of head are not longer than ANT I                                                                                       .....29

20   SIPH longer than basal width, stump-shaped, conspicuously flared at apices (e.g. fig. 19B)

 .....21

-      SIPH pale, small, usually shorter than basal width and not or hardly flared at apex      .....23

21   ANT PT/BASE less than 3.0. Longest hairs on ANT III usually less than 2 ื basal diameter of segment. R IV+V usually with 4 accessory hairs                  .....Drepanosiphoniella aceris

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 3.0. Hairs on ANT III varying greatly in length, the longest of them often 3-5 ื basal diameter of segment. R IV+V with up to 8 accessory hairs       .....22

22   SIPH dark. Cauda knobbed. ANT 1.06-1.19 ื BL. Alata with dark pterostigma

.....Drepanosiphoniella fugans

-      SIPH pale. Cauda helmet-shaped, with little or no constriction. ANT 0.90-1.07 ื BL. Alata with pale pterostigma                                                     .....Drepanosiphoniella remaudierei*

23   Dorsal hairs on abdomen as long as marginal hairs                                                          .....24

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs minute                                                                                         .....25

25   Abdominal tergites I-VII each with 1 or 2 spino-pleural and 2 marginal shorter hairs with flattened apices, besides 1 pair of spinal and 1 pair of marginal long and thick hairs. R IV+V without accessory hairs. In embryos, the marginal hairs are long, thick and acute, but the spinal hairs are very short or indiscernible                                           .....Yamatochaitophorus albus

-      Abdominal tergites I-VII each with 3–10 spino-pleural (one occasionally), and 1–5 pairs of marginal shorter hairs with flattened apices, besides 1 pair of spinal and 1 pair of marginal long and thick hairs. R IV+V with 1 or 2 accessory hairs. In embryos, dorsal body with long, thick and acute spinal hairs, similar in shape to marginal hairs

       .....Yamatochaitophorus yichuenensis

25   Antennae of apterae 5- or 6-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0

                                                                                                     .....Trichaitophorus recurvispinus

-      Antennae of aptera 4- or 5-segmented, with ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0                     .....26

26   SIPH black. Marginal hairs lanceolate; dilated in middle, with pointed apices (fig. 20A)                                                                                                                 .....Trichaitophorus aceris

-      SIPH pale. Marginal hairs tapering or cylindrical, pointed, rounded or blunt at their apices

                                                                                                                                                 .....27

27   Body elongate oval, about twice as long as wide in dorsal view. Mesonotum with only one long (posterior) marginal hair on each side (fig.20B)                 .....Trichaitophorus japonicus

-      Body broadly oval, about 1.5-1.7 ื as wide as long in dorsal view. Mesonotum with 2 pairs of long marginal hairs (fig 20C)                                                                                       .....28

28   ANT III only about twice as long as ANT IV. ANT PT/BASE c.0.90-1.15. ABD TERG 1-5 with one long marginal hair on each side                          …..Trichaitophorus aenigmatosus*

-      ANT III 2.5-3.0 ื longer than ANT IV. ANT PT/BASE 1.2-2.2. ABD TERG 1-5 usually with 2-3 marginal hairs (1 long, 1-2 much shorter) on each side

       …..Trichaitophorus koyaensis

29  SIPH truncate, distinctly shorter than their basal width. ABD TERG 8 with a pair of very long thick hairs, other dorsal hairs being short, thick and blunt

                                                                                                      …..Trichaitophorus ginnalarus*

-    SIPH of various shapes but longer than their basal width. ABD TERG 8 without a pair of very long hairs and other dorsal hairs not thick and blunt                                                      …..30

30   Adult viviparous females all alate (sometimes brachypterous). Cauda shorter than its width at base or, if longer, then with a clear constriction and a knobbed apex                             .....31

-      Adult viviparae apterous or alate. Cauda never with a knobbed apex and usually longer than its basal width                                                                  .....go to key to polyphagous aphids

31   SIPH tubular, more than 4 times longer than their basal width, cylindrical, tapering or slightly swollen in middle, without reticulated apices                                                                  .....32

-      SIPH usually flask-shaped, conical or tapering, usually less than 4 times their basal width or, if longer, then with some apical reticulation                                                                    .....40

32   Forewing with a dusky patch at tip between ends of Rs and M1 (fig. 21A)

                                                                                                                 .....Drepanosiphum aceris

-      Forewing sometimes with dusky spots at ends of veins, but not with pigment extending between vein endings                                                                                                       .....33

33   SIPH tapering gradually from base to apex, rarely with any discernible swelling. Pterostigma of forewing with a characteristically shaped dark band, thickened near its proximal end (fig. 21B). ANT III with less than 12 rhinaria                                       .....Drepanosiphum braggii

-      SIPH with at least a slight swelling of middle region. Pterostigma of forewing pale, or with either a uniformly thin dark band or a dark distal patch. ANT III usually with more than 12 rhinaria                                                                                                                              .....34

34   Dorsal abdomen with two broad, dark, transverse bands on segments 4 and 5, that on segment 5 extending laterally to almost touch the marginal sclerites in front of the SIPH (fig. 22A). Pterostigma with a small dark patch at its distal extremity. Often brachypterous or with short wings                                                                                                .....Drepanosiphum dixoni

-      Dorsal abdomen either without transverse bars or with more, shorter, bars not extending to marginal sclerites. Pterostigma without any distinct small dark patch. Always fully winged 

.....35

35   Fore femora more than 1.5ื thicker than mid- and hind femora                                     .....36

-      Fore femora less than 1.5ื thicker than mid- and hind femora, sometimes with a dark ventral stripe but this never very conspicuous. ANT III pale or dusky at base                           .....37

36   Fore femora with a very distinct broad black longitudinal ventral stripe (fig. 22C). ANT III with a short black contrasting section near base, as dark as the apex of the segment. R IV+V 0.5-0.8 ื HT II                                                                        .....Drepanosiphum oregonense

-      Fore femora without a broad black longitudinal ventral stripe. ANT III uniformly pale. R IV+V 0.8-1.3 ื HT II                                                          .....Drepanosiphum latifemorum*

37   PT less than 0.7 ืANT III, PT/BASE 6.0-7.0. R IV+V at least 0.14 mm.BL 3.1-4.3 mm. With or without a black patch in front of each SIPH                                                      .....38

-      PT more than 0.7ื ANT III, PT/BASE 7.5-12.0. R IV+V less than 0.14 mm. BL 2.1-3.3 mm. With a black patch in front of each SIPH                                                                        .....39

38   Either with no dorsal or marginal abdominal markings (spring/summer) or with a series of brown-black transverse dorsal bars and marginal sclerites including a large black

       ante-siphuncular sclerite (autumn)                                           .....Drepanosiphum platanoidis

-      Always with a single black sclerite just in front of each SIPH, even in specimens without dorsal abdominal bars (fig. 22B)                                                 .....Drepanosiphum iranicum

39   SIPH with conspicuously dark tips, even in very pale specimens, and often wholly dusky or dark. ANT III with 9-15 rhinaria                                               .....Drepanosiphum acerinum

-      SIPH usually pale, without conspicuously dark tips. ANT III with 15-26 rhinaria

                                                                                                       .....Drepanosiphum caucasicum

40   SIPH without any reticulation at apices. Forewings either clear or with pigment only along wing veins                                                                                                                        .....41

-      SIPH with subapical reticulation. Forewings often with areas of dark pigment extending between wing veins, or at least between Rs and media                                                  .....42

41   SIPH truncate, not swollen on basal half and with a very small flange (fig. 22D ). Abdomen with only small dorsal processes. Primary rhinarium on ANT VI without a medium-sized secondary rhinarium proximal to it                                                  .....Shenahweum minutum

-      SIPH flask-shaped, with swollen base, narrow "neck" and well-developed apical flange (fig. 22E). Abdomen usually with conspicuous pigmented dorsal processes. Primary rhinarium on ANT VI with a medium-sized secondary rhinarium proximal to it, and usually another distal to it                                                                            .....Drepanaphis spp. (see separate keys)

42   SIPH more than 0.6 mm long                                                                                           .....43

-      SIPH less than 0.5 mm long                                                                                             .....46

43   ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5                                                              .....Yamatocallis sauteri

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0                                                                                         .....44

44   Forewing with Rs and distal branches of M heavily bordered with black (fig. 22F).  ANT III with 12-20 rhinaria                                                                               .....Yamatocallis takagii

-      Forewing if with pigmentation then this is more evenly distributed, not concentrated along Rs. ANT III with 14-36 rhinaria                                                                                      .....45

45   ANT III with 29-36 secondary rhinaria. Primary rhinarium on ANT V very large

.....Yamatocallis acericola

-      ANT III with 14-28 secondary rhinaria. Primary rhinarium on ANT V of normal size, about equal in diameter to base of ANT V                                             .....Yamatocallis brevicauda

46   Wing membrane pale, except at bases of veins, or with only dusky patches distally near RS and M                                                                                                                                ....47

-      Wing membrane with dark pigmentation extending between wing veins (figs 22G,H) .....48

47   R IV+V shorter than (c. 0.7ื) HT II and bearing 4-5 accessory hairs. SIPH with reticulation extending almost over distal half of length                                     .....Yamatocallis obscura*

-      R IV+V c. 1.5ื HT II and bearing c. 20 accessory hairs. SIPH with only 2-3 subapical rows of polygonal cells                                                                          .....Yamatocallis acerisucta*

48   Forewing mostly pigmented, except for hind margin (fig. 22H). ANT III 2.4-3.1ื base of ANT VI                                                                                          .....Yamatocallis tokyoensis

-      Forewing pigmented on anterior half only (fig. 22G). ANT III 3.2-5.6 times  base of ANT VI

.....Yamatocallis hirayamae

 

Species List:-

 

       Acer acuminatum = A.caudatum

       A. amoenum = A. palmatum

       A. atlantica                               Drepanosiphoniella aceris

        A. barbatum                            Drepanaphis carolinensis; Periphyllus americanus

         A. buergerianum                                   Trident Maple
                                                 Periphyllus acerihabitans, californiensis;
                                                 Yamatocallis hirayamae, tokyoensis, Yamatocallis sp.

                                                              (Hangzhou)

Key to Periphyllus species:-

-      Dorsum without any dark markings                                                                 …..acerihabitans

-      Dorsum with a pattern of dark markings                                                          …..californiensis

 

       A. caesium                                              Indian Maple
                                                  Drepanosiphum platanoidis;                                                     

                                                         Periphyllus aceriphaga, caesium, changlai,

                                                             vandenboschi, villosii;
                                                   Trichaitophorus aceris; Yamatochaitophorus albus

 

Key to Periphyllus species (apterae) on A. caesium:-

 

1     Apterae elongate oval, BL 3.2-3.9 mm. SIPH pale. Cauda constricted at base                …..2

-      Apterae oval, BL 2.3-2.7 mm. SIPH dark. Cauda not constricted at base                       …..3

2     R IV+V 0.21-0.24 mm. Cauda with 16-29 hairs. SIPH 1.3-1.5ื longer than their basal widths                                                                                                                   …..changlai

-      R IV+V (0.15-) 0.18-0.19 mm. Cauda with 8-10 hairs. SIPH 2.3-3.4ื longer than their basal widths                                                                                                                         .....villosii

3     SIPH more than 1.5 ื HT II                                                                                    .....caesium

-      SIPH 0.6-1.3 ื HT II                                                                                                        …..4

4     SIPH contrastingly dark and with only subapical reticulation. Both hairs on ANT VI BASE are long and of similar length; the longer hair not more than 1.5 ื the length of the shorter hair                                                                                                                 …..vandenboschi

-      SIPH dusky/dark and with reticulation over about half of length. The longer of the 2 hairs on ANT VI BASE 1.8-4.0 ื the length of the shorter hair                                    …..aceriphaga

 

       A. campestre                                           Hedge Maple

                                                         Aphis [aceriella Theobald (= A. viburni?)],

                                                              craccivora, fabae;

                                                         Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         [Chaitophorus flavissimus Mamontova 1979];
                                                   [Drepanosiphoniella fugans];
                                                   Drepanosiphum acerinum, aceris, dixoni, oregonense,

                                                              platanoidis;
                                                   Mimeuria ulmiphila;
                                                   Periphyllus acericola, aceris, bulgaricus,

                                                             californiensis, hirticornis, [lyropictus], minutus,

                                                             obscurus, testudinaceus, venetianus, villosii;
                                                   Stomaphis graffii, knechteli, longirostris

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. campestre:-

 

1     Cauda broadly rounded (crescent-shaped), less than half as long as basal width (fig. 23A). ANT PT/BASE of aptera 2.0-3.6 (of alata, 1.9-4.1)                                                           .....2

-      Cauda broadly tongue-shaped or with a constriction near base, more than half as long as its basal width (fig. 23B-D ). ANT PT/BASE of aptera 3.2-6.9 (of alata, 3.7-6.7)               …..7

2     Hind tibiae uniformly pale                                                                                                  .....3

-      Hind tibiae at least pigmented at base and apex                                                                .....6

3     Apterae with at least some of dorsal hairs dusky or black, even in the palest specimens. Dorsal pigmentation of apterae variable, but darkest specimens have dark head and segmental cross-bands                                                                                                        .....4

-      Apterae with dorsal hairs pale, and dorsal pigmentation often lacking, never very dark, nor extensive                                                                                                                             .....5

4     ABD TERG 1-6 with only one pair of long dark spinal hairs per segment. ANT PT/BASE c. 1.2                                                                                                                            …..minutus

-      ABD TERG 1-6 with at least 3 pairs of long dark spino-pleural hairs per segment. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-2.9                                                                                                …..bulgaricus

5     Cauda with not more than 20 hairs.  Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI in aptera 2.25-3.5 ื longer, in alata 2.5-3.0 ื longer, than the shorter one; the latter 20-40 μm long and not reaching beyond primary rhinarium                                                                       .....acericola

-      Cauda with more than 20 hairs.  Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI in aptera 1.4-3.2 ื longer, in alata 1.4-2.4 ื longer, than the shorter one; the latter 25-100 μm long and reaching beyond primary rhinarium                                                                                           .....aceris

6     Hind tibiae uniformly dark                                                                             .....californiensis

-      Hind tibiae with pale middle region, contrasting with dark base and distal section

.....testudinaceus

7     The 2 hairs on base of ANT VI very unequal in length, the longer one more than 4 ื as long as the shorter one, which is less than half length of base of ANT VI (including primary rhinarial complex) (e.g. fig. 24A)                                                                                        .....8

-      The 2 hairs on base of ANT VI both long and fine, the longer one 1.3-3.0ื the shorter, which is more than half length of base of ANT VI (e.g. fig. 24B)                                               .....9

8     Length of the shorter of the 2 hairs on base of ANT VI less than basal diameter of segment. Apterae with long hairs on antennae, legs and dorsum all blunt or slightly expanded at their apices, and with SIPH at least 1.5 ื longer than their basal widths (fig. 25A)   .....hirticornis

-      Length of the shorter of the 2 hairs on base of ANT VI greater than basal diameter of segment. Apterae with long hairs on antennae, legs and dorsum all fine-pointed, and with SIPH about as long as or only a little longer than their basal widths (fig. 25B) .....venetianus

9     SIPH pale or only slightly dusky, 2.3-3.4 ื longer than their basal widths               .....villosii

-      SIPH dark and only about as long as their basal widths                                        .....obscurus

 

       A. cappadocicum                     Drepanosiphum iranicum;

                                                         Periphyllus testudinaceus

 

       A. carpinifolium                       Periphyllus californiensis; Yamatocallis acericola

 

       A. caudatum                            Periphyllus aceriphaga, garhwalensis, villosii;
                                                  Trichaitophorus aceris, ?recurvispinus;
                                                   Yamatochaitophorus albus

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. caudatum:-

1     Cauda not constricted at base                                                                            .....aceriphaga

-      Cauda constricted at base                                                                                                  .....2

2     SIPH of alata dark and conical, about as long as its basal width (aptera not known)

                                                                                                                                .....garhwalensis

-      SIPH of alata (and aptera) pale, almost cylindrical, more than 2ื longer than basal width

.....villosii

       A. cinerascens see A. monspessulanum  

      

       A. circinatum                                         Vine Maple
                                                   Drepanosiphum oregonense;
                                                  Periphyllus californiensis, lyropictus, testudinaceus

(Use general key to Periphyllus spp.)

 

       A. crataegifolium                     Trichaitophorus koyaensis                                             

       A. diabolicum                           Yamatocallis hirayamae, tokyoensis

 

       A. floridanum = A. barbatum

 

       A. formosum                            Periphyllus californiensis

 

       A. fraxinifolium = A. negundo   

 

       A. ginnala                                              Amur Maple
                                                  Aphis gossypii; Drepanosiphum platanoidis;
                                                  Periphyllus aceris, ginnalae, [kuwanaii],

                                                              minutus, [takahashii], testudinaceus;

                                                         Trichaitophorus ginnalarus

 

Key to Periphyllus species on A. ginnala:-

 

1     Legs wholly pale                                                                                                                .....2

-      Legs wholly or partly pigmented                                                                                       .....3

2     SIPH of aptera a little shorter than their basal width, with only 1-2 indistinct rows of polygonal cells                                                                                                         .....minutus

-      SIPH of aptera a little longer than their basal width with about 6-7 rows of polygonal

       cells                                                                                                                             .....aceris

 

3     ANT PT/BASE more than 2.5. Aptera with a pattern of discrete sclerites on dorsum

.....testudinaceus

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 1.5. Aptera with broad dark bands across all abdominal tergites, merging intersegmentally                                                                                        .....ginnalae

 

       A. glabrum                                           Rocky Mountain Maple
                                                   Periphyllus americanus, brevispinosus

Key to Periphyllus species on A. glabrum:-

-      Longest hairs on antennae more than 2.5 ื basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0                                                                                                              .....americanus

-      Longest hairs on antennae only a little longer than basal diameter of ANT III. ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0                                                                                   .....brevispinosus

 

       A. granatense                           Drepanosiphum oregonense;

                                                         Periphyllus acericola, bulgaricus, testudinaceus

Use key to Periphyllus spp. on A. campestre.

 

       A. grandidentatum                                 Western Big-toothed Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis granovskyi, idahoensis, knowltoni,

                                                              utahensis;
                                                   Drepanosiphum platanoidis;
                                                   Periphyllus americanus, testudinaceus

 

Key to Drepanaphis spp. on A. grandidentatum:-

1    Fore femora pigmented along their entire lengths, especially dorsally. Dorsal tubercles on ABD TERG 3 well developed, pigmented, united for about half their lengths; those on ABD TERG 1 undeveloped and those on ABD TERG 2 small (fig. 26A)                    .....knowltoni

-     Fore femora pale, or dusky at their distal ends only. Dorsal abdominal tubercles variably developed                                                                                                                            .....2

2    ANT PT/BASE more than 8.0. Dorsal abdominal tubercles all pigmented, those on ABD TERG 3 well developed, dark, united for about half their lengths; those on ABD TERG 2 conical, about one third as long; those on ABD TERG 1 small (fig. 26B)          .....idahoensis

-     ANT PT/BASE less than 7.0                                                                                               .....3

3    Dorsal tubercles on ABD TERG 3 bluntly conical, united at bases, usually pigmented; those on ABD TERG 1 and 2 undeveloped or small. ANT PT/BASE 6.0-7.0 (fig. 26C)

.....utahensis

-     Tubercles on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 3 all small, only 0.5-2.0 ื their basal widths, not united at bases, always pale (fig. 26D). ANT PT/BASE 5.0-6.0                                        .....granovskyi

 

       A. griseum                                             Paperbark Maple
                                                  Drepanosiphum platanoidis;

                                                         Periphyllus testudinaceus

 

       A. hermoneum = A. monspessulanum ssp. microphyllum                                              

 

       A. hyrcanum                            Drepanosiphum oregonense;

                                                         Periphyllus bulgaricus, testudinaceus

 

       A. ibericum                              Drepanosiphoniella aceris ssp. caucasica;

                                                         Drepanosipum acerinum;

                                                         Periphyllus aceris, bulgaricus

 

       A. insigne = A. velutinum

 

       A. japonicum                                          Fullmoon Maple
                                                  Periphyllus californiensis;

                                                         Yamatocallis hirayamae, tokyoensis

 

       A. laevigatum                                    Chinese Maple, Dieng-than
                                                  [Periphyllus sp.]

 

       A. laxiflorum                            Drepanosiphum platanoidis;

                                                         Periphyllus testudinaceus

 

       A. macrophyllum                              Big-leaf Maple, Broad-leaf Maple
                                                  Drepanosiphum oregonense;
                                                  Periphyllus californiensis, lyropictus, testudinaceus

(Use general key to Periphyllus spp.)

 

       A. mandshuricum                    Periphyllus mandshuricus

 

       A. mayrii                                  Periphyllus kuwanaii

 

       A. miyabei                                               Miyabei Maple
                                                  Periphyllus californiensis, hokkaidensis;

                                                         Stomaphis takahashii

(see key to Periphyllus spp. on A. mono)

 

       A. mono                                             Japanese or Painted Maple, Itaya-kaede
                                                  Aphis gossypii;                                                               

                                                         Periphyllus [acericola], [aceris], brevisetosus,

                                                             californiensis, [diacerivorus], [ginnalae],

                                                             hokkaidensis, kuwanaii, [lyropictus], viridis,

                                                              [viridis ssp. osugiensis];
                                                  Stomaphis takahashii; Trichaitophorus aceris;

                                                         Yamatocallis hirayamae, takagii; Yamatochaitophorus albus

 

Key to Periphyllus spp. on  A. mono:-

1     ANT PT/BASE more than 3.0. Dorsum of aptera pale                                              .....viridis

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 3.0. Dorsum of aptera with dark transverse bars or paired sclerites                                                                                                                                             .....2

2     Hind tibiae of aptera uniformly dark. Head with 4-5 pairs of dorsal hairs     .....californiensis

-      Hind tibiae of aptera at least with central section paler. Head with 6-10 pairs of dorsal hairs

.....3

3     ANT PT/BASE more than 2.0                                                                               .....kuwanaii

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 2.0                                                                                              .....4

4     Longest dorsal cephalic hair 4-4.5 ื basal diameter of ANT III                   .....hokkaidensis*

-      Longest dorsal cephalic hair about 2.7 ื basal diameter of ANT III             .....brevisetosus*

 

 

       A. monspessulanum                              Montpellier Maple

          (incl. sspp. cinerascens,         Drepanosiphoniella aceris, fugans, remaudierei;

           ibericum, microphyllum)       Drepanosiphum acerinum, latifemorum, oregonense,

                                                             platanoidis;

                                                         Periphyllus [acericola], [aceris], bulgaricus,

                                                            hirticornis, rhenanus, testudinaceus

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. monspessulanum:-

 

1    Hind tibiae with middle part much paler than base or distal section, and hind femora with pale basal half and contrastingly dark distal half. Longer of the 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 21-47 ตm long. SIPH of both aptera and alata dark                                             .....testudinaceus

-     Legs without contrasting pigmentation. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 45-130 ตm long. SIPH of aptera pale                                                                                                    .....2

2    ANT PT/BASE more than 4.0. Aptera with most of the long dorsal hairs pale, blunt or slightly furcate at their apices                                                                                .....hirticornis

-     ANT PT/BASE less than 3.5. Long dorsal hairs all fine-pointed, and at least those on ABD TERG 5-8 are dark-pigmented                                                                                            .....3

3    Aptera with long spinal hairs on ABD TERG 5-8 (or 4-8) much darker than spinal hairs on more anterior tergites. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 0.8-1.3 ื length of ANT BASE VI, and shorter hair 0.25-0.47 ื BASE VI                                                            .....rhenanus

-    Aptera with long spinal hairs similarly pigmented on all ABD TERG. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 0.3-0.8 ื length of BASE VI, and shorter hair 0.12-0.27 ื BASE VI

 .....bulgaricus

 

       A. negundo                                             Box-Elder

                                                         Aphis spiraecola; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                         Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                         Drepanosiphum braggii, platanoidis;                            

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Myzus persicae;
                                                   Prociphilus (Paraprociphilus) mexicanus;
                                                   Periphyllus [acericola], californiensis, [hirticornis],

                                                             [kuwanaii], [lyropictus], negundinis, [nevskyii],

                                                             testudinaceus;

                                                         [Stomaphis longirostris?]

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. negundo:-

1    Tibiae with middle part much paler than base or distal section                       .....testudinaceus

-     Tibiae rather uniformly pigmented, dusky or dark                                                              .....2

2    Aptera and alata both with a clear pattern of dorsal dark markings, the alata with broad transverse bars and the aptera with either bars or paired spots. Longest hair on base of ANT VI usually more than half as long as base of ANT VI. Alata with 10-23 rhinaria on ANT III

.....californiensis

-     Aptera and alata with only faint dorsal abdominal markings. Longest hair on base of ANT VI always less than half as long as base of ANT VI. Alata with 3-10 rhinaria on ANT III

.....negundinis

 

       A. nigrum                                              Black Maple, Hard Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis carolinensis, kanzensis, knowltoni

                                                              (all vagrants?)

Key to Drepanaphis spp. on A. nigrum:-

1     Fore femora pale                                                                                                    .....kanzensis

-      Fore femora pigmented along entire length, especially dorsally                                        .....2

2     ANT PT/BASE more than 8.0. Tubercles on ABD TERG 3 finger-like, united for more than half their lengths; those on ABD TERG 2 and 4 very small, those on ABD TERG 1 undeveloped (fig. 26A)                                                                                        .....knowltoni

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 7.0. Tubercles on ABD TERG 3 conical, united only at base; those on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 4 half as long, subequal, finger-like (fig. 26E)          .....carolinensis

 

       A. nipponicum                         Yamatocallis hirayamae

       A. nuttallii                                Myzus persicae; Periphyllus sp. [negundinis?]

       A. oblongum                            Drepanosiphum oregonense;
                                                  Periphyllus californiensis, pakistanicus, testudinaceus,

                                                             vandenboschi

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. oblongum:-

 

1     Cauda semicircular. Dorsal abdomen of aptera with only small scleroites at bases of hairs

…..pakistanicus

-      Cauda broadly rounded (crescent-shaped). Dorsal abdomen of aptera either without sclerotisation or with either cross-bands or longitudinal rows of spinal sclerites each having two hairs                                                                                                                            …..2

2     Dorsal abdomen of aptera without dark sclerites. SIPH short and very dark, only 0.7-0.8 ื HT II                                                                                                              …..vandenboschi

-      Dorsal abdomen of aptera either cross-bands or longitudinal rows of spinal sclerites each having two hairs. SIPH as long as or longer than HT II                                                   …..3

3     Hind femur mostly dark except at base. Hind tibiae uniformly dark. Longest hair on base of ANT VI usually more than half as long as base of ANT VI                           .....californiensis

-      Hind femur with pale basal half and contrastingly dark distal half. Hind tibiae with pale middle region, contrasting with dark base and distal section. Longer of the two hairs on base of  ANT VI always less than 0.5 ื length of base of ANT VI (fig. 24C)                    .....testudinaceus

 

       A. obtusatum                            Drepanosiphum acerinum, platanoidis;

                                                         Periphyllus rhenanus

       A. okomatoanum                     Periphyllus kuwanii

 

       A. opalus                                                    Italian Maple
                                                  Drepanosiphum acerinum, oregonense, platanoidis;
                                                  Periphyllus aceris, bulgaricus, testudinaceus,

                                                             rhenanus;

                                                          [Phyllaphis fagi]

(See key to Periphyllus spp. on A. monspessulanum)

 

       A. opulifolium = A. opalus

 

       A. orientale                               Drepanosiphum platanoidis; Periphyllus rhenanus

 

       A. palmatum                                          Japanese Maple
                                                  Periphyllus [aceris], californiensis, [ginnalae],

                                                                           testudinaceus, unmoonsanensis;

                                                         Stomaphis takahashii;
                                                  Yamatocallis hirayamae, tokyoensis

Key to Periphyllus species:-

-      Dorsum without any dark markings                                                         ….. unmoonsanensis

-      Dorsum with a pattern of dark markings                  …..go to general key to Periphyllus spp.

 

       A. pensylvanicum                           Striped Maple, Moosewood
                                                  Drepanosiphum platanoidis;

                                                         Periphyllus testudinaceus

       A. pictum = A. mono

       A. platanoides                                         Norway Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis acerifoliae;

                                                         Drepanosiphum [acerinum], [aceris], platanoidis;
                                                  Periphyllus [acericola], aceris, californiensis,

                                                             coracinus, [kuwanaii], lyropictus, testudinaceus,

                                                             [viridis];

                                                         Stomaphis graffii, [quercus]

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. platanoides:-

1     Cauda tongue-shaped, about as long as broad, and often with a slight constriction (knobbed) (fig. 23D)                                                                                                               .....lyropictus

-      Cauda broadly rounded or crescent-shaped, clearly shorter than its basal width (fig. 23A)

.....2

2     Hind tibia with pale middle region contrasting with dark base and distal section. Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI less than half as long as length of base of ANT VI (fig. 24C)

                                                                                                                                .....testudinaceus

-      Hind tibia pale or uniformly pigmented. Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI more than half as long as length of base of ANT VI                                                                                  .....3

3     ANT PT/BASE 3.7-4.8. Longer of the 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI longer than BASE VI. SIPH dark distally, pale at base                                                                                      .....coracinus

-      ANT PT/BASE 1.8-2.7. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI shorter than BASE VI. SIPH of aptera uniformly pale or dark                                                                                              .....4

4     Hind tibia and SIPH pale                                                                                            .....aceris

-      Hind tibia and SIPH dark                                                                                .....californiensis

       A. pseudoplatanus                                  European Sycamore
                                                  Aulacorthum solani;                                                      

                                                         Drepanosiphum acerinum, [aceris], dixoni,

                                                             [iranicum], oregonense, platanoidis;

                                                                       Macrosiphum euphorbiae;
                                                  Periphyllus acericola, [aceris], americanus,

                                                                            [bulgaricus], [coracinus], [lyropictus],

                                                              [nevskyii], singeri, testudinaceus;

                                                         Stomaphis acquerinoi, graffii

 

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. pseudoplatanus:-

1     Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI less than half as long as base of ANT VI              .....2

-      Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI more than half as long as base of ANT VI            .....3

2     Aptera with only very pale dorsal abdominal sclerites. Alata with normally at least 8 long hairs on each of ABD TERG 1 to 7. Tibiae pale or rather evenly pigmented, or darkening distally                                                                                                                .....americanus

-      Aptera with a clear pattern of dark dorsal abdominal sclerites. Alata normally with only 6 long hairs on each of ABD TERG 1 to 7. Tibiae with very pale middle region contrasting with dark base and distal section                                                                    .....testudinaceus

3     SIPH of aptera dusky to dark, shorter than their basal diameters. ANT PT/BASE more than 4.0 (except in early spring apterae)                                                                            .....singeri

-      SIPH of aptera pale, a little longer than their basal diameters. ANT PT/BASE less than 3.0

.....acericola

 

       A. pseudosieboldianum                          Korean Maple
                                                  Periphyllus aceris, californiensis;

                                                         Yamatocallis hirayamae

(Use general key to Periphyllus spp.)

 

      A. purpurescens                        Yamatocallis hirayamae

 

      A. regelii                                    [Drepanosiphum asiaticum];

                                                         Periphyllus mamontovae, nevskyii

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. regelii:-

-     Apterae without dorsal abdominal markings. Alatae with only 3-5 rhinaria on ANT III         

.....mamontovae

-     Apterae with a dark dorsal abdominal patch. Alatae with 12-13 rhinaria on ANT III

     .....nevskyii

 

       A. rubescens                             Trichaitophorus aceris

 

       A. rubrum                                              Red, Soft or Swamp Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis acerifoliae, carolinensis, knowltoni,

                                                             nigricans, parva, saccharini, tissoti;

                                                         Drepanosiphum platanoidis;
                                                  Periphyllus [aceris], lyropictus, testudinaceus

(for Periphyllus spp. use couplet 1 of general key to Periphyllus )

Key to Drepanaphis spp. on A. rubrum:-

1    Fore femora pigmented along entire length, especially dorsally                                        .....2

-     Fore femora pale, or dusky at distal ends only                                                                    .....4

2    All wing veins distinctly dark-bordered. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 well developed, almost as long as those on ABD TERG 3 (fig. 26F)                                                    ….....acerifoliae

-     Wing veins not dark-bordered except for pterostigma and basal part of Rs. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 either much smaller than those on ABD TERG 3, or undeveloped            .....3

3    ANT PT/BASE less than 7.0. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 to 4 all well developed; those on ABD TERG 1 and 2 finger-like and of about equal length, about half the height of the broadly conical tubercles on ABD TERG 3, which are united near their bases (fig. 26E)

  .....carolinensis

-     ANT PT/BASE more than 8.0. Only tubercles on ABD TERG 3 well developed, united for about half their lengths; others undeveloped of inconspicuous (fig. 26A)            .....knowltoni

4    ANT I and II both as dark as head. Abdomen with dark ventral sclerites                         .....5

-     ANT II much paler than ANT I, like base of ANT III. Abdomen with ventral sclerites rather faint, or absent                                                                                                                     .....6

5    ANT III with 8-22 (usually 11+) rhinaria. Never more than 4 small accessory rhinaria alongside the large primary rhinarium on ANT VI                                                 .....nigricans

-     ANT III with 5-14 rhinaria (usually less than 11). ANT VI with 5-14 small accessory rhinaria alongside the main primary rhinarium                                                                          .....tissoti

6    Wing veins diffusely bordered with fuscous, giving wings a slightly cloudy appearance (best seen with hand lens). ANT III with 6-17 rhinaria (usually 10 or more)                       .....parva

-     Wings clear. ANT III with 2-12 rhinaria (usually less than 0)                              .....saccharini

 

       A. rufinerve                                            Red-Vein Maple
                                                  Trichaitophorus koyaensis

 

       A. saccharinum                                      Silver or White Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis acerifoliae, [parvus], [sabrinae],

                                                             saccharini;

                                                         Drepanosiphum platanoidis;

                                                         Prociphilus (Paraprociphilus) tessellatus;
                                                  Periphyllus [acericola], [aceris], americanus,

                                                            lyropictus, testudinaceus

Key to Drepanaphis spp. on A. saccharinum:-

-      Fore femora pigmented along entire length, especially dorsally. All wing veins distinctly dark-bordered. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 long and finger-like, much longer than those on ABD TERG 2, almost as long as those on ABD TERG 3 (fig. 26F)                  .....acerifoliae

-      Fore femora pale. Wing veins not dark-bordered (except pterostigma and basal part of Rs. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 about equally developed to those on ABD TERG 2, much shorter than those on ABD TERG 3 (fig. 26G)                                                   ....saccharini

 

Key to Periphyllus spp. on A. saccharinum:-

 

1     Cauda more than half as long as wide, with a slight basal constriction (fig 23D). Longer of the 2 hairs on base of ANT VI very long and fine, longer than length of base of ANT VI 

       .....lyropictus

-      Cauda broadly rounded, less than half as long as its basal width (fig. 23A). Longer of 2 hairs on base of ANT VI less than half as long as length of base of ANT VI (including rhinarium)                                                                                                                                             .....2

2     Aptera with only very faint dorsal abdominal markings. Alata with normally at least 8 long hairs on each of ABD TERG 1 to 7. Tibiae pale, or rather evenly pigmented, or darkening distally                                                                                                               .....americanus

-      Aptera with a clear pattern of dorsal abdominal sclerites. Alata with normally only 6 long hairs on each of ABD TERG 1 to 7. Tibiae with pale middle region contrasting with dark base and distal section                                                                                    .....testudinaceus

      A. saccharophorum = A. saccharum

      A. saccharum                                          Sugar or Hard Maple
                                                   Drepanaphis acerifoliae, carolinensis, choanotricha,

                                                             [idahoensis], kanzensis, keshenae, knowltoni,

                                                              [pallida], parva, sabrinae, simpsoni, tissoti;
                                                   Neoprociphilus aceris;
                                                   Periphyllus [acericola], americanus, [californiensis],

                                                              lyropictus, testudinaceus;
                                                   Longistigma caryae; Shenahweum minutum

For Periphyllus spp. see key under A. saccharinum.

Key to Drepanaphis spp. on A. saccharum:-

1     Fore femora pigmented along entire lengths, especially dorsally                                       .....2

-      Fore femora pale, or only dusky towards apices                                                                .....6

2     Wing veins distinctly dark-bordered                                                                                  .....3

-      Wing veins not dark-bordered (except for pterostigma and base of Rs)                           .....4

3     Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 to 4 all conspicuous; those on ABD TERG 1 and 3 long and finger-like, those on 1 almost as long as those on 3 (fig.26F )                            .....acerifoliae

-      Tubercles on ABD TERG 3 well developed, united for at least half of their lengths; those on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 4 undeveloped or inconspicuous (fig. 26H)                       .....keshenae

4     ANT PT/BASE more than 9.0. Only the tubercles on ABD TERG 3 well developed, united for about half their lengths; those on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 4 inconspicuous or undeveloped (fig.26A)                                                                                                               .....knowltoni

-      ANT PT/BASE less than 8.0. Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 to 4 all developed, although those on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 4 often smaller than those on 3                                                  .....5

5     Tubercles on ABD TERG 3 about twice as long as those on ABD TERG 2, which are of similar length to those on ABD TERG 1 and 4 (fig. 26E). On ANT VI, 4 small accessory sensoria alongside the main primary rhinarium                                                 .....carolinensis

-      Tubercles on ABD TERG 2 almost as long as those on 3, clearly longer than those on 1 and much longer than those on 4 (fig. 26I). On ANT VI, 5-6 small accessory sensoria alongside the primary rhinarium                                                                                              ....sabrinae

6     ANT PT/BASE less than 6.0. All dorsal abdominal tubercles well developed, with those on ABD TERG 1 largest (fig. 26J)                                                                             .....simpsoni

-      ANT PT/BASE more than 8.0. Dorsal abdominal tubercles variably developed, but those on ABD TERG 3 always largest                                                                                             .....7

7     ANT II concolorous with ANT III, paler than ANT I                                                       .....8

-      ANT II much darker than ANT III, as dark as ANT I                                                      .....9

8     Wing veins diffusely bordered, giving wings a cloudy appearance (view with hand lens). Tubercles on ABD TERG 1 to 4 well developed, although those on ABD TERG 1, 2 and 4 only one quarter to one half of the height of those on the ABD TERG 3 (fig. 26K)                                                                                                                                                   .....parva

-      Wings clear. Tubercles on ABD TERG 3 well developed, but those on ABD ERG 1, 2 and 4 undeveloped or very small (fig. 26L)                                                                    .....kanzensis

9     Dorsal body hairs, including those on abdominal tubercles, clearly longer than basal diameter of  ANT III, and with distinctly expanded apices. ANT III with 3-5 rhinaria

.....choanotricha

-      Dorsal body hairs mostly shorter than, or as short as, basal diameter of ANT III, and with blunt or only very slightly expanded apices. ANT III with 7-16 rhinaria                   .....tissoti

 

       A. semenovii                             Drepanosiphum oregonense;

                                                         Periphyllus karatavicus, nevskyii

Key to Periphyllus species on A. semenovii:-

-      Apterae without dorsal abdominal markings                                                    …..karatavicus

-      Apterae with a dark dorsal abdominal patch                                                           .....nevskyii                                                                                                                                                    

 

       A. sinense                                               Chinese Maple
                                                  Periphyllus testudinaceus

 

       A. spicatum                                            Mountain Maple
                                                  Drepanaphis spicata

 

       A. stevenii                                 Drepanosiphum oregonense;

                                                         Periphyllus steveni, testudinaceus

Key to separate Periphyllus spp. on A. stevenii:-

-      BL of aptera less than 2.4 mm. ANT PT/BASE c.2.0. First tarsal segments with 5 hairs. Aestivating nymphs with long pointed hairs                                                            …..steveni

-      BL of aptera more than 2.4 mm. ANT PT/BASE 2.5-3.7. First tarsal segments usually with 7 hairs. Aestivating nymphs with foliate hairs                                                  …..testudinaceus

 

       A. tataricum                             Aphis fabae; Drepanosiphum acerinum;

                                                         Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                         Periphyllus [aceris], [lyropictus], minutus,

                                                                           testudinaceus;

                                                         Stomaphis graffii

For Periphyllus, use key to species on A. ginnale.

 

       A. tauricolum                           Drepanosiphum caucasicum

       A. tegmentosum                       Periphyllus tegmentosus; Trichaitophorus aemigmatosus;

                                                         Yamatochaitophorus yichunensis

       A. trautvetteri                           Drepanosiphum caucasicum, oregonense,

                                                              platanoidis;
                                                  Periphyllus [aceris], testudinaceus

       A. tricidum                               Periphyllus californiensis

       A. triflorum                              Periphyllus allogenes, [triflorumi]

 

       A. tschonoskii                                         Korean Maple, Bogjagi
                                                  Trichaitophorus japonicus

 

       A. turkestanicum                     [Drepanosiphum asiaticum];

                                                         Periphyllus mamontovae, nevskyii

(For separation of Periphyllus spp. see couplet under A. regelii)

 

       A. ukurunduense                     Periphyllus kuwanaii; Yamatochaitophorus albus

 

         A. velutinum                            Drepanosiphoniella aceris;

                                                        Drepanosiphum iranicum, platanoidis;

                                                        Periphyllus aceris; Stomaphis graffii

      A. villosum                                Periphyllus villosii;

                                                         Trichaitophorus aceris, ?recurvispinus;
                                                   Yamatocallis brevicauda; Yamatochaitophorus albus

      Acer spp.                                    Periphyllus bengalensis, himalayensis, pallidus, tokyoensis;
                                                   Stomaphis aceris;    Yamatocallis obscura, sauteri, acerisucta

 

Key to the more polyphagous Periphyllus species, and those on unidentified species of Acer:-

1     Cauda as long as its basal width, often with a slight constriction, so that the apical part is a knob (fig. 23D)                                                                                                                   .....2

-      Cauda shorter than its basal width, without a trace of a constriction (fig. 23A)               .....3

2     SIPH dark in alata, pale to dusky in aptera, conical, about as long as their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE 4.5-6.0. Rhinaria on ANT III of alata extending at least 0.6 of length of segment

.....lyropictus

-      SIPH of both aptera and alata pale, almost cylindrical, more than 2ื longer than their basal widths. ANT PT/BASE less than 4.0. Rhinaria on ANT III of alata confined to basal half of segment                                                                                                                      .....villosii

3      SIPH of aptera jet black, contrasting greatly with pale body and appendages (except possibly extremities of tarsi and base of ANT VI). First tarsal segments all with 5 hairs       

.....vandenboschi

-       SIPH of aptera pale to dark brown, not clearly darker than other parts of body. First tarsal segments with 5 or 7 hairs                                                                                                  .....4

4      Cauda semicircular with only 5-6 hairs. Dorsal abdomen of aptera without dark markings

.....pallidus

-       Cauda broadly rounded (crescent-shaped) with at least 7 hairs. Dorsal abdomen of aptera with or without dark markings                                                                                           .....5

5      BL (of aptera) less than 1.4 mm                                                                          …..tokyoensis

-       BL more than 1.4 mm, and mostly more than 2 mm                                                         …..6

6      ANT III of alata with 28-50 rhinaria, and ANT IV with 2-9 rhinaria                               .....7

-       ANT III of alata with 6-34 rhinaria, and ANT IV without any rhinaria                           .....9

7      SIPH shorter than HT II. ANT PT/BASE of alata more than 3.0                     .....formosanus

-       SIPH as long as or longer than HT II. ANT PT/BASE of alata less than 2.8                    .....8

8      BL of aptera 1.8-2.2 mm, of alata 2.0-2.5 mm. Antennae of alata pale basally, with 2-6 rhinaria on ANT IV                                                                                           .....bengalensis

-       BL of alata 2.9-3.5 mm (aptera not described). Antennae of alata wholly dark, with 5-9 rhinaria on ANT IV                                                                                         .....himalayensis

9      Hind femur with pale basal half and contrastingly dark distal half. Longer of the 2 hairs on base of  ANT VI 21-47 ตm long, always less than 0.5ื length of base of ANT VI (fig. 24C). ANT PT/BASE 2.5-4.2 (always more than 3.0 in alatae)                               .....testudinaceus

-       Hind femur either entirely pale or mostly dark except at base. Longer of the 2 hairs on base of ANT VI 45-95 ตm long, 0.3-1.3ื length of base of ANT VI. ANT PT/BASE 1.6-3.7 (less than 3.0 except in alatae of bulgaricus)                                                                           .....10

10    Hind tibiae wholly dark                                                                                 …..californiensis

-       Hind tibiae pale at least in middle section                                                                       .....11

11    Apterae in spring with front of head pale, and rarely with any dorsal markings. Dorsal hairs all pale                                                                                                                    .....acericola

-       Apterae in spring usually with front of head dark, dusky to dark transverse bars or paired patches on ABD TERG 1 to 6, and the long spinal hairs, or at least those on ABD TERG

        5-8, dark-pigmented                                                                                                         .....12

12    Aptera with long spinal hairs on ABD TERG 5-8 (or 4-8) much darker than spinal hairs on more anterior tergites. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 0.8-1.3 ื length of ANT BASE VI, and shorter hair 0.25-0.47ื BASE VI                                                           .....rhenanus

-       Aptera with long spinal hairs similarly pigmented on all ABD TERG. Longer of 2 hairs on ANT BASE VI 0.3-0.8 ื length of BASE VI, and shorter hair 0.12-0.27ื BASE VI .....13

13    ABD TERG VI of aptera with longest hairs 270-480 ตm                                 .....bulgaricus

-       ABD TERG VI of aptera with longest hairs 120-240 ตm                                    .....kuwanaii

 

 

Aceras  see Orchis                                                     Orchidaceae

      Aceras anthropophorum = Orchis anthropophora

 

Acerates                                                       Apocynaceae

        Acerates angustifolia                  Aphis asclepiadis, middletoni

        A. floridana                                 Aphis asclepiadis

        A. longifolia`                               Aphis asclepiadis

Use key to aphids on  Asclepias.

 

Aceriphyllum see Mukdenia                                               Saxifragaceae

        Aceriphyllum rossii see Mukdenia rossii

 

Achillea                          Yarrow                 Compositae

        Achillea abrotanoides                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

        A. acuminata                              Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

        A. aegyptiaca                              Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella usquertensis;

                                                            Pleotrichophoris duponti; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. ageratifolia                             Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella usquertensis;

                   (incl. ssp. serbica)                 Myzus cymbalariae, ornatus; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. ageratum                                Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella millefolii;

                                                            Pemphigus [brevicornis (Hart 1894)]

        A. alpina                                     [Anuraphis spiranthi Shinji (nomen dubium)];

                                                            Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella millefolii, millefolii ssp. orientalis,

                                                                usquertensis;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. asiatica                                   Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

        A. asplenifolia                             Coloradoa achilleae

        A. atrata                                      Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella millefolii;

                                                            Metopeurum capillatum (?)

        A. aurea = Tanacetum aureum         Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ascalonicus;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. biebersteinii                            Macrosiphoniella aktashica, tapuskae;

                                                            Metopeurum achilleae; [Protaphis miranda]

        A. californica = A. millefolium

        A. carpatica                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi

        A. cartilaginea                            Aulacorthum solani; Uroleucon achilleae, ptarmicae

        A. chrysocoma                            Macrosiphoniella usquertensis; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. clavennae                               Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella usquertensis;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. coarctata                                 Aphis fabae

        A. collina                                     Aphis spiraecola; Brachycaudus cardui;

                                                            Coloradoa achilleae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella millefolii, usquertensis;

                                                            Pleotrichophorus duponti

        A. crithmifolia                             Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa achilleae, santolinae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella millefolii, tapuskae; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. distans (incl. stricta,                   Acyrthosiphon malvae; Aphis fabae; Aulacorthum solani;

                          tanacetifolia)                Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella millefolii;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. erba-rotta                                Macrosiphoniella millefolii; Metopeurum fuscoviride

        A. filipendulina                           Aphis solanella; Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella aktashica, millefolii;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Microsiphum ptarmicae

        A. gerbera = A. biebersteinii          

        A. grandiflora = A. ptarmicifolia

        A. grandifolia                              Macrosiphoniella usquertensis; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. kitaibelliana  = A. ochroleuca                                              

        A. lanulosa = A. millefolium          

        A. ligustica                                  Aphis ligusticae, oligommata, spiraecola;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Coloradoa achilleae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella [artemisiae], millefolii, silvestrii,

                                                                 tanacetaria, tapuskae

        A. lingulata                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. macrocephala = A. ptarmica ssp. macrocephala

        A. macrophylla                           Aulacorthum solani; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. magna  = A. millefolium            

        A. micrantha                               Aphis craccivora; Macrosiphoniella tapuskae;

                                                            Protaphis pseudocardui; [Smynthurodes betae];

        A. millefolium                             Abstrusomyzus [leucocrini], phloxae;

               (incl. lanulosa, magna,                [Acaudinum longisetosum];

                    pannonica, rubra)               Aphis asclepiadis, craccvivora, fabae, gossypii, [obiensis],

                                                                oligommata, vandergooti;

                                                            Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, [cerasicola], helichrysi;

                                                            Coloradoa achilleae, santolinae, [tanacetina];

                                                            Macrosiphoniella abrotani, cinerascens, [frigidicola],

                                                                millefolii, millefolii ssp. orientalis, [oblonga],

                                                                pennsylvanica, ptarmicae, sejuncta, silvestrii,

                                                                sudhakaris, tanacetaria, tapuskae, usquertensis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Metopeurum fuscoviride, millefolii;

                                                            Microsiphum millefolii, nudum, ptarmicae;

                                                            Myzus ascalonicus, cymbalariae, ornatus, persicae;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus;

                                                            Pemphigus [betae Doane 1900], [brevicornis (Hart 1894)];

                                                            Pleotrichophorus duponti, hottesi, patonkus, patonkusellus,

                                                                pseudopatonkus;

                                                            Protaphis [anthemidis], knowltoni, middletonii;

                                                            [Protrama flavescens];

                                                            Trama [eastopi Heinze 1962], [pubescens Koch 1857],

                                                                troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae, ambrosiae, [erigeronense], [sonchi],

                                                                stoetzelae;

                                                            [Xerobion judenkoi]

        A. moschata                                Metopeurum capillatum (?)

        A. nabelekii                                 Macrosiphoniella millefolii

        A. nana                                       Brachycaudus helichrysi; Macrosiphoniella usquertensis

        A. neilreichii = A. nobilis ssp. neilreichii                                    

        A. nobilis (incl. ssp. neilreichii)        Aphis vandergooti; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Coloradoa achilleae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella millefolii, tapuskae;

                                                            Microsiphum millefolii, nudum; Myzus persicae;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. ochroleuca                             Aphis fabae, gossypii, vandergooti;

                                                            Pleotrichophorus achilleae

        A. odorata                                   Aphis fabae; Brachycaudus helichrysi

        A. pannonica = A. millefolium       

        A. pectinata = A. ochroleuca

        A. ptarmica                                 Aphis fabae, nasturtii, vandergooti; Aulacorthum solani;

                                                            Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella millefolii, ptarmicae, sejuncta,

                                                                 tanacetaria, tapuskae, usquertensis;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae; Microsiphum ptarmicae;

                                                            Myzus cymbalariae; Trama troglodytes;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. ptarmicifolia                           Aphis achilleaeradicis; Macrosiphoniella millefolii

        A. rupestris                                  Neomyzus circumflexus; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. salicifolia                                Macrosiphoniella usquertensis

        A. santolina                                 Brachycaudus helichrysi; Coloradoa santolinae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella aktashica, tapuskae

        A. santolinoides ssp. wilhelmsii   Macrosiphoniella aktashica

        A. serbica = A. ageratifolia ssp. serbica                                      

        A. setacea                                    Brachycaudus cardui, helichrysi; Coloradoa achilleae;

                                                            Macrosiphoniella tapuskae;

                                                            Microsiphum nudum, ptarmicae;

                                                            Pleotrichophorus duponti; Uroleucon achilleae

        A. sibirica = A. alpina                   

        A. stricta = A. distans ssp. stricta

        A. tanacetifolia = A. distans

        A. taygetea = A. aegyptiaca

        A. tenuifolia                                Macrosiphoniella aktashica

        A. tomentosa                               Aphis gossypii; Macrosiphoniella millefolii, usquertensis;

                                                            Uroleucon achilleae

        A. trichophylla = Handelia trichophylla

        A. umbellata                               Macrosiphoniella millefolii

        A. vermicularis                           Macrosiphoniella aktashica

        A. wilhemsii = A. santolinoides ssp. wilhemsii                             

        Achillea spp.                               [Illinoia goldamaryae];

                                                            [Macrosiphoniella aktashica hirsuta]

                                                            [Miraphoides achilleae Rusanova 1943; nomen dubium]

                                                            [Triocula distorta Rusanova 1943; nomen dubium]

                                                            Uroleucon alaskense, astronomus, [kamtshaticum]

For an account of aphids of the genera Macrosiphoniella  and Uroleucon on A. millefolium in Germany see Sobhani (1970a,b).

Key to aphids on Achillea:-

1      PT much shorter than base of last ANT segment                                                               .....2

-       PT clearly longer than base of last ANT segment                                                              .....3

2      HT II very elongate, more than 0.5 of length of hind tibia. Body and appendages densely hairy                                                                                                       ......Trama troglodytes

-       HT II of normal length. Body and appendages sparsely hairy                  .....Pemphigus sp(p)

3      Marginal abdominal  tubercles (MTu) absent or present, but if present they are usually only on ABD TERG 2-4 (-6) and only rarely on ABD TERG 1 or 7                                       ......4

-       MTu always present at least on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                      .....39

4      ANT tubercles absent or weakly developed, so that front of head has convex outline in dorsal view, with middle part projecting furthest forward                                                .....5

-       ANT tubercles variably developed, but if low they are broadly divergent, so that the front of the head is concave in dorsal view                                                                                     .....8

5      Cauda tongue- or finger-shaped, longer than its basal width. Eye with ocular tubercle indistinct and displaced  ventrally, so inconspicuous in dorsal view (Fig.5a)                  ......6

-       Cauda helmet-shaped, distinctly constricted at base and as long as broad. Eye with protruberant ocular tubercle, positioned at posterior margin                                              .....7

6      Dorsal body hairs short, inconspicuous. ANT PT only 1.1-1.4 ื BASE VI.  SIPH 1.3-1.8 ื cauda                                                                                                   ......Coloradoa achilleae

-       Dorsal body hairs long, with fan-shaped apices (Fig.5b).  ANT PT at least 2 ื BASE VI.  SIPH shorter than cauda                                                                   ......Coloradoa santolinae

7      Dorsal abdomen with an extensive solid black shield. ANT III 0.31-0.47 mm, 2.4-3.4 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.17-0.24 mm. SIPH dark, imbricated, 1.7-3.4 ื cauda .....Brachycaudus cardui

-       Dorsal abdomen without a black shield. ANT III 0.07-0.25 mm, 0.9-2.2 ื HT II. R IV+V 0.10-0.15 mm. SIPH pale, smooth, 0.8-2.0 ื cauda                    ......Brachycaudus helichrysi

8      Dorsal hairs numerous and long, with fan-shaped or clearly expanded apices (Fig.5c)   ......9

-       Dorsal hairs short or long, but if long then with blunt or pointed apices                        ......14

9      SIPH 0.31-1.0 ื cauda                                                                                                     .....10

-       SIPH more than 1.5 ื cauda                                                                                            .....12

10    Dorsal fan-shaped hairs very numerous, e.g. usually more than 25 on ABD TERG 6 between SIPH, and 28-45 on dorsal surface of head (not including those projecting forward between ANT bases). SIPH 0.61-1.0 ื cauda. ANT III with 1-2 secondary rhinaria

..…Pleotrichophorus patonkusellus

-       Dorsal fan-shaped hairs less numerous, e.g. less than 20 on ABD TERG 6 between SIPH, and 14-25 on dorsal surface of head (Fig.5c). SIPH 0.31-0.75 ื cauda. ANT III with 1-8 secondary rhinaria                                                                                                           .….11

11    R IV+V 0.12-0.13 mm long, 0.86-1.09 ื HT II. SIPH 0.14-0.21 mm long, 0.62-0.75 ื cauda

.….Pleotrichophorus patonkus

-       R IV+V 0.09-0.12 mm long, 0.71-0.92 ื HT II. SIPH 0.08-0.18 mm long, 0.31-0.67 ื cauda

..…Pleotrichophorus pseudopatonkus

12    ANT 0.87-1.17 ื BL, with PT 3.1-4.1 ื BASE VI                   ......Pleotrichophorus duponti

-       ANT 1.24-1.57 ื BL, with PT 4.3-6.2 ื BASE VI                                                        .....13

13    SIPH 0.25-0.29 ื BL and 2.3-2.9 ื cauda                               .....Pleotrichophorus achilleae

-       SIPH 0.15-0.21 ื BL and 1.6-2.0 ื cauda                                   .....Pleotrichophorus hottesi

14      SIPH tiny, no longer than wide, much less than 0.5 of length of the short triangular cauda, and less than 0.3 ื HT II (eg. Fig.5d, e)                                                                          .....15

-       SIPH very evident, only shorter than cauda when the latter is long, dark and finger-like, and always clearly longer than HT II                                                                                      .....17

15    Hairs on front of head, cauda and ANT III all less than 0.5 ื diameter of BD III                

......Microsiphum nudum

-       Hairs on front of head and cauda longer than ANT BD III. Hairs on ANT III maximally more than 0.5 ื BD III                                                                                                   ......16

16    ANT PT/BASE 5.0-8.0. ANT PT 1.7-2.2 ื ANT III. SIPH 0.9-1.5 ื longer than their basal widths                                                                                          …..Microsiphum ptarmicae*

-       ANT PT/BASE 3.7-5.2. ANT PT 1.2-1.6 ื ANT III. SIPH 0.6-1.0 ื as long as their basal widths                                                                                              …..Microsiphum millefolii

17    SIPH pale at least over most of length, sometimes dusky or dark apically, and if with subapical polygonal reticulation then this is confined to distal 0.2 or less of length

......go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 4

-       SIPH dusky or dark over at least half of length, with polygonal reticulation extending over distal 0.06-0.70                                                                                                                 .....18

18    Cauda tapering, triangular, less than 1.5 times longer than its basal width (e.g. Fig.5f). ANT tubercles very weakly developed, so that front of head is very shallowly concave in dorsal view                                                                                                                                  .....19

-       Cauda finger-like, more than 2 times its basal width. ANT tubercles variably developed

......22

19    Dorsal abdominal hairs very short and blunt                                                                   ......20

-       Dorsal abdominal hairs long, like ventral abdominal hairs                                               .....21

20    Longest hairs on ANT III 0.5-0.6 ื BD III. Cauda with 11-20 hairs

.....Metopeurum fuscoviride

-       Longest hairs on ANT III about as ong as BD III. Cauda with c.8 hairs

.....Metopeurum millefolii*

21    ANT III with 5-8 rhinaria                                                                 .....Metopeurum achilleae

-       ANT III with 28-32 rhinaria                                                       ......Metopeurum capillatum*

22    SIPH 0.6-1.0 ื cauda                                                                                                      ......23

-       SIPH 1.1-2.9 ื cauda                                                                                                      ......28

23    Tibiae entirely dark brown to black                                                                                  .....24

-       Tibiae with middle section paler                                                                                      .....26

24    BL only 1.3-1.6 mm. Cauda with 10-12 hairs                       ......Macrosiphoniella sudhakaris

-       BL 2.1-4.1 mm.  Cauda with 20-32 hairs                                                                         .....25

25    All dorsal abdominal hairs arising from conspicuous dark scleroites (Fig.5g). PT 3.3-4.3 ื BASE VI.  R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II                                        ......Macrosiphoniella millefolii

-      Dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from dark scleroites. PT 2.9-3.5 ื BASE VI. RIV+V  0.7-0.9 ื HT II                                                                     ......Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria

26    ANT III dark except at base, and bearing 8-32 rhinaria        ......Macrosiphoniella ptarmicae

-       ANT III only dark towards apex, and bearing 3-13 rhinaria                                          ......27

27    SIPH mainly pale/dusky, only dark towards apices, and reticulated over distal 0.5-0.67 of length. R IV+V 0.6-0.8 ื HT                                                    .....Macrosiphoniella abrotani

-       SIPH black and reticulated over distal 0.34-0.45 of length. R IV+V 0.8-0.9 ื HT II

.....Macrosiphoniella usquertensis

28    First tarsal segments with 3 hairs (a sense peg and a pair of lateral hairs); rarely with one additional lateral hair. SIPH often paler basally, and reticulated over distal 0.15-0.7    .....29

-       First tarsal segments with 5 hairs (sense peg plus 2 lateral pairs); rarely with only 4 hairs. SIPH wholly dark, reticulated over distal 0.17-0.33                                                       .....35

29    SIPH wholly dark, 1.1-1.3 ื cauda and 0.16-0.24 ื BL. Dorsal abdomen with paired dark spinal sclerites, each bearing 2-3 hairs                                        .....Macrosiphoniella silvestrii

-       SIPH often pale basally, 1.25-2.9 ื cauda and 0.20-0.33 ื BL.  Dorsal abdomen without paired spinal sclerites; if with small dark scleroites then these are not fused between

        hair-bases                                                                                                                          .....30

30    SIPH 1.7-2.9 ื cauda                                                                                                       .....31

-       SIPH 1.25-1.5 ื cauda                                                                                                     .....33

31    SIPH reticulated over distal 0.48-0.69. Dark crescent-shaped presiphuncular sclerites usually present, and dorsal abdominal hairs arising from dusky or dark scleroites (Fig.5h)

.....Macrosiphoniella sejuncta

-       SIPH reticulated over distal 0.06-0.25. Presiphuncular sclerite usually not evident, and dorsal abdominal hairs not arising from dark or dusky scleroites (e.g. Fig.5i)                          …..32

32     SIPH 2.0-2.9 ื cauda, slightly expanded at apices, with reticulation on subapical 0.06-0.13

…..Macrosiphoniella aktashica

-       SIPH 1.8-2.3 ื cauda, flared at apices, with reticulation on subapical 0.12-0.25

......Macrosiphoniella tapuskae

33    ANT III and middle part of hind tibia pale. (ANT III with 10-13 rhinaria, cauda with 14-18 hairs)                                                                                      .....Macrosiphoniella cinerascens

-       ANT III and hind tibia mainly dark                                                                                 .....34

34    ANT III with 30-44 rhinaria. R IV+V 0.75-0.95 ื HT II. Cauda with 11-18 hairs

......Macrosiphoniella pennsylvanica

-       ANT III with 5-21 rhinaria. R IV+V 1.05-1.5 ื HT II. Cauda with 8-10 hairs                      

......Uroleucon stoetzelae

35    Presiphuncular sclerites present. SIPH 1.7-2.9 ื cauda                                                  …..36

-       Presiphuncular sclerites absent. If SIPH are more than 1.6 ื cauda then R IV+V bears at least 17 accessory hairs                                                                                                    …..37

36    Cauda less than 0.35 mm long and less than twice its basal width. ANT III with 7-24 rhinaria                                                                                                ......Uroleucon achilleae

-       Cauda more than 0.4 mm long and more than twice its basal width. ANT III with 30-36 rhinaria                                                                                              .....Uroleucon ptarmicae*

37    R IV + V bearing 17-24 accessory hairs                                         …..Uroleucon astronomus

-       RIV + V with 10 or fewer hairs                                                                                      …..38

38    Marginal tubercles (MTu) well developed and evident on at least ABD TERG 2-5. SIPH 1.0-1.2 ื cauda and 0.21-0.26 ื BL                                                   .....Uroleucon alaskense

-       MTu usually absent. SIPH 1.2-1.5 ื cauda and 0.25-0.30 ื BL      .....Uroleucon ambrosiae

39    Large transparent marginal tubercles (MTu) present on all of at least ABD TERG 1-4 and 7 (e.g. Fig.5j)                                                                                                                       .....40

-       MTu only always present on ABD TERG 1 and 7                                                          .....42

40   SIPH 0.8-1.2 ื cauda, which is rounded at apex                                        .....Aphis ligusticae

-      SIPH 1.9-2.6 ื cauda, which tapers to a pointed apex                                                    .....41

41   SIPH about 0.16 ื BL.  Cauda about as long as its basal width, and about 0.07 ื BL. Subgenital plate with 3-5 hairs on anterior part                              .......Aphis achilleaeradicis

-      SIPH 0.18-0.26 ื BL. Cauda longer than its basal width, 0.08-0.10 ื BL. Subgenital plate with (2-)7-16 hairs on anterior part                                                         .....Aphis vandergooti

42    ANT always 5-segmented. SIPH very short and flangeless (Fig.5k), 0.5-1.0 ื cauda           

......Aphis oligommata

-       ANT 6-segmented, except in small summer “dwarfs”. SIPH with a flange, and 0.8-2.1 ื cauda                                                                                                                                .....43

43    Cauda tongue-shaped, much longer than R IV+V. ANT III without rhinaria

        ......go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 30

-       Cauda short, bluntly triangular, as short as or shorter than R IV+V. ANT III often with a few rhinaria on distal part                                                                                                .....44

44    ANT PT/BASE 0.9-1.3                                                                 …..Protaphis pseudocardui

-       ANT PT/BASE 1.4-2.1                                                                                                   …..45

45    Hairs on ANT III all shorter than BD III. SIPH usually longer than cauda

…..Protaphis middletonii

-       Longest hairs on ANT III 1.0-1.5 ื BD III. SIPH usually shorter than cauda

…..Protaphis knowltoni

 

Achimenes                                                   Gesneriaceae

      Achimenes longiflora                 Neomyzus circumflexus

 

Achlys                                                          Berberidaceae

        Achlys triphylla                           Macrosiphum tuberculaceps

 

Achnatherum  see  Stipa                                                    Poaceae

 

Achras                                                 Sapotaceae

     Achras zapota (incl. zapotilla)         Aphis aurantii, gossypii, odinae

Use key to polyphagous aphids

 

Achyranthes                                                Amaranthaceae         

        Achyranthes aspera                    Aphis achyranthi, craccivora, gossypii, nasturtii;

                          (incl. var. indica)           Aulacorthum solani; Myzus ornatus;

                                                            Neomyzus circumflexus

        A. aureum (?)                             Myzus ornatus

        A. bidentata                                 Aphis glycines, gossypii

        A. japonica = A. bidentata            

        A. valissiae (?)                             Myzus ornatus

        A. verschafeltii  = Iresine herbstii

        Achyranthes sp.                          Myzus persicae                                                                     

Key to aphids on Achyranthes:-

1     ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces spiculose or scabrous. No marginal tubercles (MTu) on ABD TERG 1 and 7

                                                               ......go to key to polyphagous aphids, starting at couplet 5

-      ANT tubercles weakly developed, not exceeding height of medial part of front of head in dorsal view. ABD TERG 1 and 7 with MTu                                                                    ......2

2      SIPH pale or dark, cauda pale or dusky                                                                            ......3

-       SIPH and cauda both very dark                                                                                        ......5

3        SIPH usually rather pale, only darker at apices                                             .....Aphis nasturtii

-       SIPH uniformly dark                                                                                                         ......4

4     Cauda 0.08-0.125 ื BL (only more than 0.12 ื BL in very small specimens with BL less than 1 mm); pale to dusky, without a constriction, less than 3 ื longer than its width at midlength, and bearing 2-7 (usually 5-6) hairs                                                                …..Aphis gossypii

-      Cauda 0.125-0.16 ื BL, very pale, usually with a slight mid-way constriction, more than 3 ื longer than its narrowest width at midlength, and bearing 6-9 (usually 8) hairs

                                                                                                                              ..…Aphis glycines

5     Dorsum with an extensive dark sclerotic patch. ABD TERG 8 with 2 hairs. SIPH more than 3 ื their basal widths. Longest hairs on ANT III shorter than BD III. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 3-8 only)                                                                 …...Aphis craccivora

-      Dorsum without an extensive dark sclerotic patch. ABD TERG 8 with 5-6 hairs. SIPH less than 3 ื their basal widths. Longest hairs of ANT III longer than BD III. (Al. with sec. rhin. distributed ANT III 16-20, IV 6-12, V 3-7                                              ......Aphis achyranthi

 

Acianthera                                                   Orchidaceae

      Acianthera rubroviridis              Cerataphis orchidearum; Sitobion luteum

Use key to apterae on orchids under Cymbidium.

 

Acicarpha                                                    Calyceraceae

      Acicarpha tribuloides                 Aulacorthum solani

 

Acinos                                                          Lamiaceae

     Acinos alpinus                              [Aphis sp(p). (Italy; Cocuzza et al. 2014)];

                                                            Eucarazzia elegans; Myzus ornatus

      A. arvensis = Clinopodium acinos

Use key to apterae under Clinopodium.                                        

 

Aciphylla                                                     Apiaceae

        Aciphylla aurea                          Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand; Teulon et al.

                                                                2013)

        A. colensoi                                  Cavariella aegopodii; Macrosiphum euphorbiae;

                                                            Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

        A. squarrosa                               Aphis sambuci; Brachycaudus helichrysi;

                                                            Dysaphis foeniculus; Smynthurodes betae

Key to aphids on Aciphylla:-

1      ANT PT/BASE less than 0.5. Body with numerous fine hairs            .....Smynthurodes betae

-       ANT PT/BASE more than 0.5, often more than 1. Body not densely hairy                    ......2

2      ABD TERG 8 with a posteriorly directed process above cauda. ANT PT/BASE 0.6-1.3

                                                                                                                   ......Cavariella aegopodii

-       No supracaudal process. ANT PT/BASE more than 2                                                       .....3

3      ANT tubercles well developed, ANT 0.9-1.4 ื BL. ANT III with (0-) 1-10 rhinaria on basal half. ANT PT/BASE 4-7                                                                                                   …..4

-       ANT tubercles undeveloped or weakly developed. ANT 0.25-0.75 ื BL. ANT III without rhinaria. ANT PT/BASE 1.7-3.8                                                                                       …..5

4     SIPH cylindrical or tapering with polygonal reticulation of distal 0.12-0.25 of length. SIPH 1.7-2.2 ื cauda which bears 8-13 hairs                                      …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-      SIPH markedly swollen and without polygonal reticulation. SIPH 2.1-3.0 ื cauda which bears 4-6 hairs                                                                               …..Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae

5      ABD TERG 1-4 (-5) and 7 with large flat marginal tubercles (MTu). SIPH dark           …..6

-       ABD TERG 1 and 7 and usually also 2-5 without MTu                                                  …..7

6     SIPH 1.3-1.7 ื the helmet-shaped (pentagonal) cauda which bears 4-6 hairs. Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 with spinal tubercles (STu)                                          …..Dysaphis foeniculus

-      SIPH 1.7-2.6 ื  the rounded cauda which bears 8-14 hairs. Head and ABD TERG 7 and 8 without STu                                                                                                  …..Aphis sambuci

7     Cauda helmet-shaped, not longer than its basal width in dorsal view, and bearing 5-7 hairs. SIPH 0.05-0.1 ื BL and 0.5-1.2 ื R IV+V                                …..Brachycaudus helichrysi

-      Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width and bearing 8-9 hairs. SIPH 0.11-0.14 ื BL and 1.7-2.1 ื R IV+V                          ….. Schizaphis (Euschizaphis) sp. (New Zealand)

 

 

Acmella                                                       Compositae

      Acmella caulorrhiza                     Aphis gossypii

      A. uliginosa                                  Neomyzus circumflexus

Use key to polyphagous aphids.

 

Acnida  see Amaranthus                                                          Amaranthaceae

 

Acnistus                                                                  Solanaceae

      Acnistus arborescens                    Myzus persicae

 

Acoelorrhaphe                                            Arecaceae

       Acoelorrhaphe wrightii            Cerataphis lataniae

 

 

Aconitum              Monkshood, Wolfsbane         Ranunculaceae

        Aconitum alboviolaceum           Delphiniobium hanla

        A. altaicum                                 Brachycaudus aconiti

        A. anthora                                   Brachycaudus aconiti; Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. apetalum                                Nasonovia alatavica, salebrosa

        A. arcuatum                                Delphiniobium hanla

        A. arendsii see A. carmichaeli

        A. barbatum                                Brachycaudus aconiti; [Delphiniobium bogdouli]

        A. callibotryon = A. plicatum

        A. ืcammarum                          Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli; Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. carmichaeli                            Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. chinense                                 Delphiniobium yezoense

        A. columbianum                         Nasonovia wahinkae

        A. excelsum = A. septentrionale

        A. ferox                                       Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. firmum                                   Brachycaudus nepelli; Delphiniobium junackianum;

                                                            Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        A. fischeri                                    Brachycaudus aconiti; Delphiniobium yezoense

        A. gracile = A. variegatum

        A. jaluense (incl. var. triphyllum)     Delphiniobium hanla

        A. kitadakense                            Delphiniobium yezoense

        A. krylovii                                    Brachycaudus napelli; Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. kusnezoffii                              Delphinobium aconitifoliae, hanla, yezoense

        A. lamarckii                                Brachycaudus aconiti; Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. lasianthum = A. vulparia

        A. lasiostomum                           Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli

        A. leucostomum                          Brachycaudus aconiti; Delphiniobium lycoctoni;

                                                            Nasonovia alatavica, salebrosa;                                                                                                 [Rhopalosiphoninus calthae]

        A. lycoctonum                             Brachycaudus napelli;

                                                            Delphiniobium junackianum, lycoctoni

        A. moldavicum                           Brachycaudus napelli;

                                                            Delphiniobium junackianum ssp. sylvanae

        A. monticola                               Brachycaudus aconiti; Nasonovia alatavica

        A. napellus                                  Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli;

                                                            Delphiniobium junackianum (incl. ssp.  sylvanae)

        A. nemorosum = A. anthora

        A. orientale                                 Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. paniculatum = A.ืcammarum

          A. pentheri                                             Delphiniobium junackianum                                                                  

        A. plicatum                                            Brachycaudus napelli;

                                                                                Delphiniobium junackianum ssp. sylvanae

        A. pulcherrimum = A. kusnezoffii

        A. ranunculifolium = A. lamarckiii

        A. rotundifolium                         [Brachycaudus cerasicola]; Nasonovia alatavica

        A. sachalinense ssp. yezoense     Delphiniobium yezoense

        A. septentrionale                         Brachycaudus aconiti;

                                                            Delphiniobium junackianum, yezoense;

                                                            Nasonovia salebrosa

        A. soongaricum                          Brachycaudus aconiti; Myzus persicae                                  

        A. ืstoerkianum = A.ืcammarum

        A. superbum                               Brachycaudus napelli; Macrosiphum euphorbiae

        A. tauricum                                 Delphiniobium junackianum ssp. sylvanae

        A. toxicum                                  Delphiniobium junackianum

        A. uncinatum                              Aulacorthum solani

        A. triphyllum = A. jaluense var. triphyllum

        A. variegatum                             Brachycaudus aconiti, napelli;

                                                            Delphiniobium carpaticae,  junackianum

        A. volubile                                   Delphiniobium hanla, yezoense

        A. vulparia                                  Brachycaudus aconiti;

                                                            Delphiniobium junackianum ssp. sylvanae, lycoctoni            

        A. yezoense = A. sachalinense ssp. yezoense

        Aconitum sp.                              Delphiniobium gyamdaense

Key to aphids on Aconitum:-

1      Dorsum usually with an extensive dark sclerotic shield (e.g. Fig.6c). Cauda helmet-shaped, shorter than its basal width                                                                                                .....2

-       Dorsum without a dark shield.  Cauda tongue-shaped, longer than its basal width           ....3

2      SIPH 0.31-0.55 ื ANT III.  ANT VI BASE 0.5-0.7 ื HT II.  R IV+V 0.9-1.2 ื HT II      

                                                                                                                   .....Brachycaudus napelli

-       SIPH 0.57-1.0 ื ANT III.  ANT VI BASE 0.8-1.1 ื HT II.  R IV+V 1.2-1.6 ื HT II

                                                                                                                  ..…Brachycaudus aconiti

3      Head spiculose with inner faces of ANT tubercles steep-sided or apically convergent   …..4

-       Head smooth with inner faces of ANT tubercles divergent                                             …..5

4      SIPH tapering/cylindrical. Inner faces of ANT tubercles almost parallel. ANT III with 1-3 small rhinaria near base                                                                         .....Aulacorthum solani

-       SIPH slightly clavate. Inner faces of ANT tubercles apically convergent. ANT III without rhinaria                                                                                                         .....Myzus persicae

5      Dorsal abdomen with raised dusky/dark hair-bearing sclerites or scleroites. SIPH 0.07-0.10 ื BL, pale, without any subapical polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale or dusky                  .....6

-       Dorsal abdomen without dusky/dark sclerites/scleroites. SIPH 0.15-0.35 ื BL, dark or pale, with a subapical zone of polygonal reticulation. Cauda pale or dark                                 .....8

6      Abdominal spinal scleroites each bearing a single hair (rarely 2), which is longer than the diameter of the scleroite (Fig.6f)                                                        .....Nasonovia wahinkae

-       Abdominal spinal sclerites/scleroites mostly bearing 2 hairs, which are shorter than the maximum diameter of the sclerite (Fig.6g)                                                                        .....7

7      SIPH usually a little shorter than cauda which bears 8-12 hairs. R IV+V about equal in length to HT II                                                                                  .....Nasonovia salebrosa*

-       SIPH 1.1-1.3 ื cauda which bears 6-8 hairs. R IV+V 1.08-1.22 ื HT II

.....Nasonovia alatavica

8      SIPH pale, tapering or cylindrical, 0.25-0.25 ื BL. Cauda pale. Thoracic spiracles of normal size, like those on abdomen                                                        …..Macrosiphum euphorbiae

-       SIPH usually dark at least distally, often with a swollen section at about midlength, 0.15-0.20 ื BL. Cauda dark. Thoracic spiracles much larger than abdominal ones (Fig.6h)            .….9

9      SIPH 1.1-1.3 ื cauda and 0.15-0.19 ื BL, and mainly dark except at their bases.  Cauda with 6-18 hairs (Fig.6i)                                                                    .....Delphiniobium junackianum

-       SIPH 1.3-2.0 ื cauda and 0.19-0.26 ื BL, and dark on distal half or less. Cauda with 6-10 hairs                                                                                                                                 ......10

10    SIPH  1.6-2.0 ื cauda which is 0.33-0.43 mm long, bears 7-10 hairs (usually 8-9), and has distal part clearly thicker than hind femur, from where it  tapers rather abruptly to a rounded apex (Fig.6j)                                                            .....Delphiniobium carpaticae or lycoctoni

-       SIPH 1.3-1.55 ื cauda which is 0.44-0.53 mm long, bears 6-8 hairs (usually 6), and has distal part maximally about as thick as or thinner than hind femur, from where it tapers gradually almost to a point (Fig.6k)                                                                                 .....11

11    SIPH tapering from base to flange                                       …..Delphiniobium aconitifoliae*

-       SIPH with slightly or distinctly swollen middle section                                                 …..12

12    ANT III with 44-57 rhinaria extending over basal 0.75       …..Delphiniobium gyamdaense*

-       ANT III with 10-33 rhinaria restricted to basal 0.5                                                        …..13

13    SIPH mainly pale, only dark on reticulated distal section. Femora pale or only dark at apices

…..Delphiniobium yezoense

-       SIPH dusky or dark on distal 0.65-0.75 of length. Femora dark on distal 0.35-0.45 of length

…..Delphiniobium hanla

 

Aconogonon                                                Polygonaceae

     Aconogonon ajanense                 Macchiatiella itadori

     A. davisii                                       Aphthargelia rumbleboredomia

     A. phytolaccifolium                      Aphis asclepiadis; Aphthargelia rumbleboredomia;

                                                            Capitophorus essigi, hippophaes

Use key to apterae on Polygonum.

 

Acorus                                                         Araceae

      Acorus calamus                          Aphis aurantii, craccivora; Cerataphis brasiliensis;

                                                            Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae, padi, rufulum;

                                                            Schizaphis acori, rotundiventris, scirpi

        A. gramineus                              Myzus ornatus; Rhopalosiphum padi

                (incl. var. variegata)

Key to aphids on Acorus:-

1      Body dorsoventrally flattened, subcircular, wholly sclerotic with a distinct crenulate margin due to a continuous row of wax glands. SIPH in form of pores. Head with a pair of forwardly directed frontal horns                                                      .....Cerataphis brasiliensis

-       Body of “normal” aphid form.  SIPH tubular.  No frontal horns                                      .....2

2      ANT tubercles well developed, with inner faces scabrous and convergent in dorsal view. SIPH and cauda pale. (Dorsum with a pattern of dark intersegmental markings)

......Myzus ornatus

-       ANT tubercles low; if at all developed then with inner faces broadly divergent, and median frontal tubercle also developed. SIPH and cauda dark                                                     .....3

3      Stridulatory apparatus present (fig.122).  Cauda with 10-26 hairs